Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 21

Summary of the Procedures to Take when a Colleague got

an Electric Shock and How to Prevent Accidents by always


Considering the Consequences of them

JUSTIN ALDRIN

Faculty of Electrical Engineering

University College of Technology Sarawak

2018

i
Dedication

I would like to dedicate this research to my parents, friends and lecturers.

Acknowledgement

I wish to acknowledge certain individuals for their contributions towards the successful
completion of this assignment. I would like to thank my family with sincere gratitude for their
unconditional support. My sincere thanks also go to my university. I am grateful that the
management of the University College of Technology Sarawak allowed me to use their
equipment and facilities in order to make a deeper research on the topic of this assignment.

Special thanks to Ir. Dr Prashobh Karunakaran for his great effort and assistance whilst guiding
me in completing this assignment. Additionally, I would like to thank my coursemates for giving
me support and sharing some information for the topic of this assignment.

Abstract

The objective of this assignment is to make a summary on the procedures that should be taken
when a person, especially a colleague got an electric shock. Additionally, the assignment also
requires discussing on preventive steps on how to avoid accidents by always considering the
consequences of them. By reviewing this assignment, it is very significant because one will
know the steps to save a person from electric shock. Furthermore, by understanding the
consequences of accidents, one will be able to identify the hazards and prevent any unfortunate
events. Due to that, safety is the key factor for all the industries. This is essential to promote the
wellness of both employees and employers.

ii
Contents

Title i

Dedication ii

Acknowledgement ii

Abstract ii

Contents iii

List of figures v

List of tables v

List of abbreviations, symbols and specialized nomenclature v

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Definition of occupational health and safety 1
1.2 Range of hazards 2
1.3 Acts on health and safety in Malaysia 2
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Types of hazards 3
2.2 Electrical hazard 3
2.2.1 Electrical injuries 4
2.2.2 Effects of electrical current on the body 4
2.3 Overview of safety steps 5
2.3.1 Safe Model 5
2.3.1.1 Recognizing hazards 5
2.3.1.2 Evaluate hazards 6
2.3.1.3 Control hazards 6

iii
3.0 Methodology and materials
3.1 Methodology of saving a colleague from electric shock 6
3.1.1 When a colleague is in a conscious state 6
3.1.2 When a colleague is in a unconscious state (CPR) 7
3.2 Considering the consequences of accidents to the organization 8
through notes and online materials
3.2.1 Operational costs 8
3.2.2 Law costs 8
3.3 Considering the consequences of self-accidents in the workplace 9
through online research

3.3.1 Negligence of wearing personal protective equipment 9


3.3.2 Effects of taking shortcuts 9
3.3.3 Working in a rush 10

4.0 Results and discussion


4.1 Comparison of methodology of saving a colleague from electric shock 10
4.1.1 Discussion of condition when a colleague is in a conscious 10
state
4.1.2 Discussion of condition when a colleague is in an unconscious 11
state (CPR)
4.2 Discussion on how to prevent accidents from happening to the 12
organization
4.2.1 Avoiding operational costs 12
4.2.2 Avoiding law costs 12
4.3 Discussion on how to prevent of self-accidents in the workplace 13

4.3.1 Wearing personal protective equipment 13


4.3.2 Avoiding shortcuts 13
4.3.3 Avoid working in a rush 14

iv
5.0 Conclusion
5.1 Summary 14

6.0 Citations 15

List of Figures
Figure 3.1: Illustration of performing CPR 7
Figure 4.1: Personal Protective Equipment 13

List of Tables
Table 1.1: Acts and their respective purposes 2
Table 2.1: Types of hazards and their description 3
Table 2.2: Effects of electrical current on the body 5

List of Abbreviations, Symbols & Specialized Nomenclature

WHO World Health Organization

CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an emergency technique used on someone


whose heart or breathing has stopped

D Danger

R Response

C Circulation

A Airway

B Breathing

PPE Personal protective equipment

v
1.0 Introduction
This assignment is made for the subject Industrial Safety and Health, ETE3722. It is relevant to
study the procedures taken to save a person from electric shock and also understanding hazards
to avoid accidents. One will have the basic knowledge about safety as well as preventing self-
injury. Thus, reducing the number of fatalities and risk of getting injured. As a whole, it is useful
to learn the basics of safety and health from this assignment.

1.1 Definition of occupational health and safety


As defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) [1], occupational health and safety is a
discipline with a broad scope involving many specialized fields. In its broadest sense, it should
aim at:
 the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-
being of workers in all occupations;
 the prevention among workers of adverse effects on health caused by their working
conditions;
 the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to
health;
 the placing and maintenance of workers in an occupational environment adapted to
physical and mental needs;
 the adaptation of work to humans.

In other words, occupational health and safety encompasses the social, mental and physical well-
being of workers, that is the “whole person”.

1
1.2 Range of hazards
There are an unlimited number of hazards that can be found in almost any workplace. The
obvious unsafe working conditions include unguarded machinery, slippery floors or inadequate
fire precautions. International Labour Organization [2] emphasized that there are also a number
of categories of insidious hazards (that is, those hazards that are dangerous but which may not be
obvious) including:

 chemical hazards, arising from liquids, solids, dusts, fumes, vapours and gases;
 physical hazards, such as noise, vibration, unsatisfactory lighting, radiation and extreme
temperatures;
 biological hazards, such as bacteria, viruses, infectious waste and infestations;
 psychological hazards resulting from stress and strain;
 hazards associated with the non-application of ergonomic principles, for example badly
designed machinery, mechanical devices and tools used by workers, improper seating and
workstation design, or poorly designed work practices.

1.3 Acts on health and safety in Malaysia


Some of the health and safety acts established by the Department of Occupational Safety and
Health Malaysia [3] include:
Act Purpose
Petroleum (Safety Measure) To consolidate laws relating to safety in the transportation, storage
Act 1984 and utilization of petroleum and to provide for matters relating
thereto
Occupational Safety and To reduce workplace hazards and implement safety and
Health Act 1994 (Act 514) health programs for both employers and their employees
Factories and Machinery To provide for the control of factories with respect to matters
Act (Amendment) 2006 relating to the safety, health and welfare of person therein, the
registration and inspection of machinery

Table 1.1: Acts and their respective purposes [3]

2
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Types of hazards
StudioQ [4] stated that some items are hazardous by nature, while others only become hazardous
if used inappropriately or carelessly. Often, accidents do not just happen. This is because they are
a result of workers neglecting or ignoring hazardous situations. Fit for Work team [5] highlighted
several hazards:

Types of hazards Description

Physical Most common workplace hazards, including vibration, noise and


slips, trips and falls

Ergonomic Physical factors that harm the musculoskeletal system, such as


repetitive movement, manual handling and poor body positioning

Chemical Any hazardous substance that can cause harm to the employees

Biological Bacteria and viruses that can cause health effects, such as
hepatitis, HIV/AIDS and Legionnaire’s disease

Table 2.1: Types of hazards and their description [5]

2.2 Electrical hazard


Infrastructure Health and Safety Association [6] defined electrical hazard as:

 a dangerous condition where a worker could make electrical contact with energized
equipment or a conductor, and from which the person may sustain an injury from the
shock
 there is potential for the worker to receive an arc flash burn, thermal burn, or blast injury

3
2.2.1 Electrical injuries
Infrastructure Health and Safety Association [6] stated there are basically two ways to be injured
by electricity. One is by electric shock and the other is by arc flash. Electric shock is the passing
of electric current through the body. Electrical contact can cause involuntary physical
movements [6]. The electrical current may:

 prevent you from releasing your grip from a live conductor


 throw you into contact with a higher voltage conductor
 cause you to lose your balance and fall
 cause severe internal and external burns
 kill you

An arc flash is a release of energy caused by an electric arc. The flash causes an explosive
expansion of air and metal. According to the Infrastructure Health and Safety Association [6],
the blast produces:
 a dangerous pressure wave
 a dangerous sound wave
 shrapnel
 extreme heat
 extreme light
These dangers can result in blast injuries, lung injuries, ruptured eardrums, shrapnel wounds,
severe burns, blindness and even death.

2.2.2 Effects of electrical current on the body


The effects of electrical current on the body have been listed by Electronic Library of
Construction Occupational Safety and Health [7]. Table 2.2 shows what usually happens for a
range of currents (lasting one second) at typical household voltages [7]. Longer exposure times
increase the danger to the shock victim.

4
Table 2.2: Effects of electrical current on the body [7]

2.3 Overview of safety steps


2.3.1 Safe Model
To ensure safety, Karunakaran [8] suggested following the safe model. The safe model includes
recognize, evaluate and control hazards.

2.3.1.1 Recognizing hazards


To recognize hazards, we must discuss and plan the hazard recognition tasks with our co-
workers. We must be careful planning the safety procedure and make decisions to lock out tag
out. There are several hazard conditions such as wet condition, improper grounding and overload
hazards. In a wet condition, it will provide an easy path for electrical current to flow. This could
cause electric shock to us. For improper grounding hazards, if we touch a defective live
component that is not grounded, we will also be shocked. An overload hazard can lead to a fire
or electrical shock too.

5
2.3.1.2 Evaluate hazards
In evaluating hazards, we need to identify all possible hazards, then evaluate the risk. We
should not make any assumptions. We have to access the environment that we are working,
evaluate the seriousness of hazards and decide if we need to take action. For example, we have to
know that tripped circuit breakers and blown fuses show overcurrent in the circuit. Also, burning
odor may indicate overloaded insulation.

2.3.1.3 Control hazards


To control hazards, we must create a safe work environment by preparing ourselves for
the unexpected by using safe work practices. Generally, we need to Make sure everyone is safe
and accounted for before operating the equipment and circuits in the workplace. We should also
have a lock-out/tag-out checklist at the workplace.

3.0 Methodology and Materials


In this assignment, the methodology used is reviewing the notes and theories on how to save a
colleague from electric shock. Basically, CPR is only used based on certain situations. It is not
necessary to give a rescue breathing when our colleague is still giving a good response.

3.1 Methodology of saving a colleague from electric shock


3.1.1 When a colleague is in a conscious state
Initially, we must access the environment in the workplace. Since our colleague got an
electric shock, we must ensure that we will also not get shocked. Then, we should isolate the
supply immediately. If we cannot isolate the supply, we must not attempt to touch our colleague.
We should physically remove the victim by using non-conducting implements. Those
implements are plastic or dry wood. After we successfully remove the victim, we should call 999
or shout for someone else to call for 999. Finally, we should check the response from the victim.
If our colleague or victim is still showing a good response, we do not have to perform CPR.
However, if we want to treat the victim immediately instead of waiting for the ambulance, we
should send him or her to the hospital.

6
3.1.2 When a colleague is in an unconscious state (CPR)

In this procedure, we should follow the steps of D, R, C, A, B. Similarly, we must also


access the environment first to avoid danger (D) from getting shocked. Likewise, we should also
isolate the supply immediately and if we fail to do so, we must not touch our colleague. Then, we
should physically remove the victim by using non-conducting implements such as plastic or dry
wood. After that, we can check for the victim’s response (R) by tapping on the upper chest. If
there is no response, we have to shout for help if anyone else is around to call ambulance.
Additionally, we need to check the victim’s circutlation (C). If there is no circulation, we have to
proceed to CPR.

Figure 3.1: Illustration of performing CPR [9]


To do CPR, we need to give 2 rescue breathing with 30 chest compressions for 5 cycles.
Before conducting CPR, we should place 2 finger above the centre chest bone’s bottom and press
2”. The victim’s head is pushed up for airway (A) and nose is blocked with two fingers, blow
and see that the chest is moving up for breathing (B). Next, we place the victim in a recovery
position which is lying on the right side. Lastly, we must dial 999 or send him or her
immediately to the hospital for further treatment.

7
3.2 Considering the consequences of accidents to the
organization through notes and online materials
3.2.1 Operational costs
Accidents at the work place are taken seriously by the management party because it
increases the operational costs of the organization. The accident costs that are involved are
medical costs of the worker that is involved in an accident, the insurance premium costs that
have to be paid by the organization, cost of accident investigations, costs as a result of the
absenteeism of the worker involved in an accident, the decrease in productivity costs after the
accident and also costs to train future workers that replace workers that are involved in an
accident. When the accidents rates increase, the accident prevention programme also has to be
launched and this programme also needs a big amount of expenditure.

3.2.2 Law costs


When an accident occurs at the work place, the enforcement parties that are involved
such as the Department of Work Health and Safety, the Environmental Department and
Department of Rescue and Fire Brigade Malaysia will carry out investigation. If there are faults
based on the law as it is, the management party will be charged. The penalty that is given can be
in the form or fine or else instruction to close the premises.

8
3.3 Considering the consequences of self-accidents in the
workplace through online research
3.3.1 Negligence of wearing personal protective
equipment (PPE)
If we do not wear any personal protective equipment (PPE) or having inappropriate PPE,
we will risk ourselves with many types of injuries. The obvious injuries are lacerations
or amputations where safety gloves or safety boots are not worn, head injuries or brain
injuries caused by lack of a safety helmet and catastrophic injuries caused by a faulty harness.
Industrial diseases are also commonly caused by the lack of PPE. Thompsons Solicitors [10]
listed the following industrial diseases which could have been prevented if workers had been
provided with appropriate PPE:

 asbestos-related diseases
 industrial deafness
 occupational asthma
 occupational dermatitis
 vibration white finger

3.3.2 Effects of taking shortcuts


Quality Assurance and Food Safety [11] explained shortcuts are generally derived from
indolence in an attempt to perform a job with the most minimal effort required. They can the
opportunity for negative results and possibly severe consequences. Those severe consequences
include:
 Equipments and machines will be damaged easily
 High cost of repairing the damaged machines and equipments
 Workers suffering permanent injuries
 Fatality

9
3.3.3 Working in a rush
Working in a rush will cause us to make mistakes. In fact, if we are running through the
workplace, we will not bother to look where we are going. In factories, we might also try to
operate the machineries quickly. Situations like these could cause an occupational hazard.
Serious injuries may occur due to rushing, such as spraining an ankle or sustaining bodily harm
from running into our co-worker [12]. Rushing is also a health hazard as well. Copper Point
Insurance Companies [12] stated, “workers who operate at a feverish pace tend to have higher
stress levels, which may lead to heart disease and headaches, and also may cause their colleagues
to feel stressed”. When the entire workforce feels job strain, employers may see more employees
use sick days, lack motivation and make mistakes [12]. This would decrease the entire
workforce’s productivity and performance.

4.0 Results and Discussion


There are some reasons why and when should we perform CPR to a colleague that got an electric
shock. Also, there are also several ways to prevent accidents from happening. These matters will
be discussed here, in the results and discussion section.

4.1 Comparison of methodology of saving a colleague from


electric shock
4.1.1 Discussion of condition when a colleague is in a
conscious state
Accessing the environment in the workplace before helping our colleague ensures we will
not be in any danger or risk ourselves getting injured. Isolating the supply immediately is crucial
in order to stop the current from flowing continuously. The reason we must not attempt to touch
our colleague if we failed to isolate the supply is because we must avoid getting shocked too.
Therefore, we have to find non-conducting implements to remove our colleague physically. After
saving the victim and found out that he or she is still responding to us, we do not have to attempt
rescue breathing or CPR. This is because the main goal of rescue breathing is to manually put

10
oxygen into the victim’s lungs when their body is not able to complete the task on its own [13].
However, CPR is done to support and maintain breathing and circulation for a person that has
stopped breathing (respiratory arrest) and / or whose heart has stopped (cardiac arrest) [14].
Since our colleague is still in a conscious state, it means he or she still can breathe properly. In
other words, the victim’s body is still functioning well.

4.1.2 Discussion of condition when a colleague is in an


unconscious state (CPR)
Likewise, after removing the victim from the supply, we should check for response. If the
victim does not give any response, we have to do a CPR in order for to give the victim the best
chance to recover. CPR is most successful when administered as quickly as possible. Since steps
danger (D) and (R) are done, we need to move to C, A and B.
Chest compressions can sometimes restore circulation (C). It is a standard to provide two
rescue breaths followed immediately by 30 chest compressions. This cycle of two rescue breaths
and 30 chest compressions is repeated five times for our colleague. This cycle is immediately
resumed and continued until our colleague recovers or help arrives. It is not necessary to check
for signs of circulation to perform this technique. This procedure involves pushing on the chest
to help circulate blood and maintain blood flow to major organs.
The victim's airway (A) must be open for breathing to be restored. The airway may be
blocked when someone loses consciousness or may be obstructed by food or another foreign
object. During CPR, we must know how to open the airway and position the victim so the airway
is ready for rescue breathing. We must also clear the airway if we believed the victim has choked
and the airway is blocked. B is for breathing. Rescue breathing is begun when a person isn't
breathing. Someone performing rescue breathing essentially breathes for the victim by forcing
air into the lungs. This procedure includes breathing into the victim's mouth at correct intervals
and checking for signs of life.

11
4.2 Discussion on how to prevent accidents from happening
to the organization
4.2.1 Avoiding operational costs
All the costs involved can be overcome with the fostering of safe work culture. The management
party that is responsible can create a safe and healthy working environment. National PEO [15]
emphasized there are 5 ways to create a safe work environment. The 5 ways are using safety
gear, maintain the premises, obey health codes, perform emergency drills and get everyone
involved.
Proper safety gear is imperative to foster a safe and healthy environment [15]. This can
reduce the risk of getting injured and accidents. In maintaining the premises, the buildings or
workplace has to be inspected regularly to make sure that no new hazards emerge to threaten the
employees. Obeying health codes will ensure the workers to feel comfortable and keeping the
company in a fit shape. Performing emergency drills regularly can ensure the workers to be well-
prepared for any crisis. Finally, the most important thing is to get everyone involve in creating
the safe work environment. If so, everyone will feel protected while doing their work.

4.2.2 Avoiding law costs


To avoid the law costs, both the employer and employee must obey the Safety and Work
Health Act 1994. This is because according to the act, both parties – the employer and the
employee have responsibilities of their own to be carried to ensure the working procedures are
practiced safely. Most importantly for both parties is understanding and carrying out their duties
just as it is stated in the law. Hence, the effects of accidents on the organization will be reduced.

12
4.3 Discussion on how to prevent of self-accidents in the
workplace
4.3.1 Wearing personal protective equipment

Figure 4.1: Personal Protective Equipment [16]

Personal Protective Equipment is all the equipment we need to wear or use to protect
ourselves from risks. The PPE includes respirators and masks, safety boots, overalls, goggles (or
other eye protection), ear defenders, safety helmets, gloves, harnesses and high visibility clothing
[10]. Some of the PPE clothing used is to protect us against adverse weather conditions.

4.3.2 Avoiding shortcuts


To avoid shortcuts, we must promote a strong safety culture. This is an important role if
we are the manager or employer. If we establish a company, we should emphasize on the values
of workplace safety. We should prioritize safety over speed. By doing so, our workers will not be
stressed or getting injured easily. If we have experienced workers, we should remind them to
maintain their diligence in following safety procedures and not become complacent. We must
also have a safety checklist for our workers. This ensures our workers will not skip any steps
during their task completion.

13
4.3.3 Avoid working in a rush
In order to avoid working in a rush, we must plan our work properly. The best thing to do
is to start working early. In other words, we have to carry out our duties systematically without
rushing for time. Besides that, we also have to be sensitive towards the work environment. At the
same time, we also should identify fall hazards and report them to the safety and health officer so
that further action can be taken.

5.0 Conclusion
5.1 Summary
In summary, this assignment provided a good understanding of hazards in the workplace
as well as basic knowledge on safety culture. By understanding the correct procedures of
performing a CPR, it can be implemented to save someone’s life. Additionally, gaining
knowledge on the consequences of accidents will enable us to implement measures to avoid
them. We must do our work seriously and always think rationally before we act. Due to that, we
should start our career off right by learning the safe practices and developing good safety habits.
Since safety is a very important part of any job, we must do it right from the start.

14
6.0 Citations

[1] "WHO Definition of Occupational Health". World Health Organization, 2018.

[2] International Labour Organization, "Introduction to Occupational Health and


Safety", Training.itcilo.it. [Online]. Available:
http://training.itcilo.it/actrav_cdrom2/en/osh/intro/inmain.htm

[3] Department of Occupational Safety and Health Malaysia, "Acts", Ministry of Human
Resources, Putrajaya, 2018.

[4] StudioQ, "Types of hazards", Etraining.communitydoor.org.au. [Online]. Available:


https://etraining.communitydoor.org.au/mod/page/view.php?id=216

[5] Fit for Work team, 2017, "Identifying workplace hazards", Fit Fot Work, [Online].
Available: https://fitforwork.org/blog/identifying-workplace-hazards/

[6] Infrastructure Health and Safety Association, "Electrical Hazard", Ihsa.ca. [Online].
Available: https://www.ihsa.ca/topics_hazards/electrical_hazards.aspx

[7] Electronic Library of Construction Occupational Safety and Health "Safety and Health
for Electrical Trades". Cincinnati: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2002,
pp. 6-7.

[8] P. Karunakaran, "Electrical Safety", University College of Technology Sarawak, 2018.

[9] Mayo Clinic Staff, "Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): First aid", Mayo Clinic.
[Online]. Available: https://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-cpr/basics/art-20056600

[10] Thompsons Solicitors, "PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) Guide | Thompsons


Solicitors", Thompsons Solicitors. [Online]. Available:
https://www.thompsons.law/support/legal-guides-and-resources/ppe-personal-protective-
equipment

15
[11] Quality Assurance and Food Safety, "Shortcuts: Faster and Better or Hasty and
Dangerous?", Quality Assurance & Food Safety, 2016. [Online]. Available:
https://www.qualityassurancemag.com/article/shortcuts--faster-and-better-or-hasty-and-
dangerous/

[12] Copper Point Insurance Companies, "The dangers of rushing in the workplace |
PinPointNews.net", Pinpointnews.net. [Online]. Available:
http://www.pinpointnews.net/wordpress/the-dangers-of-rushing-in-the-workplace/

[13] Response Institute, “Rescue Breathing vs. Chest Compressions | The Response Institute |
CPR Consultants", Cprconsultants.com, 2018. [Online]. Available:
https://www.cprconsultants.com/rescue-breathing-vs-chest-compressions/

[14] Encyclopedia of Children’s Health, “Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation - Definition,


Purpose, Description, Risks, Normal results", Healthofchildren.com. [Online]. Available:
http://www.healthofchildren.com/C/Cardiopulmonary-Resuscitation.html

[15] National PEO, “5 ways to create a safe work environment”, [Online]. Available:
https://www.nationalpeo.com/safety/5-ways-to-create-a-safe-work-environment/

[16] A. Arganosa, "Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): If You Love Your Family, Wear
It!", Pinoy Mariner, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.pinoymariner.com/2015/09/personal-
protective-equipment-ppe.html

16