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Homework 5

NAME

Solutions

ES 442 Homework #8 Solutions

(Spring 2017 Due May 1, 2017 ) Print out homework and do work on the printed pages.

Textbook: B. P. Lathi & Zhi Ding, Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 4 th edition, Oxford University Press, New york, 2009.

Figure for Problems 1 & 2:

Problem 1 Path Lengths (30 points)

Consider the dual-ray ground reflection model shown in the figure above. A cellular base station antenna transmits a signal directed to the cell phone of held by the man in the figure. The cellular base station transmitter and the cell phone receiving the signal are separated by distance L. Two signals are received by the cell phone one is direct “line-of-sight” covering a distance L los and the other is reflected from the ground travelling a slightly greater distance L ref. Assume: L >> h tran and L >> h rcvr .

Show that in this dual-ray ground reflection model that the difference in the two path lengths, given by = L ref L los , can be approximately expressed as

 2

h

h

rcvr

tran

L

,

Homework 5

where h tran is the height of the cell base station tower and h rcvr is the distance the cell phone is above ground level. Assume the ground ( i.e., Earth) is flat and level.

Solution:

 l ) 2 2 L ref  ( h tran  h rcvr  ( h tran  h rcvr ) 2  L 2 Therefore, l los ( h 2 2 h h rcvr h 2 L 2    )   ref tran  tran rcvr

l

L

Using trigonometry,

l

los



and

 ( h 2 2 h tran h rcvr h 2 ) 2 L    tran rcvr 1  x 1   1 x 2

For very large spacing

, we use a Taylor's ser ies,







 L      2 2   ( h  h tran rcvr  1   2 L   2  2 2   ( h  h tran rcvr  1   2 L   2       L ( h tran  h rcvr )  ( h tran  h rcvr )   2 L    2 2 L 2 2 L 2 2 ( h tran  2 h tran h rcvr  h rcvr )  ( h tran  2 h tran h rcvr  h rcvr ) 2    2 h tran h rcvr  2 L

L

Problem 2 Phase shift between the two signal paths (20 points)

For this problem again use the figure on page 1 of this homework set. We know that the height of the receiver is h rcvr = 2 meters and the height of the base station antennas is h tran = 30 meters. We want to restrict the phase shift between the two paths to = 0.25 at most, where is the wavelength of the carrier frequency f c . Assume the cellular system operates in the 900 MHz band ( i.e. , take f c = 900 MHz). Take the speed of electromagnetic waves to be 300,000,000 meters per second in air. What distance L is needed for the phase shift between the two signal paths to be one-quarter wavelength ( i.e., /4 equivalent to 90 degrees)?

Solution:

We use the result from problem 1, namely,



2 h

tran

h

rcvr

L

First, we find the distance

that will be one-quarter

wavelength of phase shift. Given

f

c

, where c is

3

8

10 meters/second, and

f

900 MHz allo

ws us to

calculate .

Homework 5

The wavelength

= 0.3333 meters at 900 MHz, therefore,

=

/4 = 0.08333 meters.

From 

2

h

tran

h

rcvr

L

;

we find L

2

h

tran

h

rcvr

2 (30

m

)(2

m

)

0.0833 m

L

120 m

2

0.08333 m

1,440 meters

Problem 3 Doppler Phase/Frequency Shifting

(20 points)

In elementary physics you likely covered the Doppler shift in wave phenomena (such as with sound, water, light and radio waves, etc.). Radio waves in cellular communications are subject to the Doppler shift. [If you dont remember you can Google Doppler Shift).] A typical situation encountered in cell phones is where the mobile unit is moving such as in the illustration below.

For the case shown in the figure the car is moving at velocity v and moving from point A to point

 B in time t. It is moving toward the cellular base station which is transmitting to the cell phone in the car. From the theory on the Doppler shift we know that moving toward the base station

the frequency will be appear to be higher because of wavelength shortening from the motion. This is sometimes called blue shift.If the car were moving in the opposite direction, then the

frequency would appear to be lower (this is called red shift). As the car moves from A to B it covers a distance d which effectively shortens the radio signal path by distance l . Note also that the car is not moving directly at the antennas, but at an angle to the line of signal propagation. Assume that angle is approximately the same at both points A and B.

(a) Show that the Doppler shift in phase is given by

2

l

cos(

)

in radians

Homework 5

Solution:

We begin by noting

because

shift is from the difference in path lengths between the two

l

 

d

cos( )

and

l

 

 

v t

cos( )

d

 

v t

.

The change in phase from the Doppler

paths.

=

2

l

2

v t

cos( )

(b) Show that the Doppler shift change in frequency f is given by

Solution:

f

  cos(

)

in Hz

We begin by noting

f

f =

v

2

t

cos( )

t

, then we can write,

 

vf

c

cos

 

Problem 4 Doppler Shift Problem

(30 points)

This problem is a continuation of Problem 3 above. The base station is transmitting a sinusoidal carrier signal f c = 1850 MHz. The vehicle is moving at 75 miles per hour (mph). [Note: That might be exceeding the speed limit.]

(a) Given that the car is far away from the base station, but moving directly at the

transmitter ( i.e., assumes = 0, so cos() = 1), find the received Doppler shifted carrier

frequency as the car moves toward the base station.

Solution:

We begin with

=

c

f

C

=

f

C

1,850 MHz. Therefore, the wavelength

3

8

10 m/sec

1850

6

10 sec

1

0.162 meter

is

The vehicle speed is 75 mph = 33.528 m/sec

When the car is moving toward the base station, the Dopple r

shift is positive, hence,

f

f

f

C



f

Doppler

1850

1,850,000,207 Hz

MHz

33.528 m/sec

0.162 m

Homework 5

(b) Now the car is moving away from the transmitter (again assumes = 0, so cos() =

1), find the received Doppler shifted carrier frequency as the car moves away from the base

station.

Solution:

The wavelength

0.162 meter but the car is moving in the

opposite direction

vehicle speed is 75 mph = 33.528 m/sec.

When the car is moving away from the base station, the Doppler

shift is negative, he nce,

f

f

f

C



f

Doppler

1850

1,849,999,793 Hz

MHz

33.528 m/sec

0.162 m

(c) The car is at the base station moving under it. What is the Doppler shifted carrier

frequency under this condition?

Solution:

In this case

shift in the case where the car is didrectly under the base station

antennas. But the cell phone may not receive a signal unless the

anten nas emit a signal downward.

90 degrees; thus, cos( )

0. There is no Doppler