Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 292

INTERNAL EROSION OF EXISTING DAMS,

Levees and Dikes, and their Foundations

L’ÉROSION INTERNE DANS LES DIGUES,


barrages existants et leurs fondations

Bulletin 164

2017
Cover/Couverture :
Cover illustration: TETON Dam – Idaho USA – Failure during the first filling on June 5, 1976 (Courtesy
of US Bureau of Reclamation) / Illustration en couverture : Barrage de TETON – Idaho États-Unis –
Rupture durant le premier remplissage le 5 juin 1976 (avec l’aimable autorisation de l’US Bureau of
Reclamation)

AVERTISSEMENT – EXONÉRATION DE RESPONSABILITÉ :

Les informations, analyses et conclusions contenues dans cet ouvrage n'ont pas force de Loi
et ne doivent pas être considérées comme un substitut aux réglementations officielles
imposées par la Loi. Elles sont uniquement destinées à un public de Professionnels Avertis,
seuls aptes à en apprécier et à en déterminer la valeur et la portée.

Malgré tout le soin apporté à la rédaction de cet ouvrage, compte tenu de l'évolution des
techniques et de la science, nous ne pouvons en garantir l'exhaustivité.

Nous déclinons expressément toute responsabilité quant à l'interprétation et l'application


éventuelles (y compris les dommages éventuels en résultant ou liés) du contenu de cet
ouvrage.

En poursuivant la lecture de cet ouvrage, vous acceptez de façon expresse cette condition.

NOTICE – DISCLAIMER:

The information, analyses and conclusions in this document have no legal force and must not
be considered as substituting for legally-enforceable official regulations. They are intended for
the use of experienced professionals who are alone equipped to judge their pertinence and
applicability.

This document has been drafted with the greatest care but, in view of the pace of change in
science and technology, we cannot guarantee that it covers all aspects of the topics
discussed.

We decline all responsibility whatsoever for how the information herein is interpreted and used
and will accept no liability for any loss or damage arising therefrom.

Do not read on unless you accept this disclaimer without reservation.

Original text in English


French translation by the CFBR
Layout by Nathalie Schauner

Texte original en anglais


Traduction en français par le CFBR
Mise en page par Nathalie Schauner
INTERNAL EROSION OF EXISTING DAMS,
Levees and Dikes, and their Foundations

L’ÉROSION INTERNE DANS LES DIGUES,


barrages existants et leurs fondations

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON LARGE DAMS


COMMISSION INTERNATIONALE DES GRANDS BARRAGES
61, avenue Kléber, 75116 Paris
Téléphone : (33-1) 47 04 17 80 - Fax : (33-1) 53 75 18 22
http://www.icold-cigb.org./

1
COMMITTEE ON EMBANKMENT DAMS

COMITÉ DES BARRAGES EN REMBLAI

Chairman/Président
Canada JEAN-PIERRE TOURNIER
Vice-Chairman/Vice-Président
Russia/Russie VADIM RADCHENKO
Members/Membres
Australia/Australie MICHAEL MARLEY
Austria/Autriche PETER TSCHERNUTTER
Brazil/Brésil CARLO VIOTTI
Bulgaria/Bulgarie NETZO DIMITROV
China/Chine PROF NENG-HUI LI
Colombia/Colombie ALBERTO MARULANDA
Egypt/Egypte
Finland/Finlande JUHA LAASONEN
France JEAN-JACQUES FRY
Germany/Allemagne MARKUS LIMBACH
Greece/Grèce GEORGIOS DOUNIAS
India/Inde V K KAPOOR
Indonesia/Indonésie D JAWARDI
Iran NASSER TARKESH DOOZ
Italy/Italie PROF RUGGIERO JAPELLI
Japan/Japon T HORI
Norway/Norvège HELGE SAXEGAARD
Pakistan K ALAMGIR
Portugal E MARANDA DAS NEVES
Slovakia/Slovaquie MARIAN MISCIK
South Africa/Afrique du Sud DANIE BADENHORST
Spain/Espagne ANTONIO SORIANO
Sri Lanka L SOORIYABANDARA
Sweden/Suède INGVAR EKSTRÖM
Switzerland/Suisse PETER BRENNER
Thailand/Thaïlande A SRAMOON
Turkey/Turquie NURETTIN PELEN
United Kingdom/Royaume Uni RODNEY BRIDLE
United States/États-Unis DAVID PAUL
Venezuela G MARTINEZ
Co-opted member/Membre co opté
Canada ERIC PELOQUIN

2
SOMMAIRE CONTENTS

AVANT PROPOS FORWORD

1. INTRODUCTION : ÉROSION INTERNE 1. INTRODUCTION: INTERNAL EROSION


ET SÉCURITÉ DES BARRAGES AND DAM SAFETY

2. PANORAMA DES MECANISMES 2. AN OVERVIEW OF INTERNAL


D’EROSION INTERNE EROSION MECHANISMS

3. INITIATION DE L’EROSION DE 3. INITIATION OF CONCENTRATED LEAK


CONDUIT EROSION

4. INITIATION DE L’ÉROSION 4. INITIATION OF BACKWARD EROSION


RÉGRESSIVE

5. INITIATION DE L’ÉROSION DE 5. INITIATION OF CONTACT EROSION


CONTACT

6. INITIATION DE LA SUFFUSION 6. INITIATION OF SUFFUSION

7. CONTINUATION OU INTERRUPTION 7. CONTINUATION OR INTERRUPTION


DE L’ÉROSION PAR FILTRATION OF EROSION BY FILTER ACTION

8. PROGRESSION DE L’ÉROSION 8. PROGRESSION OF EROSION

9. ÉVALUATION DU RISQUE D’ÉROSION 9. ENGINEERING ASSESSMENT OF THE


INTERNE VULNERABILITY OF A DAM TO
INTERNAL EROSION

10. RÉPARATION 10. REMEDIATION AND IMPROVEMENTS


TO DAMS TO RESIST INTERNAL
EROSION

11. SURVEILLANCE ET AUSCULTATION 11. SURVEILLANCE AND MONITORING

12. MÉTHODES D’ÉVALUATION DE LA 12. METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF THE


PROBABILITÉ DE RUPTURE PAR LIKELIHOOD OF FAILURE OF A DAM
ÉROSION INTERNE BY INTERNAL EROSION

13. GLOSSAIRE INTERNATIONAL DE 13. TERMINOLOGY – INTERNAL EROSION


L’ÉROSION INTERNE PROCESSES – INTERNATIONAL
GLOSSARY

RÉFÉRENCES REFERENCES

3
TABLE DES MATIÈRES

1. INTRODUCTION : ÉROSION INTERNE ET SÉCURITÉ DES BARRAGES ............................ 26

1.1. Objectif, objet et plan du bulletin ........................................................................................ 26

1.2. Importance de l’érosion interne vis-à-vis de la sécurité de barrages ................................. 28

1.3. Statistiques de ruptures ..................................................................................................... 30

2. PANORAMA DES MECANISMES D’EROSION INTERNE ...................................................... 36

2.1. Description générale du phénomène .................................................................................. 36

2.1.1. Arrachement et transport ......................................................................................... 36

2.1.2. Les 4 principaux Chemins ........................................................................................ 36

2.1.3. Les 4 phases du processus ..................................................................................... 38

2.2. Les quatre mécanismes d’initiation ..................................................................................... 40

2.2.1. L’érosion de conduit ................................................................................................. 40

2.2.2. L’érosion régressive ................................................................................................. 44

2.2.3. L’érosion de contact ................................................................................................. 48

2.2.4. La suffusion .............................................................................................................. 48

2.3. Continuation ou non filtration .............................................................................................. 50

2.4. Progression ......................................................................................................................... 52

2.5. Détection ............................................................................................................................. 52

2.6. Intervention ......................................................................................................................... 56

2.7. Brèche ................................................................................................................................. 58

3. INITIATION DE L’EROSION DE CONDUIT ................................................................................ 64

3.1. Description générale du mécanisme ................................................................................... 64

3.2. Phénomènes et situations ................................................................................................... 64

3.2.1. Fissures et claquage hydraulique dus au tassement différentiel rive à rive ............ 64

3.2.2. Fissures et claquage hydraulique dus au report de charge de rive à rive ............... 66

4
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION: INTERNAL EROSION AND DAM SAFETY ................................................. 27

1.1. The purpose, scope and outline of this bulletin ........................................................... 27

1.2. The importance of internal erosion to dam safety ....................................................... 29

1.3. Statistics of embankment dam failures ....................................................................... 31

2. AN OVERVIEW OF INTERNAL EROSION MECHANISMS ..................................................... 37

2.1. A description of the overall process ................................................................................... 37

2.1.1. Particle detachment and transport ........................................................................... 37

2.1.2. The four general failure paths .................................................................................. 37

2.1.3. The four general phases .......................................................................................... 39

2.2. The four mechanisms of initiation of erosion ..................................................................... 41

2.2.1. Concentrated leaks .................................................................................................. 41

2.2.2. Backward erosion ..................................................................................................... 45

2.2.3. Contact erosion ........................................................................................................ 49

2.2.4. Suffusion .................................................................................................................. 49

2.3. Continuation and filter action .............................................................................................. 51

2.4. Progression ........................................................................................................................ 53

2.5. Detection ............................................................................................................................ 53

2.6. Intervention ......................................................................................................................... 57

2.7. Breach ................................................................................................................................ 59

3. INITIATION OF CONCENTRATED LEAK EROSION .............................................................. 65

3.1. Concentrated leak erosion : the overall process ................................................................ 65

3.2. Initiation of concentrated leak erosion.................................................................................. 65

3.2.1. Cracking and hydraulic fracture due to cross valley differential settlement of the core . 65

3.2.2. Cracking and hydraulic fracture due to cross valley arching ................................... 67

5
3.2.3. Fissures et claquage hydraulique dus au tassement différentiel de la fondation
sous le noyau ...................................................................................................................... 66

3.2.4. Petites irrégularités du profil de fondation sous le noyau ........................................ 66

3.2.5. Fissures et claquage hydraulique dus au report de charge du noyau sur les
recharges du barrage .......................................................................................................... 66
3.2.6. Fissures ou ouvertures le long de bajoyers d’évacuateur, murs de soutènement
et raccordement à un barrage en béton .............................................................................. 68

3.2.7. Érosion interne associée aux conduites traversantes ............................................. 68

3.2.8. Fissures ou claquage hydraulique suite à l’effondrement de couches mal


compactées de sols cohésifs ou de sols grossiers silteux .................................................... 70

3.2.9. Fissures de dessiccation .......................................................................................... 72

3.2.10. Fissures transversales suite à un tassement sismique ......................................... 72

3.2.11. Fissures ou couches de grande perméabilité causées par le gel .......................... 72

3.2.12. Érosion interne initiées par des terriers d’animaux ................................................ 74

3.2.13. Érosion interne initiées par la végétation ............................................................... 74

3.2.14. Importance des conduites, des bajoyers d’évacuateurs, des mécanismes de


fissuration et des zones mal compactées ........................................................................... 76

3.3. Critères ............................................................................................................................... 76

3.3.1. La procédure ............................................................................................................ 76

3.3.2. Estimation de la largeur et de la profondeur d’une fissure ...................................... 78

3.3.3. Estimation de la contrainte de cisaillement hydraulique .......................................... 80

3.3.4. Estimation de la résistance à l’érosion d’un noyau de barrage ............................... 82

3.3.5. Application du critère d’initiation d’érosion de conduit ............................................. 86

3.3.6. Importance des sols dispersifs ................................................................................. 86

4. INITIATION DE L’ÉROSION RÉGRESSIVE ............................................................................... 92

4.1. Description générale du mécanisme ................................................................................... 92

4.2. Phénomènes et situations ................................................................................................... 92

4.2.1. L’érosion régressive dans une fondation sableuse .................................................. 92

4.2.2. Érosion régressive globale dans les barrages ou les digues ................................... 96

4.2.3. Érosion régressive conduisant au déchaussement du parement aval .................... 96

4.3. Critères ................................................................................................................................

6
3.2.3. Cracking and hydraulic fracture due to differential settlement in the foundation
under the core ..................................................................................................................... 67
3.2.4. Cracking and hydraulic fracture due to small scale irregularities in the foundation
profile under the core .......................................................................................................... 67
3.2.5. Cracking and hydraulic fracture due to arching of the core onto the shoulders of
the embankment .................................................................................................................. 67
3.2.6. Crack or gap adjacent to a spillway or abutment walls and where concrete dams
abut embankment dams ...................................................................................................... 69

3.2.7. Internal erosion associated with conduits embedded in the embankment .............. 69

3.2.8. Cracking or hydraulic fracture resulting from collapse of poorly compacted layers
in cohesive soils or in broadly graded silty soils ................................................................. 71

3.2.9. Cracking due to desiccation ..................................................................................... 73

3.2.10. Transverse cracking caused by settlement during earthquakes ............................ 73

3.2.11. Cracking or high permeability layers due to freezing ............................................. 73

3.2.12. Internal erosion initiated by the effects of animal burrows ..................................... 75

3.2.13. Internal erosion initiated by the effects of vegetation ............................................. 75

3.2.14. Relative importance of conduits, spillway walls, cracking mechanisms and poorly
compacted zones ................................................................................................................ 77

3.3. Criteria for initiation of concentrated leaks ......................................................................... 77

3.3.1. The procedure .......................................................................................................... 77

3.3.2. Estimation of width and depth of cracks .................................................................. 79

3.3.3. The estimation of hydraulic shear stresses in cracks and erosion pipes ................. 81

3.3.4. Estimation of erosion resistance of dam cores ........................................................ 83

3.3.5. Applying the concentrated leak criteria .................................................................... 87

3.3.6. Importance of dispersive soils .................................................................................. 87

4. INITIATION OF BACKWARD EROSION ................................................................................. 93

4.1. Backward erosion: the overall process .............................................................................. 93

4.2. Backward erosion processes ............................................................................................. 93

4.2.1. The process in sandy foundations of dams or dikes ................................................ 93

4.2.2. The process within a dam, levee or dike .................................................................. 97

4.2.3. The process causing unraveling at the downstream face ........................................ 97

4.3. Criteria for initiation of backward erosion ...........................................................................

7
4.2.1. L’érosion régressive dans une fondation sableuse ..................................................

4.2.2. Érosion régressive globale dans les barrages ou les digues ...................................

4.2.3. Érosion régressive conduisant au déchaussement du parement aval ....................

4.3. Critères ................................................................................................................................ 96

4.3.1. Érosion régressive dans les fondations sablonneuses ............................................ 96

4.3.2. Érosion régressive globale de noyaux de barrages ................................................. 110

4.3.3. Érosion régressive du parement .............................................................................. 112

4.3.4. Approches empiriques de Bligh et Lane ................................................................... 114

4.3.5. Approche russe ......................................................................................................... 116

5. INITIATION DE L’ÉROSION DE CONTACT ............................................................................... 120

5.1. Description générale du mécanisme ................................................................................... 120

5.2. Phénomènes et situations ................................................................................................... 120

5.3. Critères pour l’initiation de l’érosion de contact .................................................................. 122

5.3.1. Conditions géométriques et hydrauliques ................................................................ 122

5.3.2. Sol fin sans cohésion au-dessous d’une couche de sol grossier ............................ 124

5.3.3. Érosion des sols fins cohérents (particules < 75 µm) .............................................. 126

5.3.4. Sol fin au-dessus d’une couche de sol grossier ....................................................... 126

5.3.5. Influence de l’uniformité de la granulométrie ........................................................... 128

6. INITIATION DE LA SUFFUSION ............................................................................................. 130

6.1. Description générales du mécanisme ................................................................................ 130

6.2. Phénomènes et situations .................................................................................................. 132

6.2.1. Les sols suffusifs ...................................................................................................... 132

6.2.2. Prise en compte de la ségrégation .......................................................................... 132

6.3. Critères ............................................................................................................................... 134

6.3.1. Pourcentage maximal de fines suffusives ................................................................ 134

6.3.2. Méthodes basées sur les critères géométriques ..................................................... 136

6.3.3. Critère hydraulique basé sur le gradient critique ..................................................... 140

7. CONTINUATION OU INTERRUPTION DE L’ÉROSION PAR FILTRATION .......................... 146

7.1. Description générale du mécanisme .................................................................................. 146

7.2. Situations et phénomènes ..................................................................................................

7.2.1. L’érosion interne dans les remblais .........................................................................

8
4.2.1. The process in sandy foundations of dams or dikes ................................................

4.2.2. The process within a dam, levee or dike ..................................................................

4.2.3. The process causing unraveling at the downstream face ........................................

4.3. Criteria for initiation of backward erosion ........................................................................... 97

4.3.1. Backward erosion in sandy foundations .................................................................. 97

4.3.2. Global backward erosion in dam cores .................................................................... 111

4.3.3. Global backward erosion causing unraveling at the downstream face .................... 113

4.3.4. Empirical approaches of Bligh and Lane ................................................................. 115

4.3.5. The Russian Design Methods .................................................................................. 117

5. INITIATION OF CONTACT EROSION ..................................................................................... 121

5.1. Contact erosion: the overall process .................................................................................. 121

5.2. Contact erosion processes ................................................................................................. 121

5.3. Criteria for initiation of contact erosion ............................................................................... 123

5.3.1. Geometrical and hydraulic conditions ...................................................................... 123

5.3.2. Fine cohesionless soil below a coarse soil layer ..................................................... 125

5.3.3. Silt and clay erosion (particles < 75µm) ................................................................... 127

5.3.4. Fine soil above a coarse soil layer ........................................................................... 127

5.3.5. Influence of uniformity .............................................................................................. 129

6. INITIATION OF SUFFUSION ................................................................................................... 131

6.1. Suffusion: the overall process ............................................................................................ 131

6.2. Suffusion processes ........................................................................................................... 133

6.2.1. Soils subject to suffusion .......................................................................................... 133

6.2.2. The effect of segregation ......................................................................................... 133

6.3. Criteria for initiation of suffusion ......................................................................................... 135

6.3.1. Maximum proportion of suffusive fines .................................................................... 135

6.3.2. Methods based on geometric criteria ....................................................................... 137

6.3.3. The hydraulic criterion based on critical gradient ..................................................... 141

7. CONTINUATION OR INTERRUPTION OF EROSION BY FILTER ACTION .......................... 147

7.1. Continuation: the overall process ....................................................................................... 147

7.2. Continuation scenarios .......................................................................................................

7.2.1. Internal erosion in the embankment .........................................................................

9
6.3.3. Critère hydraulique basé sur le gradient critique .....................................................

7. CONTINUATION OU INTERRUPTION DE L’ÉROSION PAR FILTRATION ..........................

7.1. Description générale du mécanisme ..................................................................................

7.2. Situations et phénomènes .................................................................................................. 146

7.2.1. L’érosion interne dans les remblais ......................................................................... 146

7.2.2. L’érosion interne du remblai vers et dans la fondation ............................................ 152

7.2.3. L’érosion interne en fondation .................................................................................. 152

7.3. Critères ............................................................................................................................... 154

7.3.1. Méthodologie pour l’évaluation de la continuation ou l’interruption de l’érosion


dans le remblai .................................................................................................................... 154

7.3.2. Les fonctions d’un filtre ............................................................................................ 156

7.3.3. Critère de rétention totale des filtres granulaires ..................................................... 162

7.3.4. Critères de continuation ........................................................................................... 168

7.3.5. Continuation vers la fondation ou les structures traversantes ................................. 172

8. PROGRESSION DE L’ÉROSION ............................................................................................ 174

8.1. Description générale du mécanisme .................................................................................. 174

8.1.1. Condition hydraulique .............................................................................................. 174

8.1.2. Condition mécanique ............................................................................................... 174

8.2. Phénomènes et situations .................................................................................................. 176

8.3. Critères ............................................................................................................................... 176

8.3.1. La condition de stabilité du toit du conduit ............................................................... 176

8.3.2. Les conditions de colmatage des fissures ............................................................... 178

8.3.3. Les conditions de limitation de l’écoulement ............................................................ 178

8.3.4. Vitesse de l’érosion de conduit ................................................................................ 180

8.3.5. Vitesse de progression du processus d’érosion interne .......................................... 182

9. ÉVALUATION DU RISQUE D’ÉROSION INTERNE ................................................................ 184

9.1. Les huit étapes du diagnostic ............................................................................................. 184

9.2. Les différentes approches .................................................................................................. 186

9.2.1. Approche déterministe ou fondée sur des règlements ............................................ 186

9.2.2. Jugement de l’ingénieur ou approche qualitative ..................................................... 186

9.2.3. Évaluation quantitative du risque ............................................................................. 188

9.2.4. L'utilisation des trois approches ............................................................................... 188

9.3. Déroulement de l’évaluation ...............................................................................................


10
6.3.3. The hydraulic criterion based on critical gradient .....................................................

7. CONTINUATION OR INTERRUPTION OF EROSION BY FILTER ACTION ..........................

7.1. Continuation: the overall process .......................................................................................

7.2. Continuation scenarios ....................................................................................................... 147

7.2.1. Internal erosion in the embankment ......................................................................... 147

7.2.2. Internal erosion of the embankment at or into the foundation ................................. 153

7.2.3. Internal erosion in the foundation ............................................................................. 153

7.3. Criteria for continuation ...................................................................................................... 155

7.3.1. Assessment of continuation or interruption of erosion through the embankment .... 155

7.3.2. Filter functions .......................................................................................................... 157

7.3.3. Criteria for no-erosion filters ..................................................................................... 163

7.3.4. Continuation criteria ................................................................................................. 169

7.3.5. Continuation into an open defect, joint or crack ....................................................... 173

8. PROGRESSION OF EROSION ............................................................................................... 175

8.1. Progression: the overall process ........................................................................................ 175

8.1.1. Hydraulic condition ................................................................................................... 175

8.1.2. Mechanical condition ................................................................................................ 175

8.2. Progression processes ....................................................................................................... 177

8.3. Progression criteria ............................................................................................................ 177

8.3.1. Soil conditions to hold the roof over developing erosion pipes ................................ 177

8.3.2. Conditions for crack filling ........................................................................................ 179

8.3.3. Conditions for flow limitation .................................................................................... 179

8.3.4. Rate of development of concentrated leaks ............................................................. 181

8.3.5. Rate of progression of the overall process of internal erosion ................................. 183

9. ENGINEERING ASSESSMENT OF THE VULNERABILITY OF A DAM TO INTERNAL


EROSION ...................................................................................................................................... 185

9.1. Eight steps for engineering assessment ............................................................................ 185

9.2. Approaches to engineering assessment ............................................................................. 187

9.2.1. Deterministic or Standards-Based Approach ........................................................... 187

9.2.2. Engineering Judgment ............................................................................................. 187

9.2.3. Quantitative Risk Assessment ................................................................................. 189

9.2.4. Use of the three approaches .................................................................................... 189

9.3. Engineering analysis procedure .........................................................................................


11
9.2.2. Jugement de l’ingénieur ou approche qualitative .....................................................

9.2.3. Évaluation quantitative du risque .............................................................................

9.2.4. L'utilisation des trois approches ...............................................................................

9.3. Déroulement de l’évaluation ............................................................................................... 190

9.4. Les chargements ................................................................................................................ 192

9.4.1. L’effet du niveau de la retenue sur l’érosion interne ................................................ 192

9.4.2. Prise en considération des niveaux de retenue dans l’évaluation ........................... 192

9.4.3. Chargements sismiques à considérer ...................................................................... 194

9.5. Les règlements et la probabilité de rupture ........................................................................ 194

9.6. Marges de sécurité et incertitudes ..................................................................................... 194

9.7. Relation entre propriétés du sol et érosion interne ............................................................ 196

9.7.1. Susceptibilité du matériau, états de contrainte et chargement hydraulique ............ 196

9.7.2. Le processus physique ............................................................................................ 198

9.8. La collecte des données .................................................................................................... 202

9.9. Analyse des modes de rupture .......................................................................................... 206

9.10. Criblage des mécanismes potentiels de rupture .............................................................. 210

9.10.1. Criblage à partir du zonage et des propriétés des matériaux ................................ 210

9.10.2. Criblage à partir de la géologie et des propriétés de sols ...................................... 212

9.10.3. Criblage à partir des dispositifs constructifs ........................................................... 212

9.11. Analyse des modes de rupture potentiels ........................................................................ 216

9.11.1. Quelques principes généraux ................................................................................ 216

9.11.2. Quelques conseils pour évaluer le danger d’érosion par conduit .......................... 218

9.12. Décision entre confortement ou surveillance ................................................................... 218

10. RÉPARATION ........................................................................................................................ 220

10.1. Méthodes disponibles ............................................................................................... 220

10.2. Les écrans d’étanchéité ............................................................................................ 220

10.3. Les filtres ................................................................................................................... 222

10.3.1. Écran filtrant et recharge filtrante ........................................................................... 222

10.3.2. Filtres périphériques des conduites et de l’évacuateur de crue ............................. 222

10.3.3. Parois drainantes ................................................................................................... 222

10.3.4. Les puits de décompression filtrants ......................................................................

12
9.2.2. Engineering Judgment .............................................................................................

9.2.3. Quantitative Risk Assessment .................................................................................

9.2.4. Use of the three approaches ....................................................................................

9.3. Engineering analysis procedure ......................................................................................... 191

9.4. Reservoir and seismic loading conditions .......................................................................... 193

9.4.1. The effect of reservoir level on internal erosion ....................................................... 193

9.4.2. Reservoir levels to be considered ............................................................................ 193

9.4.3. Seismic loads to be considered ............................................................................... 195

9.5. Design standards and the likelihood of failure from internal erosion ................................. 195

9.6. Safety margins and approximations ................................................................................... 195

9.7. Soil properties in relation to internal erosion ...................................................................... 197

9.7.1. Material susceptibility, stress conditions and hydraulic load .................................... 197

9.7.2. The physical process ............................................................................................... 199

9.8. The importance of reliable information ............................................................................... 203

9.9. Failure modes analysis ...................................................................................................... 207

9.10. Screening of potential failure modes ................................................................................ 211

9.10.1. Screening of PFM on the zoning of the dam and the properties of the core and
the embankment .................................................................................................................. 211

9.10.2. Screening on foundation geology and soil properties ............................................ 213

9.10.3. Screening on details of the embankment and conduits and retaining walls ............ 213

9.11. Analysis of potential failure modes ................................................................................... 217

9.11.1. Some general principles ......................................................................................... 217

9.11.2. Concentrated leak erosion-some aids to judgment ............................................... 219

9.12. Decision making: remediation or monitoring? .................................................................. 219

10. REMEDIATION AND IMPROVEMENTS TO DAMS TO RESIST INTERNAL EROSION ..... 221

10.1. Methods available ............................................................................................................ 221

10.2. Barriers ............................................................................................................................. 221

10.3. Filters ................................................................................................................................ 223

10.3.1. Filter blankets and filtered berms ........................................................................... 223

10.3.2. Filter collars on conduits and spillway channels .................................................... 223

10.3.3. Filter trenches ........................................................................................................ 223

10.3.4. Filtered relief wells .................................................................................................

13
10.3.1. Écran filtrant et recharge filtrante ...........................................................................

10.3.2. Filtres périphériques des conduites et de l’évacuateur de crue .............................

10.3.3. Parois drainantes ...................................................................................................

10.3.4. Les puits de décompression filtrants ...................................................................... 222


10.3.5. Filtres multicouches et capacité de drainage ......................................................... 224

10.4. Conditions sur les conduites ............................................................................................ 224

11. SURVEILLANCE ET AUSCULTATION .................................................................................. 226

11.1. Objectifs et défis de la surveillance .................................................................................. 226

11.2. Principes généraux .......................................................................................................... 228

11.2.1. La possibilité de détection et d’intervention ........................................................... 228

11.2.2. Quelques informations sur la cinétique de l’érosion interne .................................. 232

11.2.3. Revue de l’application des méthodes de surveillance ........................................... 232

12. MÉTHODES D’ÉVALUATION DU RISQUE DE RUPTURE PAR ÉROSION INTERNE ....... 242

12.1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 242

12.2. Procédure générale .......................................................................................................... 242

12.3. Estimation de la probabilité de rupture ............................................................................ 244

12.3.1. Quelques principes généraux ................................................................................ 244

12.3.2. L’érosion de conduit – quelques conseils pour le jugement .................................. 244

12.4. Méthodes d’évaluation quantitative et semi quantitative du risque .................................. 244

12.4.1. Méthodes basées sur les données historiques de rupture et d’incident ....................... 244

13. GLOSSAIRE INTERNATIONAL DE L’ÉROSION INTERNE .................................................... 250

13.1. Terminologie de l’érosion interne ..................................................................................... 250

13.2. Définitions relatives au calcul de la probabilité de rupture .......................................... 260

13.3. Définitions CIGB relatives aux barrages et aux ruptures ............................................ 262

REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................. 264

FIGURES EN COULEUR .............................................................................................................. 280

14
10.3.1. Filter blankets and filtered berms ...........................................................................

10.3.2. Filter collars on conduits and spillway channels ....................................................

10.3.3. Filter trenches ........................................................................................................

10.3.4. Filtered relief wells .................................................................................................


10.3.4. Filtered relief wells ................................................................................................. 223

10.3.5. Multiple filters to provide drainage capacity ........................................................... 225

10.4. Condition of conduits ........................................................................................................ 225

11. SURVEILLANCE AND MONITORING ................................................................................... 227

11.1. Objectives and challenges of surveillance and monitoring for timely detection of internal
erosion ........................................................................................................................................ 227

11.2. General Principle .............................................................................................................. 229

11.2.1. The likelihood of detection and intervention ........................................................... 229

11.2.2. Some Information on the rate of internal erosion ................................................... 233

11.2.3. A review of the applicability of methods of surveillance ......................................... 233

12. METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF THE LIKELIHOOD OF FAILURE OF A DAM BY


INTERNAL EROSION ................................................................................................................... 243

12.1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 243

12.2. General Procedure ........................................................................................................... 243

12.3. Estimation of likelihoods of failure for potential failure modes applicable to the dam ...... 245

12.3.1. Some general principles ......................................................................................... 245

12.3.2. Concentrated leak erosion-some aids to judgment ............................................... 245

12.4. Quantitative and semi quantitative risk assessment methods ......................................... 245

12.4.1. Methods based on historic databases of failures and incidents ............................ 245

13. TERMINOLOGY – INTERNAL EROSION PROCESSES – INTERNATIONAL GLOSS ....... 251

13.1. Terminology used in relation to internal erosion .............................................................. 251

13.2. Definitions related to the analysis of the probability of failure .......................................... 261

13.3. ICOLD definitions of large dam, failure, accident and incident ........................................ 263

REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................. 264

COLORED FIGURES ..................................................................................................................... 280

15
AVANT-PROPOS ET REMERCIEMENTS

L’érosion interne dans les remblais et leurs fondations est une cause principale de ruptures et
d’accidents de barrages en remblai. Le risque d’érosion interne peut être diminué dans la phase projet
grâce à une conception et une construction correctes du noyau et à la mise en place de filtres
interceptant les écoulements à travers les remblais et les fondations.

Cependant de nombreux barrages et digues existants sont mal zonés et dépourvus de filtres ou
ont des filtres ou zones de transition qui ne répondent pas aux critères modernes de conception. Ils
sont donc susceptibles de se rompre par érosion interne, avec un risque croissant dans le temps. Par
conséquent, la réévaluation de la sécurité de ces barrages est une question fondamentale.

Cela a été reconnu par le Club Européen de la CIGB qui a mis en place un Groupe de Travail sur
ce problème et de nombreuses recherches ont été menées ces dernières années pour mieux
comprendre les processus physiques et les mécanismes de l’érosion interne. Ce bulletin est basé sur
les connaissances acquises au cours de nombreuses années de recherche avancée et sur des
conceptions réussies de nouveaux projets.

Le comité de la CIGB sur les Barrages en Remblai est persuadé de l’indéniable intérêt à
rassembler des experts internationaux et des chercheurs sur ce sujet. Le président du comité a donc
nommé Jean-Jacques Fry (France) et Rodney Bridle (Royaume-Uni) pour travailler, avec le Groupe
de Travail du Club Européen et d’autres experts de l’érosion interne, comme Robin Fell (Australie), à
la rédaction d’un bulletin de recommandations pour les professionnels chargés de l’évaluation de la
sécurité des ouvrages hydrauliques.

Nous espérons que les personnes en charge de la sécurité des barrages auront librement accès à
cette publication afin de l’utiliser efficacement dans l’évaluation de la sécurité des barrages et des
digues existants. Elle est également utile pour les concepteurs de nouveaux barrages et digues.

Comme l’état de l’art sur l’érosion interne des barrages, des digues et de leurs fondations est une
science évolutive, les lecteurs sont invités à rechercher dans la littérature les dernières avancées qui
feront suite à la production de ce Bulletin.

Je tiens également à exprimer des remerciements particuliers au Dr. Jean-Jacques Fry, et à M.


Rodney Bridle et au Professeur émérite Robin Fell (Australie) pour avoir contribué en grande partie à
la rédaction de ce bulletin, ainsi qu’aux membres du Groupe de travail du Club européen, et aux
membres du comité de la CIGB pour leurs contributions dans l’élaboration du Bulletin.

JEAN-PIERRE TOURNIER,
PRÉSIDENT,
COMITÉ DES BARRAGES EN REMBLAI

16
FOREWORD AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Internal erosion and piping in embankments and their foundations is the main cause of failures and
accidents at embankment dams. For new dams, the potential for internal erosion can be controlled by
good design and construction of the core of the dam and provision of filters to intercept seepage
through the embankment and the foundations.

However many existing dams, dikes and levees were inadequately zoned and not provided with
filters or have filters or transitions which do not satisfy modern filter design criteria, and are susceptible
to internal erosion failure, with a risk of internal erosion increasing with ageing. Accordingly, the
reassessment of the safety of these dams is an important issue.

This has been recognized by the European Club of ICOLD which devoted a Working Group to the
problem and much research has been carried out in recent years to better understand the physical
processes and mechanics of internal erosion. This has built upon the knowledge gained from many
years of earlier research and successful design of new dams.

The ICOLD committee on Embankment Dams believe that there are considerable benefits in
gathering together international experts and researchers on this topic. Thus the chairman committed
the members Jean-Jacques Fry (France) and Rodney Bridle (UK) to work with the Working Group of
the European Club and other experts on internal erosion, like Robin Fell (Australia), to write a bulletin
and give guidance for practitioners responsible for assessing the safety of water retaining structures.

We expect that the people in charge of dam safety will have free access to this publication so it can
be used effectively for the safety assessment of existing dams and dikes. It will also be useful for
those designing new dams and dikes.

As the state of the art of internal erosion of dams, dikes and their foundations is an evolving
science readers should look in the literature for new developments following the production of this
Bulletin.

I also wish to record special thanks to Dr Jean-Jacques Fry, Mr. Rodney Bridle and Professor
Emeritus Robin Fell for undertaking much of the drafting of this Bulletin, to members of the European
Club Working Group for their inputs in developing the Bulletin, and to members of the ICOLD
committee for their contributions.

JEAN-PIERRE TOURNIER,
CHAIRMAN,
COMMITTEE ON EMBANKMENT DAMS

17
RÉSUMÉ

L’érosion interne est l’une des principales causes de rupture des barrages en remblai. Lors de la
construction, la protection de nouveaux barrages contre l’érosion interne est assurée par le zonage et
notamment la mise en œuvre de filtres (Bulletin Technique No. 95, CIGB, 1994). Cependant, de
nombreux barrages sont mal zonés et ne possèdent pas de filtres, ils peuvent donc être vulnérables à
l'érosion interne. D’autres barrages dotés de filtres qui ne répondent pas aux normes actuelles de
conception et/ou de construction, peuvent eux aussi être vulnérables à l'érosion interne.

L’érosion interne se produit lorsque des particules de sols dans un barrage en remblai ou dans sa
fondation sont entrainées à l’aval par les écoulements. Elle commence lorsque les forces érosives
imposées par la charge hydraulique dépassent la résistance à l’érosion des matériaux constituant le
barrage. Les forces érosives sont directement liées au niveau de l’eau du réservoir.

La plupart des incidents d’érosion interne apparaissent au premier remplissage, mais beaucoup
surviennent pendant l’exploitation des années après le premier remplissage. Ces incidents se sont
presque tous produits à un niveau de retenue jamais encore atteint, par exemple au cours de longues
crues, pouvant déclencher l'érosion interne en partie supérieure et soumettre le corps du barrage à
des gradients hydrauliques et vitesses plus élevés que ceux expérimentés auparavant. L’érosion peut
être également causée par le vieillissement du barrage, notamment des conduites et galeries internes
qui peuvent provoquer des tassements après des cycles répétés de vidange, ou de l’effet des
tremblements de terre. Un autre facteur est lié au fait que certains mécanismes d’érosion interne
progressent lentement, de façon épisodique, au cours des remplissages cycliques du réservoir ; il faut
donc des années, voire des décennies avant que les effets de cette érosion épisodique ne fassent
apparaître le moindre symptôme d’érosion interne.

Le Bulletin est en deux volumes. Le volume 1 traite principalement des processus d’érosion interne
et de l’évaluation technique de la vulnérabilité des barrages face à la rupture par érosion interne, avec
un bref aperçu des équipements pour détecter l’érosion interne et des mesures à prendre pour
protéger les barrages contre l’érosion interne. Il contient une liste complète de la Terminologie utilisée
dans l’érosion interne. De nombreuses références sont également données, y compris des liens vers
le site web de la CIGB traitant de l’érosion interne.

Le Volume 2 donne plus de détails sur les recherches associées à l’érosion interne, les essais
appropriés, la surveillance, la détection, les mesures et donne quelques exemples.

Ce Volume 1 donne un énoncé du problème, expliquant pourquoi l’érosion interne est une menace
pour les barrages existants et l’importance d’évaluer la vulnérabilité des barrages face à celle-ci. Il
traite du processus complet d’érosion interne depuis l’initiation, la continuation (ou son arrêt), la
progression jusqu'à la rupture, sauf si l'érosion est détectée assez tôt par des systèmes de
surveillance appropriés, permettant une intervention rapide afin de stopper ou ralentir le
développement de la brèche ou fissure.

Les quatre mécanismes déclencheurs du processus d’érosion interne sont décrits : l’érosion de
conduit, l’érosion régressive, l’érosion de contact et la suffusion. Le Bulletin décrit ensuite les
circonstances dans lesquelles chaque type d’érosion, une fois initiée, se poursuivra ou sera arrêtée
par la capacité filtrante des matériaux du barrage et des fondations. Les processus de filtration, les
propriétés et les règles du filtre pour évaluer la rétention des particules sont également présentés. La
vitesse à laquelle l'érosion continue si elle n’est pas arrêtée est discutée. Dans de nombreux cas, la
vitesse est telle que la rupture peut se produire trop rapidement pour avoir le temps de sauver les
vies, les biens à l’aval et prendre des mesures correctives, en général la mise en conformité des
filtres.

Une évaluation technique du processus est proposée. Cette évaluation est abordée par l’approche
déterministe, par jugement technique complété d’une évaluation qualitative et semi-quantitative du
risque, ou par l’évaluation quantitative du risque. Les valeurs limites de dimensionnement sont liées
au niveau d’eau critique. Il faut systématiquement prendre en compte les modes de défaillance

18
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Internal erosion is one of the major causes of embankment dam failure. When constructing new
dams, protection against internal erosion is provided by zoning and by providing filters (ICOLD Bulletin
No. 95, ICOLD, 1994). However, many existing dams are not adequately zoned and do not have filters
and may therefore be vulnerable to internal erosion. Others have filters not designed and/or
constructed to modern standards, they too may be vulnerable to internal erosion.

Internal erosion occurs when soil particles within an embankment dam or its foundation are carried
downstream by seepage flow. It starts when the erosive forces imposed by the hydraulic loads exceed
the resistance of the materials in the dam to erosion. The erosive forces are directly related to
reservoir water level.

Many internal erosion problems become apparent on first filling but most occur many years after
first filling. This is almost certainly because the dam is subject for the first time to high water levels
which may initiate erosion in the upper parts of the dam. After long periods of flood flows, for example,
which cause the reservoir to rise higher on the dam and/or to subject it to greater gradients and
velocities of flow than it has experienced before. It may be because ageing causes deterioration of the
dam, particularly of the pipes and culverts through dams but also due to on-going settlements under
repeated reservoir draw downs, or from the effect of earthquakes. Another factor may be that some
internal erosion mechanisms progress slowly in an episodic fashion under cyclical reservoir loading,
taking years and even decades before the effects of the episodes of erosion show any of the
symptoms of internal erosion.

The Bulletin is in two volumes. Volume 1 deals predominantly with internal erosion processes and
the engineering assessment of the vulnerability of a dam to failure or damage by internal erosion, with
a brief oversight of monitoring for and detection of internal erosion and remediation to protect dams
against internal erosion. It includes a comprehensive listing of the Terminology used in internal
erosion. Many references are also given, including links to many from an ICOLD internal erosion
webpage.

Volume 2 gives more details of internal erosion investigations, and appropriate testing, monitoring
and detection, and remediation, and gives case histories.

This Volume 1 gives a statement of the problem, explaining why internal erosion is a threat to
existing dams and the importance of assessing the vulnerability of individual dams to it. It then goes
through the overall process of erosion from initiation, through continuation (or arrest) of erosion,
through progression, and on to breach, unless erosion is detected early enough by appropriate
monitoring systems, to allow timely intervention to halt or slow the development of a breach and
failure.

The four mechanisms through which internal erosion is initiated are described: erosion in
concentrated leaks, backward erosion, contact erosion, and suffusion. The Bulletin then describes the
circumstances in which erosion, once initiated, will continue or be arrested by the filtering capability of
the materials in the dam and foundations. Filtering processes, filter properties and filter rules are
explained in order that the filtering capability can be assessed. The rate at which erosion continues, if
it is not arrested, is discussed. In many cases, the rate is such that failure could occur too rapidly to
give time to protect lives and property downstream, and some positive action should be taken, usually
retrofitting filters, to prevent erosion.

An engineering assessment process is proposed. Assessment by the deterministic approach, by


engineering judgment augmented by qualitative and semi-quantitative risk assessment; or by
quantitative risk assessment, is described. Critical design loads relate to critical water levels.
Systematic consideration of potential failure modes is required, eliminating those in which internal
erosion could not continue to failure, because of fill and foundation soil properties, the zoning of the
dam and other factors, as detailed in the Bulletin.

19
propriétés et les règles du filtre pour évaluer la rétention des particules sont également présentés. La
vitesse à laquelle l'érosion continue si elle n’est pas arrêtée est discutée. Dans de nombreux cas, la
vitesse est telle que la rupture peut se produire trop rapidement pour avoir le temps de sauver les
vies, les biens à l’aval et prendre des mesures correctives, en général la mise en conformité des
filtres.

Une évaluation technique du processus est proposée. Cette évaluation est abordée par l’approche
déterministe, par jugement technique complété d’une évaluation qualitative et semi-quantitative du
risque, ou par l’évaluation quantitative du risque. Les valeurs limites de dimensionnement sont liées
au niveau d’eau critique. Il faut systématiquement prendre en compte les modes de défaillance
potentiels et éliminer ceux ne menant pas à la rupture par érosion interne, du fait des propriétés des
sols des fondations et des recharges, du zonage du barrage et d’autres facteurs, comme indiqué dans
ce Bulletin.

Les modes de rupture potentiels restant doivent être examinés. Des informations sont données
dans le Bulletin pour déterminer la résistance à l’érosion, le gradient hydraulique et les propriétés du
sol érodé. Des informations sont également données sur la manière d’évaluer la capacité filtrante des
matériaux du barrage et des fondations et leur capacité à arrêter l’érosion, à limiter l’érosion qui ne
peut pas être arrêtée ou à permettre la progression de l’érosion incontrôlée.

Quelques informations sur les mesures et l’auscultation sont données pour aider à la prise de
décision lorsque l’évaluation n’a pas donné de conclusion définitive sur le risque potentiel de rupture
par érosion interne. La méthode d’évaluation quantitative du risque est brièvement décrite. Cette
méthode peut aussi être utilisée pour prendre en compte l'incertitude. Elle serait également
souhaitable pour les barrages à risque élevé et lorsque les coûts de remise en état sont importants
afin de confirmer et justifier la nécessité et l'ampleur du projet de réhabilitation.

Le tableau ci-dessous synthétise le contenu des chapitres du bulletin.

Chapitre Titre et contenu

1 INTRODUCTION : EROSION INTERNE ET SECURITE DES BARRAGES


Information et statistiques sur les ruptures causées par érosion interne de
nouveaux barrages à la mise en eau et de barrages existants.

2 PANORAMA DES MECANISMES D’EROSION INTERNE


Ce chapitre décrit les étapes du processus général de rupture par érosion
interne à partir des quatre mécanismes d’initiation, de la continuation ou
l’interruption par filtration, la progression notamment de conduits d’érosion, la
détection de l’érosion, les interventions pour stopper l’érosion et la formation
de la brèche.
À noter que la formation de brèche n’est pas traitée ailleurs dans ce bulletin.
Les autres étapes du processus sont détaillées dans les chapitres suivants et
des références y renvoient dans le chapitre 2 pour éviter des répétitions.

3 INITIATION DE L’EROSION DE CONDUIT


Ce chapitre traite du mécanisme d’érosion de conduit à travers des fissures
et des ouvertures. Il présente aussi les situations dans lesquelles de tels
vides apparaissent. On dresse une liste de quatorze situations qui génèrent
de tels vides et écoulements préférentiels.

4 INITIATION D’EROSION REGRESSIVE


Ce chapitre décrit plusieurs méthodes, classiques ou nouvelles, pour prédire
si l’érosion régressive peut conduire ou non à la rupture. La signification des
tumulus de sable est discutée. Elle introduit aussi l’érosion régressive
globale.

5 INITIATION D’EROSION DE CONTACT


Ce chapitre traite de l’initiation par érosion de contact d’un sol fin situé en
dessous ou au-dessus d’un sol grossier. Il fournit un diagramme montrant la
vitesse de Darcy dans les sols grossiers qui initie l’érosion de contact dans
des sols fins.

20
circumstances
existing dams and in which erosion, once
the importance initiated, will
of assessing thecontinue or beofarrested
vulnerability by dams
individual the filtering
to it. Itcapability
then goes of
the
throughmaterials in the process
the overall dam andoffoundations.
erosion fromFiltering
initiation,processes, filter properties
through continuation (or and filterofrules
arrest) are
erosion,
explained in order thatand
through progression, the filtering capability
on to breach, can be
unless assessed.
erosion The rate early
is detected at which erosion
enough by continues,
appropriate if
itmonitoring
is not arrested, is discussed.
systems, In many
to allow timely cases, thetorate
intervention haltisorsuch
slowthat
thefailure could occur
development of atoo rapidlyand
breach to
give time to protect lives and property downstream, and some positive action should be taken, usually
failure.
retrofitting filters, to prevent erosion.
The four mechanisms through which internal erosion is initiated are described: erosion in
An engineering
concentrated leaks,assessment processcontact
backward erosion, is proposed.
erosion,Assessment
and suffusion. by The
the deterministic approach, the
Bulletin then describes by
engineering
circumstancesjudgment augmented
in which erosion, onceby qualitative
initiated, and semi-quantitative
will continue or be arrested byrisk the assessment;
filtering capabilityor byof
quantitative
the materialsrisk assessment,
in the is described.Filtering
dam and foundations. Critical processes,
design loads filterrelate to critical
properties water
and filter levels.
rules are
Systematicinconsideration
explained order that the of potential
filtering failurecan
capability modes is required,
be assessed. Theeliminating those
rate at which in which
erosion internalif
continues,
iterosion
is not could not is
arrested, continue to failure,
discussed. In many because
cases,ofthefillrate
andisfoundation
such that soil properties,
failure could occurthe zoning of the
too rapidly to
dam and other
give time factors,
to protect livesasand
detailed in the
property Bulletin. and some positive action should be taken, usually
downstream,
retrofitting filters, to prevent erosion.

An engineering assessment process is proposed. Assessment by the deterministic approach, by


engineering judgment augmented by qualitative and semi-quantitative risk assessment; or by
quantitative risk assessment, is described. Critical design loads relate to critical water levels.
Systematic consideration of potential failure modes is required, eliminating those in which internal
erosion could not continue to failure, because of fill and foundation soil properties, the zoning of the
dam and other factors, as detailed in the Bulletin.

The remaining potential failure modes must then be examined. Information is given in the Bulletin
to determine the erosion resistance, the hydraulic gradients and the soil properties at which erosion
will initiate. Information is also given on how to assess the filtering capability of the materials in the
dam and foundation and their ability to stop erosion, allow a limited amount of erosion which would
then stop, or allow erosion to continue unchecked. Some information on remediation methods and
monitoring is given to assist in decision making where the assessment has not given a definite
conclusion on whether damaging erosion will or will not occur at the dam. Quantitative risk
assessment methods are briefly described. Such methods may also be used to resolve uncertainty,
and would be advisable in the case of high hazard dams and high remediation costs to confirm and
justify the need for and the scale of the proposed remediation.

The chapter headings and structure of the bulletin are presented below:

Chapter Title and content

1 INTRODUCTION: INTERNAL EROSION AND DAM SAFETY


Gives information and statistics on failures caused by internal erosion on first
filling of new dams and in existing dams.

2 AN OVERVIEW OF INTERNAL EROSION MECHANISMS


This chapter describes the entire process of internal erosion from the four
modes of initiation, continuation or arrest by filter action, progression and
formation of erosion pipes, detection of erosion, interventions to prevent
erosion, and breach formation.
Note that breach formation is not dealt with elsewhere in the Bulletin. More
details all other stages of the process are given in subsequent chapters, but
reference back to Figures in Chapter 2 is made to avoid repetition.

3 INITIATION OF CONCENTRATED LEAK EROSION


Deals with the mechanics of internal erosion in concentrated leaks through
cracks and openings. Also addresses the circumstances and locations where
such openings occur. Fourteen situations are listed in which openings and
concentrated leak erosion may occur.

4 INITIATION OF BACKWARD EROSION


Describes various methods, classical and new, for predicting if backward
erosion leading to failure will occur. Discusses sand boils and their
significance. Also describes ‘global backward erosion’.

5 INITIATION OF CONTACT EROSION

Deals with initiation of contact erosion of fine soils above and below coarse
soils. Provides chart showing Darcy velocity in coarse soils that will initiate
contact erosion in fine soils.

6 INITIATION OF SUFFUSION
21
Describes the suffusion process in which fine particles are eroded through
the constrictions in the coarse soil matrix. Gives methods to identify soils
4 INITIATION D’EROSION REGRESSIVE
Ce chapitre décrit plusieurs méthodes, classiques ou nouvelles, pour prédire
si l’érosion régressive peut conduire ou non à la rupture. La signification des
tumulus de sable est discutée. Elle introduit aussi l’érosion régressive
globale.

5 INITIATION D’EROSION DE CONTACT


Ce chapitre traite de l’initiation par érosion de contact d’un sol fin situé en
dessous ou au-dessus d’un sol grossier. Il fournit un diagramme montrant la
vitesse de Darcy dans les sols grossiers qui initie l’érosion de contact dans
des sols fins.

6 INITIATION DE LA SUFFUSION

Ce chapitre décrit le mécanisme de suffusion où les particules fines sont


érodées à travers les constrictions de la matrice du sol grossier. Il donne des
méthodes pour identifier les sols sensibles à la suffusion et pour évaluer le
gradient hydraulique qui déclenche la suffusion.

7 CONTINUATION OU INTERRUPTION DE L’EROSION PAR FILTRATION


Si l’érosion s’est initiée, elle peut soit continuer, soit être stoppée par la
filtration provoquée par les matériaux situés à l’aval dans le barrage ou sa
fondation. Les lois de filtre ainsi que les méthodes d’évaluation de la capacité
de filtration de matériaux plus grossiers que les filtres habituels sont
rappelées. Des méthodes pour estimer si ces ‘filtres’ tiendront ou non une
fissure ouverte’ (et en conséquence ne pourront arrêter l’érosion) sont aussi
évoquées.

8 PROGRESSION DE L’EROSION
Les deux conditions, hydraulique et mécanique, nécessaires à la progression
de l’érosion sont données. Les moyens d’évaluer la progression de l’érosion
des écoulements préférentiels, la cinétique de progression et les autres
formes d’érosion sont discutés.
La progression peut conduire à la rupture, qui est l’étape ultime du processus
d’érosion. Le mécanisme de formation de brèche n’est évoqué que dans le
Chapitre 2.

9 EVALUATION DU RISQUE D’EROSION INTERNE


Ce chapitre développe les huit étapes de la méthodologie d’évaluation du
risque de rupture par érosion interne. Trois approches sont possibles : une
approche déterministe ou à base de règlements, un diagnostic basé sur le
jugement de l’ingénieur et s’appuyant aussi loin que possible sur des critères
quantifiables ou bien l’analyse de risque quantitative (AQR).
Il est recommandé d’appliquer ces trois approches par étape, en utilisant
d’abord les données disponibles et en entreprenant de nouvelles
reconnaissances, si des informations supplémentaires renforçaient la solidité
du diagnostic de la tenue du barrage à l’érosion interne. Les situations de
chargement, les critères de conception et l’importance de la fiabilité des
données au sujet de la géométrie, notamment le zonage, et les
caractéristiques des matériaux du remblai et de la fondation sont discutés.
L’identification du mode de rupture, l’analyse et le criblage des chemins
d’érosion pouvant amener l’initiation, la continuation puis la progression de
l’érosion interne à la rupture sont expliqués. Des éléments d’aide à la
décision de parades à l’érosion ou de fiabilité de l’auscultation sont cités.

10 REPARATION

Ce chapitre introduit les options de réparation en appui à l’aide à la décision


du diagnostic de risque d’érosion interne d’un barrage. Ces réparations sont
principalement les écrans d’étanchéité et les filtres. L’importance de
22 maintenir les conduites traversantes en bon état est soulignée. Ce point est
développé dans le Volume 2 du bulletin.
4 INITIATION OF BACKWARD EROSION
Describes various methods, classical and new, for predicting if backward
erosion leading to failure will occur. Discusses sand boils and their
significance. Also describes ‘global backward erosion’.

5 INITIATION OF CONTACT EROSION

Deals with initiation of contact erosion of fine soils above and below coarse
soils. Provides chart showing Darcy velocity in coarse soils that will initiate
contact erosion in fine soils.

6 INITIATION OF SUFFUSION
Describes the suffusion process in which fine particles are eroded through
the constrictions in the coarse soil matrix. Gives methods to identify soils
susceptible to suffusion and the seepage gradient which will cause suffusion.

7 CONTINUATION OR INTERRUPTION OF EROSION BY FILTER ACTION


If erosion has initiated it may continue or it may be interrupted or arrested by
filtering action in downstream materials in the dam or foundation. Various
filter rules are given, and methods to predict the filtering capability of
materials coarser than filter rules would require. Methods to assess whether
these ‘filters’ will or will not ‘hold a crack’ (and therefore not arrest erosion)
are also given.

8 PROGRESSION OF EROSION
The two conditions, hydraulic and mechanical, in which erosion will progress
are given. Approaches to assessing if internal erosion will progress in
concentrated leaks, and the rate of progression in concentrated leaks and
other forms of internal erosion are discussed.

Progression may lead to breach, the final stage of the internal erosion
process. Breach formation is dealt with only in Chapter 2.

9 ENGINEERING ASSESSMENT OF THE VULNERABILITY OF A DAM TO


INTERNAL EROSION
Describes the eight steps to failure by internal erosion and approaches to
making an engineering assessment of internal erosion. Three approaches are
suggested, a deterministic or standards based approach, an engineering
judgment approach supported by enumeration as far as possible, or
quantitative risk assessment (QRA). It is recommended that the three
approaches be used iteratively, making use of available information first and
carrying out further investigations if more data will assist in making more
definite decisions about the vulnerability of a dam to internal erosion. Loading
conditions, design standards, and the importance of reliable information
about the dam’s geometry, particularly zoning, and the properties of the soils
in the dam and foundation are discussed. Failure mode identification,
analysis, and screening to identify potential failure routes in which internal
erosion could initiate, continue and progress is explained. Approaches to
assist in decision making about the need for anti-erosion measures or
reliance on monitoring are given.

10 REMEDIATION AND IMPROVEMENTS TO DAMS TO RESIST INTERNAL


EROSION
This chapter gives an introduction to remediation options to assist in decision-
making to conclude engineering assessments of the vulnerability of a dam to
internal erosion. The main options - barriers and filters - are described. The
importance of maintaining conduits through dams in good condition is
explained. More is said about remediation in Volume 2 of the Bulletin.

11 SURVEILLANCE AND MONITORING

This chapter gives an introduction to monitoring options to assist in decision- 23


making when making engineering assessments. The objectives and
challenges of monitoring to give early warnings of internal erosion are
discussed. Information on the rate of progression of internal erosion is given.
caractéristiques des matériaux du remblai et de la fondation sont discutés.
L’identification du mode de rupture, l’analyse et le criblage des chemins
d’érosion pouvant amener l’initiation, la continuation puis la progression de
l’érosion interne à la rupture sont expliqués. Des éléments d’aide à la
décision de parades à l’érosion ou de fiabilité de l’auscultation sont cités.

10 REPARATION

Ce chapitre introduit les options de réparation en appui à l’aide à la décision


du diagnostic de risque d’érosion interne d’un barrage. Ces réparations sont
principalement les écrans d’étanchéité et les filtres. L’importance de
maintenir les conduites traversantes en bon état est soulignée. Ce point est
développé dans le Volume 2 du bulletin.

11 SURVEILLANCE ET AUSCULTATION

Ce chapitre introduit les solutions d’auscultation comme aide à la décision du


diagnostic. Les objectifs et les défis de l’auscultation pour une détection
précoce de l’érosion interne sont discutés. Des données sur la cinétique de la
progression de l’érosion interne sont fournies. Les méthodes d’auscultation
sont listées et passées en revue. On donne plus de détails dans le Volume 2
de ce Bulletin.

12 METHODES D’EVALUATION DU RISQUE DE RUPTURE


Ce chapitre introduit les principales méthodes d’évaluation qualitatives ou
quantitatives du risque d’érosion interne à utiliser comme aide à la décision
dans les diagnostics.

13 TERMINOLOGIE DU PROCESSUS D’EROSION INTERNE – GLOSSAIRE


INTERNATIONAL
La plupart des termes couramment utilisés dans le domaine de l’érosion
interne sont définis dans le but de promouvoir un langage commun à la
profession.

REFERENCES
Liste détaillée de références sur l’érosion interne jusqu’en 2012.

24
in the dam and foundation are discussed. Failure mode identification,
analysis, and screening to identify potential failure routes in which internal
erosion could initiate, continue and progress is explained. Approaches to
assist in decision making about the need for anti-erosion measures or
reliance on monitoring are given.

10 REMEDIATION AND IMPROVEMENTS TO DAMS TO RESIST INTERNAL


EROSION
This chapter gives an introduction to remediation options to assist in decision-
making to conclude engineering assessments of the vulnerability of a dam to
internal erosion. The main options - barriers and filters - are described. The
importance of maintaining conduits through dams in good condition is
explained. More is said about remediation in Volume 2 of the Bulletin.

11 SURVEILLANCE AND MONITORING


This chapter gives an introduction to monitoring options to assist in decision-
making when making engineering assessments. The objectives and
challenges of monitoring to give early warnings of internal erosion are
discussed. Information on the rate of progression of internal erosion is given.
Monitoring methods are listed and reviewed. More is said about monitoring in
Volume 2 of the Bulletin.

12 METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF THE LIKELIHOOD OF FAILURE OF A


DAM BY INTERNAL EROSION
Gives an introduction to the main methods of qualitative and quantitative risk
assessment for use as a further aid to decision-making when making
engineering assessments.

13 TERMINOLOGY – INTERNAL EROSION PROCESSES – INTERNATIONAL


GLOSSARY
Many of the terms commonly used in internal erosion are defined with the
intention of encouraging the same usage by all practitioners

REFERENCES
A comprehensive list of internal erosion references to 2011-12.

25

 ,1752'8&7,21e526,21,17(51((76e&85,7e'(6%$55$*(6



 2%-(&7,)2%-(7(73/$1'8%8//(7,1


/¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHVHSURGXLWORUVTXHOHVSDUWLFXOHVGHVPDWpULDX[FRQVWLWXWLIVGXUHPEODLRXGH
VDIRQGDWLRQVRQWHQWUDLQpHVjO¶DYDOSDUXQpFRXOHPHQWOHVWUDYHUVDQW

/¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHHVWXQHFDXVHPDMHXUHGHUXSWXUHHWG¶LQFLGHQWVTXLPHQDFHO¶LQWpJULWpGHV
EDUUDJHV/DPDMRULWpGHVUXSWXUHVSDUpURVLRQLQWHUQHVHVRQWSURGXLWHVORUVGXSUHPLHUUHPSOLVVDJH
V¶H[SOLTXDQWSDUOHIDLWTXHO¶HDXUHQFRQWUHOHVGpIDXWVGDQVOHEDUUDJHRXVDIRQGDWLRQDXFRXUVGHOD
PRQWpH GX SODQ G¶HDX &HSHQGDQW GHV UXSWXUHV VH VRQW SURGXLWHV DSUqV OH SUHPLHU UHPSOLVVDJH
O¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHUHVWHXQHPHQDFHSRXUOHVEDUUDJHVH[LVWDQWVFDU

- ,OVQ¶RQWSDVpWpHQFRUHVRXPLVRXFRQoXVSRXUUpVLVWHUjGHVFKDUJHPHQWVH[WUrPHV
FRPPH FHOXL G¶XQH FUXH RX G¶XQ WUHPEOHPHQW GH WHUUH H[WUrPHPHQW UDUH TXL SHXW
HQJHQGUHU GHV ILVVXUHV HW GHV WDVVHPHQWV GLIIpUHQWLHOV '¶DXWUH SDUW GHV ILVVXUHV
DSSDUDLVVHQWDXVVLVXLWHjGHVF\FOHVGHUHPSOLVVDJHDSUqVWDVVHPHQWVGLIIpUHQWLHOV
RXSDUGHVVLFFDWLRQ
- /H YLHLOOLVVHPHQW FDXVH GHV GpJUDGDWLRQV SOXV SDUWLFXOLqUHPHQW OD GpWpULRUDWLRQ GHV
FRQGXLWHV GHV pYDFXDWHXUV GH FUXH RX GHV DXWUHV VWUXFWXUHV WUDYHUVDQWHV TXL
SHXYHQWLQLWLHUO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQH
- ,OVQHVRQWSDVSURWpJpVFRQWUHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHSDUGHVILOWUHVRXOHXUVILOWUHVRXOHXUV
]RQHVGHWUDQVLWLRQVRQWQRQFRQIRUPHVjO¶pWDWGHO¶DUWFHTXLOHVUHQGLQHIILFDFHV

/¶pYDOXDWLRQGHODYXOQpUDELOLWpGHVEDUUDJHVjO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHHWGHVHVFRQVpTXHQFHVDpWp
WUDLWpHFHVGHUQLqUHVDQQpHVSDUGHVPpWKRGHVG¶pYDOXDWLRQGXULVTXHYHQDQWG¶$XVWUDOLHG¶$PpULTXH
GX1RUGHWG¶(XURSH YRLU&,*%)HOO )U\+DUWIRUG %DHFKHU%URZQ *RVGHQ
%RZOHVet al /HOLYUDEOHGHFHVPpWKRGHVHVWO¶HVWLPDWLRQGHODSUREDELOLWpGHUXSWXUHGHV
EDUUDJHV&RXSOpHjXQHpWXGHG¶RQGHGHUXSWXUHGHEDUUDJHHOOHSHUPHWGHGRQQHUXQHHVWLPDWLRQ
GHVSHUWHVKXPDLQHVHWGHVFR€WVpFRQRPLTXHVHQJHQGUpVSDUODUXSWXUHGXEDUUDJH/¶pYDOXDWLRQGH
ODV€UHWpGXEDUUDJHSHXWDORUVrWUHEDVpHVXUXQHpYDOXDWLRQDFFHSWDEOHGXULVTXHVRFLDO'DQVOHFDV
FRQWUDLUHGHVWUDYDX[GHPLVHHQVpFXULWpRXG¶DPpOLRUDWLRQGHO¶DXVFXOWDWLRQSHXYHQWrWUHpYDOXpVHW
PLVHQ°XYUHVLQpFHVVDLUH

3DUDOOqOHPHQWDXGpYHORSSHPHQWGHVPpWKRGHVG¶pYDOXDWLRQGXULVTXHGHVFKHUFKHXUVSDUPL
OHVTXHOV %HJXLQ   %RQHOOL DQG %ULYRLV   )RVWHU   +RIIPDQV   *DUQHU DQG
)DQQLQ  0DURWet al  6HOOPHLMHU et al  YDQ%HHNet al D RQWDSSURIRQGLOD
FRPSUpKHQVLRQ GHV PpFDQLVPHV GH UXSWXUH SDU pURVLRQ LQWHUQH &HWWH PHLOOHXUH FRPSUpKHQVLRQ
ORUVTX¶HOOH HVW LQWpJUpH DYHF OHV PR\HQV GH FRQQDLVVDQFH DFWXHOV VXU OHV IRUFHV G¶pFRXOHPHQWV OHV
FRQGLWLRQVK\GUDXOLTXHVGDQVOHVEDUUDJHVHQUHPEODLHWOHXUVIRQGDWLRQVUHQGSRVVLEOHO¶pYDOXDWLRQGH
OD FDSDFLWp GX EDUUDJH j UpVLVWHU DX[ IRUFHV DX[TXHOOHV LO HVW VRXPLV HW GRQW FHUWDLQHV SHXYHQW
HQJHQGUHU O¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH YRLUH OD IDLUH pYROXHU MXVTX¶j OD UXSWXUH &H EXOOHWLQ DSSOLTXH FHWWH
DPpOLRUDWLRQGHODFRPSUpKHQVLRQSRXUMXJHUVLOHVEDUUDJHVH[LVWDQWVUpVLVWHURQWjO¶pURVLRQRXVLGHV
WUDYDX[GHPLVHHQVpFXULWpVHURQWQpFHVVDLUHVRXELHQVLXQUHQIRUFHPHQWGXGLVSRVLWLIG¶DXVFXOWDWLRQ
VHUDVXIILVDQW

/HEXWGHFHEXOOHWLQHVWG¶rWUHXQJXLGHSUDWLTXHSRXUOHVPDvWUHVG¶RXYUDJHVOHVLQJpQLHXUV
FRQVHLOVHWOHVH[SORLWDQWVVXUODPDQLqUHGHWUDLWHUODPHQDFHG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHGHVEDUUDJHVH[LVWDQWV
,OH[SOLTXHOHVPpFDQLVPHVG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHHWOHXUGpYHORSSHPHQWDILQGHUpDOLVHUXQGLDJQRVWLFGHOD
FDSDFLWp GX EDUUDJH j UpVLVWHU j O¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH GDQV OHV VLWXDWLRQV H[WUrPHV ,O HVW UHFRPPDQGp
G¶HIIHFWXHU O¶DQDO\VH DYHFXQH DSSURFKH LWpUDWLYH HQ LQMHFWDQW VL QpFHVVDLUHHW GH PDQLqUH JUDGXHOOH
OHVGRQQpHVG¶HQWUpHSRXUDUULYHUjGHVFRQFOXVLRQVVpFXULWDLUHV,OGRQQHGHVLQIRUPDWLRQVJOREDOHV
VXU OHV WUDYDX[ GH PLVH HQ VpFXULWp SRXYDQW rWUH QpFHVVDLUHV HW VXU OHV IUpTXHQFHV DSSURSULpHV
G¶DXVFXOWDWLRQ

,O GRQQH GHV FRQVHLOV VXU OD GpWHUPLQDWLRQ GHV FKDUJHPHQWV FULWLTXHV SURYRTXDQW O¶pURVLRQ
LQWHUQHQRWDPPHQWORUVTXHOHQLYHDXG¶HDXHVWOHSOXVKDXWFRPPHFHOXLGHODFUXHFULWLTXH

__________________________________________________________________________
/H GLDJQRVWLF SDU OH MXJHPHQW GH O¶LQJpQLHXU
1 HVW GHVWLQp j rWUH XWLOLVp LQGpSHQGDPPHQW GHV
DXWUHVDSSURFKHVPDLVGHVpYDOXDWLRQVTXDQWLWDWLYHV SUREDELOLVWHV GXULVTXHSHXYHQWOHVFRPSOpWHU
26
3RXUOHVSOXVJURVEDUUDJHVLOHVWVRXKDLWDEOHG¶XWLOLVHUOHVGHX[DSSURFKHV

/H %XOOHWLQ FRQFHUQH SULQFLSDOHPHQW OHV EDUUDJHV H[LVWDQWV PDLV OHV SULQFLSHV SHXYHQW rWUH
DSSOLTXpVDX[EDUUDJHVQHXIV/H%XOOHWLQDpWpSULQFLSDOHPHQWUpGLJpSRXUOHVJUDQGVEDUUDJHVPDLV
LOHVWDSSOLFDEOHDX[SHWLWVEDUUDJHVDX[GLJXHVHWjOHXUVIRQGDWLRQV



 ,1752'8&7,21,17(51$/(526,21$1''$06$)(7<



 7+(385326(6&23($1'287/,1(2)7+,6%8//(7,1


,QWHUQDO HURVLRQ RFFXUV ZKHQ VRLO SDUWLFOHV ZLWKLQ DQ HPEDQNPHQW GDP RU LWV IRXQGDWLRQ DUH
FDUULHGGRZQVWUHDPE\VHHSDJHIORZ

,QWHUQDOHURVLRQLVDPDMRUFDXVHRIGDPIDLOXUHVDQGRILQFLGHQWVWKDWWKUHDWHQWKHVDIHW\RI
GDPV 0RVW LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ IDLOXUHV KDYH RFFXUUHG RQ ILUVW ILOOLQJ DV ZHDNQHVVHV LQ WKH GDP RU LWV
IRXQGDWLRQ ZHUH µGLVFRYHUHG¶ E\ WKH ULVLQJ ZDWHU +RZHYHU IDLOXUHV GR RFFXU DIWHU ILUVW ILOOLQJ DQG
LQWHUQDOHURVLRQUHPDLQVDWKUHDWWRH[LVWLQJGDPVEHFDXVH

- 7KH\ KDYH QRW EHHQ VXEMHFWHG WR RU GHVLJQHG WR UHVLVW H[WUHPH ORDGV VXFK DV
H[WUHPH ZDWHU OHYHO DQG HDUWKTXDNHV ZKLFK FDQ FDXVH VHWWOHPHQW DQG FUDFNLQJ
&UDFNLQJ DOVR RFFXUV DVD UHVXOW RI F\FOLQJ RI ZDWHU OHYHO GLIIHUHQWLDO VHWWOHPHQW DQG
GHVLFFDWLRQ
- $JHLQJFDXVHVGHWHULRUDWLRQSDUWLFXODUO\GHWHULRUDWLRQRIFRQGXLWVVSLOOZD\VDQGRWKHU
VWUXFWXUHVWKURXJKGDPVDWZKLFKLQWHUQDOHURVLRQPD\EHLQLWLDWHG
- 7KH\PD\QRWEHSURWHFWHGDJDLQVWLQWHUQDOHURVLRQE\ILOWHUVRULIILOWHUVRUWUDQVLWLRQ
]RQHVDUHSUHVHQWWKH\PD\QRWKDYHEHHQGHVLJQHGWRPRGHUQVWDQGDUGVDQGPD\
EHLQHIIHFWLYH

7KH LPSOLFDWLRQV RI LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ DQG DVVHVVPHQW RI WKH YXOQHUDELOLW\ RI GDPV WR LW KDYH
EHHQ DGGUHVVHG LQ UHFHQW \HDUV E\ ULVN DVVHVVPHQW PHWKRGV SLRQHHUHG LQ $XVWUDOLD 1RUWK $PHULFD
DQG(XURSH HJ,&2/')HOO )U\+DUWIRUG %DHFKHU%URZQ *RVGHQ
%RZOHVHWDO 7KHHQGSURGXFWRIWKHPHWKRGVLVDQHVWLPDWHRIWKHSUREDELOLW\RIIDLOXUHRIWKH
VXEMHFWGDP:KHQFRXSOHGZLWKDGDPEUHDNVWXG\IURPZKLFKOLNHO\ORVVRIOLIHDQGFRVWRIGDPDJH
IURP D IDLOXUH FDQ EH HVWLPDWHG DQ DVVHVVPHQW RI ZKHWKHU WKH VXEMHFW GDP LV VDIH HQRXJK FDQ EH
PDGH EDVHG RQ DVVHVVPHQWV RI DFFHSWDEOH VRFLHWDO ULVN ,I LW LV QRW WKH HIIHFWV RI VDIHW\ ZRUNV DQG
LPSURYHGPRQLWRULQJFDQEHDVVHVVHGDQGLPSOHPHQWHGDVQHFHVVDU\

,Q SDUDOOHO ZLWK WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI WKH ULVN DVVHVVPHQW DSSURDFK UHVHDUFKHUV HJ %HJXLQ
 %RQHOOLDQG%ULYRLV  )RVWHU  +RIIPDQV  *DUQHUDQG)DQQLQ  0DURW
HW DO   6HOOPHLMHU HW DO   YDQ %HHN HW DO D  KDYH LPSURYHG XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKH
PHFKDQLVPV WKDW FDQ UHVXOW LQ GDP IDLOXUH E\ LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ 7KLV LPSURYHG XQGHUVWDQGLQJ ZKHQ
DGGHGWRH[LVWLQJNQRZOHGJHRIVHHSDJHIRUFHVDQGK\GUDXOLFFRQGLWLRQVLQDQHPEDQNPHQWGDPDQG
LWVIRXQGDWLRQVPDNHVLWSRVVLEOHWRDVVHVVWKHDELOLW\RIDGDPWRUHVLVWWKHIRUFHVLPSRVHGRQLWWKDW
PD\FDXVHLQWHUQDOHURVLRQWRLQLWLDWHFRQWLQXHDQGSURJUHVVWRIDLOXUH7KLVEXOOHWLQLVEDVHGRQWKH
DSSOLFDWLRQ RI WKLV LPSURYHG XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKH PHFKDQLFV RI LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ WR DVVHVV ZKHWKHU
H[LVWLQJ GDPV ZLOO UHVLVW HURVLRQ ZKHWKHU VDIHW\ ZRUNV DUH UHTXLUHG WR UHVLVW LW RU ZKHWKHU LPSURYHG
PRQLWRULQJZLOOEHDVXIILFLHQWVDIHJXDUGDJDLQVWLW

7KHREMHFWLYHRIWKHEXOOHWLQLVWRJLYHSUDFWLFDOJXLGDQFHIRUGDPRZQHUVGDPHQJLQHHUVDQG
UHJXODWRUVRQGHDOLQJZLWKWKHWKUHDWRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQDWH[LVWLQJGDPV,WH[SODLQVWKHPHFKDQLFVRI
LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ DQG KRZ WR DSSO\ WKHP WR PDNH DQ HQJLQHHULQJ DQDO\VLV RI WKH DELOLW\ RI GDP WR
ZLWKVWDQGH[WUHPHLQWHUQDOHURVLRQORDGV,WUHFRPPHQGVDVWDJHGLWHUDWLYHDSSURDFKWRWKHDQDO\VLV
JUDGXDOO\ LPSURYLQJ GDWD LQSXWV LI QHFHVVDU\ WR UHDFK VDIH FRQFOXVLRQV ,W DGYLVHV EURDGO\ RQ VDIHW\
ZRUNVVKRXOGWKH\EHQHHGHGDQGRQDSSURSULDWHPRQLWRULQJUHJLPHV

,WDGYLVHVRQWKHVHOHFWLRQRIFULWLFDOLQWHUQDOHURVLRQORDGV DQGQRWHVWKDWWKHVHRFFXUZKHQ
ZDWHUOHYHOLVKLJKHVWWKHVDPHDVWKDWRFFXUULQJGXULQJWKHSDVVDJHRIWKHFULWLFDOIORRG

7KH HQJLQHHULQJ DQDO\VHV DUH LQWHQGHG WR EH XVHG LQGHSHQGHQWO\ EXW TXDQWLWDWLYH ULVN
DVVHVVPHQWVZLOOFRPSOHPHQWWKHPDQGIRULPSRUWDQWGDPVLWLVUHFRPPHQGHGWKDWERWKDSSURDFKHV
EHXVHG


27
LQWHUQHQRWDPPHQWORUVTXHOHQLYHDXG¶HDXHVWOHSOXVKDXWFRPPHFHOXLGHODFUXHFULWLTXH

/H GLDJQRVWLF SDU OH MXJHPHQW GH O¶LQJpQLHXU HVW GHVWLQp j rWUH XWLOLVp LQGpSHQGDPPHQW GHV
DXWUHVDSSURFKHVPDLVGHVpYDOXDWLRQVTXDQWLWDWLYHV SUREDELOLVWHV GXULVTXHSHXYHQWOHVFRPSOpWHU
3RXUOHVSOXVJURVEDUUDJHVLOHVWVRXKDLWDEOHG¶XWLOLVHUOHVGHX[DSSURFKHV

/H %XOOHWLQ FRQFHUQH SULQFLSDOHPHQW OHV EDUUDJHV H[LVWDQWV PDLV OHV SULQFLSHV SHXYHQW rWUH
DSSOLTXpVDX[EDUUDJHVQHXIV/H%XOOHWLQDpWpSULQFLSDOHPHQWUpGLJpSRXUOHVJUDQGVEDUUDJHVPDLV
LOHVWDSSOLFDEOHDX[SHWLWVEDUUDJHVDX[GLJXHVHWjOHXUVIRQGDWLRQV

/H%XOOHWLQFRQWLHQW

'HVVWDWLVWLTXHVGHUXSWXUHGHEDUUDJHHWG¶DFFLGHQWVSURYRTXpVSDUO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQH

8Q SDQRUDPD GX SURFHVVXV G¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH DYHF OD QpFHVVLWp GH GpFULUH OH GpURXOHPHQW
FRPSOHW GX SURFHVVXV GH O¶DSSOLFDWLRQ GHV IRUFHV O¶LQLWLDWLRQ GH O¶pURVLRQ OD FRQWLQXDWLRQ OD
SURJUHVVLRQGHO¶pURVLRQMXVTX¶jODUXSWXUHGXEDUUDJH

8QH GHVFULSWLRQ GHV PpWKRGHV DFWXHOOHPHQW GLVSRQLEOHV SRXU O¶pYDOXDWLRQ GH O¶LQLWLDWLRQ GH
O¶pURVLRQ GH FRQGXLW O¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH O¶pURVLRQ GH FRQWDFW HW GH OD VXIIXVLRQ HW GH
O¶pYDOXDWLRQ GH OD FDSDFLWp GHV EDUUDJHV j UpVLVWHU j O¶pURVLRQ HQ SKDVH G¶LQLWLDWLRQ /HV
UHFKHUFKHVHQFRXUVVXUFHVSURFHVVXVVRQWpJDOHPHQWUpVXPpHV

'HVFRQVHLOVVXUO¶pYDOXDWLRQGHODYXOQpUDELOLWpGHVEDUUDJHVjO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHjWUDYHUVWURLV
DSSURFKHVGpWHUPLQLVWHXQHpYDOXDWLRQTXDOLWDWLYHRXVHPLTXDQWLWDWLYHGXULVTXHjEDVHGH
MXJHPHQWV GH O¶LQJpQLHXU HW XQH pYDOXDWLRQ TXDQWLWDWLYH GX ULVTXH ,O HVW pJDOHPHQW SUpVHQWp
XQHLGHQWLILFDWLRQGHVPRGHVSRWHQWLHOVGHUXSWXUHHWXQGpSLVWDJHGHFHX[MXJpVLPSUREDEOHV

'HVPHVXUHVGHVpFXULWpTXLSHXYHQWrWUHSULVHVHQFDVGHQpFHVVLWpGHUHQIRUFHPHQWG¶XQ
EDUUDJH YLVjYLV GH O¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH 8QH PpWKRGH G¶DXVFXOWDWLRQ HW GH VXUYHLOODQFH GH
O¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHDILQG¶DLGHUjODSULVHGHGpFLVLRQVLOHVUpVXOWDWVGHVDQDO\VHVWHFKQLTXHVQH
VRQWSDVFRQFOXDQWV

8QH EUqYH GHVFULSWLRQ GHV PpWKRGHV TXDQWLWDWLYHV G¶pYDOXDWLRQ GX ULVTXH HVW GRQQpH ,O HVW
UHFRPPDQGp G¶XWLOLVHU FHV PpWKRGHV SRXU OHYHUOHV LQFHUWLWXGHV HW MXVWLILHU OH EHVRLQ HW
O¶DPSOHXUGHVWUDYDX[SRXUOHVEDUUDJHVjULVTXHVpOHYpV

8Q JORVVDLUH GH OD WHUPLQRORJLH KDELWXHOOHPHQW XWLOLVpH GDQV OH SURFHVVXV HW O¶pYDOXDWLRQ GX
ULVTXHG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQH

8QHpYDOXDWLRQGpWDLOOpHGHVPpFDQLVPHVSRWHQWLHOVG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHGRLWrWUHpWDEOLHVXUXQH
FDPSDJQHGHUHFRQQDLVVDQFHVDGpTXDWHVXUO¶H[DPHQGHVGRQQpHVLVVXHVGHVUHFRQQDLVVDQFHVVXU
VLWH DYDQW OD FRQVWUXFWLRQ GX EDUUDJH VXU OHV UDSSRUWV GH FKDQWLHU HW GH FRQWU{OH VXU O¶DQDO\VH GHV
GRQQpHVG¶DXVFXOWDWLRQGXEDUUDJHHWGHVDIRQGDWLRQVDQVRXEOLHUOHVHVVDLVVXUVLWHHWHQODERUDWRLUH
8QH DSSURFKH SDU pWDSHV HVW UHFRPPDQGpH GDQV ODTXHOOH LO V¶DJLW VL QpFHVVDLUH GH FROOHFWHU HW
G¶LQMHFWHU GHV GRQQpHV FRPSOpPHQWDLUHV DILQ GH GpWHUPLQHU OHV WUDYDX[ QpFHVVDLUHV SRXU UHQGUH OH
EDUUDJHVXIILVDPPHQWV€U

/HVHFRQGYROXPHGHFHEXOOHWLQGpWDLOOHOHVHVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUHPHVXUDQWOHVORLVG¶pURVLRQ
RX GH ILOWUDWLRQ GHV PDWpULDX[ FRQVWLWXWLIV OHV PpWKRGHV GH GpWHFWLRQ HW OHV GHUQLqUHV PpWKRGHV
G¶DXVFXOWDWLRQGpYHORSSpHVHWHQILQLOFLWHGHVpWXGHVGHFDV


 ,03257$1&('(/¶e526,21,17(51(9,6¬9,6'(/$6e&85,7e'(6%$55$*(6


/¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHHVWXQDVSHFWLPSRUWDQWGHODVpFXULWpGHVEDUUDJHVSHWLWVRXJUDQGVHWGHV
GLJXHVFRPPHOHPRQWUHOHVVWDWLVWLTXHVGHUXSWXUHVHWLQFLGHQWVSUpVHQWpHVSDUODVXLWH

/¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHVHSURGXLWOHORQJGHTXDWUHFKHPLQVG¶pFRXOHPHQWjWUDYHUVOHUHPEODLj
WUDYHUVODIRQGDWLRQGXUHPEODLjODIRQGDWLRQHWOHORQJRXGDQVOHVFRQGXLWHVWUDYHUVDQWOHUHPEODLRX
HQFRUHDXFRQWDFWGHVVWUXFWXUHVDWWHQDQWHVDXUHPEODL
__________________________________________________________________________

2
/HVVWDWLVWLTXHVG¶LQFLGHQWVVXUYHQXVGHEDUUDJHVHQUHPEODLPRQWUHQWTXHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHHQ
HVW XQH FDXVH SUpSRQGpUDQWH HW GDQV XQH PRLQGUH PHVXUH XQH FDXVH GH UXSWXUHV GH EDUUDJHV
DQFLHQV/HVLQFLGHQWVVRQWGHVUpVXUJHQFHVGHVDXJPHQWDWLRQVG¶LQILOWUDWLRQVHWGHIXLWHVGHVIRQWLV
HWGHVKDXVVHVGHWDVVHPHQWVGXEDUUDJH,OHVWpJDOHPHQWpYLGHQWTXHOHVLQFLGHQWVHWOHVILVVXUHVVH
28
FRQFHQWUHQW SOXV j O¶LQWHUIDFH GX UHPEODL HW GHV RXYUDJHV DQQH[HV FRPPH OHV FRQGXLWHV HW OHV
EDMR\HUVG¶pYDFXDWHXUV/DFRPSUpKHQVLRQGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHHVWQpFHVVDLUHDX[PDvWUHVG¶RXYUDJHV
SRXU

ZLWKVWDQGH[WUHPHLQWHUQDOHURVLRQORDGV,WUHFRPPHQGVDVWDJHGLWHUDWLYHDSSURDFKWRWKHDQDO\VLV
JUDGXDOO\ LPSURYLQJ GDWD LQSXWV LI QHFHVVDU\ WR UHDFK VDIH FRQFOXVLRQV ,W DGYLVHV EURDGO\ RQ VDIHW\
ZRUNVVKRXOGWKH\EHQHHGHGDQGRQDSSURSULDWHPRQLWRULQJUHJLPHV

,WDGYLVHVRQWKHVHOHFWLRQRIFULWLFDOLQWHUQDOHURVLRQORDGV DQGQRWHVWKDWWKHVHRFFXUZKHQ
ZDWHUOHYHOLVKLJKHVWWKHVDPHDVWKDWRFFXUULQJGXULQJWKHSDVVDJHRIWKHFULWLFDOIORRG

7KH HQJLQHHULQJ DQDO\VHV DUH LQWHQGHG WR EH XVHG LQGHSHQGHQWO\ EXW TXDQWLWDWLYH ULVN

DVVHVVPHQWVZLOOFRPSOHPHQWWKHPDQGIRULPSRUWDQWGDPVLWLVUHFRPPHQGHGWKDWERWKDSSURDFKHV
EHXVHG

7KH%XOOHWLQZDVZULWWHQODUJHO\IRUDVVHVVLQJH[LVWLQJGDPVEXWWKHSULQFLSOHVPD\EHDSSOLHG
WRQHZGDPV7KH%XOOHWLQZDVZULWWHQPDLQO\IRUODUJHGDPVEXWLVDSSOLFDEOHWRVPDOOGDPVGLNHV
OHYHHVDQGWKHLUIRXQGDWLRQV 1

7KH%XOOHWLQLQFOXGHV

6WDWLVWLFVRQGDPIDLOXUHVDQGDFFLGHQWVFDXVHGE\LQWHUQDOHURVLRQ

$Q RYHUYLHZ RI WKH LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ SURFHVV LQFOXGLQJ WKH QHHG WR FRQVLGHU WKH
FRPSOHWHSURFHVVIURPDSSOLFDWLRQRIWKHORDGWRLQLWLDWLRQRIHURVLRQDQGWKURXJKWR
WKHSRWHQWLDOIRUFRQWLQXDWLRQDQGSURJUHVVLRQRIHURVLRQDQGEUHDFKRIWKHGDP

'HWDLOV RI PHWKRGV ZKLFK DUH FXUUHQWO\ DYDLODEOH IRU DVVHVVLQJ LI FRQFHQWUDWHG OHDN
HURVLRQEDFNZDUGHURVLRQFRQWDFWHURVLRQDQGVXIIXVLRQZLOOLQLWLDWHDQGWKHDELOLW\RI
GDPV WR UHVLVW HURVLRQ LI LW KDV LQLWLDWHG DQG D VXPPDU\ RI RQJRLQJ UHVHDUFK LQWR
WKHVHSURFHVVHV

$GYLFHRQHQJLQHHULQJDVVHVVPHQWRIWKHYXOQHUDELOLW\RIGDPVWRLQWHUQDOHURVLRQE\
WKUHH DSSURDFKHV GHWHUPLQLVWLF HQJLQHHULQJ MXGJPHQW EDFNHG E\ TXDOLWDWLYH DQG
VHPLTXDQWLWDWLYH ULVN DVVHVVPHQW DQG TXDQWLWDWLYH ULVN DVVHVVPHQW $GYLFH LV DOVR
JLYHQRQLGHQWLI\LQJ3RWHQWLDO)DLOXUH0RGHVDQGVFUHHQLQJRXWLPSUREDEOHRQHV

$GYLFH RQ UHPHGLDO PHDVXUHV ZKLFK PD\ EH WDNHQ LI QHHGHG WR PDNH WKH GDP
UHVLVWDQW WR LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ DQG RQ PHWKRGV IRU PRQLWRULQJ DQG VXUYHLOODQFH RI
LQWHUQDOHURVLRQWRDVVLVWLQGHFLVLRQPDNLQJLIWKHUHVXOWVRIWKHHQJLQHHULQJDQDO\VHV
DUHQRWFOHDU

%ULHI GHVFULSWLRQV RI TXDQWLWDWLYH ULVN DVVHVVPHQW PHWKRGV DUH JLYHQ DQG LW LV
VXJJHVWHGWKDWVXFKPHWKRGVPD\DOVREHXVHGWRUHVROYHXQFHUWDLQW\DQGZRXOGEH
DGYLVDEOHWRMXVWLI\WKHQHHGIRUDQGVFDOHRIUHPHGLDWLRQDWKLJKKD]DUGGDPV

7HUPLQRORJ\FRPPRQO\XVHGLQWKHLQWHUQDOHURVLRQSURFHVVDQG LQULVNDVVHVVPHQW
RILQWHUQDOHURVLRQ

7KHVRXQGDVVHVVPHQWRISRWHQWLDOLQWHUQDOHURVLRQPHFKDQLVPVKDVWREHEDVHGRQDGHTXDWH
VXEVXUIDFH H[SORUDWLRQ DVVHVVPHQW RI GDWD IURP VLWH LQYHVWLJDWLRQV SULRU WR WKH FRQVWUXFWLRQ RI WKH
GDP FRQVWUXFWLRQ UHFRUGV DQG DQDO\VLV RI WKH GDWD IURP LQVWUXPHQWV ZLWKLQ WKH GDP DQG LWV
IRXQGDWLRQ DQG LQFOXGH ILHOG DQG ODERUDWRU\ WHVWLQJ $ VWDJHG DSSURDFK LV UHFRPPHQGHG FROOHFWLQJ
DQG DSSO\LQJ PRUH GDWD JUDGXDOO\ LI QHHGHG WR GHFLGH LI VDIHW\ ZRUNV DUH QHHGHG WR PDNH WKH GDP
DGHTXDWHO\VDIH

9ROXPH  RI WKH %XOOHWLQ SURYLGHV GHWDLOV RI ODERUDWRU\ WHVWV ZKLFK PHDVXUH SURSHUWLHV RI
HURVLRQ DQG ILOWHU FDSDELOLW\ RI VRLOV PRQLWRULQJ PHWKRGV LQFOXGLQJ VHYHUDO QHZO\ GHYHORSHG
WHFKQLTXHVDQGLQIRUPDWLRQRQFDVHVWXGLHVUHOHYDQWWRWKHVXEMHFW


 7+(,03257$1&(2),17(51$/(526,2172'$06$)(7<


,QWHUQDO HURVLRQ LV DQ LPSRUWDQW VDIHW\ LVVXH IRU ODUJH DQG VPDOO GDPV GLNHV DQG OHYHHV DV
VKRZQE\WKHVWDWLVWLFVRIKLVWRULFRIIDLOXUHVDQGLQFLGHQWVZKLFKDUHGLVFXVVHGEHORZ

,QWHUQDO HURVLRQ RFFXUV ZKHQ VRLO SDUWLFOHV DUH FDUULHG E\ VHHSDJH LQ HPEDQNPHQWV
IRXQGDWLRQV IURP HPEDQNPHQW WR IRXQGDWLRQ DURXQG DQG LQWR FRQGXLWV WKURXJK HPEDQNPHQWV DQG
DGMDFHQWZDOOVVXSSRUWLQJHPEDQNPHQWV

7KHVWDWLVWLFVRIHPEDQNPHQWGDPLQFLGHQWVVKRZWKDWLQWHUQDOHURVLRQLVDVLJQLILFDQWFDXVHRI
LQFLGHQWV DQG WR D OHVVHU H[WHQW IDLOXUH IRU ROGHU GDPV ,QFLGHQWV LQFOXGH QHZ RU LQFUHDVHG VHHSDJH
DQGOHDNDJHVLQNKROHVDQGDFFHOHUDWLQJVHWWOHPHQWVRIWKHGDP7KHUHLVDOVRHYLGHQFHWKDWLQFLGHQWV
DQGIDLOXUHVDUHPRUHOLNHO\DORQJWKHLQWHUIDFHEHWZHHQWKHHPEDQNPHQWILOODQGVWUXFWXUHVVXFKDV

29
2
WUDYHUVODIRQGDWLRQGXUHPEODLjODIRQGDWLRQHWOHORQJRXGDQVOHVFRQGXLWHVWUDYHUVDQWOHUHPEODLRX
HQFRUHDXFRQWDFWGHVVWUXFWXUHVDWWHQDQWHVDXUHPEODL

/HVVWDWLVWLTXHVG¶LQFLGHQWVVXUYHQXVGHEDUUDJHVHQUHPEODLPRQWUHQWTXHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHHQ
HVW XQH FDXVH SUpSRQGpUDQWH HW GDQV XQH PRLQGUH PHVXUH XQH FDXVH GH UXSWXUHV GH EDUUDJHV
DQFLHQV/HVLQFLGHQWVVRQWGHVUpVXUJHQFHVGHVDXJPHQWDWLRQVG¶LQILOWUDWLRQVHWGHIXLWHVGHVIRQWLV
HWGHVKDXVVHVGHWDVVHPHQWVGXEDUUDJH,OHVWpJDOHPHQWpYLGHQWTXHOHVLQFLGHQWVHWOHVILVVXUHVVH
FRQFHQWUHQW SOXV j O¶LQWHUIDFH GX UHPEODL HW GHV RXYUDJHV DQQH[HV FRPPH OHV FRQGXLWHV HW OHV
EDMR\HUVG¶pYDFXDWHXUV/DFRPSUpKHQVLRQGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHHVWQpFHVVDLUHDX[PDvWUHVG¶RXYUDJHV
SRXU

- FRPSUHQGUHHWLQWHUSUpWHUOHFRPSRUWHPHQWGXEDUUDJH
- pYDOXHUODVpFXULWpGXEDUUDJHVDYRLUV¶LOHVWHQFRUHV€URXFRQQDvWUHOHVWUDYDX[GH
PLVHQVpFXULWpQpFHVVDLUHVSRXUOHUHQGUHV€U
- PLHX[FLEOHUOHVSURJUDPPHVGHVXUYHLOODQFHHWG¶DXVFXOWDWLRQ

/DFDXVHGHFHVLQFLGHQWVSHXWFRPSUHQGUHOHIDLEOHFRPSDFWDJHHWODPDXYDLVHFRQFHSWLRQ
GHVILOWUHVTXLPrPHSRXUFHUWDLQVEDUUDJHVUHODWLYHPHQWUpFHQWVSHXYHQWQHSDVrWUHFRUUHFWHPHQW
FRQoXV RX UpDOLVpV SRXU DUUrWHU O¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH &HFL HVW SDUWLFXOLqUHPHQW OH FDV HQ FUrWH R GHV
ILVVXUHV SHXYHQW UDSLGHPHQW VXUYHQLU R OHV ILOWUHV VRQW VRXYHQW RXEOLpV RX QH VRQW SDV FRQVWUXLWV
GDQV OHV UqJOHV GH O¶DUW DFWXHOOHV RX QH SURWqJHQW SDV OH FRQWDFW DYHF GHV VWUXFWXUHV 3RXU GH
QRPEUHX[EDUUDJHVODUppYDOXDWLRQGHODFUXHGHSURMHWPRQWUHTXHODFUrWHSHXWrWUHVROOLFLWpHSDUXQ
QLYHDXGHUHWHQXHSRXUOHTXHOHOOHQ¶DSDVpWpFRQoXH

4XDWUHPpFDQLVPHVG¶LQLWLDWLRQRQWpWpLGHQWLILpVHWVRQWGpFULWVGDQVFH%XOOHWLQ/¶pYDOXDWLRQ
GHODFDSDFLWpGHILOWUDWLRQGHVILOWUHVGHV]RQHVGHWUDQVLWLRQHWGHV]RQHVjO¶DYDODJLVVDQWFRPPH
GHVILOWUHVHVWPDLQWHQDQWELHQFHUQpHHWGDQVEHDXFRXSGHEDUUDJHVLOHVWSRVVLEOHGHGpPRQWUHUTXH
FHV GHUQLHUV DSSRUWHQW XQH UpWHQWLRQ DGpTXDWH PrPH V¶LOV QH UHVSHFWHQW SDV OHV FULWqUHV DFWXHOV GH
FRQFHSWLRQGHILOWUH'HVRXWLOVSRXUpYDOXHUODFDSDFLWpGXEDUUDJHjUpVLVWHUjO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHVRQW
pJDOHPHQWpYRTXpVGDQVFH%XOOHWLQ

3OXVLHXUV QRXYHOOHV PpWKRGHV SRWHQWLHOOHPHQW XWLOHV SRXU DXVFXOWHU HW GpWHFWHU OHV IXLWHV HW
O¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH RQW UpFHPPHQW pWp GpYHORSSpHV FHV GHUQLqUHV DQQpHV HW VRQW SUpVHQWpHV GDQV OH
YROXPH  &HV GHUQLqUHV HW OHV PpWKRGHV WUDGLWLRQQHOOHV FRPPH O¶LQVSHFWLRQ YLVXHOOH OD PHVXUH GHV
IXLWHV HW FHOOH GHV SUHVVLRQV LQWHUVWLWLHOOHV DYHF GHV SLp]RPqWUHV UHVWHQW GHV SLOLHUV GH OD V€UHWp GX
EDUUDJHHQGpWHFWDQWUDSLGHPHQWOHSURFHVVXVG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQH


 67$7,67,48(6'(583785(6


(Q VH EDVDQW VXU OH UHFHQVHPHQW GHV LQFLGHQWV GH EDUUDJHV HW OH UHJLVWUH GHV EDUUDJHV GH OD
&,*%  )RVWHUet al D RQWDQDO\VpOHVVWDWLVWLTXHVGHUXSWXUHGHVJUDQGV
EDUUDJHVHQUHPEODLFRQVWUXLWVHQWUHHWH[FOXDQWOHVEDUUDJHVFRQVWUXLWVDX-DSRQDYDQW
HWFHX[GH&KLQH DGDSWpVGH)RVWHUet alD /H7DEOHDXHQSUpVHQWHODV\QWKqVH

7DEOHDX
6WDWLVWLTXHVGHVUXSWXUHVGHEDUUDJHVHQUHPEODLGDQVOHPRQGH
0pFDQLVPHGHUXSWXUH eURVLRQ *OLVVHPHQW
eURVLRQH[WHUQH
0RGHGHUXSWXUH eURVLRQLQWHUQH ,QVWDELOLWpVWDWLTXH ,QVWDELOLWpVLVPLTXH
VXUYHUVH 
    
  

/¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHDpWpUHVSRQVDEOHGHSUqVGHODPRLWLpGHVUXSWXUHVGHEDUUDJHHQUHPEODL
ROHPRGHGHUXSWXUHHVWFRQQX(OOHFDXVHXQHSURSRUWLRQGHUXSWXUHVVHQVLEOHPHQWpJDOHjFHOOHV
G¶XQH VXUYHUVH SURYRTXpH SDU OH VRXVGLPHQVLRQQHPHQW GH O¶pYDFXDWHXU OD GpIDLOODQFH GHV YDQQHV
RXG¶DXWUHVG\VIRQFWLRQQHPHQWVG¶RXYUDJHVGHUHVWLWXWLRQ

(Q FRPSDUDLVRQ OHV JOLVVHPHQWV GH WHUUDLQV HW OHV UXSWXUHV SDU WUHPEOHPHQWV GH WHUUH
UHSUpVHQWHQWVHXOHPHQWHWGHVUXSWXUHVGHVEDUUDJHVHQUHPEODL

__________________________________________________________________________
3

30
,QWHUQDO HURVLRQ LV DQ LPSRUWDQW VDIHW\ LVVXH IRU ODUJH DQG VPDOO GDPV GLNHV DQG OHYHHV DV
VKRZQE\WKHVWDWLVWLFVRIKLVWRULFRIIDLOXUHVDQGLQFLGHQWVZKLFKDUHGLVFXVVHGEHORZ

,QWHUQDO HURVLRQ RFFXUV ZKHQ VRLO SDUWLFOHV DUH FDUULHG E\ VHHSDJH LQ HPEDQNPHQWV
IRXQGDWLRQV IURP HPEDQNPHQW WR IRXQGDWLRQ DURXQG DQG LQWR FRQGXLWV WKURXJK HPEDQNPHQWV DQG
DGMDFHQWZDOOVVXSSRUWLQJHPEDQNPHQWV

7KHVWDWLVWLFVRIHPEDQNPHQWGDPLQFLGHQWVVKRZWKDWLQWHUQDOHURVLRQLVDVLJQLILFDQWFDXVHRI
 DQG WR D OHVVHU H[WHQW IDLOXUH IRU ROGHU GDPV ,QFLGHQWV LQFOXGH QHZ RU LQFUHDVHG VHHSDJH
LQFLGHQWV
DQGOHDNDJHVLQNKROHVDQGDFFHOHUDWLQJVHWWOHPHQWVRIWKHGDP7KHUHLVDOVRHYLGHQFHWKDWLQFLGHQWV
DQGIDLOXUHVDUHPRUHOLNHO\DORQJWKHLQWHUIDFHEHWZHHQWKHHPEDQNPHQWILOODQGVWUXFWXUHVVXFKDV
FXOYHUWVDQGVSLOOZD\ZDOOV$QXQGHUVWDQGLQJRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQLVLPSRUWDQWWRGDPRZQHUVDVWKLV

- ,VQHFHVVDU\WRXQGHUVWDQGDQGLQWHUSUHWWKHEHKDYLRURIWKHGDP
- ,V QHFHVVDU\ WR DVVHVV WKH VDIHW\ 2 RI WKH GDP DQG ZKHWKHU LW LV VDIH HQRXJK RU
ZKHWKHUVDIHW\ZRUNVDUHQHHGHGWRPDNHLWVR
- 6KRXOGJRYHUQWKHGDPVDIHW\VXUYHLOODQFHDQGPRQLWRULQJUHJLPHV

7KH FDXVH RI WKHVH LQFLGHQWV FDQ LQFOXGH SRRU FRPSDFWLRQ DQG LQFRUUHFWO\ GHVLJQHG ILOWHUV
ZKLFK HYHQ IRU PDQ\ UHODWLYHO\ PRGHUQ GDPV PD\ QRW EH DGHTXDWHO\ GHVLJQHG RU FRQVWUXFWHG WR
FRQWURO LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ 7KLV LV SDUWLFXODUO\ LPSRUWDQW LQ WKH XSSHU SDUWV RI GDPV ZKHUH FUDFNLQJ LV
PRVWOLNHO\WRRFFXUDQGILOWHUVDUHRIWHQRPLWWHGRUZHUHQRWFRQVWUXFWHGWRPRGHUQVWDQGDUGVRUZHUH
QRWLQFOXGHGDWWKHLQWHUIDFHZLWKVWUXFWXUHV)RUPDQ\GDPVUHYLVHGIORRGIRUHFDVWVLQGLFDWHWKHXSSHU
SDUWVPD\QRZEHUHTXLUHGWRKROGWKHUHVHUYRLUXQGHUFRQGLWLRQVIRUZKLFKWKH\ZHUHQRWGHVLJQHG

)RXU PHFKDQLVPV RI LQLWLDWLRQ KDYH EHHQ LGHQWLILHG DQG DUH GHVFULEHG LQ WKH %XOOHWLQ 7KH
DVVHVVPHQWRIILOWHUVDQGWUDQVLWLRQ]RQHVDQGGRZQVWUHDP]RQHVWRDFWDVILOWHUVLVZHOOXQGHUVWRRG
DQGLQPDQ\GDPVLWFDQEHGHPRQVWUDWHGWKDWWKHVHZLOOSURYLGHDGHTXDWHILOWHUSURWHFWLRQHYHQLIWKH\
GRQRWPHHWPRGHUQILOWHUGHVLJQFULWHULD7RROVWRFDUU\RXWDQDVVHVVPHQWRIWKHDELOLW\RIWKHGDPWR
UHVLVWLQWHUQDOHURVLRQDUHDOVRLQFOXGHGLQWKLV%XOOHWLQ

0DQ\ QHZ DQG SRWHQWLDOO\ XVHIXO PHWKRGV IRU PRQLWRULQJ DQG GHWHFWLQJ LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ DQG
VHHSDJHKDYHEHHQGHYHORSHGLQUHFHQW\HDUVDQGDUHGHVFULEHGLQ9ROXPHRIWKLV%XOOHWLQ7KHVH
DQG ORQJ HVWDEOLVKHG PHWKRGV VXFK DV YLVXDO LQVSHFWLRQ OHDNDJH PHDVXUHPHQW DQG PRQLWRULQJ RI
SRUHSUHVVXUHVZLWKSLH]RPHWHUVDUHHVVHQWLDOWRROVLQNHHSLQJGDPVVDIHE\GHWHFWLQJLQWHUQDOHURVLRQ
HDUO\LQWKHSURFHVV


 67$7,67,&62)(0%$1.0(17'$0)$,/85(6


%DVHG RQ WKH UHFRUGV RI GDP LQFLGHQWV DQG WKH GDP UHJLVWHU LQ ,&2/'    
)RVWHUHWDO D DQDO\]HGWKHVWDWLVWLFVRIGDPIDLOXUHVIRUODUJHGDPVFRQVWUXFWHGEHWZHHQ
 DQG  H[FOXGLQJ GDPV FRQVWUXFWHG LQ -DSDQ SUH  DQG LQ &KLQD DGDSWHG IURP )RVWHU
HWDOD 7KLVLVVXPPDUL]HGLQ7DEOHEHORZ

7DEOH
6WDWLVWLFVRIHPEDQNPHQWGDPIDLOXUHV
)DLOXUH0HFKDQLVP (URVLRQ (PEDQNPHQW6OLGLQJ
([WHUQDOHURVLRQ
0RGHRIIDLOXUH ,QWHUQDOHURVLRQ 6WDWLF,QVWDELOLW\ 6HLVPLFLQVWDELOLW\
RYHUWRSSLQJ 
RYHUWKHZRUOG    
RYHUWKHZRUOG  

,WFDQEHVHHQWKDWLQWHUQDOHURVLRQKDVEHHQUHVSRQVLEOHIRUDERXWKDOIRIHPEDQNPHQWGDP
IDLOXUHV ZKHUH WKH PRGH RI IDLOXUH LV NQRZQ ,W LV DSSUR[LPDWHO\ HTXDO LQ LPSRUWDQFH WR IDLOXUHV E\
RYHUWRSSLQJLQIORRGVGXHWRLQDGHTXDWHVSLOOZD\FDSDFLW\DQGPDOIXQFWLRQRIJDWHVDQGRWKHURXWOHWV
OHDGLQJWRRYHUWRSSLQJ

%\FRPSDULVRQHPEDQNPHQWVOLGHVDQGIDLOXUHVGXHWRHDUWKTXDNHVDFFRXQWIRURQO\DQG
RIHPEDQNPHQWGDPIDLOXUHVLQRSHUDWLRQUHVSHFWLYHO\

 

31

3

7DEOHDX
6WDWLVWLTXHVGHUXSWXUHVHWDFFLGHQWVJUDYHVGHJUDQGVEDUUDJHVHQUHPEODLFRQVWUXLWVHQWUHHW
H[FOXDQWOHVEDUUDJHVFHX[GX-DSRQFRQVWUXLWVDYDQWHWFHX[GH&KLQH
DGDSWpHVGH)RVWHUet alD 
$87285'(6
&$6 727$/ '$16/(5(0%/$, &21'8,7(628
'(60856
1RPEUHGHUXSWXUHVSDUpURVLRQLQWHUQH   
1RPEUHG¶DFFLGHQWVG€jO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQH   
1RPEUHG¶DFFLGHQWVG¶pFRXOHPHQWVDQVGpWHFWLRQ
  
G¶pURVLRQLQWHUQH
1RPEUHWRWDOGHUXSWXUHVRXG¶DFFLGHQWV   
1RPEUHWRWDOGHEDUUDJHV   
2FFXUUHQFHGXQRPEUHGHUXSWXUHVRXG¶DFFLGHQWV
  
VXUOHQRPEUHGHEDUUDJHV
GXQRPEUHGHUXSWXUHVRXG¶DFFLGHQWVORUVGX
  
SUHPLHUUHPSOLVVDJH
GXQRPEUHGHUXSWXUHVHWG¶DFFLGHQWVDSUqVOH
  
SUHPLHUUHPSOLVVDJH
2FFXUUHQFHGXQRPEUHGHUXSWXUHVRXG¶DFFLGHQWV
GXUDQWOHSUHPLHUUHPSOLVVDJHVXUOHQRPEUHGH   
EDUUDJHV
2FFXUUHQFHGXQRPEUHGHUXSWXUHVRXG¶DFFLGHQWV
DSUqVOHSUHPLHUUHPSOLVVDJHVXUOHQRPEUHGH   
EDUUDJHV
)UpTXHQFHDQQXHOOHGHUXSWXUHVRXG¶DFFLGHQWV
 [ [
DSUqVOHSUHPLHUUHPSOLVVDJH

&RPPHOHPRQWUHOH7DEOHDXGDQVO¶HQVHPEOHEDUUDJHVHQUHPEODLDpWpGpWUXLWRXD
FRQQXXQDFFLGHQWJUDYHSDUpURVLRQLQWHUQH$XWRWDOLO\DHQYLURQUXSWXUHVSDUEDUUDJHVHW
SDU DQ GRQW  SURYLHQQHQW GH O¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH )U\ et al   UDSSRUWHQW  UXSWXUHV SDU pURVLRQ
LQWHUQHHQPRLVjSDUWLUGHIpYULHUGRQWWURLVpWDLHQWGHVJUDQGVEDUUDJHVDXVHQVGHOD&,*%

/DSOXSDUWGHVUXSWXUHVVHVRQWSURGXLWHVGDQVOHUHPEODL3UqVGHODPRLWLpGHFHVGHUQLqUHV
RQWpWpDVVRFLpHVDX[FRQGXLWHVWUDYHUVDQWHVRXDX[PXUVGHVRXWqQHPHQW

,O \ D SOXV G¶DFFLGHQWV TXH GH UXSWXUHV &RPPH O¶D GpILQL OD &,*% YRLU 7HUPLQRORJLH  OHV
DFFLGHQWVVRQWGHVUXSWXUHVTXLRQWpWppYLWpHVSDUXQHDFWLRQKpURwTXH\FRPSULVODEDLVVHGXQLYHDX
GXSODQG¶HDX,O\DDXWDQWG¶DFFLGHQWVG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHGDQVODIRQGDWLRQTXHGDQVOHVUHPEODLV

/HVGHVUXSWXUHVSDUpURVLRQLQWHUQHHWODPRLWLpGHVDFFLGHQWVVRQWVXUYHQXHVDXFRXUVGX
SUHPLHUUHPSOLVVDJHRXGDQVOHVSUHPLqUHVDQQpHVG¶H[SORLWDWLRQ&HODVLJQLILHFHSHQGDQWTXHSUqV
GHODPRLWLpGHWRXVOHVLQFLGHQWVVHVRQWSURGXLWVDSUqVSOXVGHDQQpHVG¶H[SORLWDWLRQ

)RVWHUet al D RQWUHPDUTXpTXHODTXDVLWRWDOLWpGHVUXSWXUHVSDUpURVLRQLQWHUQH
GDQVOHUHPEODLVRQWVXUYHQXHVORUVTXHOHQLYHDXGHODUHWHQXHDWWHLJQDLWVRQSOXVKDXWQLYHDXMDPDLV
RXHQpWDLWjPqWUH3RXUO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHGDQVOHVIRQGDWLRQVOHQLYHDXGHODUHWHQXHQ¶DYDLWSDV
XQHWHOOHLPSRUWDQFH

¬SDUWLUGHVGRQQpHVGHOD&,*%UHSRUWpHVGDQVOH7DEOHDXLOHVWpYLGHQWTXHOHVGHUQLqUHV
VWDWLVWLTXHV PRQWUHQW XQH DPpOLRUDWLRQ GXHV DX[ PpWKRGHV GH FRQFHSWLRQ HW GH FRQVWUXFWLRQ
&HSHQGDQWOHVSUREOqPHVG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHUHVWHQWG¶DFWXDOLWp

7DEOHDX
6WDWLVWLTXHVGHUXSWXUHVGHVEDUUDJHVHQUHPEODLH[FOXDQWOD&KLQHHQWUHHW
DGDSWpHVGH)RVWHUet alD 
1RPEUHGHUXSWXUHVVXUOH 1RPEUHGHUXSWXUHVVXUOH
0RGHVGHUXSWXUHV QRPEUHGHEDUUDJHVHQWUH QRPEUHGHEDUUDJHVHQWUH
 
eURVLRQLQWHUQH  
6XUYHUVHHWUXSWXUHGHVRXYUDJHVDQQH[HVSURYRTXDQW
 
ODVXUYHUVH
*OLVVHPHQW  



__________________________________________________________________________
4

32


7DEOH
+LVWRULFDOIUHTXHQFLHVRIIDLOXUHVDQGDFFLGHQWVLQHPEDQNPHQWVRIODUJHGDPVFRQVWUXFWHGIURP
WRH[FOXGLQJGDPVFRQVWUXFWHGLQ-DSDQSUHDQGLQ&KLQD
DGDSWHGIURP)RVWHUet alD 
$5281'&21'8,76
&$6( 727$/ ,1'$0
25:$//6
,QWHUQDOHURVLRQIDLOXUHV   
,QWHUQDOHURVLRQDFFLGHQWV   
6HHSDJHDFFLGHQWVZLWKQRGHWHFWHGHURVLRQ   
7RWDOQRRIIDLOXUHVDQGDFFLGHQWV   
3RSXODWLRQRIGDPV   
+LVWRULFDOIUHTXHQF\IRUIDLOXUHVDQGDFFLGHQWV   
3URSRUWLRQRIIDLOXUHVDQGDFFLGHQWVRQILUVWILOO   
3URSRUWLRQRIIDLOXUHVDQGDFFLGHQWVDIWHUILUVWILOO   
+LVWRULFDOIUHTXHQF\IRUILUVWILOO   
+LVWRULFDOIUHTXHQF\DIWHUILUVWILOO   
+LVWRULFDODQQXDOIUHTXHQF\DIWHUILUVWILOO  [ [

$V 7DEOH  VKRZV RYHUDOO DERXW  LQ  HPEDQNPHQW GDPV KDYH IDLOHG RU H[SHULHQFHG DQ
DFFLGHQW E\ LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ 7KHUH DUH DERXW  IDLOXUHV SHU  GDPV SHU \HDU IURP DOO FDXVHV
DERXWRIWKHIDLOXUHVDUHIURPLQWHUQDOHURVLRQ)U\HWDO  UHSRUWLQWHUQDOHURVLRQIDLOXUHVLQ
PRQWKVIURP)HEUXDU\WKUHHRIZKLFKZHUHRIODUJHGDPVE\WKH,&2/'GHILQLWLRQ

7KH ODUJHVW QXPEHU RI IDLOXUHV KDV RFFXUUHG LQ WKH HPEDQNPHQW 1HDUO\ KDOI RI WKHVH DUH
DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK FRQGXLWV ZKLFK SHQHWUDWH WKURXJK WKH HPEDQNPHQW RU ZDOOV ZKLFK VXSSRUW WKH
HPEDQNPHQW

7KHUH DUH PDQ\ PRUH DFFLGHQWV WKDQ IDLOXUHV $V GHILQHG E\ ,&2/' VHH 7HUPLQRORJ\ 
DFFLGHQWV DUH LQFLGHQWV ZKLFK KDYH EHHQ SUHYHQWHG IURP EHFRPLQJ IDLOXUHV E\ LPPHGLDWH UHPHGLDO
PHDVXUHVLQFOXGLQJSRVVLEO\GUDZLQJGRZQWKHZDWHULQWKHUHVHUYRLU7KHUHDUHDVLPLODUQXPEHURI
DFFLGHQWVUHODWLQJWRLQWHUQDOHURVLRQLQWKHIRXQGDWLRQDVLQWKHHPEDQNPHQW

)RUDOOLQWHUQDOHURVLRQPRGHVDERXWWZRWKLUGVRIDOOIDLOXUHVDQGDERXWKDOIRIDFFLGHQWVRFFXU
RQILUVWILOOLQJRULQWKHILUVW\HDUVRIRSHUDWLRQ7KLVPHDQVKRZHYHUWKDWDURXQGKDOIRIDOOLQFLGHQWV
KDYHRFFXUUHGLQGDPVDIWHU\HDUVRIRSHUDWLRQ

)RVWHU HW DO  D  IRXQG WKDW QHDUO\ DOO LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ IDLOXUHV LQ WKH HPEDQNPHQW
RFFXUUHGZKHQWKHUHVHUYRLUOHYHOZDVDWWKHKLJKHVWOHYHOHYHURUZLWKLQRQHPHWHURIWKDWOHYHO)RU
LQWHUQDOHURVLRQLQWKHIRXQGDWLRQWKHUHVHUYRLUOHYHOZDVQRWDVLPSRUWDQW

7KHUH LV HYLGHQFH IURP WKH ,&2/' GDWD LQ 7DEOH  EHORZ WKDW WKH ODWHU VWDWLVWLFV DUH EHWWHU
UHIOHFWLQJLPSURYHGGHVLJQDQGFRQVWUXFWLRQPHWKRGV+RZHYHUWKHSUREOHPVDUHRQJRLQJ

7DEOH
)DLOXUHVWDWLVWLFVIRUHPEDQNPHQWGDPVH[FOXGLQJ&KLQDIURPWR
DGDSWHGIURP)RVWHUet alD 
0RGHVRIIDLOXUH 5DWLRRIIDLOXUHVWRWKHQXPEHURI 5DWLRRIIDLOXUHVWRWKHQXPEHU
GDPV RIGDPV
,QWHUQDOHURVLRQ  
2YHUWRSSLQJDQGDSSXUWHQDQWVWUXFWXUHIDLOXUHUHVXOWLQJ
 
LQRYHUWRSSLQJ
6OLGLQJ  

7KHUHKDVQRWEHHQDV\VWHPDWLFVWXG\RILQWHUQDWLRQDOIDLOXUHDQGDFFLGHQWVWDWLVWLFVVLQFHWKH
,&2/'   VWXG\ +RZHYHU WKHUH KDYH EHHQ VWXGLHV IRU LQGLYLGXDO FRXQWULHV /L   SURYLGHV
VWDWLVWLFVRIGDPIDLOXUHVLQ&KLQD

%URZQ DQG *RVGHQ   HVWLPDWHG WKDW LQ WKH 8QLWHG .LQJGRP¶V SRSXODWLRQ RI DERXW
GDPV UHJLVWHUHG XQGHU WKH 5HVHUYRLUV $FW WKHUH DUH DERXW  LQFLGHQWV IRU HYHU\ UHFRUGHG
IDLOXUH$ERXWRIWKHLQFLGHQWVDSSHDUWREHUHODWHGWRLQWHUQDOHURVLRQZLWKW\SLFDOO\WZRVHULRXV
HURVLRQLQFLGHQWVD\HDU,WVKRXOGEHQRWHGWKDWWKHGHILQLWLRQRILQFLGHQWXVHGLQWKLVVWXG\LVQRWWKH
VDPH DV LQ ,&2/' VHH 7HUPLQRORJ\  ,W LQFOXGHV LQFLGHQWV ZKLFK DUH XQOLNHO\ WR KDYH UHVXOWHG LQ
IDLOXUH7KH³VHYHUHLQFLGHQWV´KRZHYHUZRXOGFODVVLI\DV,&2/'DFFLGHQWV

33
,O Q¶\ D SDV HX G¶pWXGH V\VWpPDWLTXH VXU OHV UXSWXUHV HW DFFLGHQWV DX QLYHDX LQWHUQDWLRQDO
GHSXLVO¶pWXGHGHOD&,*%  &HSHQGDQWGHQRPEUHXVHVpWXGHVQDWLRQDOHVRQWpWpUpDOLVpHV3DU
H[HPSOH/L  IRXUQLWGHVVWDWLVWLTXHVGHUXSWXUHVGHEDUUDJHVHQ&KLQH

%URZQHW*RVGHQ  RQWHVWLPpTXHVXUODSRSXODWLRQWRWDOH GHVEDUUDJHVDX5R\DXPH
8QLVRLWEDUUDJHVHQUHJLVWUpVGDQVOHReservoirs ActLO\ DSUqVGHLQFLGHQWVSRXUXQH
UXSWXUHHQUHJLVWUpH3UqVGHGHVLQFLGHQWVVRQWOLpVjO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHDYHFSULQFLSDOHPHQWGHX[
LQFLGHQWVVpULHX[SDUDQ,OIDXWQRWHUTXHODGpILQLWLRQG¶LQFLGHQWXWLOLVpHGDQVFHWWHpWXGHQ¶HVWSDV
FHOOH GH OD &,*% YRLU 7HUPLQRORJLH  (OOH LQFOXW OHV LQFLGHQWV TXL Q¶DXUDLHQW SUREDEOHPHQW MDPDLV
FRQGXLWV j OD UXSWXUH &HSHQGDQW OHV ©LQFLGHQWV JUDYHVª SHXYHQW rWUH FRQVLGpUpV FRPPH GHV
DFFLGHQWVVHORQOD&,*%

(QJHPRHQ HW 5HGOLQJHU   (QJHPRHQ  D  RQW UDSSRUWp GHV DQDO\VHV
GpWDLOOpHV VXU OHV LQFLGHQWV G¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH SRXU OHV  EDUUDJHV HQ UHPEODL GX Bureau of
Reclamation ,OV RQW FRQVWDWp TXH OD ERQQH SHUIRUPDQFHG
XQ EDUUDJH QH O
HPSrFKH SDV G
rWUHVXMHW
DX[LQFLGHQWVG
pURVLRQLQWHUQHHWTXHEDUUDJHVRQWFRQQXGHVLQFLGHQWVGRQWVHXODPHQpjOD
UXSWXUH  G¶HQWUH HX[ VRQW FDXVpV SDU XQ WUDQVSRUW GH SDUWLFXOHV OH UHVWH SDU GHV pFRXOHPHQWV
H[FHVVLIVRXGHVWXPXOXVGHVDEOH6XUOHVLQFLGHQWVVHVRQWSURGXLWVGDQVOHUHPEODLGDQV
OHVIRQGDWLRQVGXUHPEODLYHUVXQHFRQGXLWHDO¶LQWpULHXURXOHORQJG¶XQHFRQGXLWHHWDXSLHG
GX EDUUDJH RX VRXV OHV GUDLQV /HV EDUUDJHV VWRFNHQW O¶HDX SRXU O¶LUULJDWLRQ LOV VRQW KDELWXHOOHPHQW
UHPSOLVjOHXUF{WHGH51DXGpEXWGHFKDTXHDQQpH HQWUHHWPVRXVODFUrWH 0DLVLODUULYH
VRXYHQW TX¶LOV VRLHQW SURFKHV GX QLYHDX 3+( /HV DXWHXUV WURXYHQW TXH O¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH SRXYDLW VH
GpYHORSSHU j Q¶LPSRUWH TXHO PRPHQW GH OD YLH GX EDUUDJH PDLV LOV VLJQDOHQW TXH OD SOXSDUW GHV
LQFLGHQWVVHVRQWSURGXLWVORUVTXHOHQLYHDXG¶HDXpWDLWUHODWLYHPHQWSURFKHGHOD3+(¬SDUWLUGHFHV
GRQQpHV LOV RQW pODERUp GHV VWDWLVWLTXHV GH IUpTXHQFHV DQQXHOOHV GH UXSWXUHV HW G¶LQFLGHQWV /D
GpILQLWLRQ ©G¶LQFLGHQWª GHV DXWHXUV Q¶HVW SDV FHOOH GH OD &,*% 6FKDHIHU et al   SUpVHQWHQW
TXHOTXHVLQFLGHQWVUpFHQWVG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHGDQVOHXUSXEOLFDWLRQ86$&('DPV
 

__________________________________________________________________________
5

34
DGDSWHGIURP)RVWHUet alD 
0RGHVRIIDLOXUH 5DWLRRIIDLOXUHVWRWKHQXPEHURI 5DWLRRIIDLOXUHVWRWKHQXPEHU
GDPV RIGDPV
,QWHUQDOHURVLRQ  
2YHUWRSSLQJDQGDSSXUWHQDQWVWUXFWXUHIDLOXUHUHVXOWLQJ
 
LQRYHUWRSSLQJ
6OLGLQJ  

7KHUHKDVQRWEHHQDV\VWHPDWLFVWXG\RILQWHUQDWLRQDOIDLOXUHDQGDFFLGHQWVWDWLVWLFVVLQFHWKH
,&2/'   VWXG\ +RZHYHU WKHUH KDYH EHHQ VWXGLHV IRU LQGLYLGXDO FRXQWULHV /L   SURYLGHV
VWDWLVWLFVRIGDPIDLOXUHVLQ&KLQD

%URZQ DQG *RVGHQ   HVWLPDWHG WKDW LQ WKH 8QLWHG .LQJGRP¶V SRSXODWLRQ RI DERXW
GDPV UHJLVWHUHG XQGHU WKH 5HVHUYRLUV $FW WKHUH DUH DERXW  LQFLGHQWV IRU HYHU\ UHFRUGHG
IDLOXUH$ERXWRIWKHLQFLGHQWVDSSHDUWREHUHODWHGWRLQWHUQDOHURVLRQZLWKW\SLFDOO\WZRVHULRXV
HURVLRQLQFLGHQWVD\HDU,WVKRXOGEHQRWHGWKDWWKHGHILQLWLRQRILQFLGHQWXVHGLQWKLVVWXG\LVQRWWKH
VDPH DV LQ ,&2/' VHH 7HUPLQRORJ\  ,W LQFOXGHV LQFLGHQWV ZKLFK DUH XQOLNHO\ WR KDYH UHVXOWHG LQ
IDLOXUH7KH³VHYHUHLQFLGHQWV´KRZHYHUZRXOGFODVVLI\DV,&2/'DFFLGHQWV


(QJHPRHQDQG5HGOLQJHU  DQG(QJHPRHQ D FDUULHGRXWGHWDLOHGDQDO\VHV
RILQWHUQDOHURVLRQLQFLGHQWVIRUWKH%XUHDXRI5HFODPDWLRQ¶VHPEDQNPHQWGDPV7KH\IRXQGWKDW
4
WKHVXFFHVVIXOSHUIRUPDQFHRIDGDPGRHVQRWSUHFOXGHLWIURPKDYLQJDQLQWHUQDOHURVLRQLQFLGHQWDQG
WKDWGDPVKDGH[SHULHQFHGLQFLGHQWVRIZKLFKRQO\RQHZDVDIDLOXUHLQYROYHGGHILQLWHSDUWLFOH
WUDQVSRUWDQGWKHUHPDLQGHUZHUHH[FHVVLYHVHHSDJHRUVDQGERLOV2IWKHLQFLGHQWVZHUHLQWKH
HPEDQNPHQWLQWKHIRXQGDWLRQIURPHPEDQNPHQWLQWRDFRQGXLWZHUHLQWRRUDORQJDFRQGXLW
DQG  ZHUH LQWR WRH RU XQGHU GUDLQV 7KH GDPV VWRUH ZDWHU IRU LUULJDWLRQ SXUSRVHV DQG DUH XVXDOO\
ILOOHGWRµQRUPDOKLJKSRROOHYHO¶ WRZLWKLQIHHWRIFUHVW DWWKHEHJLQQLQJRIHDFK\HDU7KXV³IXOO´
RU³KLJK´SRROOHYHOVRFFXULQPRVW\HDUV7KH\IRXQGWKDWLQWHUQDOHURVLRQFDQRFFXUDWDQ\WLPHLQD
GDP¶VOLIHEXWLWLVOLNHO\WKDWPRVWLQFLGHQWVRFFXUUHGZKHQWKHSRROZDVUHODWLYHO\FORVHWRQRUPDOKLJK
OHYHO7KH\GHYHORSHGDQQXDOL]HGVWDWLVWLFVRIIDLOXUHVDQGLQFLGHQWVIURPWKHVHGDWD7KHGHILQLWLRQRI
³LQFLGHQW´ XVHG E\ WKHVH DXWKRUV LV QRW WKH VDPH DV WKH ,&2/' GHILQLWLRQ 6FKDHIHU HW DO  
GHVFULEHVRPHUHFHQWLQWHUQDOHURVLRQLQFLGHQWVLQ86$&(GDPV
 

35

 3$125$0$'(60(&$1,60(6'¶(526,21,17(51(



 '(6&5,37,21*(1(5$/('83+(120(1(


&H FKDSLWUH GRQQH XQ DSHUoX GHV PpFDQLVPHV G¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH GHSXLV O¶LQLWLDWLRQ MXVTX¶j OD
UXSWXUH/HVFKDSLWUHVVXLYDQWVGpWDLOOHQWFKDFXQGHVPpFDQLVPHV


2.1.1 Arrachement et transport


/¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHUHFRXYUHO¶HQVHPEOHGHVSKpQRPqQHVG¶DUUDFKHPHQWHWG¶HQWUDvQHPHQWGHV
SDUWLFXOHVIRUPDQWOHFRUSVG¶XQRXYUDJHHQUHPEODLRXVDIRQGDWLRQSDUOHVpFRXOHPHQWVVRXWHUUDLQV
HQPLOLHX[SRUHX[ TXLV¶\SURGXLVHQW&HODYHXWGLUHTXHO¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHV¶pFULWFRPPH
XQHSHUWHG¶pTXLOLEUHHWVDFRQWLQXDWLRQFRPPHXQHORLGHWUDQVSRUWGHVJUDLQV

,O H[LVWH G¶DXWUHV SKpQRPqQHV FDXVpV SDU O¶HDX TXL QH UHQWUHQW SDV WRXMRXUV GDQV FHWWH
GpILQLWLRQ PDLV TXL SHXYHQW HQ rWUH VRXYHQW OD FDXVH  OH FODTXDJH K\GUDXOLTXH SURYRTXp SDU
O¶DQQXODWLRQ GH OD FRQWUDLQWH HIIHFWLYH YHUWLFDOH OD ERXODQFH TXL HVW OH VRXOqYHPHQW K\GURVWDWLTXH GH
SDUWLFXOHV RX OH GpERXUUDJH TXL HVW OD SHUWH G¶pTXLOLEUH G¶XQH PDVVH GH VRO VRXV OD SRXVVpH
K\GURVWDWLTXH

8Q SKpQRPqQH G¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH FRQFHUQH UDUHPHQW XQ RXYUDJH GDQV VRQ HQVHPEOH /H
SKpQRPqQH WHQG j VH FRQFHQWUHU OH ORQJ GH FKHPLQV SUpIpUHQWLHOV GH SHUFRODWLRQ GHV pFRXOHPHQWV
&HVFKHPLQVSUpIpUHQWLHOVVRQWFRQVWLWXpVSDUGHVGpIDXWVGHVILVVXUHVGHVWURXVGHSHWLWHVFDYLWpV
GHV ]RQHV GH FRQWDFW GHV ]RQHV GH SOXV JUDQGH SHUPpDELOLWp « /¶DQDO\VH GH O¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH
QpFHVVLWH HQ SUHPLHU OLHX O¶LGHQWLILFDWLRQ GX © FKHPLQ G¶pURVLRQ ª 'DQV XQ RXYUDJH LO SHXW ELHQ
HQWHQGX\DYRLUSOXVLHXUVFKHPLQVG¶pURVLRQ


2.1.2. Les 4 principaux chemins


/HVUXSWXUHVHWOHVLQFLGHQWVG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHGDQVOHVEDUUDJHVHQUHPEODLHWOHXUVIRQGDWLRQV
HPSUXQWHQWTXDWUHSULQFLSDX[FKHPLQVTXLVRQW

  /¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHGDQVOHUHPEODL
  /¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHDVVRFLpHDX[VWUXFWXUHVDQQH[HVFRPPHOHVJDOHULHVGHUHVWLWXWLRQ
OHVEDMR\HUVGHO¶pYDFXDWHXURXODOLDLVRQHQWUHXQPXUGHVRXWqQHPHQWHQEpWRQHWOH
UHPEODL
  /¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHjWUDYHUVOHVIRQGDWLRQVHW
  /¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH GX UHPEODL YHUV OHV IRQGDWLRQV &RPSUHQDQW D  O¶pFRXOHPHQW j
WUDYHUV OH PDWpULDX pURGp GX UHPEODL YHUV OHV IRQGDWLRQV RX E  O¶pFRXOHPHQW HQ
IRQGDWLRQTXLpURGHjO¶LQWHUIDFHOHVPDWpULDX[GXUHPEODL


2.1.3. Les 4 phases du processus


/HSURFHVVXVG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHSHXWrWUHGpFRPSRVpHQTXDWUHSKDVHV

  /¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQ
  /DFRQWLQXDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQ
  /DSURJUHVVLRQG¶XQFRQGXLWRXSDUIRLVG¶XQHLQVWDELOLWpGHVXUIDFH GpFKDXVVHPHQW HW
  /¶LQLWLDWLRQGHODEUqFKHRXUXSWXUH


__________________________________________________________________________
6

36



 $129(59,(:2),17(51$/(526,210(&+$1,606



 $'(6&5,37,212)7+(29(5$//352&(66


7KLVFKDSWHUJLYHVDQRYHUYLHZRIWKHPHFKDQLVPVRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQIURPLQLWLDWLRQWREUHDFK
/DWHUFKDSWHUVJLYHGHWDLOVRIHDFKRIWKHPHFKDQLVPV


2.1.1. Particle detachment and transport


,QWHUQDOHURVLRQRFFXUVZKHQWKHK\GUDXOLFIRUFHVH[HUWHGE\ZDWHUVHHSLQJWKURXJKWKHSRUHV
RUWKHFUDFNVRIWKHPDWHULDOLQDGDPRULWVIRXQGDWLRQDUHVXIILFLHQWERWKWRFDXVHWKHGHWDFKPHQWRI
SDUWLFOHV DQG WR WUDQVSRUW WKH GHWDFKHG SDUWLFOHV RXW RI WKH GDP 7KH LQLWLDWLRQ RI LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ LV
JRYHUQHGE\WKHPHFKDQLFVRIWKHHTXLOLEULXPRIWKHSDUWLFOHVDQGLWVFRQWLQXDWLRQLVJRYHUQHGE\WKH
PHFKDQLFVRIJUDLQWUDQVSRUW

2WKHUFRQVHTXHQFHVRIH[FHVVK\GUDXOLFIRUFHVDUHQRWDOZD\VFRQVLGHUHGDVLQWHUQDOHURVLRQ
+RZHYHUWKH\FDQGLVUXSWDGDPIURP ZLWKLQ+\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUHZKLFKRFFXUVZKHUHSRUHSUHVVXUH
X  LV ODUJHU WKDQ WKH PLQLPXP SULQFLSDO VWUHVV ı  FDXVHV IUDFWXUH FUDFNLQJ  DQG ZKHQ KHDYH RU
XSOLIW RU µEORZ XS¶ FDXVHV WKH VXGGHQ ORVV RI HTXLOLEULXP RI D VRLO PDVV XQGHU WKH K\GURVWDWLF
SUHVVXUH+LJKSRUHSUHVVXUHVQRWH[FHHGLQJWKHPLQLPXPSULQFLSDOVWUHVVGRQRWFDXVHIUDFWXUHEXW
UHGXFH HIIHFWLYH VWUHVV FDXVLQJ H[SDQVLRQ DQG ORRVHQLQJ RI GDP PDWHULDOV UHGXFLQJ WKH K\GUDXOLF
IRUFHV QHFHVVDU\ WR GHWDFK SDUWLFOHV +LJK SRUH SUHVVXUH JUDGLHQWV LQFUHDVH WKH K\GUDXOLF IRUFHV
DYDLODEOH WR WUDQVSRUW GHWDFKHG SDUWLFOHV 7KLV LV LPSRUWDQW ZKHUH SDUWLFXOHV DUH OLIWHG E\ XSZDUG
VHHSDJHIORZDVRFFXUVDWWKHGRZQVWUHDPWRHRIGDPVDQGHPEDQNPHQWV

,QWHUQDOHURVLRQGRHVQRWJHQHUDOO\RFFXUJOREDOO\WKURXJKRXWDGDP,QWHUQDOHURVLRQGHYHORSV
ORFDOO\DORQJFRQFHQWUDWHGOHDNVRULQWKHODUJHVWIORZYHORFLW\]RQHV&RQFHQWUDWHGOHDNVDUHORFDOL]HG
LQIODZVFUDFNVKROHVDQGVPDOOFDYLWLHV=RQHVRIKLJKIORZYHORFLW\RFFXUZKHUHSHUPHDELOLW\LVKLJK
DQGLQFRQWDFW]RQHVDWWKHLQWHUIDFHEHWZHHQFRDUVHDQGILQHPDWHULDOVZKHUHWKHIORZYHORFLW\LQWKH
FRDUVH PDWHULDO PD\ EH µKLJK¶ LQ UHODWLRQ WR WKH DGMRLQLQJ ILQH PDWHULDO 7KH DVVHVVPHQW RI LQWHUQDO
HURVLRQ UHTXLUHV WKDW DOO SRWHQWLDO LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ SDWKZD\V EH LGHQWLILHG ILUVW EHDULQJ LQ PLQG WKDW
WKHUHDUHOLNHO\WREHVHYHUDOSRWHQWLDOSDWKZD\VLQWKHGDPDQGLWVIRXQGDWLRQ


2.1.2. The four general failure paths


)DLOXUHV DQG LQFLGHQWV E\ LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ RI HPEDQNPHQW GDPV DQG WKHLU IRXQGDWLRQV DUH
FDWHJRUL]HGLQWRIRXUJHQHUDOIDLOXUHPRGHVZKLFKDUH

  ,QWHUQDOHURVLRQWKURXJKWKHHPEDQNPHQW
  ,QWHUQDO HURVLRQ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKURXJKSHQHWUDWLQJ VWUXFWXUHV VXFK DV FRQGXLWV
DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK RXWOHW ZRUNV VSLOOZD\ ZDOOV RU DGMRLQLQJ D FRQFUHWH JUDYLW\ VWUXFWXUH
VXSSRUWLQJWKHHPEDQNPHQW
  ,QWHUQDOHURVLRQWKURXJKWKHIRXQGDWLRQ
  ,QWHUQDO HURVLRQ RI WKH HPEDQNPHQW LQWR RU DW WKH IRXQGDWLRQ LQFOXGLQJ D  VHHSDJH
WKURXJK WKH HPEDQNPHQW HURGLQJ PDWHULDO LQWR WKH IRXQGDWLRQ RU E  VHHSDJH LQ WKH
IRXQGDWLRQDWWKHHPEDQNPHQWFRQWDFWHURGLQJWKHHPEDQNPHQWPDWHULDO


2.1.3. The four general phases


7KHSURFHVVRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQPD\EHEURDGO\EURNHQLQWRIRXUSKDVHV

37
UHPEODL
  /¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHjWUDYHUVOHVIRQGDWLRQVHW
  /¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH GX UHPEODL YHUV OHV IRQGDWLRQV &RPSUHQDQW D  O¶pFRXOHPHQW j
WUDYHUV OH PDWpULDX pURGp GX UHPEODL YHUV OHV IRQGDWLRQV RX E  O¶pFRXOHPHQW HQ
IRQGDWLRQTXLpURGHjO¶LQWHUIDFHOHVPDWpULDX[GXUHPEODL


2.1.3. Les 4 phases du processus


/HSURFHVVXVG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHSHXWrWUHGpFRPSRVpHQTXDWUHSKDVHV

  /¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQ
  /DFRQWLQXDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQ
  /DSURJUHVVLRQG¶XQFRQGXLWRXSDUIRLVG¶XQHLQVWDELOLWpGHVXUIDFH GpFKDXVVHPHQW HW
  /¶LQLWLDWLRQGHODEUqFKHRXUXSWXUH

&H SURFHVVXV HVW UHSUpVHQWp GDQV OD )LJ R $  UHSUpVHQWH O¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH j WUDYHUV OH
UHPEODLGpFOHQFKpHSDUXQHpURVLRQGHFRQGXLW % UHSUpVHQWHOHPrPHSURFHVVXVPDLVjWUDYHUVOD
__________________________________________________________________________
IRQGDWLRQHW & GXUHPEODLYHUVOHVIRQGDWLRQV 6



,1,7,$7,21 o &217,18$7,21 o 352*5(66,21 o %5(&+(
eFRXOHPHQWFRQFHQWUpLQLWLH  3RXUVXLWHGHO¶pURVLRQ  eODUJLVVHPHQWGXFRQGXLW  0pFDQLVPHGHUXSWXUH
O¶pURVLRQVXUOHVOqYUHVGHOD HQO¶DEVHQFHGHILOWUH
ILVVXUH
$  (526,21,17(51('85(0%/$,'(&/(1&+((3$5/¶(526,21'(&21'8,7




,1,7,$7,21 o &217,18$7,21 o 352*5(66,21 o %5(&+(
)XLWHVGHODIRQGDWLRQHW  3RXUVXLWHGHO¶pURVLRQ  /¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHXQ  0pFDQLVPHGHUXSWXUH
LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQ HQO¶DEVHQFHGHILOWUH FRQGXLWVRXVOHUHPEODL
UpJUHVVLYHjO¶DYDO
%  (526,21,17(51('$16/$)21'$7,21'(&/(1&+((3$5/¶(526,21
5(*5(66,9(




,1,7,$7,21 o &217,18$7,21 o 352*5(66,21 o %5(&+(
)XLWHVGXQR\DXHW  3RXUVXLWHGHO¶pURVLRQ  /¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHIRUPH  0pFDQLVPHVGHUXSWXUH
GpFOHQFKHPHQWGHO¶pURVLRQ GDQVOHVFDYLWpVGHOD XQFRQGXLWG¶ROHV
UpJUHVVLYHGXQR\DXYHUVOD IRQGDWLRQ SDUWLFXOHVpURGpHVVRQW
IRQGDWLRQ WUDQVSRUWpHVYHUVOD
IRQGDWLRQ
&  (526,21,17(51('85(0%/$,9(56/$)21'$7,21'(&/(1&+((3$5/¶(526,21
5(*5(66,9(

)LJ
0pFDQLVPHVGHUXSWXUHSDUpURVLRQLQWHUQH )RVWHUHW)HOOE 


 /(648$75(0e&$1,60(6'¶,1,7,$7,21


/¶pURVLRQHVWLQLWLpHSDUTXDWUHPpFDQLVPHV

  /¶eURVLRQGHFRQGXLW
  /¶eURVLRQUpJUHVVLYH
  /¶eURVLRQGHFRQWDFW
38   /D6XIIXVLRQ


2.2.1. L’érosion de conduit
VXSSRUWLQJWKHHPEDQNPHQW
  ,QWHUQDOHURVLRQWKURXJKWKHIRXQGDWLRQ
  ,QWHUQDO HURVLRQ RI WKH HPEDQNPHQW LQWR RU DW WKH IRXQGDWLRQ LQFOXGLQJ D  VHHSDJH
WKURXJK WKH HPEDQNPHQW HURGLQJ PDWHULDO LQWR WKH IRXQGDWLRQ RU E  VHHSDJH LQ WKH
IRXQGDWLRQDWWKHHPEDQNPHQWFRQWDFWHURGLQJWKHHPEDQNPHQWPDWHULDO


2.1.3. The four general phases


7KHSURFHVVRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQPD\EHEURDGO\EURNHQLQWRIRXUSKDVHV

  LQLWLDWLRQRIHURVLRQ
  FRQWLQXDWLRQRIHURVLRQ 6
  SURJUHVVLRQWRIRUPDSLSHRURFFDVLRQDOO\FDXVHVXUIDFHLQVWDELOLW\ VORXJKLQJ DQG
  LQLWLDWLRQRIDEUHDFK

7KLV LV VKRZQ LQ )LJ $  IRU LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ WKURXJK WKH HPEDQNPHQW LQLWLDWHG E\ D
FRQFHQWUDWHG OHDN 6LPLODU SURFHVVHV DSSO\ IRU SLSLQJ WKURXJK WKH IRXQGDWLRQ DQG IURP WKH
HPEDQNPHQWWRWKHIRXQGDWLRQDQGDUHVKRZQLQ)LJ % DQG & 




,1,7,$7,21 o &217,18$7,21 o 352*5(66,21 o %5($&+
&RQFHQWUDWHGOHDNIRUPV  &RQWLQXDWLRQRIHURVLRQ  (QODUJHPHQWRI  %UHDFKPHFKDQLVP
HURVLRQLQLWLDWHVDORQJZDOOV FRQFHQWUDWHGOHDN IRUPV
RIFUDFN
$  ,17(51$/(526,21,17+((0%$1.0(17,1,7,$7('%<(526,21,1$
&21&(175$7('/($.




,1,7,$7,21 o &217,18$7,21 o 352*5(66,21 o %5($&+
/HDNDJHH[LWVIURPWKH  &RQWLQXDWLRQRIHURVLRQ  %DFNZDUGHURVLRQLQ  %UHDFK
IRXQGDWLRQDQGEDFNZDUG SURJUHVVHVWRIRUPDSLSH PHFKDQLVP
HURVLRQLQLWLDWHV IRUPV
%  ,17(51$/(526,21,17+()281'$7,21,1,7,$7('%<%$&.:$5'(526,21




,1,7,$7,21 o &217,18$7,21 o 352*5(66,21 o %5($&+
/HDNDJHH[LWVWKHFRUHLQWR  &RQWLQXDWLRQRIHURVLRQ  %DFNZDUGHURVLRQ  %UHDFK
WKHIRXQGDWLRQDQGEDFNZDUG SURJUHVVHVWRIRUPDSLSH PHFKDQLVP
HURVLRQLQLWLDWHVDVFRUH (URGHGVRLOLVWUDQVSRUWHG IRUPV
HURGHVLQWRWKHIRXQGDWLRQ LQWKHIRXQGDWLRQ
&  ,17(51$/(526,21)5207+((0%$1.0(1772)281'$7,21,1,7,$7('%<
%$&.:$5'(526,21

)LJ
0RGHOVIRUWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIIDLOXUHE\LQWHUQDOHURVLRQ )RVWHUDQG)HOOE 


 7+()2850(&+$1,6062),1,7,$7,212)(526,21


,QLWLDWLRQRIHURVLRQRFFXUVLQIRXUPHFKDQLVPV

  &RQFHQWUDWHGOHDNV
  %DFNZDUGHURVLRQ
39

7
&  (526,21,17(51('85(0%/$,9(56/$)21'$7,21'(&/(1&+((3$5/¶(526,21
5(*5(66,9(

)LJ
0pFDQLVPHVGHUXSWXUHSDUpURVLRQLQWHUQH )RVWHUHW)HOOE 


 /(648$75(0e&$1,60(6'¶,1,7,$7,21


/¶pURVLRQHVWLQLWLpHSDUTXDWUHPpFDQLVPHV

  /¶eURVLRQGHFRQGXLW
  /¶eURVLRQUpJUHVVLYH
  /¶eURVLRQGHFRQWDFW
  /D6XIIXVLRQ


2.2.1. L’érosion de conduit

/¶pURVLRQGHFRQGXLWVHGpYHORSSHGDQVOHVYLGHVGHVVROVSODVWLTXHVTXHOTXHVIRLVGDQVOHV
VLOWVQRQVDWXUpVOHVVDEOHVOLPRQHX[RXOHVJUDYHVVDEOROLPRQHXVHVSDUO¶pFRXOHPHQWTXLGpWDFKH
__________________________________________________________________________
OHVSDUWLFXOHVGHVSDURLVGXFRQGXLW
 7
/¶pURVLRQ GH FRQGXLW SHXW VH GpYHORSSHU GDQV OHV ILVVXUHV FDXVpHV SDU XQ WDVVHPHQW
GLIIpUHQWLHOORUVGHODFRQVWUXFWLRQRXGHO¶H[SORLWDWLRQSDUFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXHG€jXQHFRQWUDLQWH
TXDVLQXOOH DXWRXU GH FRQGXLWHV RX HQ FUrWH VXLWH j XQ WDVVHPHQW GLIIpUHQWLHO RX HQFRUH SDU
GHVVLFFDWLRQ DYHF XQ QLYHDX G¶HDX WUqV KDXW /¶DFWLRQ GX JHO SURYRTXH pJDOHPHQW GHV ILVVXUHV DX
QLYHDXGHODFUrWHGXEDUUDJH/HV)LJHWPRQWUHQWOHVSULQFLSDOHVVLWXDWLRQVROHVILVVXUHVHW
OHVFDYLWpVSHXYHQWDSSDUDvWUH

/¶pURVLRQ GH FRQGXLW SHXW pJDOHPHQW rWUH GpFOHQFKpH SDU OH WDVVHPHQW GH UHPEODLV PDO
FRPSDFWpV DX FRQWDFW GH FRQGXLWHV RX GH PXUV GH VRXWqQHPHQW (OOH SHXW rWUH pJDOHPHQW
GpFOHQFKpH SDU GHV WURXV G¶DQLPDX[ GDQV OHV GLJXHV RX OHV SHWLWV EDUUDJHV RX SDU GHV UDFLQHV
G¶DUEUHVVHSRXUULVVDQWHWODLVVDQWGHVWURXVGDQVOHFRUSVGXUHPEODL

/HFKDSLWUHGRQQHSOXVGHGpWDLOVVXUO¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQGHFRQGXLW




)LJ
3ULQFLSDOHVVLWXDWLRQVGHILVVXUHVGHGHVVLFFDWLRQRXGHWDVVHPHQWGLIIpUHQWLHOULYHjULYH&HV
WDVVHPHQWVSHXYHQWFRQGXLUHjGHVILVVXUHVGHWUDFWLRQRXjXQGpFKLUHPHQWOHORQJGHULYHVWUqV
UDLGHVRXHQHVFDOLHU/HVGpIRUPDWLRQVODWpUDOHVSURYHQDQWGXWDVVHPHQWSHXYHQWHQWUDvQHUXQ
FODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXHGDQVOHV]RQHVGHFRQWUDLQWHTXDVLQXOOH
 

40
&  ,17(51$/(526,21)5207+((0%$1.0(1772)281'$7,21,1,7,$7('%<
%$&.:$5'(526,21

)LJ
0RGHOVIRUWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIIDLOXUHE\LQWHUQDOHURVLRQ )RVWHUDQG)HOOE 


 7+()2850(&+$1,6062),1,7,$7,212)(526,21


,QLWLDWLRQRIHURVLRQRFFXUVLQIRXUPHFKDQLVPV

  &RQFHQWUDWHGOHDNV
  %DFNZDUGHURVLRQ
  &RQWDFWHURVLRQ
  6XIIXVLRQ
 7

2.2.1. Concentrated leaks


:KHUHWKHUHLVDQRSHQLQJLQSODVWLFVRLODQGVRPHWLPHVLQXQVDWXUDWHGVLOWVLOW\VDQGRUVLOW\
VDQG\JUDYHOWKURXJKZKLFKFRQFHQWUDWHGOHDNDJHRFFXUVWKHVLGHVRIWKHRSHQLQJPD\EHHURGHGE\
WKHOHDNLQJZDWHU

6XFKFRQFHQWUDWHGOHDNVPD\RFFXUWKURXJKDFUDFNFDXVHGE\GLIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWGXULQJ
FRQVWUXFWLRQRIWKHGDPRULQRSHUDWLRQE\K\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUHGXHWRORZVWUHVVHVDURXQGFRQGXLWVRULQ
WKHXSSHUSDUWVRIWKHGDPGXHWRGLIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWRUWKURXJKGHVLFFDWLRQDWKLJKOHYHOVLQWKHILOO
)URVWDFWLRQDOVRFUHDWHVFUDFNVLQGDPFUHVWV)LJDQGVKRZGLIIHUHQWVLWXDWLRQVZKHUHFUDFNV
DQGJDSVPD\RFFXU

&RQFHQWUDWHGOHDNVPD\DOVRRFFXUEHFDXVHRIFROODSVHVHWWOHPHQWRISRRUO\FRPSDFWHGILOOLQ
WKH HPEDQNPHQW DURXQG FRQGXLWV DQG DGMDFHQW WR ZDOOV 7KH\ PD\ DOVR RFFXU GXH WR WKH DFWLRQ RI
DQLPDOVEXUURZLQJLQWROHYHHVDQGVPDOOGDPVDQGWUHHURRWVURWWLQJLQGDPVDQGIRUPLQJKROHV

&KDSWHUJLYHVPRUHGHWDLOVRQWKHLQLWLDWLRQRIFRQFHQWUDWHGOHDNHURVLRQ



)LJ
6LWXDWLRQVLQZKLFKFUDFNVPD\IRUPIURPGHVLFFDWLRQRUIURPFURVVYDOOH\GLIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQW6XFK
VHWWOHPHQWPD\OHDGWRWHQVLRQFUDFNVRUWHDULQJDWVWHHSDEXWPHQWVORSHVRUVWHSVRUWKHODWHUDOVWUDLQ
UHVXOWLQJIURPWKHVHWWOHPHQWPD\UHVXOWLQORZVWUHVV]RQHVLQZKLFKK\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUHPD\RFFXU


41




)LJ
6LWXDWLRQVSRXYDQWSURYRTXHUGHVWDVVHPHQWVGLIIpUHQWLHOVHQIRQGDWLRQPHQDQWjODILVVXUDWLRQjGHV
GpIRUPDWLRQVODWpUDOHVHWjGHV]RQHVGHFRQWUDLQWHTXDVLQXOOHVXMHWWHVDXFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXH
)HOOet alEDVpVXU6KHUDUGet al 

VSLOOZD\ HPEDQNPHQWFUHVW

SRWHQWLDOIRUJDSWRIRUP
DVGDPILOOVHWWOHV
GD
P
VH I
WWOH LOO
V

GDPIRXQGDWLRQ

SRWHQWLDOIRUJDSWRIRUP
DVGDPILOOVHWWOHV
VSLOOZD\ HPEDQNPHQWFUHVW

FKDQJHLQVORSH
GD WWOH


P V
VH


IL
OO

IRXQGDWLRQ 

)LJ
6LWXDWLRQVSURSLFHVjXQGpFROOHPHQWHQWUHOHUHPEODLGXEDUUDJHHWOHPXUGHO¶pYDFXDWHXUGHFUXH
D )RQGDWLRQjSHQWHUDLGH E &KDQJHPHQWGHSHQWHGXPXUGHVRXWqQHPHQW )HOOet al 



__________________________________________________________________________
9

42



)LJ
6LWXDWLRQVZKLFKPD\FDXVHGLIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWLQWKHIRXQGDWLRQRIGDPVOHDGLQJWRFUDFNLQJ
ODWHUDOVWUDLQVDQGORZVWUHVV]RQHVVXEMHFWWRK\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUH
)HOOet alEDVHGRQ6KHUDUGet al 

VSLOOZD\ HPEDQNPHQWFUHVW

SRWHQWLDOIRUJDSWRIRUP
DVGDPILOOVHWWOHV
GD
P
VH I
WWOH LOO
V

GDPIRXQGDWLRQ

SRWHQWLDOIRUJDSWRIRUP
DVGDPILOOVHWWOHV
VSLOOZD\ HPEDQNPHQWFUHVW

FKDQJHLQVORSH
GD WWOH


P V
VH


IL
OO

IRXQGDWLRQ 

)LJ
6LWXDWLRQVZKHUHDJDSPD\IRUPEHWZHHQWKHGDPILOODQGVSLOOZD\ZDOO D 6WHHSIRXQGDWLRQDGMDFHQW
WRVSLOOZD\ZDOO E &KDQJHLQVORSHRIWKHUHWDLQLQJZDOO )HOOet al 


2.2.2. Backward erosion


43
2.2.2. L’érosion régressive


/¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH GpWDFKH OHV SDUWLFXOHV j O¶H[XWRLUH G¶XQ pFRXOHPHQW VRXWHUUDLQ VXUIDFH
DYDO TXLWUDYHUVHRXSDVVHHQGHVVRXVOHUHPEODL
,O\DGHX[W\SHVG¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYH

- eURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH GH FRQGXLW V¶LQLWLDQW HQ SLHG DYDO HW VH GpYHORSSDQW j O¶DEUL G¶XQ
©WRLWª (OOH VH SURGXLW SULQFLSDOHPHQW HQ IRQGDWLRQ FRPPH OH PRQWUH OD )LJ PDLV
SHXWpJDOHPHQWVHSURGXLUHGDQVOHUHPEODL
- eURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH JOREDOH WUDGXLW XQ W\SH G¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH TXL VH JpQpUDOLVH DX
WHUUDLQHQFDLVVDQWGXIDLWTX¶LOHVWLQFDSDEOHGH©WHQLUXQWRLWª'HVFKHQDX[QDLVVDQWV
SHXYHQW VH IRUPHU PDLV DXVVLW{W V¶pFUDVHQW HQJHQGUDQW XQ PRXYHPHQW JpQpUDO GX
WHUUDLQDXGHVVXV6LO¶HIIRQGUHPHQWHVWYHUWLFDOLOSHXWGRQQHUQDLVVDQFHjXQHFDYLWp
TXLUHPRQWHTXDVLYHUWLFDOHPHQWGDQVOHUHPEODLFRPPHOHPRQWUHOD)LJ6LO¶HIIRQGUH
VHSURGXLWOHORQJGXSDUHPHQWDYDOGXUHPEODLLOFDXVHXQJOLVVHPHQWGHSHDXFRPPHOH
PRQWUHOD)LJ/¶DSWLWXGHjWHQLUXQWRLWHVWWUDLWpHHQHW7DEOH

/HVGHX[VRQWKDELWXHOOHPHQWREVHUYpHVGDQVGHVVROVQRQSODVWLTXHV


L’érosion de fondations sableuses à l’abri d’un « toit »




)LJ
eURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHDXIRQGG¶XQFRQGXLWFRPPHQoDQWjO¶DYDOHWVHGpYHORSSDQWjO¶DEULG¶XQ©WRLWª
.RHQGHUVHW6HOOPHLMHU 

/H SKpQRPqQH G¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH V¶LQLWLH j SDUWLU G¶XQH VXUIDFH GH VXLQWHPHQW j O¶DYDO GX
EDUUDJHRXGHODGLJXH&HWWHVXUIDFHOLEUHrWUHGDQVXQIRVVpGDQVXQHDXWUHH[FDYDWLRQSpQpWUDQW
XQ VRO pURGDEOH QRQSODVWLTXH VDQV FRKpVLRQ  RX SHXW VH IRUPHU SDU FODTXDJH K\GUDXOLTXH G¶XQH
FRXYHUWXUHDUJLOHXVHUHFRXYUDQWXQHFRXFKHGHVDEOH

/DFRQGLWLRQSRXUTXHOHSKpQRPqQHSURJUHVVHVRXVO¶RXYUDJHHVWTXHOHEDUUDJHODGLJXHRX
OD FRXYHUWXUH DUJLOHXVH IRUPH XQ WRLW TXL SURWqJH OH ©FRQGXLWª G¶pURVLRQ GH O¶HIIRQGUHPHQW /D
SUpVHQFHG¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHSDUFRQGXLWHVWVRXYHQWGpWHFWpHSDUO¶DSSDULWLRQGHWXPXOXVGHVDEOHj
O¶DYDOGXEDUUDJHRXGHODGLJXH/D)LJPRQWUHXQH[HPSOHGHWXPXOXVGHVDEOH



)LJ 
7XPXOXVGHVDEOHjO¶DYDOG¶XQHGLJXH

YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ


/¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHSDUFRQGXLWVHSURGXLWDXSLHGGXEDUUDJHTXDQGOHJUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXH
DWWHLQWODYDOHXUFULWLTXHTXLSHUPHWO¶pURVLRQGHVSDUWLFXOHVGHO¶DPRQWYHUVO¶DYDOjWUDYHUVGHSHWLWV
FKHQDX[ G¶pURVLRQ VRXV OH EDUUDJH HW TXDQG OD YLWHVVH G¶pFRXOHPHQW GDQV OH FRQGXLW SHUPHW GH
WUDQVSRUWHUOHVSDUWLFXOHVpURGpHV

__________________________________________________________________________
/HFKDSLWUHGRQQHSOXVGHGpWDLOV 10

44 
L’érosion régressive globale


2QREVHUYHXQHWHQGDQFHjO
pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHJOREDOHGDQVOHVQR\DX[pWURLWVIRUWHPHQWRX
IRXQGDWLRQ 

)LJ
6LWXDWLRQVZKHUHDJDSPD\IRUPEHWZHHQWKHGDPILOODQGVSLOOZD\ZDOO D 6WHHSIRXQGDWLRQDGMDFHQW
WRVSLOOZD\ZDOO E &KDQJHLQVORSHRIWKHUHWDLQLQJZDOO )HOOet al 


2.2.2. Backward erosion


%DFNZDUGHURVLRQFRPPHQFHVZLWKWKHGHWDFKPHQWRISDUWLFOHVDWWKHH[LW GRZQVWUHDPHQG RI
OHDNDJHSDWKVWKURXJKRUXQGHUHPEDQNPHQWV
9

7KHUHDUHWZRNLQGVRIEDFNZDUGHURVLRQ

- %DFNZDUGHURVLRQSLSLQJDWWKHEDFN XSVWUHDP HQGRIDYHU\VPDOOSLSHEHORZD³URRI´
ZRUNLQJ µEDFNZDUGV¶ IURP WKH WRH WRZDUGV DQG HYHQWXDOO\ EUHDNLQJ WKURXJK LQWR WKH
UHVHUYRLU ,W PDLQO\ RFFXUV LQ IRXQGDWLRQV DV LQ )LJ EXW PD\ RFFXU ZLWKLQ
HPEDQNPHQWV
- *OREDOEDFNZDUGHURVLRQLVWKHQDPHJLYHQWRWKHW\SHRIEDFNZDUGHURVLRQLQZKLFKWKH
VRLO DERYH RU DURXQG D EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ SLSH LV XQDEOH WR µKROG D URRI¶ ,QFLSLHQW
EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ SLSHV IRUP EXW VRRQ FROODSVH UHVXOWLQJ LQ JHQHUDO PRYHPHQW RI WKH
VRLODERYH,IWKHFROODSVHLVXSZDUGLWFDQOHDGWRWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIDQHDUYHUWLFDO
FDYLW\ LQ WKH FRUH RI DQ HPEDQNPHQW DV LQ )LJ ,I WKH FROODSVH RFFXUV RQ WKH
GRZQVWUHDP VORSH RI DQ HPEDQNPHQW LW FDXVHV XQUDYHOLQJ DV VKRZQ LQ )LJ 7KH
DELOLW\RIVRLOVWRµKROGDURRI¶LVGHDOWZLWKLQ6HFWLRQDQG7DEOH

%RWKNLQGVRIEDFNZDUGHURVLRQDUHXVXDOO\REVHUYHGWRRFFXULQQRQSODVWLFVRLOV


Backward erosion piping in sandy foundations below a roof




)LJ
%DFNZDUGHURVLRQSLSLQJDWEDFN XSVWUHDP HQGRIDWKLQSLSHEHORZD³URRI´
.RHQGHUVDQG6HOOPHLMHU 

7KH HURVLRQ SURFHVV EHJLQV DW D IUHH VXUIDFH RQ WKH GRZQVWUHDP VLGH RI D GDP RU GLNH 7KLV
IUHH VXUIDFH PD\ EH LQ D GLWFK RU RWKHU H[FDYDWLRQ SHQHWUDWLQJ LQWR WKH HURGLQJ QRQSODVWLF
FRKHVLRQOHVV  VRLO RU PD\ IRUP E\ ILUVW KHDYLQJ RI WKH SODVWLF FRKHVLYH  VWUDWD RYHUO\LQJ WKH QRQ
SODVWLFVRLO

7KH SURFHVV SURJUHVVHV EHQHDWK WKH GLNH RU GDP )RU WKLV WR RFFXU WKH GLNH RU GDP RU WKH
FRKHVLYHVWUDWDPXVWIRUPDURRIIRU WKHHURGLQJ³SLSH´7KHSUHVHQFHRIEDFNZDUGHURVLRQSLSLQJLV
RIWHQH[KLELWHGE\WKHSUHVHQFHRIVDQGERLOVDWWKHGRZQVWUHDPVLGHRIWKHGDPRUGLNH)LJVKRZV
DQH[DPSOHRIDVDQGERLO



)LJ 
6DQGERLORQWKHODQGVLGHRIDGLNH

6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ


%DFNZDUG HURVLRQ SLSLQJ RFFXUV ZKHUH FULWLFDOO\ KLJK K\GUDXOLF JUDGLHQWV DW WKH WRH RI D GDP
HURGHSDUWLFOHVXSZDUGVDQGEDFNZDUGVEHORZWKHGDPWKURXJKVPDOOHURVLRQFKDQQHOVLQZKLFKWKH
IORZYHORFLW\FDQWUDQVSRUWWKHHURGHGSDUWLFOHVGRZQVWUHDP

10 45
WUDQVSRUWHUOHVSDUWLFXOHVpURGpHV

/HFKDSLWUHGRQQHSOXVGHGpWDLOV


L’érosion régressive globale


2QREVHUYHXQHWHQGDQFHjO
pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHJOREDOHGDQVOHVQR\DX[pWURLWVIRUWHPHQWRX
SDUWLHOOHPHQW LQFOLQpV ORUVTX¶LOV QH VRQW SDV FRUUHFWHPHQW SURWpJpV SDU GHV ILOWUHV RX XQH ]RQH GH
WUDQVLWLRQWHOTXHUHSUpVHQWpGDQVOD)LJ


1LYHDXGXUpVHUYRLU )RQWLVGpYHORSSpSDUO¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYH


)LJ
0RGHSRWHQWLHOG¶³pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHJOREDOH´PHQDQWjODIRUPDWLRQG¶XQIRQWLVGDQVXQQR\DXLQFOLQp


/HVSDUWLFXOHVVRQWDUUDFKpHVGHODVXUIDFHDYDOGXQR\DXTXLQ¶HVWSDVFRUUHFWHPHQWSURWpJpH
SDU XQ ILOWUH RX XQH ]RQH GH WUDQVLWLRQ /D SURJUHVVLRQ GX SKpQRPqQH G¶pURVLRQ HVW DLGpH SDU OD
JUDYLWpODSUpVHQFHG¶XQHFRXFKHGHVROFRKpVLIIRUPDQWOHWRLWGXFRQGXLWQ¶HVWSDVQpFHVVDLUH,OHVW
SUREDEOHPHQWO¶XQHGHVFDXVHVGHIRQWLVGDQVOHVQR\DX[HQPRUDLQHVSHXSODVWLTXHV

/HVFRQGLWLRQVG¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHJOREDOHGDQVOHQR\DXVRQWH[SOLTXpHVGDQVOD6HFWLRQ


L’érosion regressive globale à partir de la pente aval


&H PRGH G¶pURVLRQ QH VH SHXW VH SURGXLUH TXH VXU OHV SHQWHV GHV GLJXHV HW EDUUDJHV HQ
VDEOHJUDYLHUHWHQURFKHPHQW/HVSDUWLFXOHVRQWWHQGDQFHjrWUHGpWDFKpHVGHODSHQWHDYDOSDUOHV
IRUFHVGHJUDYLWpHWOHVJUDGLHQWVK\GUDXOLTXHVGDQVODVXUIDFHGHVXUIDFHUpVXUJHQFHGHODSHQWHDYDO
RXGXSLHG/HPRGHGHUXSWXUHHVWOHGpFKDXVVHPHQWGHVSDUWLFXOHVGXSDUHPHQWDYDO )LJ 



)LJ 
eURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHJOREDOHFRQGXLVDQWDXGpFKDXVVHPHQWGHODSHQWHDYDO

YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ


/H ULVTXH G¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH JOREDOH FRQGXLVDQW DX GpFKDXVVHPHQW GH OD SHQWH DYDO HVW
WUDLWpGDQVOD6HFWLRQ


2.2.3. L’érosion de contact


__________________________________________________________________________
11

46



&KDSWHUJLYHVPRUHGHWDLOVRQEDFNZDUGHURVLRQ


Global backward erosion


7KHUHLVDSRWHQWLDOIRUJOREDOEDFNZDUGHURVLRQLQQDUURZRUHYHQUHDVRQDEO\ZLGHVORSLQJRU
SDUWLDOO\VORSLQJFRUHGDPVVXFKDVWKDWVKRZQLQ)LJLIWKH\DUHQRWSURSHUO\SURWHFWHGE\ILOWHUVRU
DWUDQVLWLRQ]RQH


5HVHUYRLU6XUIDFH 6LQNKROH'HYHORSHGE\%DFNZDUG(URVLRQ


)LJ
3RWHQWLDOPRGHRIµJOREDOEDFNZDUGHURVLRQ¶OHDGLQJWRIRUPDWLRQRIDVLQNKROHLQDVORSLQJFRUH


3DUWLFOHVDUHGHWDFKHGDWWKHGRZQVWUHDPVXUIDFHRIWKHFRUHZKLFKLVLQDGHTXDWHO\SURWHFWHG
E\WKHILOWHURUWUDQVLWLRQ]RQH7KHSURJUHVVLRQRIWKHHURVLRQSURFHVVLVDVVLVWHGE\JUDYLW\DQGWKHUH
LV QR QHHG IRU D FRKHVLYH VRLO OD\HU WR IRUP WKH URRI IRU WKH SLSH ,W PD\ EH RQH RI WKH FDXVHV RI
VLQNKROHVLQGDPVFRQVWUXFWHGRIJODFLDOWLOOV

7KH SRVVLELOLW\ RI JOREDO EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ RFFXUULQJ LQ FHQWUDO FRUH GDPV LV GLVFXVVHG LQ
6HFWLRQ


Global backward erosion at downstream face


7KLVLVTXLWHDGLIIHUHQWPRGHZKLFKPD\RFFXURQVORSHVRIGLNHVRUGDPVFRQVWUXFWHGRQO\RI
VDQGJUDYHODQGURFNILOO7KHUHLVDSRWHQWLDOIRUSDUWLFOHVWREHUHPRYHGIURPWKHGRZQVWUHDPVORSHE\
JUDYLW\DQGK\GUDXOLFVHHSDJHJUDGLHQWXQGHUWKHWKURXJKIORZEUHDNRXWOLQHZKHUHVHHSDJHHPHUJHV
IURP WKH GRZQVWUHDP IDFH RU WRH 7KH IDLOXUH PRGH LV RQH RI XQUDYHOLQJ RI WKH GRZQVWUHDP VORSH
)LJ 




)LJ 
*OREDOEDFNZDUGHURVLRQOHDGLQJWRXQUDYHOLQJRIGRZQVWUHDPVORSH

6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ


7KHSRVVLELOLW\RIJOREDOEDFNZDUGHURVLRQOHDGLQJWRXQUDYHOLQJRIGRZQVWUHDPVORSHVLVGHDOW
ZLWKLQ6HFWLRQ



11

47


/H ULVTXH G¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH JOREDOH FRQGXLVDQW DX GpFKDXVVHPHQW GH OD SHQWH DYDO HVW
WUDLWpGDQVOD6HFWLRQ


2.2.3. L’érosion de contact

/¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFWVHSURGXLWORUVTX¶XQVROJURVVLHUFRPPHOHJUDYLHUHVWHQFRQWDFWDYHFXQ
VRO ILQ HW TXH VRQ pFRXOHPHQW SDUDOOqOH DX FRQWDFW pURGH OHV SDUWLFXOHV GX VRO ILQ 3DU H[HPSOH
__________________________________________________________________________
O¶pFRXOHPHQWjWUDYHUVOHVDOOXYLRQVJUDYHOHXVHVGHODIRQGDWLRQGXEDUUDJHRXGHODGLJXHSHXWpURGHU
11
OD EDVH G¶XQH FRXFKH VXVMDFHQWH GH OLPRQ RX pURGHU OHV FRXFKHV GH VRO ILQ GX QR\DX DX FRQWDFW
G¶XQH FRXFKH SOXV JURVVLqUH IRUPpH SDU VpJUpJDWLRQ ORUV GH OD FRQVWUXFWLRQ /D )LJ PRQWUH GHV
H[HPSOHV




)LJ
=RQHVSRVVLEOHVG¶LQLWLDWLRQG¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFW
D %DUUDJHKRPRJqQHVXUXQHIRQGDWLRQGHVROJURVVLHUDYHFXQUHPEODLHQPDWpULDXVpJUpJpORUVGH
ODFRQVWUXFWLRQ
E %DUUDJH]RQpDYHFXQSRWHQWLHOG¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFWORUVTXHOHQLYHDXGHODUHWHQXHGpSDVVH
O¶DUDVHGXQR\DXHWjWUDYHUVOHVFRXFKHVJURVVLqUHVGHODIRQGDWLRQ %HJXLQet al 


/HFKDSLWUHGRQQHSOXVGHGpWDLOVVXUO¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFW


2.2.4. Suffusion


/DVXIIXVLRQVHSURGXLWORUVTXHOHVILQHVSDUWLFXOHVG¶XQVROVRQWWUDQVSRUWpHVSDUO¶pFRXOHPHQW
jWUDYHUVOHVSRUHVGHVHVSDUWLFXOHVSOXVJURVVLqUHV/HVSDUWLFXOHVJURVVLqUHVQHVRQWSDVDUUDFKpHV
HWOHVFRQWUDLQWHVHIIHFWLYHVVRQWWUDQVPLVHVHQJUDQGHSDUWLHjWUDYHUVHOOHV

/DVXIIXVLRQVHSURGXLWTXDQGO¶HDXV¶pFRXOHjWUDYHUVXQVROSXOYpUXOHQWHWQRQDXWRILOWUDQWLH
QRQ SODVWLTXH HW LQVWDEOH RX SRVVpGDQW XQH JUDQXORPpWULH GLVFRQWLQXH RX WUqV pWHQGXH /HV WLOOV
JODFLDLUHVVRQWSDUIRLVYXOQpUDEOHVjODVXIIXVLRQ&HUWDLQVUHPEODLVHWILOWUHVGHEDUUDJHOHVRQWDXVVL
HQpWDQWWURSJURVVLHUVRXHQSRVVpGDQWXQHJUDQXORPpWULHGLVFRQWLQXHDYHFXQH[FqVGHILQHV

/D )LJ  YRLU ,QVWDELOLWp JUDQXORPpWULTXH GDQV OD 7HUPLQRORJLH  LQGLTXH FRPPHQW VRQW
VpSDUpHV OHV IUDFWLRQV ©ILQHª HW ©JURVVLqUHª (Q FH TXL FRQFHUQH OD VXIIXVLRQ OHV ©ILQHVª QH
UHSUpVHQWHQWSDVODIUDFWLRQGHO¶pFKDQWLOORQLQIpULHXUHjPP WDPLV861ƒ RXjPP
(XURSH (OOHVUHSUpVHQWHQWODIUDFWLRQTXLSHXWSDVVHUjWUDYHUVOHVYLGHVGHODIUDFWLRQJURVVLqUHG¶XQ
VROVXIIXVLI

/DVXIIXVLRQFRQGXLWjXQHDXJPHQWDWLRQGHODSHUPpDELOLWpjGHVYLWHVVHVG¶LQILOWUDWLRQSOXV
LPSRUWDQWHV HW j GHV JUDGLHQWV K\GUDXOLTXHV SRWHQWLHOOHPHQW SOXV pOHYpV SRXYDQW O¶DFFpOpUHU HW
ILQDOHPHQWjXQWUDQVSRUWPDVVLIGHILQHVSRXYDQWDPHQHUFROPDWDJHYRLUHXQFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXH

'HV VLWXDWLRQV VWDEOHV SHXYHQW rWUH DWWHLQWHV GqV TX¶XQH SDUWLH GH OD IUDFWLRQ ILQH UHVWH HQ
pTXLOLEUH VRXV OHV FRQWUDLQWHV LQGXLWHV SDU O¶LQILOWUDWLRQ /D VXIIXVLRQ SHXW VH UpHQFOHQFKHU ORUV GHV
F\FOHVSpULRGLTXHVGHUHPSOLVVDJHHWYLGDQJHRXGHKDXVVHGXQLYHDXG¶HDXDPRQW


__________________________________________________________________________
12
48


2.2.3. Contact erosion




&RQWDFWHURVLRQRFFXUVZKHUHDFRDUVHVRLOVXFKDVDJUDYHOLVLQFRQWDFWZLWKDILQHVRLODQG
IORZ SDUDOOHO WR WKH FRQWDFW LQ WKH FRDUVH VRLO HURGHV WKH ILQH VRLO )RU H[DPSOH IORZ WKURXJK JUDYHO
DOOXYLXPLQWKHIRXQGDWLRQVRIGDPRUGLNHPD\HURGHWKHEDVHRIDQRYHUO\LQJVLOWOD\HURUHURVLRQRI
WKHILQHUOD\HUVRIVRLOLQDFRUHPD\RFFXULQWRDFRDUVHJUDYHOO\OD\HUIRUPHGE\VHJUHJDWLRQGXULQJ
FRQVWUXFWLRQ)LJVKRZVH[DPSOHV



)LJ
3RVVLEOHORFDWLRQRIFRQWDFWHURVLRQLQLWLDWLRQ
D +RPRJHQHRXVGDPZLWKOD\HUHGILOOGXHWRVHJUHJDWLRQGXULQJFRQVWUXFWLRQDQGDFRDUVHIRXQGDWLRQVRLO
E =RQHGGDPZLWKSRWHQWLDOIRUFRQWDFWHURVLRQDWKLJKUHVHUYRLUOHYHOVDERYHWKHFRUHDQGIRUHURVLRQ
LQWRFRDUVHOD\HUVLQWKHIRXQGDWLRQ %HJXLQet al 


&KDSWHUJLYHVPRUHGHWDLOVRQWKHLQLWLDWLRQRIFRQWDFWHURVLRQ


2.2.4. Suffusion


6XIIXVLRQRFFXUVZKHQILQHSDUWLFOHVRIVRLODUHWUDQVSRUWHGE\VHHSDJHIORZWKURXJKWKHSRUHV
RI FRDUVHU SDUWLFOHV 7KH FRDUVHU SDUWLFOHV DUH QRW GHWDFKHG DQG WKH HIIHFWLYH VWUHVVHV DUH ODUJHO\
WUDQVIHUUHGWKURXJKWKHPDWUL[RIWKHFRDUVHUSDUWLFOHV

6XIIXVLRQRFFXUVZKHQZDWHUIORZVWKURXJKLQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOHZLGHO\JUDGHGRUJDSJUDGHGQRQ
SODVWLF VRLOV *ODFLDO WLOOV DUH VRPHWLPHV YXOQHUDEOH WR VXIIXVLRQ 6RPH ILOOV DQG ILOWHUV LQ GDPV DOVR
KDYHYHU\EURDGRUJDSJUDGLQJVDQGFRQWDLQH[FHVVLYHILQHVFRQWHQW

)LJ  VHH ,QWHUQDO ,QVWDELOLW\ LQ 7HUPLQRORJ\  VKRZV KRZ WKH ³ILQHU VRLO´ IUDFWLRQ LV GHILQHG
1RWH WKDW LQ WKH FRQWH[W RI VXIIXVLRQ µILQHV¶ GRHV QRW PHDQ WKH SRUWLRQ RI D VDPSOH VPDOOHU WKDQ
PP 86 1R  VLHYH  RU PP (XURSH  6XIIXVLYH ILQHV DUH WKH SRUWLRQ RI WKH VDPSOH
ZKLFKFDQSDVVWKURXJKWKHSRUHVSDFHVRIWKHFRDUVHUSDUWLFOHVRIDVXIIXVLYHVRLO

6XIIXVLRQ UHVXOWV LQ DQ LQFUHDVH LQ SHUPHDELOLW\ JUHDWHU VHHSDJH YHORFLWLHV DQG SRWHQWLDOO\
KLJKHUK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWVSRVVLEO\DFFHOHUDWLQJWKHUDWHRIVXIIXVLRQ:KHQVXEVWDQWLDOTXDQWLWLHVRI
ILQHVDUHWUDQVSRUWHGFORJJLQJPD\RFFXUOHDGLQJRFFDVLRQDOO\WRK\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUH

6WDEOH VLWXDWLRQV PD\ EH UHDFKHGZLWK VRPHRI WKH ILQHU IUDFWLRQUHPDLQLQJ LQHTXLOLEULXPZLWK
WKH VHHSDJH VWUHVVHV 6XIIXVLRQ PD\ UHFRPPHQFH GXULQJ F\FOLQJ SHULRGV RI ZDWHU ORDGV RU GXULQJ
KLJKHUUHVHUYRLURUULYHUZDWHUOHYHO

6XIIXVLRQ RFFXUULQJ ZLWKLQ DQ HPEDQNPHQW FRUH RU WKH IRXQGDWLRQ RI D GDP PD\ DOVR OHDG WR
VHWWOHPHQW

12

49
/DVXIIXVLRQGXQR\DXRXGHVDIRQGDWLRQSHXWDXVVLFRQGXLUHjGHVWDVVHPHQWV

8Q ILOWUH j JUDQXORPpWULH LQVWDEOH SHXW SHUGUH VHV ILQHV FH TXL UHQG OH ILOWUH JURVVLHU HW OD
SURWHFWLRQGXQR\DXIDFHjO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHPRLQVHIILFDFH

,OLPSRUWHGHVRXOLJQHUTXHODVpJUpJDWLRQORUVGHODPLVHHQ°XYUHGHVVROVQRQSODVWLTXHVj
JUDQXORPpWULH GLVFRQWLQXH RX FRQWLQXH SHXW FUpHU GHV ILOWUHV j JUDQXORPpWULH LQVWDEOH PrPH VL OD
JUDQXORPpWULHPR\HQQHGXVROHVWVWDEOH

/HFKDSLWUHGRQQHSOXVGHGpWDLOVVXUODVXIIXVLRQ


 &217,18$7,2128121),/75$7,21


/¶pURVLRQXQHIRLVLQLWLpHSURJUHVVHUDjPRLQVTXHOHVIRUFHVpURVLYHVVRLHQWUpGXLWHVRXTXHOH
SDVVDJHGHVSDUWLFXOHVpURGpHVVRLWHQWUDYpG
XQHPDQLqUHTXHOFRQTXH

/HVLQJpQLHXUVVDYHQWGHSXLVOHVDQQpHVRXTXHODIDoRQODSOXVHIILFDFHG¶DUUrWHU
OHSKpQRPqQHG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHHVWGH]RQHUOHEDUUDJHHWGHPHWWUHHQSODFHGHVILOWUHV/HVILOWUHVRQW
pWpSULQFLSDOHPHQWFRQoXVjSDUWLUGXFULWqUHGH7HU]DJKL 7HU]DJKLHW3HFN 

/D)LJPRQWUHOHVW\SHVGH]RQDJHGHVEDUUDJHVHQUHPEODL

FRUH
GRZQVWUHDP]RQH
RIURFNILOO 3XGGOHFRUH

+RPRJHQHRXVHDUWKILOO =RQHGHDUWKDQGURFNILOO 3XGGOHFRUHHDUWKILOO

(PEDQNPHQWILOWHU URFNILOO FRQFUHWHFRUHZDOO


DQGRU URFNILOO
)RXQGDWLRQILOWHU HDUWKILOO
FRUH

(DUWKILOOZLWKILOWHU &HQWUDOFRUHHDUWKDQGURFNILOO (DUWKILOOZLWKFRUHZDOO

FRQFUHWH FRQFUHWHFRUHZDOO
IDFLQJ
5RFNWRH URFNILOO
HDUWKILOO
0D[+

(DUWKILOOZLWKURFNWRH &RQFUHWHIDFHHDUWKILOO 5RFNILOOZLWKFRUHZDOO

FRQFUHWH
FRUH IDFLQJ K\GUDXOLFILOOFRUH
GRZQVWUHDP]RQH
RIVDQGJUDYHO URFNILOO

=RQHGHDUWKILOO &RQFUHWHIDFHURFNILOO +\GUDXOLFILOO




)LJ
&DWpJRULHVGH]RQDJH&HUWDLQVQHFRQFHUQHQWTXHOHVEDUUDJHVDQFLHQV

&HV GHUQLHUV SHXYHQW rWUH UHJURXSpV HQ IRQFWLRQ GH OHXU FDSDFLWp j DUUrWHU O¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH
GHV UHPEODLV 7DEOHDX   &H WDEOHDX HVW EDVp VXU OD PLVH HQ SODFH RX QRQ GH ILOWUHV HW VXU OHV
VWDWLVWLTXHV GH UXSWXUHV HW G¶LQFLGHQWV GH )RVWHU et al D  ,O QH SUHQG SDV HQ FRPSWH OHV
VSpFLILFLWpVGHVEDUUDJHV]RQpVDVVRFLpVjODFRQFHSWLRQHWjODFRQVWUXFWLRQLOV¶DJLWGRQFG¶XQJXLGH
JpQpUDO


 

__________________________________________________________________________
13

50
KLJKHUK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWVSRVVLEO\DFFHOHUDWLQJWKHUDWHRIVXIIXVLRQ:KHQVXEVWDQWLDOTXDQWLWLHVRI
ILQHVDUHWUDQVSRUWHGFORJJLQJPD\RFFXUOHDGLQJRFFDVLRQDOO\WRK\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUH

6WDEOH VLWXDWLRQV PD\ EH UHDFKHGZLWK VRPHRI WKH ILQHU IUDFWLRQUHPDLQLQJ LQHTXLOLEULXPZLWK
WKH VHHSDJH VWUHVVHV 6XIIXVLRQ PD\ UHFRPPHQFH GXULQJ F\FOLQJ SHULRGV RI ZDWHU ORDGV RU GXULQJ
KLJKHUUHVHUYRLURUULYHUZDWHUOHYHO

6XIIXVLRQ RFFXUULQJ ZLWKLQ DQ HPEDQNPHQW FRUH RU WKH IRXQGDWLRQ RI D GDP PD\ DOVR OHDG WR
VHWWOHPHQW

$ILOWHUFRQVWUXFWHGRILQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOHPDWHULDOVZLOOKDYHDSRWHQWLDOIRUHURVLRQRIWKHILQHU
SDUWLFOHVLQWKHILOWHUUHQGHULQJWKHILOWHUFRDUVHUDQGOHVVHIIHFWLYHLQSURWHFWLQJWKHFRUHPDWHULDOVIURP
12
HURVLRQ

,W VKRXOG EH QRWHG WKDW VHJUHJDWLRQ RI EURDGO\ JUDGHG RU JDS JUDGHG QRQSODVWLF VRLOV GXULQJ
SODFHPHQW LQ WKH GDP PD\ FUHDWH OD\HUV ZKLFK DUH LQWHUQDOO\ XQVWDEOH HYHQ WKRXJK WKH DYHUDJH
JUDGLQJRIWKHVRLOLVLQWHUQDOO\VWDEOH

&KDSWHUJLYHVPRUHGHWDLOVRQVXIIXVLRQ


 &217,18$7,21$1'),/7(5$&7,21


(URVLRQRQFHLQLWLDWHGZLOOFRQWLQXHXQOHVVWKHHURGLQJIRUFHVDUHUHGXFHGRUWKHSDVVDJHRIWKH
HURGHGSDUWLFOHVLVLPSHGHGLQVRPHZD\

'DPHQJLQHHUVKDYHNQRZQVLQFHWKHVDQGVWKDWWKHPRVWHIILFLHQWZD\RIVWRSSLQJ
WKHHURVLRQSURFHVVLVWR]RQHWKHGDPDQGWRSURYLGHILOWHUV)LOWHUVZHUHWKHQPDLQO\GHVLJQHGZLWK
WKH7HU]DJKLFULWHULD 7HU]DJKLDQG3HFN 

)LJVKRZVWKHW\SHVRIHPEDQNPHQWGDP]RQLQJ

FRUH
GRZQVWUHDP]RQH
RIURFNILOO 3XGGOHFRUH

+RPRJHQHRXVHDUWKILOO =RQHGHDUWKDQGURFNILOO 3XGGOHFRUHHDUWKILOO

(PEDQNPHQWILOWHU URFNILOO FRQFUHWHFRUHZDOO


DQGRU URFNILOO
)RXQGDWLRQILOWHU HDUWKILOO
FRUH

(DUWKILOOZLWKILOWHU &HQWUDOFRUHHDUWKDQGURFNILOO (DUWKILOOZLWKFRUHZDOO

FRQFUHWH FRQFUHWHFRUHZDOO
IDFLQJ
5RFNWRH URFNILOO
HDUWKILOO
0D[+

(DUWKILOOZLWKURFNWRH &RQFUHWHIDFHHDUWKILOO 5RFNILOOZLWKFRUHZDOO

FRQFUHWH
FRUH IDFLQJ K\GUDXOLFILOOFRUH
GRZQVWUHDP]RQH
RIVDQGJUDYHO URFNILOO

=RQHGHDUWKILOO &RQFUHWHIDFHURFNILOO +\GUDXOLFILOO




)LJ
'DP]RQLQJFDWHJRULHV6RPHRIWKHVHDUHRQO\IRXQGLQROGHUGDPV

7KHVHFDQEHJURXSHGLQUHJDUGVWRWKHLUFDSDELOLW\RISURYLGLQJFRQWUROIRULQWHUQDOHURVLRQLQWKH
HPEDQNPHQW 7DEOH 7KLVLVEDVHGRQWKHSURYLVLRQIRURUODFNRIILOWHUVDQGWKHVWDWLVWLFVRIIDLOXUH
DQGLQFLGHQWVLQ)RVWHUHWDO D ,WGRHVQRWWDNHDFFRXQWRIWKHGHWDLOVRIWKHGDP]RQLQJGHVLJQ
DQGFRQVWUXFWLRQVRLVRQO\DJHQHUDOJXLGH


 

13
51
7DEOHDX
2FFXUUHQFHG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHHQIRQFWLRQGX]RQDJHGXEDUUDJH
5LVTXHG¶pURVLRQ
0DvWULVHGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQH %DUUDJH]RQpHWFDWpJRULH
LQWHUQH
5HPEODLKRPRJqQH FDWpJRULH 
$,PSRUWDQW )DLEOHRXQRQPDvWULVpH %DUUDJHHQWHUUHDYHFXQHUHFKDUJHG¶HQURFKHPHQWHQ
SLHG FDWpJRULH 
%DUUDJHHQWHUUH]RQp  
4XHOTXHVDUUrWVGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQH
%DUUDJHHQWHUUHHQURFKHPHQW]RQp  
%0RGpUp YDULDQWDYHFODQDWXUHGXILOWUHHWGX
1R\DXG¶DUJLOHFRUUR\pH  
]RQDJH
%DUUDJHSDUUHPEOD\DJHK\GUDXOLTXH  
%DUUDJHHQWHUUHjPDVTXHDPRQWHQEpWRQ  
8QDUUrWJOREDOGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHTXL
%DUUDJHG¶HQURFKHPHQWjPDVTXHDPRQWHQEpWRQ  
&)DLEOH GpSHQGGHODTXDOLWpGXILOWUHHWGHV
%DUUDJHHQWHUUHDYHFQR\DXHQEpWRQ  
GLVSRVLWLIVG¶pWDQFKpLWp
%DUUDJHHQHQURFKHPHQWDYHFQR\DXHQEpWRQ  
$UUrWTXDVLV\VWpPDWLTXHGHO¶pURVLRQ %DUUDJHHQWHUUHDYHFILOWUHV  
'7UqVIDLEOH
LQWHUQHJUkFHjODTXDOLWpGHODFRQFHSWLRQ %DUUDJHHQHQURFKHPHQWDYHFXQQR\DXFHQWUDOHQWHUUH  


)RVWHU D  )RVWHU HW )HOO   UHFRQQDLVVHQW TXH OHV ILOWUHV HW OHV ]RQHV GH WUDQVLWLRQ
OpJqUHPHQWSOXVJURVVLHUVTXHFHX[SUpFRQLVpVSDU7HU]DJKLVRQWVRXYHQWWUqVHIILFDFHVGDQVODOXWWH
FRQWUH O
pURVLRQ /HV EDUUDJHV DYHF XQH UHFKDUJH DYDO HQ HQURFKHPHQW HW GHV ]RQHV GH JUDYLHU
VDEOHX[TXLQHVRQWSDVFRQoXVFRPPHGHVILOWUHVSHXYHQWSURWpJHUGHO
pURVLRQFRQWLQXH

(QIRQFWLRQGXUDSSRUWGHWDLOOHVHQWUHSDUWLFXOHVHWYLGHVO¶pURVLRQVHUDTXDOLILpHVRLWGH

- 6WRSSpHFDWDORJXpHGDQVODFDWpJRULH©VDQVpURVLRQª
- $UUrWpHDSUqVXQHpURVLRQPLQHXUHDSSHOpH©pURVLRQOLPLWpHª
- $UUrWpHDSUqVXQHpURVLRQVLJQLILFDWLYHFDWpJRULH©pURVLRQLPSRUWDQWHª
- 1RQDUUrWpHDSSHOpH©pURVLRQSHUPDQHQWHª

3OXVGHGpWDLOVVXUODFRQWLQXDWLRQRXO¶LQWHUUXSWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHSDUO¶DFWLRQGHVILOWUHV
VRQWGRQQpVGDQVOH&KDSLWUH


 352*5(66,21


/DSURJUHVVLRQHVWODSKDVHGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHR

D  3RXU O¶pURVLRQ GH FRQGXLW O¶pURVLRQ GDQV OHV ILVVXUHV RX GDQV OHV IDLEOHVVHV ORFDOHV
DERXWLWDXGpYHORSSHPHQWG¶XQFRQGXLW
E  3RXUO¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHOHSURFHVVXVG¶pURVLRQV¶pWHQGjO¶DPRQWGXSRLQWG¶LQLWLDWLRQ
HQXQUpVHDXGHSHWLWVFKHQDX[GDQVODIRQGDWLRQRXOHUHPEODLVRXVODFRXFKHIRUPDQW
OHWRLWGHVFKHQDX[G
pURVLRQ8QFRQGXLWVHIRUPHORUVTXHFHVSHWLWVFKHQDX[G¶pURVLRQ
DWWHLJQHQW O¶DPRQW 'DQV OH FDV GH O¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH JOREDOH GHV FDYLWpV UHPRQWDQW
GDQVOHQR\DXRXXQGpFKDXVVHPHQWGXSDUHPHQWDYDOSHXYHQWVHSURGXLUH
F  3RXU O¶pURVLRQ GH FRQWDFW O¶pURVLRQ GHV ILQHV j WUDYHUV OH VRO JURVVLHU FRQWLQXH &HFL
SURYRTXH GHV IRQWLV SURYHQDQW GX QR\DX HW GDQV GHV FDV SDUWLFXOLHUV XQ FRQGXLW
G¶pURVLRQGDQVOHQR\DX
G  3RXUODVXIIXVLRQXQHSDUWLHGHODIUDFWLRQILQHHVWpURGpHODLVVDQWODPDWULFHJURVVLqUH
GX VRO ,O QH VH IRUPH SDV GH FRQGXLW PDLV OD SHUPpDELOLWp GX VRO SHXW DXJPHQWHU RX
GLPLQXHUVLJQLILFDWLYHPHQWVXLYDQWTXHO¶pURVLRQRXOHFROPDWDJHGRPLQH

/H&KDSLWUHGRQQHSOXVGHGpWDLOVVXUODSURJUHVVLRQGHO¶pURVLRQ


 'e7(&7,21


/D SUREDELOLWp TX¶XQ PRGH GH UXSWXUH SDUWLFXOLHU VRLW GpWHFWp HW VL F¶HVW OH FDV OD SRVVLELOLWp
G¶LQWHUYHQLU SDUH[HPSOHHQDEDLVVDQWOHQLYHDXG¶HDX RXG¶HIIHFWXHUGHVUpSDUDWLRQVSRXUHPSrFKHU
ODEUqFKHHVWJpQpUDOHPHQWELHQWUDLWpHSDUOHVGHX[TXHVWLRQVVXLYDQWHV

  /HPRGHGHUXSWXUHVHUDWLOGpWHFWp"
  /¶LQWHUYHQWLRQHWODUpSDUDWLRQVHUDWHOOHSRVVLEOHGDQVOHWHPSVLPSDUWL"
__________________________________________________________________________
 14
/D SUREDELOLWp GH GpWHFWLRQ HW OH VXFFqV GH O¶LQWHUYHQWLRQ HW GH OD UpSDUDWLRQ GpSHQGHQW G
XQ
FHUWDLQQRPEUHGHSDUDPqWUHV
52

D  /D FDWpJRULH GH O¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH F
HVWjGLUH pURVLRQ LQWHUQH GDQV OH UHPEODL GDQV OD
IRQGDWLRQRXGXUHPEODLYHUVODIRQGDWLRQ
E  /HPpFDQLVPHG¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHpURVLRQGH FRQGXLWpURVLRQUpJUHVVLYH


7DEOH
&ODVVLILFDWLRQRIOLNHOLKRRGRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQDVVRFLDWHGZLWKWKHGDP]RQLQJ
/LNHOLKRRGRI
&RQWUROIRULQWHUQDOHURVLRQ 'DP]RQLQJDQGFDWHJRU\QXPEHU
,QWHUQDO(URVLRQ
+RPRJHQHRXVHDUWKILOO FDWHJRU\ 
$/DUJH /LWWOHRUQRFRQWURO
(DUWKILOOZLWKURFNWRH FDWHJRU\ 
=RQHGHDUWKILOO  
6RPHFRQWURORILQWHUQDOHURVLRQ
=RQHGHDUWKDQGURFNILOO  
%0RGHUDWH GHSHQGLQJRQGHWDLORI]RQLQJDQGILOWHU
3XGGOHFRUH  
FDSDELOLW\
+\GUDXOLFILOO  
&RQFUHWHIDFHHDUWKILOO  
0RGHUDWHFRQWURORILQWHUQDOHURVLRQ
&RQFUHWHIDFHURFNILOO  
&/RZ GHSHQGLQJRQWKHILOWHUFDSDFLW\DQGGHWDLOV
&RQFUHWHFRUHHDUWKILOO  
RIWKHFRUHZDOORUIDFHVODE
&RQFUHWHFRUHURFNILOO  
*RRGFRQWURORILQWHUQDOHURVLRQVXEMHFWWR (DUWKILOOZLWKILOWHUV  
'9HU\/RZ
JRRGGHWDLOVRI]RQLQJDQGILOWHUGHVLJQ &HQWUDOFRUHHDUWKDQGURFNILOO  


:KDW KDV EHHQ UHFRJQL]HG )RVWHU D  DQG )RVWHU DQG )HOO   LV WKDW ILOWHUV DQG
WUDQVLWLRQ]RQHVZKLFKDUHFRDUVHUWKDQUHTXLUHGE\GHVLJQPHWKRGVEDVHGRQSDUWLFOHVL]HZLOORIWHQ
EHTXLWHHIIHFWLYHLQFRQWUROOLQJHURVLRQ(YHQGRZQVWUHDPURFNILOODQGVDQGJUDYHO]RQHVZKLFKZHUH
QRWGHVLJQHGDVILOWHUVPD\SURYLGHVRPHSURWHFWLRQDJDLQVWHURVLRQFRQWLQXLQJ

'HSHQGLQJRQWKHUDWLRRISDUWLFOHDQGSRUHVL]HVWKHHURVLRQZLOOHLWKHU

- 1RWFRQWLQXH QRHURVLRQ RU
- VWRSDIWHURQO\PLQRUHURVLRQ VRPHHURVLRQ RU
- VWRSRQO\DIWHUDVLJQLILFDQWDPRXQWRIHURVLRQ H[FHVVLYHHURVLRQ RU
- ZLOOFRQWLQXH FRQWLQXLQJHURVLRQ 

0RUH GHWDLOV RQ WKH FRQWLQXDWLRQ RU LQWHUUXSWLRQ RI LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ E\ ILOWHU DFWLRQ DUH JLYHQ LQ
&KDSWHU


 352*5(66,21


3URJUHVVLRQLVWKHSKDVHRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQZKHUH

D  )RU FRQFHQWUDWHG OHDN HURVLRQ WKH HURVLRQ LQ WKH FUDFN RU FRQFHQWUDWHG OHDN OHDGV WR
GHYHORSPHQWRIDSLSH
E  )RUEDFNZDUGHURVLRQWKHHURVLRQSURFHVVH[WHQGVXSVWUHDPIURPWKHSRLQWRILQLWLDWLRQ
DQG D QHWZRUN RI VPDOO HURVLRQ FKDQQHOV IRUPV EHQHDWK WKH VRLO RU HPEDQNPHQW
SURYLGLQJ WKH URRI WR WKH HURVLRQ SLSHV ,I WKHVH VPDOO HURVLRQ FKDQQHOV UHDFK WKH
UHVHUYRLU RU ULYHU WKHQ D SLSH IRUPV ,Q JOREDO EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ VXEYHUWLFDO FDYLWLHV
PD\ IRUP WKURXJK WKH FRUH RU WKHUH LV VORXJKLQJ DQG XQUDYHOLQJ RQ WKH GRZQVWUHDP
IDFH
F  )RUFRQWDFWHURVLRQWKHHURVLRQRIWKHILQHUVRLOLQWRWKHFRDUVHUVRLOFRQWLQXHV7KLVPD\
OHDG WR WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI VLQNKROHV DQG LQ SDUWLFXODU FDVHV WR WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI D
SLSHLQWKHFRUH
G  )RUVXIIXVLRQVRPHRIWKHILQHUIUDFWLRQLVHURGHGOHDYLQJWKHFRDUVHPDWUL[RIWKHVRLO
1R SLSH LV IRUPHG EXW WKH SHUPHDELOLW\ RI WKH VRLO PD\ EH LQFUHDVHG DV HURVLRQ
FRQWLQXHVRUGHFUHDVHGLIFORJJLQJRFFXUV

&KDSWHUJLYHVPRUHGHWDLOVRQWKHSURJUHVVLRQRIHURVLRQ


 '(7(&7,21


7KHOLNHOLKRRGWKDWDSDUWLFXODUIDLOXUHSDWKFDQEHGHWHFWHGDQGLIVRZKHWKHULWLVSRVVLEOHWR
LQWHUYHQH HJ E\ ORZHULQJ WKH UHVHUYRLU OHYHO  RU FDUU\ RXW UHSDLUV WR SUHYHQW WKH GDP EUHDFKLQJ LV
XVXDOO\EHVWFRQVLGHUHGDVWZRTXHVWLRQV

 :LOOWKLVIDLOXUHSDWKEHGHWHFWHG"
 :LOOLQWHUYHQWLRQDQGUHSDLUEHSRVVLEOHLQWKHWLPHDYDLODEOH"
 14
7KHOLNHOLKRRGRIGHWHFWLRQDQGVXFFHVVIXOLQWHUYHQWLRQDQGUHSDLULVGHSHQGHQWRQDQXPEHURI
IDFWRUVLQFOXGLQJ 53

D  7KHFDWHJRU\RILQWHUQDOHURVLRQLHLQWHUQDOHURVLRQLQWKHHPEDQNPHQWWKHIRXQGDWLRQ
RUHPEDQNPHQWWRIRXQGDWLRQ
E  7KHPHFKDQLVPRILQLWLDWLRQRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQ±FRQFHQWUDWHGOHDNEDFNZDUGHURVLRQ

  /HPRGHGHUXSWXUHVHUDWLOGpWHFWp"
  /¶LQWHUYHQWLRQHWODUpSDUDWLRQVHUDWHOOHSRVVLEOHGDQVOHWHPSVLPSDUWL"

/D SUREDELOLWp GH GpWHFWLRQ HW OH VXFFqV GH O¶LQWHUYHQWLRQ HW GH OD UpSDUDWLRQ GpSHQGHQW G
XQ
FHUWDLQQRPEUHGHSDUDPqWUHV

D  /D FDWpJRULH GH O¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH F
HVWjGLUH pURVLRQ LQWHUQH GDQV OH UHPEODL GDQV OD
IRQGDWLRQRXGXUHPEODLYHUVODIRQGDWLRQ
E  /HPpFDQLVPHG¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHpURVLRQGH FRQGXLWpURVLRQUpJUHVVLYH
pURVLRQGHFRQWDFWRXVXIIXVLRQ
F  /HPRGHGHUXSWXUHpODUJLVVHPHQWEUXWDOGXFRQGXLWLQVWDELOLWpGXWDOXVDYDOLQVWDELOLWp
GX WDOXV SDU OLTXpIDFWLRQ VWDWLTXH TXL SHXW FRPSUHQGUH O¶DXJPHQWDWLRQ GH OD SUHVVLRQ
LQWHUVWLWLHOOH HW OD VRXGDLQH UXSWXUH GH OD ]RQH pURGpH  GpFKDXVVHPHQW GX WDOXV DYDO
VXUYHUVH FDXVpH SDU H[HPSOH SDU OH WDVVHPHQW GH OD FUrWH SDUVXIIXVLRQ HWRX FDXVp
SDUODIRUPDWLRQG¶XQIRQWLVGDQVOHUHPEODLGXDXFRQGXLW 
G  /DQDWXUHHWODJpRPpWULHGHVPDWpULDX[GHODIRQGDWLRQ
H  /H]RQDJHGXEDUUDJHHWOHVPDWpULDX[GXUHPEODL
I  /H QLYHDX GH OD UHWHQXH DX PRPHQW GH O¶LQFLGHQW G¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH HW FRPPHQW LO SHXW
rWUHUDSLGHPHQWDEDLVVp
J  /HW\SHHWODIUpTXHQFHGHVXUYHLOODQFHHWG¶DXVFXOWDWLRQGXEDUUDJHDLQVLTXHOHQLYHDX
GHFRPSpWHQFHGXSHUVRQQHOSRXUGpWHFWHUOHGpYHORSSHPHQWGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHHWOHV
LQFLGHQWVSDUFRQGXLW
K  /DFDSDFLWpjIRUPHUOHSHUVRQQHOVXUOHVLWHHQFDVG
LQFLGHQWG
pURVLRQLQWHUQH
L  /DFDSDFLWpGHVH[SORLWDQWVjGLULJHUOHVRSpUDWLRQVG¶XUJHQFHVGHOkFKHUG¶HDX
M  /DGLVSRQLELOLWpGXPDWpULHOHWGHVpTXLSHPHQWVSRXULQWHUYHQLUHWHIIHFWXHUGHVWUDYDX[
GHUpSDUDWLRQ

/HV VLJQHV G¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH GpWHFWpV SDU XQH LQVSHFWLRQ YLVXHOOH HQ IRQFWLRQ GX W\SH GH
PpFDQLVPHG¶LQLWLDWLRQVRQW

- /¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH SDU FRQGXLW HVW GDQV OD SOXSDUW GHV FDV GpWHFWpH SDU O¶DSSDULWLRQ GH
IXLWHVRXG¶pFRXOHPHQWG¶HDXFRQWHQDQWGHVSDUWLFXOHVpURGpHVVXUODIDFHDYDODXWRXU
GHVFRQGXLWHVRXDXSLHGDYDOGXEDUUDJH
- /¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH O¶pURVLRQ GH FRQWDFW HW OD VXIIXVLRQ VRQW JpQpUDOHPHQW GpWHFWpHV
SDUODSUpVHQFHGHWXPXOXVGHVDEOHVHQSLHGGHEDUUDJHRXG¶DXWUHVVLJQHVG¶pURVLRQ
GHVRO/DVXIIXVLRQSHXWDXVVLrWUHPLVHHQpYLGHQFHSDUO¶DSSDULWLRQGHIXLWHRXG¶HDX
VXU OH SDUHPHQW DYDO SOXW{W TXH SDU GHV WXPXOXV GH VDEOH H[FHSWp VL OD VXIIXVLRQ VH
SURGXLWGDQVODIRQGDWLRQ
- 3RXUO¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFWHWODVXIIXVLRQODSUHXYHpYLGHQWHHVWOHWDVVHPHQWGHODFUrWH
GXEDUUDJHRXGHODGLJXH

/HVIRQWLVSHXYHQWVHSURGXLUHGDQVWRXVOHVW\SHVG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQH6LOHVVLJQHVREVHUYpV
VRQWGHVIRQWLVO¶pURVLRQDGpMjELHQSURJUHVVpHWOHODSVGHWHPSVSRXUDWWHLQGUHODUXSWXUHSHXWrWUH
IDLEOH ,O HVW QHWWHPHQW SUpIpUDEOH GH GpWHFWHU SOXV UDSLGHPHQW O¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH JUkFH j XQH
VXUYHLOODQFHUpJXOLqUHjGHVDXVFXOWDWLRQVTXLFRPSUHQQHQWODPHVXUHGHVGpELWVG¶pFRXOHPHQWGHOD
SUHVVLRQLQWHUVWLWLHOOHGHODWHPSpUDWXUHHWGHVPHVXUHVDFRXVWLTXHV

'HV DQRPDOLHV GDQV OHV PHVXUHV GH SUHVVLRQ LQWHUVWLWLHOOH RX GH GpELW SHXYHQW PHWWUH HQ
pYLGHQFHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHjUHWHQXHG¶HDXFRQVWDQWH&HVDQRPDOLHVVRQW

- 'HV FKDQJHPHQWV DOpDWRLUHV GH OD KDXWHXU SLp]RPpWULTXH RX GH OD YLWHVVH
G¶pFRXOHPHQW
- 'HVWHQGDQFHVLUUHYHUVLEOHV

&HV PpWKRGHV FODVVLTXHV VRQW SUREDEOHPHQW SOXV HIILFDFHV SRXU O¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH OD
VXIIXVLRQ HW O¶pURVLRQ GH FRQWDFW 'DQV GH QRPEUHXVHV VLWXDWLRQV O¶pURVLRQ GH FRQGXLW SHXW pYROXHU
WUqVUDSLGHPHQW

'H QRPEUHX[ PR\HQV LQGLUHFWV GH GpWHFWHU OHV LQILOWUDWLRQV VRQW PDLQWHQDQW GLVSRQLEOHV /H
SOXVSURPHWWHXUHVWODPHVXUHGHODWHPSpUDWXUHTXLSHXWrWUHXWLOLVpHSRXUGpWHFWHUGHVpFRXOHPHQWV
SUpIpUHQWLHOV /D ILEUH RSWLTXH IDFLOLWH OD FROOHFWH G¶LQIRUPDWLRQV HW SHUPHW GH FRXYULU GH JUDQGHV
GLVWDQFHV DX VHLQ GX EDUUDJH /D WpOpGpWHFWLRQ SHXW pJDOHPHQW IRXUQLU GH ERQV UpVXOWDWV GDQV OD
__________________________________________________________________________
GpWHFWLRQ G¶LQILOWUDWLRQ FDXVpH SDU O¶pURVLRQ &HV15WHFKQLTXHV VHURQW SUpVHQWpHV HQ GpWDLO GDQV OH
9ROXPHGHFH%XOOHWLQ

'DQV GH QRPEUHXVHV VLWXDWLRQV LO HVW QpFHVVDLUH G¶H[DPLQHU OD FDSDFLWp GH O¶DXVFXOWDWLRQ j
JpUHUOHULVTXH'DQVFHUWDLQVFDVLOSHXWrWUHQpFHVVDLUHG¶HIIHFWXHUGHVUpSDUDWLRQVSRXUUHWURXYHUXQ
QLYHDXGHULVTXHDFFHSWDEOHSOXW{WTXHGHFRPSWHUXQLTXHPHQWVXUO¶DXVFXOWDWLRQHWODVXUYHLOODQFH
54 
/H &KDSLWUH  GRQQH SOXV G¶LQIRUPDWLRQV VXU OH U{OH GH O¶DXVFXOWDWLRQ HW GH OD VXUYHLOODQFH
GDQVODGpWHFWLRQjWHPSVGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQH




 :LOOWKLVIDLOXUHSDWKEHGHWHFWHG"
 :LOOLQWHUYHQWLRQDQGUHSDLUEHSRVVLEOHLQWKHWLPHDYDLODEOH"

7KHOLNHOLKRRGRIGHWHFWLRQDQGVXFFHVVIXOLQWHUYHQWLRQDQGUHSDLULVGHSHQGHQWRQDQXPEHURI
IDFWRUVLQFOXGLQJ

D  7KHFDWHJRU\RILQWHUQDOHURVLRQLHLQWHUQDOHURVLRQLQWKHHPEDQNPHQWWKHIRXQGDWLRQ
RUHPEDQNPHQWWRIRXQGDWLRQ
E  7KHPHFKDQLVPRILQLWLDWLRQRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQ±FRQFHQWUDWHGOHDNEDFNZDUGHURVLRQ
FRQWDFWHURVLRQRUVXIIXVLRQ
F  7KH EUHDFK PRGH ± JURVV HQODUJHPHQW RI D SLSH LQVWDELOLW\ RI WKH GRZQVWUHDP VORSH
VORSH LQVWDELOLW\ IURP VWDWLF OLTXHIDFWLRQ ZKLFK PD\ LQFOXGH LQFUHDVH RI SRUH SUHVVXUH
DQG VXGGHQ FROODSVH LQ DQ HURGHG ]RQH  XQUDYHOLQJ RU VORXJKLQJ RI WKH GRZQVWUHDP
VORSHRYHUWRSSLQJ HJGXHWRVHWWOHPHQWRIWKHFUHVWIURPVXIIXVLRQDQGRUGXHWRWKH
IRUPDWLRQRIDVLQNKROHIURPDSLSHLQWKHHPEDQNPHQW 
G  7KHQDWXUHRIDQGWKHJHRPHWU\RIWKHPDWHULDOVLQWKHIRXQGDWLRQ
H  7KH]RQLQJRIWKHHPEDQNPHQWDQGWKHPDWHULDOVLQWKHHPEDQNPHQW
I  7KHUHVHUYRLUOHYHODWWKHWLPHRIWKHLQWHUQDOHURVLRQLQFLGHQWDQGKRZUDSLGO\LWFDQEH
GUDZQGRZQ
J  7KH W\SH DQG IUHTXHQF\ RI PRQLWRULQJ DQG VXUYHLOODQFH DW WKH GDP DQG WKH WUDLQLQJ RI
WKHVWDIIWRUHFRJQL]HDGHYHORSLQJLQWHUQDOHURVLRQDQGSLSLQJLQFLGHQW
K  7KH DELOLW\ WR JHW WUDLQHG SHUVRQQHO RXW WR WKH VLWH LQ WKH HYHQW RI DQ LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ
LQFLGHQW
L  7KHDELOLW\RIWKRVHUHVSRQVLEOHWREHDEOHWRGLUHFWHPHUJHQF\UHOHDVHRIWKHUHVHUYRLU
M  7KHDYDLODELOLW\RIPDWHULDOVDQGHTXLSPHQWWRLQWHUYHQHDQGFDUU\RXWUHSDLUZRUNV

7KH VLJQV RI LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ GHWHFWHG E\ YLVXDO LQVSHFWLRQ UHODWHG WR WKH W\SH RI LQLWLDWLRQ
SKHQRPHQDDUH

- ,QWHUQDO HURVLRQ E\ FRQFHQWUDWHG OHDN LV LQ PRVW FDVHV GHWHFWHG E\ WKH HPHUJHQFH RI
OHDNDJHRUZDWHUFRQWDLQLQJHURGHGSDUWLFOHVRQWKHGRZQVWUHDPIDFHDURXQGFRQGXLWV
RUDWWKHGRZQVWUHDPWRHRIWKHGDP
- %DFNZDUGHURVLRQFRQWDFWHURVLRQDQGVXIIXVLRQDUHXVXDOO\GHWHFWHGE\WKHSUHVHQFH
RIVDQGERLOVDWWKHWRHRIWKHGDPRURWKHUVLJQVRIHURGHGVRLO6XIIXVLRQPD\DOVREH
HYLGHQFHG E\ HPHUJHQFH RI OHDNDJH RU ZDWHU RQ WKH GRZQVWUHDP VORSH UDWKHU WKDQ
VDQGERLOVXQOHVVWKHVXIIXVLRQLVLQWKHIRXQGDWLRQPDWHULDOV
- )RU FRQWDFW HURVLRQ DQG VXIIXVLRQ WKH FRPPRQ HYLGHQFH LV VHWWOHPHQW RI WKH FUHVW RI
WKHGDPRUOHYHH

6LQNKROHVPD\EHSUHVHQWLQDOOW\SHVRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQ,IVLQNKROHVDUHWKHREVHUYHGVLJQV
WKHHURVLRQKDVDOUHDG\SURJUHVVHGDQGWKHWLPHWRIDLOXUHPD\EHVPDOO,WLVIDUSUHIHUDEOHWRGHWHFW
WKH LQLWLDWLRQ RI HURVLRQ HDUOLHU E\ UHJXODU VXUYHLOODQFH PRQLWRULQJ LQFOXGLQJ OHDNDJH SRUH SUHVVXUH
PHDVXUHPHQWWHPSHUDWXUHPHDVXUHPHQWDQGDFRXVWLFV

$QRPDOLHVPRQLWRUHGE\SRUHSUHVVXUHRUVHHSDJHPHDVXUHPHQWVPD\EHHYLGHQFHRILQWHUQDO
HURVLRQXQGHUFRQVWDQWZDWHUORDG6XFKDQRPDOLHVLQFOXGH

- UDQGRPFKDQJHVRISLH]RPHWULFKHDGRUVHHSDJHUDWH
- LUUHFRYHUDEOHWUHQGV

7KHVH FODVVLFDO PHWKRGV DUH PRUH OLNHO\ WR EH HIIHFWLYH IRU EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ VXIIXVLRQ DQG
FRQWDFWHURVLRQ&RQFHQWUDWHGOHDNHURVLRQPD\SURJUHVVUDSLGO\LQPDQ\VLWXDWLRQV

0DQ\ OHVV GLUHFW PHDQV RI GHWHFWLQJ VHHSDJH DUH QRZ DYDLODEOH 7KH PRVW SURPLVLQJ LV
WHPSHUDWXUHPHDVXUHPHQWZKLFKFDQEHXVHGWRLQIHUORFDOL]HGIORZ)LEHURSWLFFDEOHVIDFLOLWDWHGDWD
FROOHFWLRQ DQG PDNH LW SRVVLEOH WR FRYHU ODUJH SDUWV RI WKH GDP 5HPRWH VHQVLQJ RSWLRQV DOVR RIIHU
JUHDWSRWHQWLDOLQGHWHFWLQJZKHWKHUWKHVHHSDJHKDVFDXVHGHURVLRQ7KHVHDUHGLVFXVVHGLQGHWDLOLQ
9ROXPHRIWKH%XOOHWLQ


15

55
SOXVSURPHWWHXUHVWODPHVXUHGHODWHPSpUDWXUHTXLSHXWrWUHXWLOLVpHSRXUGpWHFWHUGHVpFRXOHPHQWV
SUpIpUHQWLHOV /D ILEUH RSWLTXH IDFLOLWH OD FROOHFWH G¶LQIRUPDWLRQV HW SHUPHW GH FRXYULU GH JUDQGHV
GLVWDQFHV DX VHLQ GX EDUUDJH /D WpOpGpWHFWLRQ SHXW pJDOHPHQW IRXUQLU GH ERQV UpVXOWDWV GDQV OD
GpWHFWLRQ G¶LQILOWUDWLRQ FDXVpH SDU O¶pURVLRQ &HV WHFKQLTXHV VHURQW SUpVHQWpHV HQ GpWDLO GDQV OH
9ROXPHGHFH%XOOHWLQ

'DQV GH QRPEUHXVHV VLWXDWLRQV LO HVW QpFHVVDLUH G¶H[DPLQHU OD FDSDFLWp GH O¶DXVFXOWDWLRQ j
JpUHUOHULVTXH'DQVFHUWDLQVFDVLOSHXWrWUHQpFHVVDLUHG¶HIIHFWXHUGHVUpSDUDWLRQVSRXUUHWURXYHUXQ
QLYHDXGHULVTXHDFFHSWDEOHSOXW{WTXHGHFRPSWHUXQLTXHPHQWVXUO¶DXVFXOWDWLRQHWODVXUYHLOODQFH

/H &KDSLWUH  GRQQH SOXV G¶LQIRUPDWLRQV VXU OH U{OH GH O¶DXVFXOWDWLRQ HW GH OD VXUYHLOODQFH
GDQVODGpWHFWLRQjWHPSVGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQH


 ,17(59(17,21


/¶LQWHUYHQWLRQSRXUHPSrFKHUODSURJUHVVLRQGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHODIRUPDWLRQGHUHQDUGHWOD
UXSWXUHGXEDUUDJHSHXWSUHQGUHSOXVLHXUVIRUPHV

, $EDLVVHUOHQLYHDXGHODUHWHQXHHQXWLOLVDQWOHVYDQQHVGHO¶pYDFXDWHXUGHFUXHRXOHV
RXYUDJHVGHUHVWLWXWLRQ
,, 0HWWUHHQSODFHGHVSXLWVGHGpFRPSUHVVLRQGDQVODIRQGDWLRQRXGDQVOHUHPEODL
,,, &RQVWUXLUH XQ ILOWUH LQYHUVp VXU OHV ©WXPXOXV GH VDEOHª RX OHV ]RQHV GH PDWpULDX[
pURGpVSURYHQDQWGHODIRQGDWLRQRXGXUHPEODL
,9 &RQVWUXLUHXQHUHFKDUJHSRXUUpGXLUHODSUREDELOLWpGHVRXOqYHPHQWGHJOLVVHPHQWRX
GHGpFKDXVVHPHQW
9 0HWWUH HQ SODFH XQ PDWpULDX JUDQXODLUH VDEOHJUDYLHUHQURFKHPHQW  VXU OH SDUHPHQW
DPRQWGDQVOHVIRQWLVSRXUHVVD\HUGHOHVEORTXHU

/¶XWLOLVDWLRQ FRQMRLQWH GH FHV PHVXUHV SHXW rWUH HQYLVDJHDEOH /D PHVXUH DSSOLFDEOH RX
UpDOLVDEOHGpSHQGUDGHVFLUFRQVWDQFHVSDUWLFXOLqUHVGXEDUUDJH

,OIDXWUHFRQQDvWUHTX
XQHUpWLFHQFHGXSURSULpWDLUHRXGHO
H[SORLWDQWjOLEpUHUO
HDXHVWSUREDEOH
FRPSWHWHQXGHODSHUWHpFRQRPLTXHHQJHQGUpHRXGHVSHUWHVKXPDLQHVHWGHVGRPPDJHVPDWpULHOV
pYHQWXHOVQRWDPPHQWVLOHVULYHVjO¶DYDOGXEDUUDJHVRQWVXVFHSWLEOHVG
rWUHQR\pHVSDUOHOkFKHUG
HDX

/H7DEOHDXSHXWrWUHXWLOLVpSRXUpYDOXHUOHULVTXHG¶pFKHFGHO¶LQWHUYHQWLRQGDQVOHFDVR
O¶pURVLRQGHFRQGXLWHVWGpWHFWpH&HODSHXWrWUHpYDOXpSRXUGLIIpUHQWVQLYHDX[GHUHWHQXH,OQ¶HVWSDV
SRVVLEOH GH FRXYULU O¶HQVHPEOH GHV VFHQDULRV SRVVLEOHV &HWWH pYDOXDWLRQ GRLW rWUH UpDOLVpH SRXU XQ
PRGHGHUXSWXUHHWXQH]RQHGHGpYHORSSHPHQWGXFRQGXLWGRQQpV

6LO
pURVLRQVHSURGXLWVDQVSRXUDXWDQWrWUHFDWDVWURSKLTXHRXVLOHEDUUDJHVHPEOHYXOQpUDEOH
jO
pURVLRQLQWHUQHLOHVWSRVVLEOHGHUpDOLVHUjWHPSVGHVWUDYDX[GHUpSDUDWLRQSRXUHPSrFKHUVRQ
GpYHORSSHPHQW

/HVWUDYDX[XUJHQWVSRXULQWHUURPSUHOHGpYHORSSHPHQWGHEUqFKHFRQVLVWHQWHQJpQpUDOjPHWWUH
HQSODFHXQILOWUHHWXQGUDLQDJHVXUOHV]RQHVGHUpVXUJHQFHV&HFLSHUPHWjO¶HDXLQILOWUpGHV¶pFRXOHUHQ
WRXWH VpFXULWp WRXW HQ SLpJHDQW OHV SDUWLFXOHV pURGpHV GLPLQXDQW SURJUHVVLYHPHQW OH GpYHORSSHPHQW GH
O
pURVLRQ4XHOTXHVIRLVODODUJHXUGXEDUUDJHHVWDXJPHQWpHSDUO¶DMRXWG¶XQHUHFKDUJHDXGHVVXVGXILOWUH
&HFL D SRXU HIIHW GH GLPLQXHU OH JUDGLHQW K\GUDXOLTXH HW O¶pQHUJLH G¶pFRXOHPHQW GLVSRQLEOH &HOD SHUPHW
pJDOHPHQW G¶DXJPHQWHU OD FRQWUDLQWH HIIHFWLYH VXU OHV PDWpULDX[ R VH SURGXLVHQW OHV UpVXUJHQFHV RX
O¶pURVLRQHWGHUpGXLUHODSHUPpDELOLWpHWSDUFRQVpTXHQWO¶pQHUJLHGHO¶pURVLRQ

/¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHSHXWrWUHQHXWUDOLVpHHQDMRXWDQWXQpSDLVILOWUHHQSLHGUHQGDQWOHSRLGV
VXSpULHXU DX[ VRXVSUHVVLRQV &HOD SHUPHW GH IDLUH SDVVHU OH JUDGLHQW VRXV OH JUDGLHQW FULWLTXH
VWRSSDQWOHGpYHORSSHPHQWGXFRQGXLWHWGHVWXPXOXVGHVDEOH

'DQV FHUWDLQV FDV ORUVTXH OD YLWHVVH G¶pFRXOHPHQW HVW WURS pOHYpH RQ SHXW PHWWUH HQ SODFH
XQHSHWLWHTXDQWLWpGHVROJURVVLHUjO¶LQWpULHXUHWDXWRXUGHODIXLWHFHTXLSHUPHWGHFDVVHUODYLWHVVH
HW G¶DVVXUHU GDQV GH ERQQHV FRQGLWLRQV OD PLVH HQ SODFH G¶XQ ILOWUH LQYHUVp HW G¶XQH UHFKDUJH
QpFHVVDLUHSRXUSDUYHQLUjODVWDELOLWp

__________________________________________________________________________
16
/HVDXWUHVLQWHUYHQWLRQVVWUXFWXUHOOHVFRQVLVWHQWjFRXSHUO¶pFRXOHPHQW DYHFSDUH[HPSOHGHV
SDURLVPRXOpHVRXGHVWDSLVG¶DUJLOH0DLVFHVSURFpGpVRQWO¶LQFRQYpQLHQWORUVTX¶LOVQHVRQWSDVDQFUpV
GDQVGHVKRUL]RQVpWDQFKHVGHFRQFHQWUHUOHVLQILOWUDWLRQVHWOHVIXLWHVDXQLYHDXGHVIDLEOHVVHVHGHV
H[WUpPLWpVGHµpWDQFKpLWpFHTXLSHXW\FDXVHUXQHUHSULVHGHO
pURVLRQHWDJJUDYHUODVLWXDWLRQ

¬FRXUWHWjPR\HQWHUPHHWDILQGHUHFXHLOOLUWRXWHVOHVGRQQpHVQpFHVVDLUHO¶DXJPHQWDWLRQ
GHV PR\HQV GH VXUYHLOODQFH HWRX GH O¶DXVFXOWDWLRQ SHXW rWUH XWLOLVpH FRPPH PR\HQ G¶LQWHUYHQWLRQ
3RXUOHVDQFLHQVEDUUDJHVRO¶RQDXQIDLEOHQLYHDXGHFRQQDLVVDQFHGXSURILOW\SHHWGHVPDWpULDX[
56
FRQVWLWXWLIVHWGRQWOHULVTXHYLVjYLVGHODSRSXODWLRQHVWIDLEOHjPR\HQF¶HVWSUREDEOHPHQWOHPR\HQ
OHSOXVHIILFDFHGHJpUHUOHULVTXHVpFXULWp

7DEOHDX


,QPDQ\VLWXDWLRQVLWLVQHFHVVDU\WRFRQVLGHUWKHFDSDELOLW\RIPRQLWRULQJWRPDQDJHWKHULVNV,Q
VRPHVLWXDWLRQVLWPD\EHQHFHVVDU\WRFDUU\RXWUHPHGLDOZRUNVWRDFKLHYHWROHUDEOHULVNVUDWKHUWKDQ
UHO\RQPRQLWRULQJDQGVXUYHLOODQFH
 
&KDSWHU  JLYHV PRUH LQIRUPDWLRQ RQ WKH UROH RI PRQLWRULQJ DQG VXUYHLOODQFH LQ WKH WLPHO\
GHWHFWLRQRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQ


 ,17(59(17,21


,QWHUYHQWLRQ WR SUHYHQW WKH SURJUHVVLRQ RI LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ DQG SLSLQJ DQG EUHDFK FDQ WDNH
VHYHUDOIRUPVLQFOXGLQJ

, 'UDZLQJGRZQWKHUHVHUYRLUOHYHOXVLQJVSLOOZD\JDWHVRURXWOHWYDOYHV
,, ,QVWDOOLQJSUHVVXUHUHOLHIZHOOVLQWKHIRXQGDWLRQRIWKHHPEDQNPHQW
,,, %XLOGLQJUHYHUVHILOWHUVRYHU³ERLOV´RUDUHDVZKHUHHURGLQJPDWHULDOLVHPHUJLQJIURPWKH
IRXQGDWLRQRIWKHHPEDQNPHQW
,9 %XLOGLQJ D ZHLJKWLQJ EHUP WR UHGXFH WKH OLNHOLKRRG RI KHDYH RU VORSH LQVWDELOLW\ RU
XQUDYHOLQJ
9 'XPSLQJ JUDQXODU PDWHULDO VDQGJUDYHOURFNILOO  LQWR WKH XSVWUHDP VLGH RI VLQNKROHV WR
WU\WREORFNWKHP

0RUH WKDQ RQH RI WKHVH PHDVXUHV PD\ EH XVHG WRJHWKHU :KLFK LV DSSOLFDEOH RU IHDVLEOH ZLOO
GHSHQGRQWKHSDUWLFXODUFLUFXPVWDQFHVRIWKHGDP

,W VKRXOG EH UHFRJQL]HG WKDW WKHUH PD\ EH UHOXFWDQFH RQ WKH SDUW RI WKH UHVHUYRLU RZQHU RU
RSHUDWRUWRUHOHDVHZDWHUJLYHQWKHORVWUHYHQXHWKDWPD\UHVXOWRULIUHOHDVHRIUHVHUYRLUZDWHULVOLNHO\
WRUHVXOWLQSURSHUW\GDPDJHDQGORVVRIOLIHIRUH[DPSOHLIOHYHHEDQNVGRZQVWUHDPRIWKHGDPDUH
OLNHO\WREHRYHUWRSSHGE\WKHIORRGUHVXOWLQJIURPUHOHDVHRIWKHZDWHU

7DEOH  FDQ EH XVHG WR DVVHVV WKH OLNHOLKRRG WKDW JLYHQ WKH FRQFHQWUDWHG OHDN LV GHWHFWHG
LQWHUYHQWLRQLVQRWVXFFHVVIXO7KLVFDQEHGRQHIRUYDULRXVUHVHUYRLUOHYHOV,WLVQRWSUDFWLFDOWRFRYHU
DOO WKH SRVVLEOH VFHQDULRV ,Q PDNLQJ WKLV DVVHVVPHQW FRQVLGHUDWLRQ VKRXOG EH PDGH IRU WKH IDLOXUH
PRGHDQGORFDWLRQRIWKHGHYHORSLQJSLSH

,IHURVLRQLVRFFXUULQJZLWKRXWEHFRPLQJFDWDVWURSKLFRULIDGDPDSSHDUVYXOQHUDEOHWRLQWHUQDO
HURVLRQLWPD\EHQHFHVVDU\WRFDUU\RXWZRUNVWRLQKLELWLWVGHYHORSPHQW

(PHUJHQF\ ZRUNV WR LQWHUUXSW SURJUHVV WR D EUHDFK DUH FRPPRQO\ GRQH E\ SURYLGLQJ ILOWHUHG
GUDLQDJH DW VHHSDJH SRLQWV 7KLV DOORZV WKH VHHSLQJ ZDWHU WR IORZ VDIHO\ ZKLOVW WUDSSLQJ HURGHG
SDUWLFOHV DQG JUDGXDOO\ LQKLELWLQJ WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI HURVLRQ 6RPHWLPHV WKH ZLGWK RI WKH GDP LV
LQFUHDVHGE\DGGLQJDILOWHUHGEHUP7KLVKDVWKHHIIHFWRIGHFUHDVLQJWKHK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWDQGWKH
VHHSDJHHQHUJ\DYDLODEOH,WDOVRORDGVWKHPDWHULDOVWKURXJKZKLFKVHHSDJHDQGHURVLRQLVRFFXUULQJ
WKHUHE\ LQFUHDVLQJ WKH HIIHFWLYH VWUHVVDQG UHGXFLQJ WKH SHUPHDELOLW\ DQG FRQVHTXHQWO\ UHGXFLQJ WKH
HQHUJ\DYDLODEOHWRVXVWDLQHURVLRQ

%DFNZDUGHURVLRQPD\EHFRXQWHUDFWHGE\DGGLQJILOWHUHGWRHZHLJKWVWRLQFUHDVHWKHGRZQZDUG
ORDG WR EH JUHDWHU WKDQ WKH XSZDUG ZDWHU SUHVVXUH WKHUHE\ UHGXFLQJ JUDGLHQW EHORZ FULWLFDO DQG
SUHYHQWLQJWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIWKHEDFNZDUGHURVLRQSLSHVDQGVDQGERLOV

,Q VRPH FDVHV D VPDOO DPRXQW RI FRDUVH PDWHULDOV LV SXW LQWR DQG RYHU WKH OHDN EHIRUH WKH
SURSHUILOWHUPDWHULDOVDUHDGGHGDVWKHIORZVYHORFLWLHVFDQEHWRRKLJKIRUVWDEOHSODFHPHQWRIILOWHU
VL]HG SDUWLFOHV  ,Q PDQ\ FDVHV PXOWLVWDJHG ILOWHUGUDLQV DV ZHOO DV RWKHU ZHLJKWLQJ PDWHULDOV DUH
QHHGHGWRDFKLHYHVWDELOLW\

2WKHU LQWHUYHQWLRQV VHHN WR EORFN VHHSDJH GLDSKUDJP ZDOOV DQG FOD\ FRUHV IRU H[DPSOH EXW
WKHVHKDYHWKHGLVDGYDQWDJHWKDWLIWKH\DUHQRWFRQWLQXRXVFRQFHQWUDWHGVHHSDJHDQGOHDNDJHFDQ
RFFXU DW JDSV LQ WKH LPSHUPHDEOH PHPEUDQH DQG WKLV PD\ FDXVH HURVLRQ ORFDOO\ DQG ZRUVHQ WKH
VLWXDWLRQ

16

57
QpFHVVDLUHSRXUSDUYHQLUjODVWDELOLWp

/HVDXWUHVLQWHUYHQWLRQVVWUXFWXUHOOHVFRQVLVWHQWjFRXSHUO¶pFRXOHPHQW DYHFSDUH[HPSOHGHV
SDURLVPRXOpHVRXGHVWDSLVG¶DUJLOH0DLVFHVSURFpGpVRQWO¶LQFRQYpQLHQWORUVTX¶LOVQHVRQWSDVDQFUpV
GDQVGHVKRUL]RQVpWDQFKHVGHFRQFHQWUHUOHVLQILOWUDWLRQVHWOHVIXLWHVDXQLYHDXGHVIDLEOHVVHVHGHV
H[WUpPLWpVGHµpWDQFKpLWpFHTXLSHXW\FDXVHUXQHUHSULVHGHO
pURVLRQHWDJJUDYHUODVLWXDWLRQ

¬FRXUWHWjPR\HQWHUPHHWDILQGHUHFXHLOOLUWRXWHVOHVGRQQpHVQpFHVVDLUHO¶DXJPHQWDWLRQ
GHV PR\HQV GH VXUYHLOODQFH HWRX GH O¶DXVFXOWDWLRQ SHXW rWUH XWLOLVpH FRPPH PR\HQ G¶LQWHUYHQWLRQ
3RXUOHVDQFLHQVEDUUDJHVRO¶RQDXQIDLEOHQLYHDXGHFRQQDLVVDQFHGXSURILOW\SHHWGHVPDWpULDX[
FRQVWLWXWLIVHWGRQWOHULVTXHYLVjYLVGHODSRSXODWLRQHVWIDLEOHjPR\HQF¶HVWSUREDEOHPHQWOHPR\HQ
OHSOXVHIILFDFHGHJpUHUOHULVTXHVpFXULWp

7DEOHDX
7DX[G¶pFKHFGHO¶LQWHUYHQWLRQGDQVOHFDVRO¶pURVLRQGHFRQGXLWHVWGpWHFWpH
G¶DSUqV)HOOet al 
7HPSVSRXUTXH
O¶pURVLRQGHFRQGXLW 7DX[G¶pFKHFGH
4XHIDLUH"
DERXWLVVHjO¶LQLWLDWLRQ O¶LQWHUYHQWLRQ
G¶XQHEUqFKH
/HODSVGHWHPSVHVWWURSUpGXLWSRXULQWHUYHQLUDYHFVXFFqVTXHOTXHVRLWOH
KHXUHV 
PRGHGHGpIDLOODQFH
'DQVODSOXSDUWGHVFDVLOVHUDLPSRVVLEOHG
LQWHUYHQLUDYHFVXFFqVGDQVFH
ODSVGHWHPSV/¶LQWHUYHQWLRQVHUDXQVXFFqVVHXOHPHQWGDQVOHVFDVR
jKHXUHV j
O¶LQWHUYHQWLRQHVWVLPSOHHWORUVTXHOHSHUVRQQHOOHVpTXLSHPHQWVHWOH
PDWpULHOVRQWGLVSRQLEOHV
'DQVGHQRPEUHX[FDVLOVHUDLPSRVVLEOHG¶LQWHUYHQLUDYHFVXFFqVGDQVFH
ODSVGHWHPSV/¶LQWHUYHQWLRQVHUDXQVXFFqVVHXOHPHQWGDQVOHVFDVR
jKHXUHV O¶LQWHUYHQWLRQHVWVLPSOHHWORUVTXHOHSHUVRQQHOOHVpTXLSHPHQWVHWOH j
PDWpULHOVRQWGLVSRQLEOHVRXV¶LOV¶DJLWG¶XQEDUUDJHDYHFXQHSHWLWHUHWHQXH
G¶HDXRO¶RQSHXWDEDLVVHUOHQLYHDXSRXUDUUrWHUOHPRGHGHUXSWXUH
'DQVGHQRPEUHX[FDVLOVHUDLPSRVVLEOHG¶LQWHUYHQLUDYHFVXFFqVGDQVFH
ODSVGHWHPSV/¶LQWHUYHQWLRQVHUDXQVXFFqVVHXOHPHQWGDQVOHVFDVR
O¶LQWHUYHQWLRQHVWVLPSOHHWORUVTXHOHSHUVRQQHOOHVpTXLSHPHQWVHWOH
jMRXUV j
PDWpULHOVRQWGLVSRQLEOHVRXV¶LOV¶DJLWG¶XQEDUUDJHDYHFXQHSHWLWHRX
PR\HQQHUHWHQXHG¶HDXDYHFGHODUJHVSRUWHVGHGpFKDUJHPHQWSHUPHWWDQW
GHEDLVVHUOHQLYHDXSRXUDUUrWHUOHPRGHGHUXSWXUH
'DQVFHUWDLQVFDVLOVHUDLPSRVVLEOHG¶LQWHUYHQLUDYHFVXFFqVGDQVFHODSVGH
WHPSV/¶LQWHUYHQWLRQVHUDXQVXFFqVGDQVOHVFDVRO¶LQWHUYHQWLRQHVWVLPSOH
HWORUVTXHOHSHUVRQQHOOHVpTXLSHPHQWVHWOHPDWpULHOVRQWGLVSRQLEOHVRX
jMRXUV j D 
V¶LOV¶DJLWG¶XQEDUUDJHDYHFXQHSHWLWHRXPR\HQQHUHWHQXHG¶HDXpTXLSpGH
JUDQGHVYDQQHVSHUPHWWDQWGHEDLVVHUOHQLYHDXSRXUDUUrWHUOHPRGHGH
UXSWXUH
'DQVFHUWDLQVFDVLOVHUDLPSRVVLEOHG¶LQWHUYHQLUDYHFVXFFqVGDQVFHODSVGH
WHPSV,OHVWSRVVLEOHOjRO¶LQWHUYHQWLRQHVWVLPSOHHWORUVTXHOHSHUVRQQHO
'HVVHPDLQHVRXGHV
OHVpTXLSHPHQWVHWOHPDWpULHOVRQWGLVSRQLEOHVRXV¶LOV¶DJLWG¶XQEDUUDJH j D 
PRLV
DYHFXQHSHWLWHRXPR\HQQHUHWHQXHG¶HDXpTXLSpGHJUDQGHVYDQQHV
SHUPHWWDQWGHEDLVVHUOHQLYHDXSRXUDUUrWHUOHPRGHGHUXSWXUH
1RWH D 8WLOLVHUOHVYDOHXUVLQIpULHXUHVjXQLTXHPHQWGDQVOHFDVRO¶RQDXQGHJUppOHYpGHFRQILDQFHVXUOHVGRQQpHV


/H &KDSLWUH  GpFULW OHV PHVXUHV VWUXFWXUHOOHV SRVVLEOHV SRXU SURWpJHU OH EDUUDJH FRQWUH
O¶pURVLRQ(OOHVVRQWSULQFLSDOHPHQWGHGHX[W\SHVOHVILOWUHVRXOHVFRXSXUHVpWDQFKHV/HPDLQWLHQ
HQERQQHFRQGLWLRQGHVFRQGXLWHVWUDYHUVDQWHVDYHFODPLVHHQSODFHG¶XQILOWUHSpULSKpULTXHDXSLHG
DYDOVRQWpJDOHPHQWGHVEDUULqUHVHIILFDFHVFRQWUHO¶pURVLRQ


 /$%5(&+(


¬ FH VWDGH O
HQVHPEOH GX SURFHVVXV G
pURVLRQ LQWHUQH V¶HVW GpURXOp OD GpWHFWLRQ HW
O¶LQWHUYHQWLRQ RQW pFKRXp OD TXHVWLRQ HVW PDLQWHQDQW GH VDYRLU VL OH EDUUDJH YD URPSUH SDU O¶XQ GHV
FLQT PpFDQLVPHV pQXPpUpV FLGHVVRXV RX VL OH SURFHVVXV G¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH YD VH VWDELOLVHU /HV
SKpQRPqQHV GH UXSWXUH VRQW pQXPpUpV GDQV RUGUH GpFURLVVDQW G¶RFFXUUHQFH /HV TXDWUH SUHPLHUV
VRQWUHSUpVHQWpVVFKpPDWLTXHPHQWVXUOD)LJ DE 

- eODUJLVVHPHQWEUXWDOGXFRQGXLW UHQDUG 
__________________________________________________________________________
- 6XUYHUVH SURYRTXpHSDUH[HPSOHSDUOHWDVVHPHQWGHODFUrWHSDUVXIIXVLRQHWRXSDU
17
ODIRUPDWLRQG¶XQIRQWLVG€jXQFRQGXLWGDQVOHUHPEODL 
- *OLVVHPHQWGXWDOXVDYDO
- 'pFKDXVVHPHQWGXSDUHPHQWDYDO
- /LTXpIDFWLRQVWDWLTXHTXLHVWXQHIRUPHG¶LQVWDELOLWpGHWDOXVFRPSUHQDQWO¶DXJPHQWDWLRQ
GHODSUHVVLRQLQWHUVWLWLHOOHHWODUXSWXUHVRXGDLQHVGHV]RQHVpURGpHV


 /$35(66,21

())21'5(0(17'8&21'8,7

,17(567,&,(//($8*0(17( ,167$%,/,7('(7$/86'(

0(1$17$/$3(57('(/$
/$5(&+$5*($9$/
5(9$1&+( $9(&/¶(526,21,17(51(
 
58  
 
(&28/(0(1
 7 
 
(/$5*,66(0(17



,QWKHVKRUWWRPHGLXPWHUPLQFUHDVHGVXUYHLOODQFHDQGRULQFUHDVHGPRQLWRULQJFDQEHXVHGDV
DQLQWHUYHQWLRQXQWLODGGLWLRQDOGDWDLVFROOHFWHG)RUROGGDPVZKHUHOLWWOHLVNQRZQDERXWWKHLQWHUQDO
JHRPHWU\DQGVRLOVDQGULVNWRWKHSXEOLFLVORZWRPHGLXPWKLVPD\EHWKHPRVWHIIHFWLYHPHDQVRI
PDQDJLQJULVN

7DEOH
/LNHOLKRRGWKDWJLYHQWKHFRQFHQWUDWHGOHDNLVGHWHFWHGLQWHUYHQWLRQLVQRWVXFFHVVIXO
DIWHU)HOOet al 
7LPHIRU'HYHORSPHQW /LNHOLKRRGRI
RI&RQFHQWUDWHG/HDN :KDWFDQEHGRQH" LQWHUYHQWLRQQRW
WR,QLWLDO%UHDFK VXFFHHGLQJ
KUV 7KHUHLVWRROLWWOHWLPHWRVXFFHVVIXOO\LQWHUYHQHUHJDUGOHVVRIWKHIDLOXUHPRGH 
,QPRVWFDVHVLWZLOOEHLPSUDFWLFDOWRLQWHUYHQHVXFFHVVIXOO\LQWKLVDPRXQWRI
WLPH2QO\LQFDVHVZKHUHWKHUHLVDVWUDLJKWIRUZDUGPHWKRGRILQWHUYHQWLRQ
WRKUV WR
DQGWKHUHDUHSHUVRQQHOHTXLSPHQWDQGPDWHULDOVDYDLODEOHZLOOLQWHUYHQWLRQ
EHVXFFHVVIXO
,QPDQ\FDVHVLWZLOOEHLPSUDFWLFDOWRLQWHUYHQHVXFFHVVIXOO\LQWKLVWLPH2QO\
LQFDVHVZKHUHWKHUHLVDVWUDLJKWIRUZDUGPHWKRGRILQWHUYHQWLRQDQGWKHUH
WRKUV DUHSHUVRQQHOHTXLSPHQWDQGPDWHULDOVDYDLODEOHZLOOLQWHUYHQWLRQEH WR
VXFFHVVIXORULWLVDVPDOOVWRUDJHZKLFKFDQEHGUDZQGRZQWRVWRSWKH
IDLOXUHPRGH
,QPDQ\FDVHVLWZLOOEHLPSUDFWLFDOWRLQWHUYHQHVXFFHVVIXOO\LQWKLVWLPH2QO\
LQFDVHVZKHUHWKHUHLVDVWUDLJKWIRUZDUGPHWKRGRILQWHUYHQWLRQDQGWKHUH
DUHSHUVRQQHOHTXLSPHQWDQGPDWHULDOVDYDLODEOHZLOOLQWHUYHQWLRQEH
WRGD\V WR
VXFFHVVIXORULWLVDVPDOOVWRUDJHRUPHGLXPVWRUDJHZLWKODUJHJDWH
GLVFKDUJHFDSDFLW\VRWKDWWKHUHVHUYRLUFDQEHGUDZQGRZQWRVWRSWKHIDLOXUH
PRGH
,QVRPHFDVHVLWZLOOEHSUDFWLFDOWRLQWHUYHQHVXFFHVVIXOO\LQWKLVWLPH,Q
FDVHVZKHUHWKHUHLVDVWUDLJKWIRUZDUGPHWKRGRILQWHUYHQWLRQDQGWKHUHDUH
WRGD\V SHUVRQQHOHTXLSPHQWDQGPDWHULDOVDYDLODEOHRULWLVDVPDOOVWRUDJHRU WR D 
PHGLXPVWRUDJHZLWKODUJHJDWHGLVFKDUJHFDSDFLW\DOORZLQJWKHUHVHUYRLUWR
EHGUDZQGRZQWRVWRSWKHIDLOXUHPRGH
,QVRPHFDVHVLWZLOOEHSUDFWLFDOWRLQWHUYHQHVXFFHVVIXOO\LQWKLVWLPH:KHUH
WKHUHLVDVWUDLJKWIRUZDUGPHWKRGRILQWHUYHQWLRQDQGWKHUHDUHSHUVRQQHO
HTXLSPHQWDQGPDWHULDOVDYDLODEOHDQGODUJHUHVRXUFHVLQWHUYHQWLRQKDVDIDLU
:HHNVRUPRQWKV WR D 
FKDQFHRIEHLQJVXFFHVVIXORULWLVDVPDOORUPHGLXPVWRUDJHZLWKODUJHJDWH
GLVFKDUJHFDSDFLW\DOORZLQJWKHUHVHUYRLUWREHGUDZQGRZQWRVWRSWKHIDLOXUH
PRGH
1RWH D 8VHYDOXHVOHVVWKDQRQO\LIWKHUHLVDKLJKGHJUHHRIFRQILGHQFHLQWKHDVVHVVHGYDOXH


&KDSWHURXWOLQHVUHPHGLDWLRQPHDVXUHVDYDLODEOHWRSURWHFWGDPVDJDLQVWHURVLRQ7KHVHDUH
RIWZRPDLQW\SHVILOWHUVRUEDUULHUV0DLQWDLQLQJFRQGXLWVSDVVLQJWKURXJKGDPVLQJRRGFRQGLWLRQDQG
SURYLGLQJILOWHUFROODUVDWWKHGRZQVWUHDPHQGDUHDOVRLPSRUWDQWLQSUHYHQWLQJHURVLRQ


 %5($&+


,Q WKHVH FLUFXPVWDQFHV WKH HQWLUH SURFHVV RI LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ KDV EHHQ FRQFOXGHG GHWHFWLRQ
DQG LQWHUYHQWLRQ KDV IDLOHG DQG WKH TXHVWLRQ LV ZKHWKHU WKH GDP ZLOO EUHDFK E\ RQH RI WKH ILYH
PHFKDQLVPV OLVWHG EHORZ RU ZKHWKHU WKH LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ SURFHVV ZLOO VWDELOL]H 7KH EUHDFK
SKHQRPHQD DUH OLVWHG LQ RUGHU RI WKHLU REVHUYHG IUHTXHQF\ RI RFFXUUHQFH 7KH ILUVW IRXU DUH VKRZQ
VFKHPDWLFDOO\LQ)LJ DE 

- *URVVHQODUJHPHQWRIWKHSLSH
- 2YHUWRSSLQJ HJ GXH WR VHWWOHPHQW RI WKH FUHVW IURP VXIIXVLRQ DQGRU GXH WR WKH
IRUPDWLRQRIDVLQNKROHIURPDSLSHLQWKHHPEDQNPHQW 
- 6ORSHLQVWDELOLW\RIWKHGRZQVWUHDPVORSH
- 8QUDYHOLQJRIWKHGRZQVWUHDPIDFH
- 6WDWLFOLTXHIDFWLRQZKLFKLVDIRUPRIVORSHLQVWDELOLW\ZKLFKPD\LQFOXGHLQFUHDVHRISRUH
SUHVVXUHDQGVXGGHQFROODSVHLQHURGHG]RQH


17

59
- *OLVVHPHQWGXWDOXVDYDO
- 'pFKDXVVHPHQWGXSDUHPHQWDYDO
- /LTXpIDFWLRQVWDWLTXHTXLHVWXQHIRUPHG¶LQVWDELOLWpGHWDOXVFRPSUHQDQWO¶DXJPHQWDWLRQ
GHODSUHVVLRQLQWHUVWLWLHOOHHWODUXSWXUHVRXGDLQHVGHV]RQHVpURGpHV


 /$35(66,21

())21'5(0(17'8&21'8,7

,17(567,&,(//($8*0(17( ,167$%,/,7('(7$/86'(

0(1$17$/$3(57('(/$
/$5(&+$5*($9$/
5(9$1&+( $9(&/¶(526,21,17(51(
 
 
 
(&28/(0(1
 7 
 
(/$5*,66(0(17
 '8&21'8,7 
  35(66,21
,17(567,&,(//(
  ,1,7,$/(

%UqFKHSDUpODUJLVVHPHQWGXUHQDUG %UqFKHSDULQVWDELOLWpGHWDOXV
)LJ D 
%UqFKH UXSWXUH SRWHQWLHOOHSDUOHSKpQRPqQHG¶pODUJLVVHPHQWGXFRQGXLWHWG¶LQVWDELOLWpGHWDOXV
 
7$66(0(176  (526,21'(   /('(%,7'(6257,(

6859(56( 0,*5$7,21'(
&21'8,7 (;&('(/(6&$3$&,7(6
'(/¶(152&+(0(17&(

/$)5$&7,21
),1(6
 '(51,(56('(6$*5(*(
&$86$17/¶,167$%,/,7(
  '87$/86

 
  &
12<$8
 '¶$5*,


=21('( /$)5$&7,21
68))86,2 *5266,(5(5(67(

1

%UqFKHSDUVXUYHUVHGXHDXWDVVHPHQW %UqFKHSDUGpFKDXVVHPHQWGHODUHFKDUJHDYDO
)LJ E 
%UqFKH UXSWXUH SRWHQWLHOOHSDUOHSKpQRPqQHGHVXUYHUVHSDUWDVVHPHQWHWGHGpFKDXVVHPHQW
)HOOHW)U\  

/HVPpFDQLVPHVGHUXSWXUHHWODYXOQpUDELOLWpjODUXSWXUHGHQRPEUHX[W\SHVGHEDUUDJHVQH
VRQWSDVWUDLWpVHQGpWDLOGDQVFHEXOOHWLQOHVSDUDJUDSKHVVXLYDQWVUpVXPHQWODVLWXDWLRQ

8Q DVSHFW LPSRUWDQW GH OD UXSWXUH HVW OH WHPSV HQWUH OD SUHPLqUH REVHUYDWLRQ GH IXLWH
FRQFHQWUpHHWOHVIRUPHVGHUXSWXUHVFDULOGpWHUPLQHOHWHPSVGLVSRQLEOHSRXUDOHUWHUOHVSHUVRQQHVj
O¶DYDOHWDJLUSRXUHPSrFKHUODUXSWXUHRXDWWpQXHUOHVLPSDFWVjO¶DYDO3OXVGHGpWDLOVVRQWGLVSRQLEOHV
GDQV)HOOet al  

6L O¶pURVLRQ VH SRXUVXLW V¶LO Q¶\ D SDV GH ILOWUHV HW VL OD GpWHFWLRQ HW O¶LQWHUYHQWLRQ RQW pFKRXp
O¶LQLWLDWLRQGHODEUqFKHHVWSUHVTXHFHUWDLQH([FHSWLRQIDLWHGXFDVGHUHWHQXHVjIDLEOHFDSDFLWpR
OHQLYHDXG¶HDXHVWSOXVEDVTXHOHQLYHDXGXFRQGXLWIRUPpDYDQWTXHOHPpFDQLVPHGHUXSWXUHQ¶DLW
HXOHWHPSVGHVHSURGXLUH

/¶LQLWLDWLRQ GH OD EUqFKH HVW PRLQV SUREDEOH GDQV OH FDV G¶XQH pURVLRQ OLPLWpH RX G¶pURVLRQ
LPSRUWDQWH'DQVFHVVLWXDWLRQVO¶pFRXOHPHQWTXLVHGpYHORSSH jWUDYHUVOHEDUUDJHRXVDIRQGDWLRQ
VHUDOLPLWpSDUOHVPDWpULDX[ILOWUDQWV

3RXU OD SOXSDUW GHV W\SHV GH EDUUDJH HW GHV PRGHV GH UXSWXUH OD SUREDELOLWp GH
GpYHORSSHPHQW GH EUqFKH VHUD GpSHQGDQWH G¶XQ RX GHX[ PpFDQLVPHV SRWHQWLHOV GH UXSWXUH 'HV
PpFDQLVPHVGHUXSWXUHQHVHURQWSDVQpFHVVDLUHPHQWDSSOLFDEOHVjFHUWDLQVW\SHVGHEDUUDJH]RQp
RXjGHVPRGHVGHSURJUHVVLRQLOVSHXYHQWGRQFQHSDVrWUHSULVHQFRPSWH

__________________________________________________________________________
18

60


 325(35(6685(6,1&5($6(

&2//$36(2)3,3(/($',1* 6/23(,167$%,/,7<2)

72/2662))5((%2$5' 
:,7+,17(51$/(526,21
'2:1675($06+28/'(5
 
 
287)/2: 

 
(1/$5*,1*3,3(
 

 25,*,1$/325(
 35(6685(6

%UHDFKE\SLSHHQODUJHPHQW %UHDFKE\VORSHLQVWDELOLW\
)LJ D 
3RWHQWLDOEUHDFK IDLOXUH SKHQRPHQDSLSHHQODUJHPHQWDQGVORSHLQVWDELOLW\

 
&5(676(77/(6  (526,213,3(  287)/2:(;&(('6

'$029(57236 ),1( 52&.),//
)5$&7,21  &$3$&,7<
 52&.),//
0,*5$7(6
  ',6/2'*(6

 
  &
/$<
 &25(


68))86,9 &2$56()5$&7,21
5(0$,16

(=21(

%UHDFKE\RYHUWRSSLQJE\VHWWOHPHQW %UHDFKE\XQUDYHOLQJRIWKHGRZQVWUHDPIDFH

)LJ E 
3RWHQWLDOEUHDFK IDLOXUH SKHQRPHQDRYHUWRSSLQJE\VHWWOHPHQWDQGXQUDYHOLQJRIWKHGRZQVWUHDP
IDFH)HOODQG)U\  


7KHPHFKDQLFVRIEUHDFKLQJDQGWKHYXOQHUDELOLWLHVRIYDULRXVGDPW\SHVWREUHDFKLQJDUHQRW
GHDOWZLWKLQGHWDLOHOVHZKHUHLQWKLVEXOOHWLQDQGWKHIROORZLQJSDUDJUDSKVVXPPDUL]HWKHVLWXDWLRQ

$QLPSRUWDQWDVSHFWRIEUHDFKLQJLVWKHWLPHLWWDNHVIURPWKHILUVWREVHUYDEOHFRQFHQWUDWHGOHDN
WRZKHQWKHEUHDFKIRUPVEHFDXVHWKDWGHWHUPLQHVWKHWLPHDYDLODEOHWRZDUQSHRSOHGRZQVWUHDPDQG
WRWDNHDFWLRQWRSUHYHQWEUHDFKRUDOOHYLDWHWKHGRZQVWUHDPLPSDFWVRIDEUHDFK0RUHLVVDLGDERXW
WKLVLQ)HOOHWDO  

%UHDFKLQLWLDWLRQLVDOPRVWFHUWDLQWRRFFXULIFRQWLQXLQJHURVLRQLVH[SHFWHGRUWKHUHDUHQRILOWHUV
DQGGHWHFWLRQDQGLQWHUYHQWLRQKDYHIDLOHG([FHSWLRQVWRWKLVZLOOEHLIWKHUHVHUYRLUKDVVPDOOFDSDFLW\
DQGWKHUHVHUYRLUOHYHOGURSVEHORZWKHLQOHWRIWKHGHYHORSLQJSLSHEHIRUHDEUHDFKPHFKDQLVPKDV
WLPHWRGHYHORS

%UHDFK LQLWLDWLRQ LV OHVV OLNHO\ LI VRPH RU H[FHVVLYH HURVLRQ LV H[SHFWHG )RU WKHVH FDVHV WKH
VHHSDJHIORZVWKDWGHYHORSWKURXJKWKHGDPRUIRXQGDWLRQZLOOEHOLPLWHGE\WKHILOWHULQJPDWHULDO

)RUPRVWGDPW\SHVDQGIDLOXUHPRGHVWKHOLNHOLKRRGIRUEUHDFKGHYHORSPHQWZLOOEHGRPLQDWHG
E\ RQH RU WZR RI WKH SRWHQWLDO EUHDFK PHFKDQLVPV %UHDFK PHFKDQLVPV ZLOO QRW QHFHVVDULO\ EH
DSSOLFDEOHWRVRPHGDP]RQLQJW\SHVRUPRGHVRISLSLQJDQGFDQEHLJQRUHG

7DEOHOLVWVEUHDFKPHFKDQLVPVGHSHQGLQJRQWKHGDP]RQLQJW\SHIRULQWHUQDOHURVLRQLQWKH
HPEDQNPHQWGXHWRDFUDFNRUSRRUO\FRPSDFWHG]RQH7DEOHDOVRDSSOLHVWRLQWHUQDOHURVLRQLQD
VRLOIRXQGDWLRQ)LJLQ6HFWLRQVKRZVWKHGDP]RQLQJW\SHV

7DEOHGRHVQRWDSSO\WRIDLOXUHPRGHVLQYROYLQJRSHQRULQILOOHGGHIHFWVDQGVROXWLRQIHDWXUHV
LQURFNIRXQGDWLRQVEHFDXVHWKHOHDNDJHIORZVPD\H[FHHGWKHFDSDFLW\RIHYHQIUHHGUDLQLQJURFNILOO

 

18

61

/H 7DEOHDX  OLVWH HQ IRQFWLRQ GX W\SH GH EDUUDJH OHV PpFDQLVPHV GH UXSWXUH SDU pURVLRQ
LQWHUQH LeGDQV OH UHPEODL
Tableau 6 listeG€
enj GHV ILVVXUHV
fonction du typeRX
deGHV ]RQHV
barrage, lesSHX FRPSDFWpHV
mécanismes /H 7DEOHDX
de rupture  V¶DSSOLTXH
par érosion interne
pJDOHPHQWjO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHGDQVOHVIRQGDWLRQV/D)LJGDQVODVHFWLRQUHSUpVHQWHOHVW\SHV
dans le remblai dû à des fissures ou des zones peu compactées. Le Tableau 6 s’applique également à
GHEDUUDJH]RQp
l’érosion interne dans les fondations. La Fig. 10 dans la section 2.4 représente les types de barrage zoné.
Le
 Tableau 6 liste en fonction du type de barrage, les mécanismes de rupture par érosion interne
dans le Le remblai dû à6 des fissures ouen des zoneslespeumodescompactées. Le Tableau
/H7DEOHDXQHSUHQGSDVHQFRPSWHOHVPRGHVGHUXSWXUHVSURYRTXpVSDUO¶RXYHUWXUHRXOH
Tableau ne prend pas compte de ruptures provoqués6 s’applique également
par l’ouverture ou leà
l’érosion
UHPSOLVVDJH
remplissage internedesdans
GHV les fondations.
ILVVXUHV
fissures GDQV la
dans ODLa Fig. 10 dans
IRQGDWLRQ
fondation la section
URFKHXVH
rocheuse, 2.4le
FDU
car OHreprésente
GpELW peut
débit lesexcéder
SHXW types de la
H[FpGHU barrage
OD zoné.de
FDSDFLWp
capacité GH
GUDLQDJHGHODUHFKDUJHDYDO
drainage de la recharge aval.
Le Tableau 6 ne prend pas en compte les modes  de ruptures provoqués par l’ouverture ou le
remplissage des fissures dans la fondationTableau rocheuse,
7DEOHDX 6 car le débit peut excéder la capacité de
drainage de la recharge aval.
'pSLVWDJHGHVPpFDQLVPHVGHUXSWXUHVIRQFWLRQGX]RQDJH FI)LJ 
Dépistage des mécanismes de ruptures fonction du zonage (cf. Fig. 9)
)RVWHUHWDO 
(Foster et al, 2008)
TableauMécanismes
6 0pFDQLVPHVGHUXSWXUH
de rupture
7\SHGHEDUUDJH
Type de barrage
Dépistage des
YRLU)LJ 
(voir Fig. 10) mécanismes
Élargissement du de ruptures fonction du zonage
eODUJLVVHPHQWGXUHQDUG ,QVWDELOLWpGHWDOXV
Instabilité de talus
Surverse (cf.
due Fig.
au 9) Déchaussement
6XUYHUVHGXHDX 'pFKDXVVHPHQWGX
renard (Foster et al, 2008) WDVVHPHQW
tassement WDOXVDYDO
du talus aval
Mécanismes deExclus,([FOXV
rupture saufVDXI
si VLle OH
Type dehomogène
Barrage barrage
0%DUUDJHKRPRJqQH *9   9 UHPEODL
remblai avalDYDO
est HVW
sans VDQV  9 
Élargissement du Surverse due au Déchaussement
(voir Fig. 10) Instabilité de talus FRKpVLRQ
cohésion
renard tassement du talus aval
([FOXV
Exclus, saufVDXI
si VLle OH
1%DUUDJHHQWHUUHDYHF
Barrage en terre avec Exclus, sauf si le
*9   9 UHPEODL
remblai avalDYDO
est HVW
sans VDQV  9 
0 Barrage homogène
ILOWUHV
filtres *  remblai aval est sans 
FRKpVLRQ
cohésion
cohésion
([FOXV
Exclus, saufVDXI
si VLle OH
2%DUUDJHHQWHUUHDYHF
Barrage en terre avec Exclus, sauf si le
1 Barrage en terre avec  9 UHPEODL DYDO
remblai HVW VDQV 9 
remblai aval
aval est
est sans
*9  
SLHGHQHQURFKHPHQW
pied en enrochement *  sans 
filtres FRKpVLRQ
cohésion
cohésion
3%DUUDJHHQWHUUH]RQp
Barrage en terre zoné Exclus, sauf si le ([FOXV
Exclus, saufVDXI
si VLle OH
([FOXVVDXIVLOHUHPEODL Exclus, sauf si le
avec2 Barrage
recharge enenterre
DYHFUHFKDUJHHQVDEOHHW avec
sable et remblai aval peut  9 UHPEODL
remblai avalDYDO
est HVW
sans VDQV  9 
DYDOSHXWIRUPHUXQWRLW
*  remblai aval est sans 
pied engraveenrochement
JUDYH former un toit FRKpVLRQ
cohésion
cohésion
%DUUDJH]RQHHQWHUUHHW ([FOXVVDXIVLOHUHPEODL
Exclus, sauf si le
43Barrage
Barragezone en terre zonéet
en terre Exclus, sauf si le 9 Exclus, sauf9 si le 9 
HQURFKHPHQW DYDOSHXWIRUPHUXQWRLW
remblai aval peut  * 
avec recharge
enrochement en sable et remblai aval peut  remblai aval est sans 
%DUUDJHHQHQURFKHPHQW former un toit ([FOXVVDXIVLOD
grave former un toit
([FOXVVDXIVLOHUHPEODL cohésion
5 DYHFXQQR\DXFHQWUDOHQ
Barrage en enrochement Exclus, sauf si le VWDELOLWpGXEDUUDJHHVW
Exclus, sauf si la 9  9 
Exclus, sauf si le
DYDOSHXWIRUPHUXQWRLW
4avec
Barrage
un noyauzone en terreenet remblai aval peut
WHUUHcentral PDUJLQDOH
stabilité du
 barrage * 
remblai aval peut * 
enrochement
terre formerformer
un toitun toit est marginale ([FOXV VDXI VL OH
%DUUDJHHQWHUUHj
9 9  UHPEODL
Exclus, DYDOsiHVWle
sauf VDQV 9 
5 PDVTXHDPRQWHQEpWRQ
Barrage
6 Barrage en enenrochement
terre à Exclus, sauf si le Exclus, sauf si la
FRKpVLRQ
remblai aval
* est sans
 * 
avec
masque un noyau
amont central
en bétonen remblai aval peut stabilité du barrage 
([FOXVVDXIVLOH cohésion
terre
%DUUDJHG¶HQURFKHPHQWj former un toit est marginale
([FOXV JUDYLHUGXEDUUDJHHVW
Exclus, sauf si le 9  ([FOXV 
PDVTXHDPRQWHQEpWRQ Exclus, sauf si le
6 Barrage
7 Barrage en terre à à
d’enrochement GHIDLEOHSHUPpDELOLWp
gravier du barrage
Exclus
 * remblai aval
* est sans Exclus

masque amont
masque amont en en béton
béton est de faible ([FOXV VDXI VL OH
cohésion
1R\DXG¶DUJLOHFRUUR\pH 9  perméabilité 9 UHPEODL DYDO HVW VDQV 9 
Exclus, sauf si le
FRKpVLRQ
Exclus, sauf si le
7 Barrage d’enrochement à gravier du barrage
8masque
Noyau d’argile corroyée Exclus
*  remblai aval
([FOXV est sans
* VDXI VL OH Exclus

amont en
%DUUDJHHQWHUUHDYHF béton est de faible
([FOXV cohésion
UHPEODL DYDO HVW VDQV
QR\DXHQEpWRQ perméabilité9  9 
FRKpVLRQ
Exclus,
9 Barrage en terre avec Exclus, sauf
sauf si si le le
Exclus ([FOXV * VDXI VL remblai
OD aval est sans 
8 Noyaunoyau d’argile corroyée
en béton
%DUUDJHHQHQURFKHPHQW *  remblai aval est sans 
([FOXV VWDELOLWp GX EDUUDJH cohésion 9  9 
DYHFQR\DXHQEpWRQ cohésion
10 Barrage en HVWPDUJLQDOH
Exclus, sauf si la
Exclus, sauf si le
9 Barrage enavec
enrochement terrenoyau
%DUUDJHSDUUHPEOD\DJH avec Exclus
([FOXVVDXIVLOHUHPEODL stabilité du barrage * 
Exclus * 9 remblai aval 9 
est sans  9 
noyau en béton
en béton
K\GUDXOLTXH DYDOSHXWIRUPHUXQWRLW est marginale cohésion
/pJHQGH en  Exclus, sauf si,OQHV¶DJLWSDVG¶XQPpFDQLVPHGHUXSWXUHSRWHQWLHO
([FOXV le
10Barrage
11 Barragepar Exclus, sauf si la
remblai aval peut
0pFDQLVPHSRWHQWLHOGHUXSWXUH  * 
enrochement avec noyau 9
remblayage hydraulique Exclus stabilité du barrage * 
9  former un toit
0pFDQLVPHSRWHQWLHOGHUXSWXUHJpQpUDOHPHQWOHSOXVFULWLTXH
en béton est marginale
Légende :  Exclus : Il ne s’agit pas d’un mécanisme de rupture potentiel
Exclus, sauf si le
11 Barrage par  Mécanisme potentiel de rupture

remblayage hydraulique *
remblai aval peut  * 
Mécanisme potentiel de rupture : généralement le plus critique
former un toit
/¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHSDUOHSURFHVVXVGHVXIIXVLRQQ¶DERXWLWJpQpUDOHPHQWSDVjODIRUPDWLRQG¶XQ
Légende : Exclus : Il ne s’agit pas d’un mécanisme de rupture potentiel
FRQGXLWjWUDYHUVOHEDUUDJHRXVDIRQGDWLRQHQO¶DEVHQFHGHFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXH/DSUREDELOLWpGH
L’érosion internepar le processus de suffusion
Mécanisme potentiel n’aboutit généralement pas à la formation d’un
de rupture
UXSWXUHSDUpODUJLVVHPHQWGXFRQGXLWHVWGRQFIDLEOH
conduit à travers le barrage
* ou sa fondation,
Mécanisme en l’absence
potentiel de claquage
de rupture : généralement le hydraulique.
plus critique La probabilité de
 élargissement du conduit est donc faible.
rupture par
&HSHQGDQW LO \ Dpar
L’érosion interne GHVle VLWXDWLRQV
processus R OD VXIIXVLRQ
de suffusion SHXW PHQHU
n’aboutit j GHV SUHVVLRQV
généralement LQWHUVWLWLHOOHV
pas à la formation d’un
pOHYpHVHQSLHGDYDOGHODGLJXHSRXYDQWFDXVHUXQFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXHGXSLHGRXGHODEHUPHGH
conduit Cependant
à travers le ilbarrage
y a des ou situations
sa fondation,
où en l’absence peut
la suffusion de claquage
mener àhydraulique.
des pressionsLa probabilité de
interstitielles
UHFRXYUHPHQW
rupture par
élevées /D
avalVXIIXVLRQ
élargissement
en pied de ladu DERXWLW
conduit
digue estDORUV
pouvant donc j XQH
faible.
causer UXSWXUH hydraulique
un claquage FULWLTXH SDUdu LQVWDELOLWp
pied ou deGH WDOXV de
la berme RX
GpFKDXVVHPHQWELHQTXHOHVSUREDELOLWpVHVWLPpHVVRLHQWJpQpUDOHPHQWUHODWLYHPHQWIDLEOHV
recouvrement. La suffusion aboutit alors à une rupture critique par instabilité de talus ou
Cependant
déchaussement bienil que
y alesdes situations estimées
probabilités où la suffusion peut mener à
soient généralement des pressions
relativement interstitielles
faibles.
élevées ,OIDXWQRWHUTXHOHVPpFDQLVPHVGHUXSWXUHVRQWXQLTXHPHQWWUDLWpVGDQVFHWWHVHFWLRQ  
en pied aval de la digue pouvant causer un claquage hydraulique du pied ou de la berme de
HWQHVRQWSDVWUDLWpHVDLOOHXUVGDQVOH%XOOHWLQ
recouvrement. La que
Il faut noter suffusion aboutit alors
les mécanismes à unesont
de rupture rupture critiquetraités
uniquement par dans
instabilité de talus
cette section ou
(2.7),
déchaussement
et bien que
ne sont pas traitées ailleurs  le Bulletin.
les probabilités
dans estimées soient généralement relativement faibles.

Il faut noter que les mécanismes de rupture sont uniquement traités dans cette section (2.7),
et ne sont pas traitées ailleurs dans le Bulletin.
__________________________________________________________________________
19
__________________________________________________________________________
19

62
__________________________________________________________________________
19
%UHDFK LQLWLDWLRQ LV OHVV OLNHO\ LI VRPH RU H[FHVVLYH HURVLRQ LV H[SHFWHG )RU WKHVH FDVHV WKH
VHHSDJHIORZVWKDWGHYHORSWKURXJKWKHGDPRUIRXQGDWLRQZLOOEHOLPLWHGE\WKHILOWHULQJPDWHULDO

)RUPRVWGDPW\SHVDQGIDLOXUHPRGHVWKHOLNHOLKRRGIRUEUHDFKGHYHORSPHQWZLOOEHGRPLQDWHG
E\ RQH RU WZR RI WKH SRWHQWLDO EUHDFK PHFKDQLVPV %UHDFK PHFKDQLVPV ZLOO QRW QHFHVVDULO\ EH
DSSOLFDEOHWRVRPHGDP]RQLQJW\SHVRUPRGHVRISLSLQJDQGFDQEHLJQRUHG

7DEOHOLVWVEUHDFKPHFKDQLVPVGHSHQGLQJRQWKHGDP]RQLQJW\SHIRULQWHUQDOHURVLRQLQWKH
HPEDQNPHQWGXHWRDFUDFNRUSRRUO\FRPSDFWHG]RQH7DEOHDOVRDSSOLHVWRLQWHUQDOHURVLRQLQD
VRLOIRXQGDWLRQ)LJLQ6HFWLRQVKRZVWKHGDP]RQLQJW\SHV

7DEOHGRHVQRWDSSO\WRIDLOXUHPRGHVLQYROYLQJRSHQRULQILOOHGGHIHFWVDQGVROXWLRQIHDWXUHV
LQURFNIRXQGDWLRQVEHFDXVHWKHOHDNDJHIORZVPD\H[FHHGWKHFDSDFLW\RIHYHQIUHHGUDLQLQJURFNILOO

 
 Table 6
Screening of breach mechanisms for internal erosion related to the zoning type (see Fig. 9)
(Fell et al, 2008)
18
7DEOH Breach Mechanisms
6FUHHQLQJRIEUHDFKPHFKDQLVPVIRULQWHUQDOHURVLRQUHODWHGWRWKH]RQLQJW\SH VHH)LJ 
Unraveling
Dam Zoning Type
(refer to Fig. 10)
)HOOet al 
Gross Enlargement Slope instability
Overtopping by of the
settlement
%UHDFK0HFKDQLVPV downstream
'DP=RQLQJ7\SH face
2YHUWRSSLQJE\ 8QUDYHOLQJRIWKH
UHIHUWR)LJ  *URVV(QODUJHPHQW 6ORSHLQVWDELOLW\ Exclude, except if
VHWWOHPHQW GRZQVWUHDPIDFH
0 Homogeneous earthfill *  downstream fill is
([FOXGHH[FHSWLI 
+RPRJHQHRXVHDUWKILOO 9  9 cohesionless
GRZQVWUHDPILOOLV 9
Exclude, except if
FRKHVLRQOHVV
1 Earthfill with filters *  downstream fill is
([FOXGHH[FHSWLI 
(DUWKILOOZLWKILOWHUV 9  9 cohesionless
GRZQVWUHDPILOOLV 9
Exclude, except if
FRKHVLRQOHVV
2 Earthfill with rockfill toe *  downstream fill is
([FOXGHH[FHSWLI 
(DUWKILOOZLWKURFNILOOWRH 9  9 cohesionless
GRZQVWUHDPILOOLV 9
Exclude, except if Exclude, except if
FRKHVLRQOHVV
3 Zoned earthfill downstream fill can
([FOXGHH[FHSWLI  downstream fill is
([FOXGHH[FHSWLI 
=RQHGHDUWKILOO support a roof
GRZQVWUHDPILOOFDQ 9 cohesionless
GRZQVWUHDPILOOLV 9
Exclude, except if
VXSSRUWDURRI FRKHVLRQOHVV
4 Zoned earthfill and
downstream fill can
([FOXGHH[FHSWLI  * 
rockfill
=RQHGHDUWKILOODQGURFNILOO support a roof
GRZQVWUHDPILOOFDQ 9 9  9
Exclude, except if
VXSSRUWDURRI Exclude, except if
5 Central core earth and
downstream fill can
([FOXGHH[FHSWLI existing dam has
([FOXGHH[FHSWLI * 
rockfill (or gravel shells)
&HQWUDOFRUHHDUWKDQG support a roof
GRZQVWUHDPILOOFDQ marginal stability
H[LVWLQJGDPKDV 9  9
URFNILOO RUJUDYHOVKHOOV  Exclude, except if
VXSSRUWDURRI PDUJLQDOVWDELOLW\
6 Concrete face earthfill  * downstream fill is
([FOXGHH[FHSWLI 
&RQFUHWHIDFHHDUWKILOO 9 9  cohesionless
GRZQVWUHDPILOOLV 9
Exclude, except if FRKHVLRQOHVV
7 Concrete face rockfill
Exclude dam is gravel of low
([FOXGHH[FHSWLIGDP * Exclude
(including gravel fill)
&RQFUHWHIDFHURFNILOO
([FOXGH permeability
LVJUDYHORIORZ 9  ([FOXGH
LQFOXGLQJJUDYHOILOO  Exclude, except if
SHUPHDELOLW\
8 Puddle core earthfill *  downstream fill is
([FOXGHH[FHSWLI 
3XGGOHFRUHHDUWKILOO 9  9 cohesionless
GRZQVWUHDPILOOLV 9
Exclude, except
FRKHVLRQOHVV if
9 Earthfill with corewall Exclude * downstream fill is
([FOXGHH[FHSWLI 
(DUWKILOOZLWKFRUHZDOO ([FOXGH 9  cohesionless
GRZQVWUHDPILOOLV 9
Exclude, except if FRKHVLRQOHVV
10 Rockfill with corewall Exclude existing dam has
([FOXGHH[FHSWLI * 
5RFNILOOZLWKFRUHZDOO ([FOXGH marginal stability
H[LVWLQJGDPKDV 9  9
Exclude, except if PDUJLQDOVWDELOLW\
11 Hydraulic fill downstream fill can
([FOXGHH[FHSWLI  * 
+\GUDXOLFILOO support a roof
GRZQVWUHDPILOOFDQ 9 9  9
Key: Exclude: Not a potential breach mechanism
VXSSRUWDURRI
.H\   Potential breach mechanism
([FOXGH1RWDSRWHQWLDOEUHDFKPHFKDQLVP
*
9 Potential breach mechanism: usually the more critical one
3RWHQWLDOEUHDFKPHFKDQLVP
9  3RWHQWLDOEUHDFKPHFKDQLVPXVXDOO\WKHPRUHFULWLFDORQH


,QWHUQDOHURVLRQE\WKHSURFHVVRIVXIIXVLRQLVXVXDOO\XQOLNHO\WROHDGWRWKHIRUPDWLRQRIDSLSH
WKURXJKWKHGDPRULWVIRXQGDWLRQDQGKHQFHWKHSUREDELOLW\RIEUHDFKE\JURVVHQODUJHPHQWLVORZ

+RZHYHUWKHUHDUHVLWXDWLRQVZKHUHVXIIXVLRQFDQOHDGWRKLJK SRUHSUHVVXUHVDWWKHWRHRID
GLNHDQGWKLVFDQFDXVHK\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUHRUKHDYHRIDQRYHUO\LQJEHUP%UHDFKE\VORSHLQVWDELOLW\RU
VORXJKLQJXQUDYHOLQJ DUH XVXDOO\ WKH PRUH FULWLFDO PHFKDQLVPV IRU VXIIXVLRQ DOWKRXJK WKH HVWLPDWHG
SUREDELOLWLHVIRUEUHDFKDUHXVXDOO\UHODWLYHO\ORZIRUWKLVPRGHRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQ

1RWH WKDW EUHDFK PHFKDQLVPV DUH GHDOW ZLWK RQO\ LQ WKLV VHFWLRQ   WKH\ DUH QRW GHDOW ZLWK
HOVHZKHUHLQWKH%XOOHWLQ
 

63


 ,1,7,$7,21'(/¶e526,21'(&21'8,7



 '(6&5,37,21*(1(5$/('80(&$1,60(


/¶pURVLRQGHFRQGXLWGDQVOHEDUUDJHRXVDIRQGDWLRQGpSHQGG¶DERUGGHO¶pWDWGHFRQWUDLQWHGDQV
OHEDUUDJHSRXYDQWSURYRTXHGHVILVVXUHVRXGHV]RQHVGHFRQWUDLQWHTXDVLQXOOHVXMHWWHVDXFODTXDJH
K\GUDXOLTXHHWHQVXLWHGHVFRQGLWLRQVK\GUDXOLTXHVHWJpRPpWULTXHVGHFHVGpIDXWV,OIDXWGRQF

- 3UpVHQFH G¶XQH ILVVXUH RX G¶XQ SRLQW IDLEOH  VRXV OH QLYHDX GH OD UHWHQXH VXLWH j XQ
WDVVHPHQWGLIIpUHQWLHOSHQGDQWRXDSUqVODFRQVWUXFWLRQjXQFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXHjOD
GHVVLFFDWLRQ RX j O¶HIIRQGUHPHQW SDU VDWXUDWLRQ G¶XQH FRXFKH GH UHPEODL IDLEOHPHQW
FRPSDFWpHRXDXFRQWDFWG¶XQHFRQGXLWH
- 'HVHIIRUWVK\GUDXOLTXHVH[HUFpVVXUOHVSDURLVGHODILVVXUHSDUO¶pFRXOHPHQWTXLVRQW
VXIILVDQWVSRXUGpFOHQFKHUO¶pURVLRQ

6LOHILOWUHHVWDEVHQWRXWURSJURVVLHUXQFRQGXLWG¶pURVLRQVHGpYHORSSHUDVDXIVL

- /¶pFRXOHPHQWSURYRTXHOHJRQIOHPHQWGHVOqYUHVGHODILVVXUHODUHIHUPDQWRXUpGXLVDQW
VD ODUJHXU DX SRLQW TXH OHV IRUFHV ODWpUDOHV LPSRVpHV SDU O¶pFRXOHPHQW GHYLHQQHQW
LQVXIILVDQWHVSRXUSRXUVXLYUHGHO¶pURVLRQ
- 6LOHVROV¶HIIRQGUH LOQHWLHQWSDV©OHWRLWGXFRQGXLWª 
- 6LOHV]RQHVjO¶DPRQWOLPLWHQWOHGpELWRXDUUrWHQWODIRUPDWLRQGHILVVXUH

/DYLWHVVHG¶pURVLRQHWG¶pODUJLVVHPHQWGXFRQGXLWHVWXQIDFWHXULPSRUWDQWFDUHOOHSHUPHWGH
VDYRLUVLO¶pURVLRQSHXWrWUHGpWHFWpHHWVWRSSpHHQDEDLVVDQWOHQLYHDXGHODUHWHQXHRXHQIDLVDQWGHV
UpSDUDWLRQVDYDQWO¶DSSDULWLRQG¶XQHEUqFKH


 3+(120(1(6(76,78$7,216


/¶pURVLRQGHFRQGXLWDSSDUDvWGDQVOHV]RQHVGHFRQWUDLQWHHIIHFWLYHQXOOH)LVVXUDWLRQFODTXDJH
K\GUDXOLTXHHWFDYLWpVVRQWjO¶RULJLQHGHFHVVLWXDWLRQV


3.2.1. Fissures et claquage hydraulique dus au tassement différentiel rive à rive


/RUVGHODFRQVWUXFWLRQOHVROGXUHPEODLSDUWLHOOHPHQWVDWXUpHWFRPSDFWpVHFRQVROLGHHWWDVVH
/RUVTXHOHVSHQWHVGHODYDOOpHVRQWUDLGHVHWRXHQHVFDOLHUFRPPHOHPRQWUHOD)LJODYDULDWLRQGH
KDXWHXUGXUHPEODLSHXWSURYRTXHUGHVWDVVHPHQWVGLIIpUHQWLHOVSRXYDQWJpQpUHUGHVWUDFWLRQVRXGHV
]RQHV GH FRQWUDLQWH TXDVLQXOOH GDQV OHVTXHOOHV SHXYHQW VH IRUPHU OHV ILVVXUHV &HOD D pWp GpPRQWUp
GHSXLVORQJWHPSVSDU6KHUDUG  .MDHUQVOLet al  +¡HJet al  HWG¶DXWUHV
/HFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXHGHFHV]RQHVGHFRQWUDLQWHTXDVLQXOOHORUVGHODPLVHHQHDXRXGHFUXHVHQ
HVWODFRQVpTXHQFHFRPPHLQGLTXp6KHUDUGet al  HW6KHUDUG  3RXUODSOXSDUWGHV
EDUUDJHV HQYLURQ  j   GHV WDVVHPHQWV VH SURGXLVHQW SHQGDQW OD FRQVWUXFWLRQ +XQWHU 
+XQWHU HW )HOO   GH FH IDLW OHV FRQWUDLQWHV HQJHQGUpHV ORUV GH OD SKDVH GH FRQVWUXFWLRQ
FRQGLWLRQQHQWDPSOHPHQWO¶RFFXUUHQFHGHILVVXUHHWGH]RQHGHFRQWUDLQWHTXDVLQXOOH

,O IDXW UHFRQQDvWUH TXH FHV FRQWUDLQWHV VRQW LQpYLWDEOHV PDOJUp XQH ERQQH FRQFHSWLRQ 
FRQVWUXFWLRQ GX EDUUDJH FDU HOOHV QH SURYLHQQHQW SDV G¶XQH FRQFHSWLRQ RX G¶XQH FRQVWUXFWLRQ
GpIHFWXHXVH

)HOO et al   FRQVLGqUHQW TXH OHV UHPEODLV FRQVWUXLWV VXU GHV ULYHV UDLGHV SURFKHV GHV
GHJUpV HW SOXV SDUWLFXOLqUHPHQW GH SOXV GH  GHJUpV VRQW SOXV VHQVLEOHV j OD ILVVXUDWLRQ HW GHV
EDUUDJHVVXUWRXWTXDQGLOVVRQWJUDQGV/HVUHPEODLVVXUXQHIRQGDWLRQHQPDUFKHG¶HVFDOLHUGRQWOD
KDXWHXUHVWLQIpULHXUHjODPRLWLpGHODKDXWHXUPD[LPDOHGXUHPEODLHWGRQWODODUJHXUHVWSOXVJUDQGH
__________________________________________________________________________
TXHODKDXWHXUGXUHPEODLDXGHVVXVGHODPDUFKHVRQWpJDOHPHQWVHQVLEOHVjODILVVXUDWLRQ
20


64
3.2.2. Fissures et claquage hydraulique dus au report de charge de rive à rive


6LODYDOOpHGDQVODTXHOOHOHEDUUDJHHVWFRQVWUXLWHVWHQFDLVVpHHWpWURLWHXQUHSRUWGHFKDUJH
ULYHjULYHSHXWVHSURGXLUHWUDQVPHWWDQWOHVFRQWUDLQWHVYHUWLFDOHVDX[ULYHV&HODSHXWFRQGXLUHjGHV



 ,1,7,$7,212)&21&(175$7('/($.(526,21



 &21&(175$7('/($.(526,217+(29(5$//352&(66


:KHWKHU HURVLRQ ZLOO LQLWLDWH LQ FRQFHQWUDWHG OHDNV LQ D GDP RU LWV IRXQGDWLRQ GHSHQGV RQ
ZKHWKHUWKHVWUHVVHVLQWKHGDPZLOOUHVXOWLQDFUDFNRUORZVWUHVV]RQHVXEMHFWWRK\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUH
DQGJHRPHWULFDODQGK\GUDXOLFFULWHULDZLWKLQWKHFUDFN

- :KHWKHU WKHUH LV D FUDFN RU IODZ  EHORZ WKH UHVHUYRLU OHYHO IRUPHG E\ GLIIHUHQWLDO
VHWWOHPHQWGXULQJRUDIWHUFRQVWUXFWLRQK\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUHGHVLFFDWLRQRUFROODSVHRID
SRRUO\ FRPSDFWHG OD\HU RI VRLO LQ WKH HPEDQNPHQW RU DURXQG D FRQGXLW VLWHG WR SDVV
WKURXJKWKHHPEDQNPHQW
- *LYHQ WKHUH LV D FUDFN ZKHWKHU WKH IRUFHV LPSRVHG RQ WKH VLGHV RI WKH FUDFN E\ WKH
ZDWHUIORZLQJWKURXJKWKHFUDFNDUHVXIILFLHQWWRLQLWLDWHHURVLRQ

:KHWKHU LQ WKH DEVHQFH RI ILOWHUV RU ZKHUH ILOWHUV DUH WRR FRDUVH WKH HURVLRQ ZLOO SURJUHVV WR
IRUPDSLSHGHSHQGVRQ

- :KHWKHUWKHZDWHUIORZLQJWKURXJKWKHFUDFNZLOOFDXVHWKHVRLORQWKHVLGHVRIWKHFUDFN
WRVZHOOFORVLQJWKHFUDFNRUUHGXFLQJWKHZLGWKVRWKHIRUFHVLPSRVHGRQWKHVLGHVRI
WKHFUDFNE\WKHZDWHUIORZLQJWKURXJKWKHFUDFNDUHLQVXIILFLHQWIRUHURVLRQWRSURJUHVV
- :KHWKHUWKHVRLOZLOOKROGRSHQWKHSLSH ³ZLOOLWKROGDURRI´ 
- :KHWKHUXSVWUHDP]RQHVZLOOOLPLWWKHHURVLRQSURFHVVRUFUDFNVWRSSLQJRFFXUV

$OVR LPSRUWDQW LV WKH UDWH RI HURVLRQ DQG HQODUJHPHQW RI WKH SLSH EHFDXVH WKLV LQIOXHQFHV
ZKHWKHU WKH OHDN FDQ EH GHWHFWHG DQG LQWHUYHQWLRQ WDNHQ WR ORZHU WKH UHVHUYRLU RU VWRS WKH HURVLRQ
SURFHVVEHIRUHEUHDFKRFFXUV


 ,1,7,$7,212)&21&(175$7('/($.(526,21


&RQFHQWUDWHGOHDNHURVLRQLQLWLDWHVLQ]RQHVZLWK]HURHIIHFWLYHVWUHVVHV&UDFNVRSHQLQJVDQG
K\GUDXOLFIUDFWXULQJUHVXOWLQ]HURHIIHFWLYHVWUHVVVLWXDWLRQV


3.2.1. Cracking and hydraulic fracture due to cross valley differential settlement of the core


$V DQ HPEDQNPHQW GDP LV FRQVWUXFWHG WKH SDUWLDOO\ VDWXUDWHG FRPSDFWHG VRLO LQ WKH
HPEDQNPHQWFRQVROLGDWHVDQGVHWWOHPHQWRFFXUV:KHUHWKHYDOOH\VLGHVDUHVWHHSDQGRUKDYHVWHSV
LQWKHSURILOHVXFKDVVKRZQLQ)LJGLIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWVRFFXUGXHWRWKHYDULDWLRQVLQWKHKHLJKW
RIWKHHPEDQNPHQWDQGWKHVHFDQOHDGWRWHQVLOHRUORZVWUHVV]RQHVLQZKLFKFUDFNVPD\IRUP7KLV
KDVEHHQUHFRJQL]HGIRUVRPHWLPHE\6KHUDUG  .MDHUQVOLet al  +¡HJet al
 DQGRWKHUV+\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUHWKURXJKWKHVHORZVWUHVVHG]RQHVDVWKHGDPLVILOOHGRUXQGHU
IORRG FRQGLWLRQV LV DQ DVVRFLDWHG SKHQRPHQRQ DV GLVFXVVHG E\ 6KHUDUG et al   DQG 6KHUDUG
   )RU PRVW GDPV DERXW  WR  RI WKH WRWDO VHWWOHPHQW RFFXUV GXULQJ FRQVWUXFWLRQ
+XQWHU+XQWHUDQG)HOO VRWKHVWUHVVHVVHWXSLQWKHFRQVWUXFWLRQSKDVHODUJHO\FRQWURO
WKHOLNHOLKRRGRIORZVWUHVV]RQHVDQGFUDFNLQJ

,WVKRXOGEHUHFRJQL]HGWKDWWKHVHVWUHVVHVDUHLQHYLWDEOHHYHQLQZHOOGHVLJQHGDQGFRQVWUXFWHG
GDPVDQGDUHQRWFDXVHGE\SRRUGHVLJQRUFRQVWUXFWLRQSUDFWLFH

)HOO et al   H[SODLQ WKDW HPEDQNPHQWV ZLWK DEXWPHQWV VWHHSHU WKDQ DERXW ƒ DQG
SDUWLFXODUO\ VWHHSHU WKDQ ƒ DUH OLNHO\ WR EH VXVFHSWLEOH WR FUDFNLQJ SDUWLFXODUO\ IRU KLJK GDPV
(PEDQNPHQWV ZLWK D VWHS LQ WKH IRXQGDWLRQ SURILOH ZKHUH WKH KHLJKW RI WKH HPEDQNPHQW DERYH WKH
VWHSLVOHVVWKDQKDOIWKHPD[LPXPHPEDQNPHQWKHLJKWDQGWKHZLGWKRIWKHVWHSLVJUHDWHUWKDQWKH
KHLJKWRIWKHHPEDQNPHQWDERYHWKHVWHSDUHDOVRVXVFHSWLEOHWRFUDFNLQJ
 20

3.2.2. Cracking and hydraulic fracture due to cross valley arching 65


,IWKHYDOOH\LQZKLFKWKHGDPLVFRQVWUXFWHGLVQDUURZDQGVWHHSFURVVYDOOH\DUFKLQJFDQRFFXU
DQG WKH YHUWLFDO VWUHVVHV DUH VKHG RQWR WKH VLGHV RI WKH YDOOH\ 7KLV FDQ OHDG WR D VLWXDWLRQ ZKHUH
EDUUDJHVVXUWRXWTXDQGLOVVRQWJUDQGV/HVUHPEODLVVXUXQHIRQGDWLRQHQPDUFKHG¶HVFDOLHUGRQWOD
KDXWHXUHVWLQIpULHXUHjODPRLWLpGHODKDXWHXUPD[LPDOHGXUHPEODLHWGRQWODODUJHXUHVWSOXVJUDQGH
TXHODKDXWHXUGXUHPEODLDXGHVVXVGHODPDUFKHVRQWpJDOHPHQWVHQVLEOHVjODILVVXUDWLRQ


3.2.2. Fissures et claquage hydraulique dus au report de charge de rive à rive


6LODYDOOpHGDQVODTXHOOHOHEDUUDJHHVWFRQVWUXLWHVWHQFDLVVpHHWpWURLWHXQUHSRUWGHFKDUJH
ULYHjULYHSHXWVHSURGXLUHWUDQVPHWWDQWOHVFRQWUDLQWHVYHUWLFDOHVDX[ULYHV&HODSHXWFRQGXLUHjGHV
]RQHVGHFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXH)HOOet al  VXJJqUHQWTXHO¶HIIHWYR€WHHVWSOXVSUREDEOHORUVTXH
ODODUJHXUGHEDVHGHODYDOOpHHVWLQIpULHXUHDXTXDUWGHODKDXWHXUGXEDUUDJHHWTXHODSHQWHGHV
YHUVDQWVGHODYDOOpHHVWVXSpULHXUHjHQYLURQGHJUpV,OHVWSHXSUREDEOHTXHFHSKpQRPqQHVH
SURGXLVHORUVTXHODODUJHXUGHODYDOOpHHVWVXSpULHXUHDX[WURLVTXDUWVGHODODUJHXUGXEDUUDJHHWTXH
ODSHQWHGHVYHUVDQWVHVWLQIpULHXUHjGHJUpV


3.2.3. Fissures et claquage hydraulique dus au tassement différentiel de la fondation sous le
noyau


/D)LJSURYHQDQWGH6KHUDUGet al  PRQWUHGHVVLWXDWLRQVVXUODIRQGDWLRQVXVFHSWLEOH
GH SURYRTXHU GHV WDVVHPHQWV GLIIpUHQWLHOV GHV ILVVXUHV RX GHV ]RQHV GH FRQWUDLQWH TXDVLQXOOH
FRQGXLVDQW DX FODTXDJH K\GUDXOLTXH /HV ]RQHV VXMHWWHV j XQ WDVVHPHQW GLIIpUHQWLHO SOXV JUDQG TXH
 GH OD KDXWHXU GX EDUUDJH j FDXVH GH EUXVTXHV UXSWXUHV GH SHQWH GH OD IRQGDWLRQ VRQW SOXV
VRXPLVHV DX ULVTXH GH ILVVXUHV HW GH FODTXDJH K\GUDXOLTXH /HV WDVVHPHQWV GLIIpUHQWLHOV SOXV SHWLWV
TXH  GH OD KDXWHXU GX EDUUDJH UpSDUWLV VXU XQH FHUWDLQH GLVWDQFH VRQW SHX VXVFHSWLEOHV
G¶HQWUDLQHUGHVILVVXUHVRXGHV]RQHVGHFRQWUDLQWHTXDVLQXOOH


3.2.4 Petites irrégularités du profil de fondation sous le noyau


'H SHWLWHV LUUpJXODULWpV GDQV OD IRQGDWLRQ GX QR\DX SHXYHQW PHQHU j GHV ILVVXUHV RX j GHV
]RQHVGHFRQWUDLQWHTXDVLQXOOHHWDXFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXHYRLU1*,  3RXUTXHOHVILVVXUHVRX
OHV]RQHVGHFRQWUDLQWHTXDVLQXOOHVHSURGXLVHQWLOIDXWTXHOHVLUUpJXODULWpVVRLHQWSUpVHQWHVVXUOD
WRWDOLWpRXVXUXQHJUDQGHSDUWLHGHODODUJHXUGXQR\DXHWTX¶HOOHVVRLHQWVXSpULHXUHVjGHOD
KDXWHXUGXUHPEODL

&HV LUUpJXODULWpV SHXYHQW rWUH IRUPpHV SDU OD FRQVWUXFWLRQ GH SLVWHV GH FKDQWLHU j WUDYHUV OH
QR\DX 1HZPDQDQG)RVWHU RXSDUODPLVHHQSODFHGHEpWRQGHFRQIRUWHPHQW *LOORQ 


3.2.5 Fissures et claquage hydraulique dus au report de charge du noyau sur les recharges
du barrage


&RPPHGpWDLOOpGDQV%XLet al  HW)HOOet al  FHSKpQRPqQHDSOXVGHFKDQFH
GHVHSURGXLUHSRXUOHVQR\DX[WUqVPLQFHVSRVVpGDQWXQHODUJHXULQIpULHXUHjGHODODUJHXUGX
UHPEODLHWGRQWOHVPDWpULDX[SHXYHQWV¶HIIRQGUHUORUVTX¶LOVVRQWVDWXUpV VROIDLEOHPHQWFRPSDFWpHWPLV
HQSODFHGXF{WpVHFGHODWHQHXUHQHDXRSWLPDOH &HSUREOqPHHVWPRLQVpYLGHQWSRXUOHVQR\DX[GRQW
ODODUJHXUHVWFRPSULVHHQWUHHWGHODODUJHXUGXEDUUDJHHWGRQWOHVPDWpULDX[RQWpWpELHQ
FRPSDFWpVjODWHQHXUHQHDXRSWLPDOH8QEDUUDJHDYHFGHVUHFKDUJHVULJLGHVHWXQQR\DXSOXVVRXSOH
Q¶HVW SDV XQH FRQGLWLRQ VXIILVDQWH SRXU SURYRTXHU XQ FODTXDJH K\GUDXOLTXH 'HV PRXYHPHQWV
GLIIpUHQWLHOV GX QR\DX DSUqV OD FRQVWUXFWLRQ VRQW QpFHVVDLUHV 8QH GLIIpUHQFH GH GpIRUPDELOLWp HQWUH OH
QR\DXHWOHVUHFKDUJHVFRPPHSDUH[HPSOHORUVTXHOHEDUUDJHHWUHPLVHQHDXDSUqVDYRLUpWpYLGpSHXW
SURYRTXHUXQFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXHGDQVOHQR\DX YRLU-RKQVWRQet al 



__________________________________________________________________________
21

66


VWHSLVOHVVWKDQKDOIWKHPD[LPXPHPEDQNPHQWKHLJKWDQGWKHZLGWKRIWKHVWHSLVJUHDWHUWKDQWKH
KHLJKWRIWKHHPEDQNPHQWDERYHWKHVWHSDUHDOVRVXVFHSWLEOHWRFUDFNLQJ


3.2.2. Cracking and hydraulic fracture due to cross valley arching


,IWKHYDOOH\LQZKLFKWKHGDPLVFRQVWUXFWHGLVQDUURZDQGVWHHSFURVVYDOOH\DUFKLQJFDQRFFXU
DQG WKH YHUWLFDO VWUHVVHV DUH VKHG RQWR WKH VLGHV RI WKH YDOOH\ 7KLV FDQ OHDG WR D VLWXDWLRQ ZKHUH
K\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUHFDQRFFXU)HOOHWDO  VXJJHVWWKDWFURVVYDOOH\DUFKLQJLVPRVWOLNHO\WRRFFXULI
WKHZLGWKRIWKHYDOOH\EDVHLVOHVVWKDQDTXDUWHURIWKHGDPKHLJKWDQGWKHYDOOH\VLGHVDUHVWHHSHU
WKDQDERXWƒ,WLVXQOLNHO\WREHDQLVVXHLIWKHZLGWKRIWKHYDOOH\EDVHLVJUHDWHUWKDQWKUHHTXDUWHUV
WKHGDPKHLJKWDQGWKHYDOOH\VLGHVDUHIODWWHUWKDQƒ


3.2.3. Cracking and hydraulic fracture due to differential settlement in the foundation under
the core


)LJZKLFKLVDGDSWHGIURP6KHUDUGet al  VKRZVIRXQGDWLRQFRQGLWLRQVZKLFKDUHOLNHO\
WR OHDG WR GLIIHUHQWLDO VHWWOHPHQW DQG FUDFNLQJ RU ORZ VWUHVV ]RQHV FRQGXFLYH WR K\GUDXOLF IUDFWXUH
=RQHV ZKLFK PD\ OHDG WR GLIIHUHQWLDO VHWWOHPHQW JUHDWHU WKDQ  RI WKH GDP KHLJKW ZLWK VWHHS
FKDQJHVLQWKHIRXQGDWLRQSURILOHDUHPRVWOLNHO\WRVXIIHUFUDFNLQJDQGK\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUH'LIIHUHQWLDO
VHWWOHPHQWV RI OHVV WKDQ  RI WKH GDP KHLJKW VSUHDG RYHU VRPH GLVWDQFH DUH XQOLNHO\ WR OHDG WR
FUDFNLQJDQGORZVWUHVV]RQHV


3.2.4. Cracking and hydraulic fracture due to small scale irregularities in the foundation
profile under the core


6PDOO VFDOH LUUHJXODULWLHV LQ WKH IRXQGDWLRQ RI WKH FRUH FDQ OHDG WR FUDFNLQJ RU ORZ VWUHVVHV
FRQGXFLYHWRK\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUHHJ1*,  )RUFUDFNLQJRUORZVWUHVVHVWRRFFXUWKHVPDOOVFDOH
LUUHJXODULWLHV QHHG WR EH SHUVLVWHQW RYHU DOO RU PRVW RI WKH GLVWDQFH DFURVV WKH FRUH DQG KDYH VWHSV
JUHDWHUWKDQDERXWWRRIWKHHPEDQNPHQWKHLJKW

7KHUHDUHH[DPSOHVRIWKHVHLUUHJXODULWLHVEHLQJIRUPHGE\FRQVWUXFWLQJKDXOURDGVDFURVVWKH
FRUH 1HZPDQDQG)RVWHU DQGVWHSVLQVORSHFRUUHFWLRQFRQFUHWH *LOORQ 


3.2.5. Cracking and hydraulic fracture due to arching of the core onto the shoulders of the
embankment


$VGHWDLOHGLQ%XLHWDO  DQG)HOOHWDO  WKLVLVPRVWOLNHO\WREHDSUREOHPIRU
FRUHVZKLFKDUHYHU\QDUURZFRUHZLGWKOHVVWKDQWKHHPEDQNPHQWKHLJKWDQGIRUVRLOVVXEMHFW
WR FROODSVH FRPSUHVVLRQ RQ VDWXUDWLRQ SRRUO\ FRPSDFWHG VRLO SODFHG GU\ RI RSWLPXP PRLVWXUH
FRQWHQW ,WLVXQOLNHO\WREHDSUREOHPIRUFRUHVZKLFKDUHZLGHUWKDQWRWKHHPEDQNPHQWKHLJKW
DQG WKH FRUH LV ZHOO FRPSDFWHG DW DURXQG RSWLPXP PRLVWXUH FRQWHQW ,W LV QRW VXIILFLHQW WR FDXVH
K\GUDXOLF IUDFWXUH WR MXVW KDYH VWLII VKRXOGHUV DQG D OHVV VWLII FRUH 7KHUH QHHGV WR EH GLIIHUHQWLDO
PRYHPHQWRIWKHFRUHDIWHUFRQVWUXFWLRQ'LIIHUHQWLDOH[SDQVLRQEHWZHHQWKHFRUHDQGVKRXOGHUVDVD
UHVHUYRLUUHILOOVDIWHUEHLQJGUDZQGRZQPD\UHVXOWLQK\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUHLQFRUHV HJ-RKQVWRQHWDO
 


3.2.6. Crack or gap adjacent to a spillway or abutment walls and where concrete dams abut
embankment dams



21

67
3.2.6 Fissures ou ouvertures le long de bajoyers d’évacuateur, murs de soutènement et
raccordement à un barrage en béton


,ODUULYHTXHOHUHPEODLVHGpWDFKHGXPXUDXTXHOLOHVWDFFROpVXLWHjVRQWDVVHPHQWYHUVO¶DYDO
SHQGDQWRXDSUqVODFRQVWUXFWLRQ'HWHOVGpFROOHPHQWVSHXYHQWDXVVLDYRLUOLHXDXQLYHDXGHVDSSXLV
GXEDUUDJH/D)LJPRQWUHTXHOTXHVVLWXDWLRQVRFHSKpQRPqQHjGHVFKDQFHVGHVHSURGXLUH

/HVPXUVELHQFRQoXVDYHFXQIUXLWXQLIRUPHSOXVIRUWTXH+9 RQWPRLQVGHFKDQFHGH
VHGpFROOHUGXFRQWDFW/HVPXUVYHUWLFDX[RXHQSRUWHjIDX[VRQWSOXVYXOQpUDEOHV

/HVGpFROOHPHQWVSHXYHQWrWUHSURYRTXpVSDUOHPRXYHPHQWG¶XQPXUGHVRXWqQHPHQWVRXSOH
HWRXVRXVGLPHQVLRQQp SDUH[HPSOHFDOFXOpjODSRXVVpHDFWLYHGHVWHUUHVSOXW{WTX¶DYHFODSRXVVpH
GHVWHUUHVDXUHSRV 

/RUVTX¶LO\DXQUDFFRUGHPHQWHQWUHXQEDUUDJHSRLGVHQEpWRQHWXQEDUUDJHHQUHPEODLGHV
WDVVHPHQWVGLIIpUHQWLHOVVLPLODLUHVjFHX[GpFULWVSUpFpGHPPHQWSHXYHQWVHIRUPHU)HOOHWDO  
GRQQHQWSOXVGHGpWDLOV


3.2.7. Érosion interne associée aux conduites traversantes


'H QRPEUHXVHV UXSWXUHV HW LQFLGHQWV G¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH GH FRQGXLW VH SURGXLVHQW ORUVTXH GHV
FRQGXLWHVVRQWSODFpHVGDQVOHUHPEODL





)LJ
3ULQFLSDOHVFDXVHVG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHDXWRXUGHFRQGXLWHV
$ 0DXYDLVFRPSDFWDJHG€jODSUpVHQFHG¶XQpFUDQDQWLUHQDUG
% 0DXYDLVFRPSDFWDJHGXOLWGHSRVH
& )LVVXUDWLRQGXVRORXURFKHWUqVDOWpUpHDXQLYHDXGHVSDURLVGHODWUDQFKpH
' )LVVXUHVFDXVpHVSDUXQWDVVHPHQWGLIIpUHQWLHO
( 8WLOLVDWLRQGHV\VWqPHVDQWLUHQDUG
)HOOet al 

__________________________________________________________________________
22

68
DQG WKH FRUH LV ZHOO FRPSDFWHG DW DURXQG RSWLPXP PRLVWXUH FRQWHQW ,W LV QRW VXIILFLHQW WR FDXVH
K\GUDXOLF IUDFWXUH WR MXVW KDYH VWLII VKRXOGHUV DQG D OHVV VWLII FRUH 7KHUH QHHGV WR EH GLIIHUHQWLDO
PRYHPHQWRIWKHFRUHDIWHUFRQVWUXFWLRQ'LIIHUHQWLDOH[SDQVLRQEHWZHHQWKHFRUHDQGVKRXOGHUVDVD
UHVHUYRLUUHILOOVDIWHUEHLQJGUDZQGRZQPD\UHVXOWLQK\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUHLQFRUHV HJ-RKQVWRQHWDO
 


3.2.6. Crack or gap adjacent to a spillway or abutment walls and where concrete dams abut
embankment
 dams


&UDFNLQJ RU D JDS PD\ IRUP DGMDFHQW WR ZDOOV GXH WR WKH HDUWKILOO VHWWOLQJ DZD\ IURP WKH ZDOO
GXULQJ RU DIWHU FRQVWUXFWLRQ &UDFNV RU JDSV PD\ DOVR IRUP DW GDP DEXWPHQWV )LJ VKRZV VRPH
VLWXDWLRQVZKHUHWKLVLVOLNHO\WRRFFXU

21
:HOOGHVLJQHGZDOOVZLWKXQLIRUPFRQWDFWVORSHVIODWWHUWKDQDERXW+9DUHXQOLNHO\WRKDYH
JDSVIRUP9HUWLFDORURYHUKDQJLQJZDOOVDUHOLNHO\WRKDYHJDSV

&UDFNLQJDQGJDSVPD\IRUPGXHWRGHIRUPDWLRQVRIIOH[LEOHDQGRUXQGHUGHVLJQHGUHWDLQLQJ
ZDOOV HJGHVLJQHGIRUDFWLYHUDWKHUWKDQDWUHVWHDUWKSUHVVXUHV

:KHUH WKHUH LV D ZUDSDURXQG MXQFWLRQ EHWZHHQ D FRQFUHWH JUDYLW\ GDP DQG DQ HPEDQNPHQW
GDPGLIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWVVLPLODUWRWKRVHGHVFULEHGDERYHPD\RFFXU)HOOHWDO  JLYHGHWDLOV


3.2.7. Internal erosion associated with conduits embedded in the embankment


0DQ\LQWHUQDOHURVLRQDQGSLSLQJIDLOXUHVDQGLQFLGHQWVRFFXUZKHUHFRQGXLWVDUHHPEHGGHGLQ
WKHHPEDQNPHQW





)LJ
6RPHFDXVHVRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQDURXQGFRQGXLWV
$ ,QDGHTXDWHFRPSDFWLRQGXHWRWKHSUHVHQFHRIFXWRIIFROODUV
% ,QDGHTXDWHFRPSDFWLRQXQGHUSLSH
& &UDFNLQJLQVRLORUH[WUHPHO\ZHDWKHUHGURFNLQWKHVLGHVRIDWUHQFK
' &UDFNVGXHWRGLIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQW
( 8VHRIFRUUXJDWLRQVRURWKHUURXJKHQLQJRIWKHVXUIDFHRIFXWRIIFROODUVRUFRQFUHWHVXUURXQG
)HOOet al 


)LJVKRZVVRPHRIWKHVHIHDWXUHV7KHFRQGXLWIDFLOLWDWHVWKHLQLWLDWLRQRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQE\

- &DXVLQJVWUHVVGLVWULEXWLRQVGXHWRWKHVWLIIFRQGXLWDQGLWVOHVVVWLIIVXUURXQGLQJVRLOZKLFKOHDG
WRORZSULQFLSDOVWUHVVHVDQGK\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUH7KLVLVGLVFXVVHGE\6KHUDUGHWDO  DQG
69

22


/D)LJPRQWUHFHUWDLQHVGHFHVGLVSRVLWLRQV/HVFRQGXLWHVIDFLOLWHQWO¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQ
LQWHUQH

- (QFDXVDQWGHVGLVWULEXWLRQVGHFRQWUDLQWHVSURYRTXpHVSDUODFRQGXLWHULJLGHHWOHVRO
HQYLURQQDQW PRLQV ULJLGH &H SKpQRPqQH HVW H[SOLTXp SDU 6KHUDUG et al.   HW
&KDUOHV   &HOD SHXW VH SURGXLUH VXU OHV SDURLV GH OD FRQGXLWH ORUVTX¶HOOH HVW
SODFpH GDQV XQH WUDQFKpH 6KHUDUG et al   VLJQDOHQW TXH FH SKpQRPqQH SHXW
pJDOHPHQW VH SURGXLUH ORUVTXH OD FRQGXLWH HQ EpWRQRX O¶HQUREDJH HQ EpWRQ IRUPH XQ
DQJOHYLI'DQVFHFDVRQSHXWV¶DWWHQGUHjXQSKpQRPqQHGHUHQDUGDXGHVVXVGHOD
FRQGXLWH
- /DGHVVLFFDWLRQGXVROIRUPDQWOHVSDURLVGXIRVVpGDQVOHTXHOODFRQGXLWHHVWSODFpH
ORUVGHODFRQVWUXFWLRQSHXWDXVVLFDXVHUGHVILVVXUHVTXLSHXYHQWLQLWLHUOHSKpQRPqQH
GHUHQDUG
- (QUHQGDQWGLIILFLOHOHFRPSDFWDJHGXVROSDUWLFXOLqUHPHQWVLOHVFROOLHUVVRQWSODFpVD
GHFRXUWVLQWHUYDOOHVRXTXHOHEpWRQHVWFRIIUpDYHFGHVW{OHVG
DFLHURQGXOpRXG¶DXWUHV
FRIIUDJHV UXJXHX[ HPSrFKDQW OH FRPSDFWDJH GX VRO DGMDFHQW ,O SHXW rWUH pJDOHPHQW
GLIILFLOHGHFRPSDFWHUOHVROYRLVLQVLO¶HVSDFHPHQWHQWUHODFRQGXLWHHWOHVSDURLVGHOD
WUDQFKpHHVWIDLEOHHWTXHOHFRPSDFWDJHSDUURXOHDXQ¶HVWSDVSRVVLEOH
- 8Q IDLEOH FRPSDFWDJH D GHV FKDQFHV GH PHQHU D XQH UXSWXUH SDU WDVVHPHQW GX VRO
VDWXUp IRUPDQW XQH FDYLWp HQWUH OD FRQGXLWH HW FH VRO ,O IDXW QRWHU TXH F¶HVW OD
FRQVpTXHQFHG¶XQGpIDXWSRWHQWLHOVXUXQHFRQGXLWHRXVXUO¶H[FDYDWLRQSDVVDQWGDQVOH
EDUUDJHTXLHVWFULWLTXHSRXUO¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQH

/¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHSHXWDXVVLVHIRUPHUjO¶LQWpULHXUGHMRLQWVRXYHUWVRXG¶DXWUHVGpIDXWVVXUOHV
FRQGXLWHVRXGDQVOHVFRQGXLWHVGpWpULRUpHVSDUODFRUURVLRQRXOHYLHLOOLVVHPHQW

)(0$   “Conduits through Embankment Dams, best practices for design, construction,
problem identification and evaluation, inspection, maintenance, renovation and repair´ IRXUQLW XQH
H[SOLFDWLRQFRPSOqWHGHVSUREOqPHVFDXVpVSDUOHVFRQGXLWHVLQWHUQHV)HOOet al  GRQQHQWGHV
FRQVHLOVVXUODIDoRQG
pYDOXHUO¶RFFXUUHQFHGHO
LQLWLDWLRQGHO
pURVLRQLQWHUQHjSDUWLUGHFHVVLWXDWLRQV


3.2.8. Fissures ou claquage hydraulique suite à l’effondrement de couches saturées
faiblement compactées de sols cohésifs ou de sols grossiers silteux


/¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH VH SURGXLVDQW GDQV OHV VROV FRKpVLIV IDLEOHPHQW FRPSDFWpV HVW ELHQ
GRFXPHQWpHSDUH[HPSOHSDU6KHUDUG  )RVWHUet al D &HFLHVWSDUWLFXOLqUHPHQWYUDLSRXU
OHVVROVGLVSHUVLIV,OH[LVWHSRWHQWLHOOHPHQWGHX[W\SHVGHPpFDQLVPH

- /H PDWpULDX FRKpVLI VH FRPSRUWH FRPPH XQ HPSLOHPHQW GH PRWWHV HQWUH OHVTXHOOHV
O¶HDXV¶pFRXOH/¶pURVLRQGHFRQGXLWSHXWVHSURGXLUHVLOHVYLGHVHQWUHPRWWHVVRQWWURS
JUDQGV
- /HPDWpULDXJURVVLHUVLOWHX[WDVVHHWODLVVHXQYLGHVRXVOHVROQRQVDWXUpGDQVOHTXHO
O¶HDXSHXWFLUFXOHUOLEUHPHQW/HVILVVXUHVSHXYHQWrWUHODFRQVpTXHQFHVRLWGLUHFWHGH
FHWDVVHPHQWVRLWGXFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXHDSUqVTXHODFRQWUDLQWHSULQFLSDOHPLQLPDOH
DLW pWp UpGXLWH ORFDOHPHQW SDU FH WDVVHPHQW DX SRLQW GH GHYHQLU SOXV IDLEOH TXH OD
SUHVVLRQLQWHUVWLWLHOOH

&HSKpQRPqQHDSOXVGHFKDQFHGHVHSURGXLUHORUVTXHO¶RQDXQVROIDLEOHPHQWFRPSDFWpHQ
FRQWDFW DYHF XQH FRQGXLWH RX XQ PXU G¶DSSXL 0DLV LO HVW pJDOHPHQW SRVVLEOH GDQV GHV FRXFKHV GH
VRO SDUWLFXOLqUHPHQW VL HOOHV VRQW WURS pSDLVVHV SRXU rWUH FRUUHFWHPHQW FRPSDFWpHV 6KHUDUG  
GRQQHGHVH[HPSOHV/DZWRQet al  DERUGHQWODSUREOpPDWLTXHGHO¶HIIRQGUHPHQWSDULPELELWLRQ

/H JUDQG QRPEUH G¶LQFLGHQWV GH IRQWLV HW GH UHQDUGV REVHUYpV GDQV OHV EDUUDJHV VXpGRLV
1LOVVRQ  D E  GH W\SH HQURFKHPHQW DYHF QR\DX FHQWUDO HQWHUUH HQ PRUDLQH j JUDQXORPpWULH
pWHQGXH VHPEOH DYRLU pWp LQLWLp SDU OH WDVVHPHQW GH VDWXUDWLRQ GX QR\DX TXL pWDLW IDLEOHPHQW
FRPSDFWp HQ FRXFKHV GH  PP G¶pSDLVVHXU SDUIRLV DX YRLVLQDJH GH VWUXFWXUHV HW G¶pFUDQ DQWL
UHQDUGHQSDOSODQFKHV

/D VpJUpJDWLRQ GDQV OHV UHFKDUJHV j JUDQXORPpWULH pWHQGXH SHXW pJDOHPHQW FRQGXLUH j GHV
__________________________________________________________________________
ILVVXUDWLRQV SDU HIIRQGUHPHQW ORFDO RX FODTXDJH23 K\GUDXOLTXH /HV VROV VXMHWV j OD VpJUpJDWLRQ VRQW
DERUGpVGDQVOD6HFWLRQ


70
3.2.9. Fissures de dessiccation


/D ILVVXUDWLRQ SDU GHVVLFFDWLRQ D SOXV GH FKDQFH G¶rWUH SUREOpPDWLTXH GDQV OHV UpJLRQV R OD
% ,QDGHTXDWHFRPSDFWLRQXQGHUSLSH
& &UDFNLQJLQVRLORUH[WUHPHO\ZHDWKHUHGURFNLQWKHVLGHVRIDWUHQFK
' &UDFNVGXHWRGLIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQW
( 8VHRIFRUUXJDWLRQVRURWKHUURXJKHQLQJRIWKHVXUIDFHRIFXWRIIFROODUVRUFRQFUHWHVXUURXQG
)HOOet al 


)LJVKRZVVRPHRIWKHVHIHDWXUHV7KHFRQGXLWIDFLOLWDWHVWKHLQLWLDWLRQRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQE\

- &DXVLQJVWUHVVGLVWULEXWLRQVGXHWRWKHVWLIIFRQGXLWDQGLWVOHVVVWLIIVXUURXQGLQJVRLOZKLFKOHDG
WRORZSULQFLSDOVWUHVVHVDQGK\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUH7KLVLVGLVFXVVHGE\6KHUDUGHWDO  DQG
&KDUOHV   7KLV FDQ RFFXU RQ WKH VLGHV RI FXOYHUWV ZKLFK DUH FRQVWUXFWHG LQ D WUHQFK
6KHUDUG HW DO   SRLQW RXW WKDW LW FDQ DOVR RFFXU ZKHUH WKH FRQFUHWH FXOYHUW RU WKH
FRQFUHWHVXUURXQGWRDSLSHKDVDVKDUSFRUQHU,QWKLVFDVHSLSLQJFDQEHH[SHFWHGDERYH
22
WKHFXOYHUW
- 'U\LQJRIWKHVRLOLQVLGHVRIWKHWUHQFKLQZKLFKWKHFXOYHUWLVSODFHGGXULQJFRQVWUXFWLRQFDQ
DOVRFDXVHFUDFNVZKLFKDOORZLQLWLDWLRQRISLSLQJ
- 0DNLQJFRPSDFWLRQRIVRLOGLIILFXOWSDUWLFXODUO\LIFROODUVDUHSURYLGHGDWFORVHLQWHUYDOVRUWKH
FRQFUHWH LV IRUPHG ZLWK FRUUXJDWHG VWHHO VKHHW RU RWKHU QRQVPRRWK IRUPZRUN SUHYHQWLQJ
FRPSDFWLRQ RI WKH VRLO DGMDFHQW WR WKH FRQGXLW ,W FDQ DOVR EH GLIILFXOW WR FRPSDFW WKH VRLO
VXUURXQGLQJWKHFRQGXLWLIWKHVSDFHEHWZHHQWKHFRQGXLWDQGWKHVLGHVRIWKHWUHQFKLQZKLFK
LWLVSODFHGLVVPDOODQGFRPSDFWLRQE\UROOHUVLVQRWSRVVLEOH
- 3RRUFRPSDFWLRQLVOLNHO\WROHDGWRFROODSVHVHWWOHPHQWRIWKHVRLORQVDWXUDWLRQIRUPLQJDJDS
DGMDFHQWWRWKHFRQGXLW1RWHWKDWLWLVWKHFRQWLQXLW\RIWKHSRWHQWLDOGHIHFWFDXVHGE\DFRQGXLW
DQGWKHH[FDYDWLRQWKURXJKWKHGDPZKLFKLVVRFULWLFDOWRWKHLQLWLDWLRQRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQ

,QWHUQDO HURVLRQ PD\ DOVR RFFXU LQWR RSHQ MRLQWV RU RWKHU GHIHFWV LQ FRQGXLWV RU LQWR FRQGXLWV
ZKLFKKDYHGHWHULRUDWHGGXHWRFRUURVLRQ

)(0$   ³&RQGXLWV WKURXJK (PEDQNPHQW 'DPV EHVW SUDFWLFHV IRU GHVLJQ FRQVWUXFWLRQ
SUREOHP LGHQWLILFDWLRQ DQG HYDOXDWLRQ LQVSHFWLRQ PDLQWHQDQFH UHQRYDWLRQ DQG UHSDLU´ SURYLGHV D
FRPSUHKHQVLYH FRYHUDJH RI WKH LVVXHV UHODWLQJ WR FRQGXLWV LQ HPEDQNPHQW GDPV )HOO HW DO  
SURYLGH VRPH JXLGDQFH RQ KRZ WR DVVHVV WKH OLNHOLKRRG RI WKHVH IHDWXUHV OHDGLQJ WR LQLWLDWLRQ RI
HURVLRQ


3.2.8. Cracking or hydraulic fracture resulting from collapse of poorly compacted layers in
cohesive soils or in broadly graded silty soils


,WLVZHOOGRFXPHQWHGHJ6KHUDUG  )RVWHUet al D WKDWLQWHUQDOHURVLRQDQGSLSLQJ
RFFXUVLQSRRUO\FRPSDFWHGFRKHVLYHVRLOV7KLVLVSDUWLFXODUO\VRIRUGLVSHUVLYHVRLOV7KHPHFKDQLVP
LVSRWHQWLDOO\RIWZRW\SHV

- 7KHVRLOEHKDYHVDVDVHULHVRIFORGVZLWKRSHQLQJVEHWZHHQWKHFORGVLQZKLFKZDWHUSDVVHV
&RQFHQWUDWHGOHDNHURVLRQRIVRLOPD\RFFXUWKURXJKODUJHURSHQLQJVEHWZHHQFORGV
- ,Q RWKHU FLUFXPVWDQFHV WKH VRLO FROODSVHV RQ VDWXUDWLRQ IRUPLQJ D IODZ RSHQ SDWKZD\  LQ
ZKLFKWKHZDWHUIORZV7KHIODZVPD\EHWKHUHVXOWRIFROODSVHGHIRUPDWLRQDORQHRUEHFDXVHG
E\K\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUHZKHQWKHPLQLPXPSULQFLSDOVWUHVVLVUHGXFHGORFDOO\E\WKHGHIRUPDWLRQ
DQGEHFRPHVOHVVWKDQWKHSRUHSUHVVXUH

7KLV LV PRVW OLNHO\ ZKHUH WKHUH LV SRRUO\ FRPSDFWHG VRLO DJDLQVW D FRQGXLW RU DEXWPHQW EXW LV
SRVVLEOH ZLWKLQ OD\HUV RI VRLO SDUWLFXODUO\ LI WKH\ ZHUH WRR WKLFN WR EH HIIHFWLYHO\ FRPSDFWHG E\ WKH
FRPSDFWLRQHTXLSPHQWXVHG6KHUDUG  JLYHVH[DPSOHVRIWKLV/DZWRQHWDO  FRQVLGHUWKH
FROODSVHVHWWOHPHQWLVVXH

$ ODUJH QXPEHU RI VLQNKROH DQG SLSLQJ LQFLGHQWV VRPH RI ZKLFK ZHUH FORVH WR VWUXFWXUHV DQG
VKHHWSLOHGFXWRIIVZHUHH[SHULHQFHGLQ6ZHGLVKFHQWUDOFRUHHDUWKDQGURFNILOOGDPV 1LOVVRQ
D E  7KH GDPV ZHUH FRQVWUXFWHG ZLWK EURDGO\ JUDGHG JODFLDO WLOO FRUHV DQG WKH LQFLGHQWV PD\ KDYH
EHHQSULPDULO\LQLWLDWHGE\FROODSVHVHWWOHPHQWRIWKHFRUHVZKLFKZHUHOLJKWO\FRPSDFWHGLQOD\HUVXS
WRPPWKLFN

6HJUHJDWLRQ LQ EURDGO\ JUDGHG ILOOV PD\ DOVR OHDG WR FUDFNLQJ WKURXJK ORFDO FROODSVHV RU
K\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUH0RUHLVVDLGDERXWVRLOVVXEMHFWWRVHJUHJDWLRQLQ6HFWLRQ


3.2.9. Cracking due to desiccation


'HVLFFDWLRQ FUDFNLQJ LV PRVW OLNHO\ WR EH DQ LVVXH LQ FOLPDWHV ZLWK OHVV WKDQ PP DQQXDO
UDLQIDOO LQ KLJK SODVWLFLW\ FRUHV DQG ZKHUH WKHUH LV QR VXUIDFH OD\HU RYHU WKH FRUH ([SHULHQFH LQ
71

23
UHQDUGHQSDOSODQFKHV

/D VpJUpJDWLRQ GDQV OHV UHFKDUJHV j JUDQXORPpWULH pWHQGXH SHXW pJDOHPHQW FRQGXLUH j GHV
ILVVXUDWLRQV SDU HIIRQGUHPHQW ORFDO RX FODTXDJH K\GUDXOLTXH /HV VROV VXMHWV j OD VpJUpJDWLRQ VRQW
DERUGpVGDQVOD6HFWLRQ


3.2.9. Fissures de dessiccation


/D ILVVXUDWLRQ SDU GHVVLFFDWLRQ D SOXV GH FKDQFH G¶rWUH SUREOpPDWLTXH GDQV OHV UpJLRQV R OD
SOXYLRPpWULHDQQXHOOHHVWLQIpULHXUHjPPGDQVOHVQR\DX[GHIRUWHSODVWLFLWpHWORUVTXHOHQR\DX
Q¶HVWSDVUHFRXYHUWG¶XQHFRXFKHGHVRO/¶H[SpULHQFHPRQWUHTXHVLO¶RQDXQUHYrWHPHQWURXWLHUGH
EDVH JUDQXODLUH XQH UHFKDUJH HQ HQURFKHPHQW RX XQH DXWUH FRXFKH QRQ SODVWLTXH G¶DX PRLQV
PP G¶pSDLVVHXU RQ Q¶REVHUYH JpQpUDOHPHQW SDV GH ILVVXUDWLRQ PrPH SHQGDQW OHV SpULRGHV GH
VpFKHUHVVH SURORQJpHV /H ULVTXH GH ILVVXUDWLRQ HVW HQFRUH SOXV IDLEOH VL OH UHYrWHPHQW URXWLHU HVW
UHQGXpWDQFKHDYHFGXEpWRQELWXPLQHX[GXEpWRQRXXQHQGXLWVXSHUILFLHO

/D ILVVXUDWLRQ SDU GHVVLFFDWLRQ Q¶HVW JpQpUDOHPHQW SDV WUqV SURIRQGH HOOH GHYLHQW
SUREOpPDWLTXHORUVTXHOHQLYHDXGHODUHWHQXHVHUDSSURFKHGXQLYHDXGHODFUrWH

/D ILVVXUDWLRQGHGHVVLFFDWLRQSHXWpJDOHPHQWVHSURGXLUHVXUXQHVXUIDFHSURYLVRLUHORUVTXH OH
FKDQWLHU HVW DUUrWp RX VXU OD VXUIDFH GH OD SUHPLqUH SKDVH GX EDUUDJH FRQVWUXLW HQ GHX[ SKDVHV /D
ERQQHWHFKQLTXHGHFRQVWUXFWLRQVHUDLWGHUHWLUHUOHVROGHVVpFKpFHODQ
HVWFHSHQGDQWSDVWRXMRXUVIDLW

,O GRLW rWUH QRWp TXH GDQV FHUWDLQHV VLWXDWLRQV OHV ILVVXUHV SDU GHVVLFFDWLRQ YHUWLFDOHV VXU OD
FUrWHGHVUHPEODLVSHXYHQWIRUPHUGHVFRORQQHVKH[DJRQDOHVFRXSpHVjGHVLQWHUYDOOHVUpJXOLHUVSDU
GHV ILVVXUHV KRUL]RQWDOHV IRUPDQW DLQVL GHV ©EORFVª &HV VLWXDWLRQV RQW FRQGXLW j GHV UXSWXUHV WHO
TXH OH UDSSRUWHQW &RROLQJ HW 0DUVODQG   0DUVODQG HW &RROLQJ   '\HU 8WLOL HW =LHOLQVNL
 HWGDQVThe International Levee Handbook &,5,$et al FDUOHVEORFVGHVVpFKpVVRQW
IDFLOHPHQW pURGDEOHV HW OD VXUYHUVH SHXW VH SURGXLUH ORUVTXH OH QLYHDX GH OD UHWHQXH DXJPHQWH WURS
UDSLGHPHQWSRXUVDWXUHUGHQRXYHDXOHUHPEODLSURYRTXDQWXQJOLVVHPHQW


3.2.10. Fissures transversales suite à un tassement sismique


/RUVG¶LPSRUWDQWWUHPEOHPHQWGHWHUUHOHVEDUUDJHVHQUHPEODLRQWWHQGDQFHjVHWDVVHUHWjVH
GpSODFHUGDQVODGLUHFWLRQDPRQWDYDO'HQRPEUHX[EDUUDJHVSUpVHQWHQWGHVILVVXUHVORQJLWXGLQDOHVHW
TXHOTXHVILVVXUHVWUDQVYHUVDOHV'HVH[HPSOHVVRQWOHEDUUDJH$XVWULDQ +DUGHUet al,)RUVWHUHW
0DF'RQDO OHEDUUDJHGH*XDGHORXSH +DUGHUet al HWOHEDUUDJHGH/H[LQJWRQ )RQJHW
%HQQHWW 3HOOVHW)HOO  RQWDQDO\VpGHVFDVGHEDUUDJHVQRQVXMHWVjODOLTXpIDFWLRQHW
RQW PRQWUpV TXH OHV EDUUDJHV DYHF GHV WDVVHPHQWV SOXV LPSRUWDQWV TX¶HQYLURQ   GH OHXU KDXWHXU
pWDLHQWjSHXSUqVFHUWDLQVGHSUpVHQWHUGHVILVVXUHVWUDQVYHUVDOHVFHX[D\DQWWDVVpGHj
DYDLHQWGHFKDQFHG¶DYRLUGHVILVVXUHVWUDQVYHUVDOHVDORUVTXHOHVEDUUDJHVTXLRQWWDVVpHQWUH
HWDYDLHQWGHFKDQFHGHSUpVHQWHUGHVILVVXUHVWUDQVYHUVDOHV

&HVILVVXUHVVHIRUPHQWHQFUrWHHWOHXUSRWHQWLHOSRXULQLWLHUO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHGpSHQGGXQLYHDX
GHODUHWHQXHHWGHODSURIRQGHXUGHVILVVXUHV

6LODOLTXpIDFWLRQVHSURGXLWOHVGpIRUPDWLRQVRQWSOXVGHFKDQFHG¶rWUHLPSRUWDQWHDXJPHQWDQW
DLQVLODSUREDELOLWpGHILVVXUDWLRQ2QSHXWO¶HVWLPHUDYHFGHVPpWKRGHVG¶DQDO\VHQXPpULTXH


3.2.11. Fissures ou couches de grande perméabilité causées par le gel


/HVHIIHWVGXJHOVXUOHVEDUUDJHVHQUHPEODLVRQWGpFULWVSDU9XRODet al  /HJHOHQWUDvQH
GHO¶HDXVXSSOpPHQWDLUHGDQVOHVROSDUHIIHWGHFDSLOODULWp&HFLSURYRTXHGHVOHQWLOOHVGHJODFHDYHF
XQJRQIOHPHQWXQHILVVXUDWLRQHWRXXQUDPROOLVVHPHQWGXVRO/HVILVVXUHVVHVLWXHQWVXUODFUrWHGX
EDUUDJHHWRQWGHWUqVIRUWHVFKDQFHVG¶rWUHORQJLWXGLQDOHVPDLVSHXYHQWDXVVLrWUHWUDQVYHUVDOHV/HV
__________________________________________________________________________
)LJHWPRQWUHQWOHVHIIHWVpYHQWXHOV
 24
9XRODet al  GRQQHQWXQHpTXDWLRQSRXUHVWLPHUODSURIRQGHXUGHSpQpWUDWLRQGXJHO

'HQRPEUHXVHVUpIpUHQFHVIRXUQLVVHQWGHVLQIRUPDWLRQVVXUODVHQVLELOLWpGHVVROVDXJHO/HV
SOXV ILDEOHV VRQW :DOODFH   +ROW] HW .RYDFV   9XROD et al   HW 86$&(   /HV
PDWpULDX[GXQR\DXOHVSOXVVHQVLEOHVDXJHOHWjODIRUPDWLRQGHOHQWLOOHVGHJHOVRQWOHVOLPRQVOHV
OLPRQVDUJLOHX[OHVVDEOHVOLPRQHX[OHVJUDYHVOLPRQHXVHVHWOHVVDEOHVHWOHVJUDYLHUVDUJLOHX[DYHF
XQLQGLFHGHSODVWLFLWpLQIpULHXUj


72 
)LJ
/HVHIIHWVGXJHOVXUXQEDUUDJHHQUHPEODL 9XRODet al 

EHHQSULPDULO\LQLWLDWHGE\FROODSVHVHWWOHPHQWRIWKHFRUHVZKLFKZHUHOLJKWO\FRPSDFWHGLQOD\HUVXS
WRPPWKLFN

6HJUHJDWLRQ LQ EURDGO\ JUDGHG ILOOV PD\ DOVR OHDG WR FUDFNLQJ WKURXJK ORFDO FROODSVHV RU
K\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUH0RUHLVVDLGDERXWVRLOVVXEMHFWWRVHJUHJDWLRQLQ6HFWLRQ


3.2.9. Cracking due to desiccation


'HVLFFDWLRQ FUDFNLQJ LV PRVW OLNHO\ WR EH DQ LVVXH LQ FOLPDWHV ZLWK OHVV WKDQ PP DQQXDO
UDLQIDOO LQ KLJK SODVWLFLW\ FRUHV DQG ZKHUH WKHUH LV QR VXUIDFH OD\HU RYHU WKH FRUH ([SHULHQFH LQ
H[FDYDWLQJLQWRWKHFUHVWRIHPEDQNPHQWVLVWKDWLIWKHUHLVDURDGSDYHPHQWRIJUDQXODUURDGEDVHRUD
URFNILOO RU RWKHU QRQSODVWLF OD\HU DW OHDVW PP WKLFN FUDFNLQJ LV QRW JHQHUDOO\ REVHUYHG HYHQ LQ
VHDVRQDOFOLPDWHVZLWKH[WHQGHGGU\SHULRGV7KHOLNHOLKRRGRIFUDFNLQJLVIXUWKHUUHGXFHGLIWKHURDG
23
SDYHPHQWLVVHDOHGZLWKDVSKDOWFRQFUHWHRUELWXPHQVHDO

'HVLFFDWLRQFUDFNLQJGRHVQRWFRPPRQO\SHUVLVWWRDJUHDWGHSWKVRRQO\EHFRPHVDQLVVXHIRU
UHVHUYRLUOHYHOVQHDULQJWKHFUHVWOHYHO

'HVLFFDWLRQFUDFNLQJPD\DOVRRFFXURQVHDVRQDOVKXWGRZQVXUIDFHVGXULQJFRQVWUXFWLRQRURQ
WKHVXUIDFHRIWKHILUVWVWDJHRIGDPVZKLFKDUHEXLOWLQWZRVWDJHV*RRGFRQVWUXFWLRQSUDFWLFHZRXOG
EHWRUHPRYHWKHGHVLFFDWHGVRLOEXWWKLVZDVQRWDOZD\VGRQH

,W VKRXOG EH QRWHG WKDW LQ VRPH VLWXDWLRQV WKH YHUWLFDO GHVLFFDWLRQ FUDFNV LQ WKH FUHVWV RI
HPEDQNPHQWV IRUP KH[DJRQDO FROXPQV ZKLFK DUH FXW DW IUHTXHQW LQWHUYDOV E\ KRUL]RQWDO FUDFNV WR
IRUPµEORFNV¶6XFKFLUFXPVWDQFHVKDYHOHGWRIDLOXUHVDVUHSRUWHGE\&RROLQJDQG0DUVODQG  
0DUVODQG DQG &RROLQJ   '\HU 8WLOL DQG =LHOLQVNL   DQG LQ 7KH ,QWHUQDWLRQDO /HYHH
+DQGERRN &,5,$HWDO EHFDXVHWKHGHVLFFDWHGEORFNVDUHHDVLO\HURGHGDQGRYHUWRSSLQJPD\
RFFXUZKHQWKHUHVHUYRLUZDWHUOHYHOULVHVWRRUDSLGO\IRUUHVDWXUDWLRQDQGVZHOOLQJWRWDNHSODFH


3.2.10. Transverse cracking caused by settlement during earthquakes


:KHQ HPEDQNPHQW GDPV H[SHULHQFH D ODUJH HDUWKTXDNH WKH\ RIWHQ VHWWOH DQG VSUHDG LQ WKH
XSVWUHDPGRZQVWUHDP GLUHFWLRQ 0DQ\ H[KLELW ORQJLWXGLQDO FUDFNLQJ DQG VRPH WUDQVYHUVH FUDFNLQJ
6RPH H[DPSOHV DUH $XVWULDQ 'DP +DUGHU HW DO  )RUVWHUDQG 0DF'RQDOG   *XDGHORXSH
'DP +DUGHUHWDO DQG/H[LQJWRQ'DP )RQJDQG%HQQHWW 3HOOVDQG)HOO  
DQDO\]HGFDVHGDWDIRUGDPVQRWVXEMHFWWROLTXHIDFWLRQZKLFKVKRZHGWKDWGDPVZKLFKVHWWOHGPRUH
WKDQDERXWRIWKHLUKHLJKWZHUHDOPRVWFHUWDLQWRH[KLELWWUDQVYHUVHFUDFNVWKRVHZKLFKVHWWOHG
EHWZHHQ  DQG  KDG DERXW D  FKDQFH RI H[KLELWLQJ WUDQVYHUVH FUDFNV DQG GDPV ZKLFK
VHWWOHGEHWZHHQDQGKDGDERXWDFKDQFHRIWUDQVYHUVHFUDFNLQJ

7KHVHFUDFNVDUHLQWKHXSSHUSDUWRIWKHHPEDQNPHQWDQGZKHWKHUWKH\DUHDSRWHQWLDOLQLWLDWRU
RILQWHUQDOHURVLRQGHSHQGVRQWKHUHVHUYRLUOHYHODQGGHSWKRIFUDFNLQJ

,I OLTXHIDFWLRQ RFFXUV WKH GHIRUPDWLRQV DUH OLNHO\ WR EH ODUJH DQG WKH OLNHOLKRRG RI FUDFNLQJ
JUHDWHU7KHVHPD\EHHVWLPDWHGE\QXPHULFDODQDO\VHVPHWKRGV


3.2.11. Cracking or high permeability layers due to freezing


7KH HIIHFWV RI IURVW RQ HPEDQNPHQW GDPV DUH GHVFULEHG LQ 9XROD et al   7KH HIIHFWV RI
IURVWDUHWRFDXVHH[WUDZDWHUWREHGUDZQLQWRWKHVRLOE\FDSLOODULW\DFWLRQ7KLVFDXVHVLFHOHQVHVWR
IRUPZLWKDVVRFLDWHGKHDYHDQGSRWHQWLDOO\FUDFNLQJDQGRUORRVHQLQJRIWKHVRLO7KHFUDFNLQJLVPRVW
OLNHO\WREHORQJLWXGLQDOEXWPD\DOVREHWUDQVYHUVHDWWKHFUHVWRIWKHGDP)LJDQGVKRZ
WKHSRWHQWLDOHIIHFWV

9XRODet al  SURYLGHDQHTXDWLRQIRUHVWLPDWLQJWKHGHSWKRIIURVWSHQHWUDWLRQ

7KHUHDUHDQXPEHURIUHIHUHQFHVZKLFKSURYLGHLQIRUPDWLRQRQWKHVXVFHSWLELOLW\RIVRLOVWRIURVW
SHQHWUDWLRQ7KHVHLQFOXGH:DOODFH  +ROW]DQG.RYDFV  9XRODet al  DQG86$&(
 ZKLFKJLYHVWKHPRVWVSHFLILFGDWD&RUHPDWHULDOVZKLFKDUHPRVWVXVFHSWLEOHWRIUHH]LQJDQG
LFHOHQVIRUPDWLRQLQFOXGHVLOWVFOD\H\VLOWVVLOW\VDQGVVLOW\JUDYHOVDQGFOD\H\VDQGVDQGJUDYHOVZLWK
DSODVWLFLW\LQGH[
 

73

24
'HQRPEUHXVHVUpIpUHQFHVIRXUQLVVHQWGHVLQIRUPDWLRQVVXUODVHQVLELOLWpGHVVROVDXJHO/HV
SOXV ILDEOHV VRQW :DOODFH   +ROW] HW .RYDFV   9XROD et al   HW 86$&(   /HV
PDWpULDX[GXQR\DXOHVSOXVVHQVLEOHVDXJHOHWjODIRUPDWLRQGHOHQWLOOHVGHJHOVRQWOHVOLPRQVOHV
OLPRQVDUJLOHX[OHVVDEOHVOLPRQHX[OHVJUDYHVOLPRQHXVHVHWOHVVDEOHVHWOHVJUDYLHUVDUJLOHX[DYHF
XQLQGLFHGHSODVWLFLWpLQIpULHXUj



)LJ
/HVHIIHWVGXJHOVXUXQEDUUDJHHQUHPEODL 9XRODet al 

YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ


)LJ
'RPPDJHVSURGXLWVSDUOHVF\FOHVGHJHOGpJHOVXUOHVEDUUDJHVHQUHPEODLV 9XRODet al 

YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ



)LJ
/HVHIIHWVGXJHOVXUO¶pYDFXDWHXUGHFUXH 9XRODHWDO 


3.2.12. Érosion interne initiées par des terriers d’animaux


/HV WHUULHUV G¶DQLPDX[ GDQV OH EDUUDJH HQ UHPEODL RX OD GLJXH SHXYHQW FRQGXLUH j GHV
RXYHUWXUHV SUHVTXH FRQWLQXHV GHV VLWXDWLRQV FRPPH FHOOHV LOOXVWUpHV VXU OD )LJ  R G¶LPSRUWDQWV
JUDGLHQWVHQWUHOHVWURXVSHXYHQWSURYRTXHUO¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQ

)(0$ D “Impacts of animals on Earthen Dams, FEMA Report 473´IRXUQLWXQHH[SOLFDWLRQ
FRPSOqWH GH FHV SUREOpPDWLTXHV :UD\   D pODERUp XQ JXLGH &,5,$ SRXU OD JHVWLRQ GHV ODSLQV
HXURSpHQV



)LJ
,PSDFWVSRWHQWLHOVGHVWHUULHUVG¶DQLPDX[VXUO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHGDQVOHVEDUUDJHVHQUHPEODLHWOHV
GLJXHV )(0$D 

YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ


3.2.13. Érosion interne initiées par la végétation

__________________________________________________________________________
 25
/HGpYHORSSHPHQWGHODYpJpWDWLRQVXUOHVEDUUDJHVHWOHVGLJXHVSHXWFRQGXLUHjGHV]RQHVGH
IDLEOHVVHHWjO¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQ/HVHIIHWVFRPSUHQQHQW

- 'pFRPSRVLWLRQGHVUDFLQHVIRUPDQWGHVFKHPLQVG¶LQILOWUDWLRQ
- 3pQpWUDWLRQGHVUDFLQHVjO¶LQWpULHXUGHVMRLQWVRXYHUWVHWGHVILVVXUHVjO¶LQWpULHXUGHOD
IRQGDWLRQURFKHXVHFUpDQWSRWHQWLHOOHPHQWGHVFKHPLQVG¶LQILOWUDWLRQ
- 2XYHUWXUHGHVMRLQWVGHVFRQGXLWHVHWGHVVWUXFWXUHVHQEpWRQFDXVpHSDUODSpQpWUDWLRQ
GHV UDFLQHV SHUPHWWDQW O¶pURVLRQ j O¶LQWpULHXU RX DX[ H[WUpPLWpV GH OD FRQGXLWH RX GX
PXU
- &ROPDWDJHGHVV\VWqPHVGHGUDLQDJH
- *rQHRXREVWUXFWLRQjO¶LQVSHFWLRQYLVXHOOHHIILFDFH

)(0$ E Technical Manual for Dam Owners, Impacts of Plants on Earthen dams)(0$
5HSRUW  GRQQH GHV LQIRUPDWLRQV HWGHVFRQVHLOVVXU OD IDoRQGH JpUHUFHSUREOqPH =DQHWWL et al
74
  UDSSRUWHQW OHV FRQVpTXHQFHV GHV DUEUHV HW G¶DXWUHV W\SHV GH YpJpWDWLRQ VXU OHV EDUUDJHV HQ
UHPEODLG¶(XURSH






)LJ 
(IIHFWVRIIURVWRQDQHPEDQNPHQWGDP 9XRODet al 

6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ



)LJ 
'DPDJHSKHQRPHQDRFFXUULQJLQHPEDQNPHQWGDPVIURPIURVWWKDZ 9XRODet al 

6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ




)LJ
(IIHFWRIIURVWDJDLQVWDVSLOOZD\VWUXFWXUH 9XRODet al 


3.2.12. Internal erosion initiated by the effects of animal burrows


$QLPDO EXUURZV LQ WKH HPEDQNPHQW RU OHYHH FDQ OHDG WR D VLWXDWLRQ ZKHUH WKHUH DUH QHDUO\
FRQWLQXRXV KROHV WKURXJK WKH HPEDQNPHQW RU VLWXDWLRQV OLNH WKRVH VKRZQ LQ )LJ ZKHUH KLJK
JUDGLHQWVEHWZHHQKROHVPD\UHVXOWLQLQLWLDWLRQRIHURVLRQ

)(0$ D  ³,PSDFWV RI DQLPDOV RQ (DUWKHQ 'DPV )(0$ 5HSRUW ´ SURYLGHV D
FRPSUHKHQVLYHFRYHUDJHRIWKHLVVXHV:UD\  SUHSDUHGD&,5,$JXLGHWRPDQDJHPHQWRIWKH
(XURSHDQ5DEELW



)LJ 
3RWHQWLDOLPSDFWVRIEXUURZLQJDQLPDOVRQLQWHUQDOHURVLRQLQHPEDQNPHQWVDQGOHYHHV )(0$D 

6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ


3.2.13. Internal erosion initiated by the effects of vegetation


9HJHWDWLRQ JURZLQJ RQ GDPV DQG OHYHHV FDQ OHDG WR VLWXDWLRQV ZKLFK PD\ OHDG WR D SRWHQWLDO
FRQFHQWUDWHGOHDNDQGLQLWLDWLRQRIHURVLRQ7KHHIIHFWVLQFOXGH

-  'HFD\LQJURRWVWKDWFUHDWHVHHSDJHSDWKV
- 5RRWVSHQHWUDWLQJLQWRRSHQMRLQWDQGFUDFNVLQIRXQGDWLRQURFNSRWHQWLDOO\FUHDWLQJVHHSDJH
SDWKV
- 5RRW SHQHWUDWLRQ RI FRQGXLW MRLQWV DQG MRLQWV LQ FRQFUHWH VWUXFWXUHV DQG RSHQLQJ WKH MRLQWV WR
DOORZHURVLRQLQWRRURXWRIWKHFRQGXLWRUZDOO
- &ORJJLQJHPEDQNPHQWXQGHUGUDLQV\VWHPV
- ,QWHUIHULQJZLWKHIIHFWLYHYLVXDOLQVSHFWLRQ25

)(0$ E 7HFKQLFDO0DQXDOIRU'DP2ZQHUV,PSDFWVRI3ODQWVRQ(DUWKHQGDPV)(0$
5HSRUWSURYLGHVLQIRUPDWLRQDQGJXLGDQFHRQKRZWRPDQDJH WKLVSUREOHP=DQHWWLet al   75
UHSRUWRQWKHLPSDFWVRIWUHHVDQGRWKHUYHJHWDWLRQRQHPEDQNPHQWVLQ(XURSH


IRQGDWLRQURFKHXVHFUpDQWSRWHQWLHOOHPHQWGHVFKHPLQVG¶LQILOWUDWLRQ
- 2XYHUWXUHGHVMRLQWVGHVFRQGXLWHVHWGHVVWUXFWXUHVHQEpWRQFDXVpHSDUODSpQpWUDWLRQ
GHV UDFLQHV SHUPHWWDQW O¶pURVLRQ j O¶LQWpULHXU RX DX[ H[WUpPLWpV GH OD FRQGXLWH RX GX
PXU
- &ROPDWDJHGHVV\VWqPHVGHGUDLQDJH
- *rQHRXREVWUXFWLRQjO¶LQVSHFWLRQYLVXHOOHHIILFDFH

)(0$ E Technical Manual for Dam Owners, Impacts of Plants on Earthen dams)(0$
5HSRUW  GRQQH GHV LQIRUPDWLRQV HWGHVFRQVHLOVVXU OD IDoRQGH JpUHUFHSUREOqPH =DQHWWL et al
  UDSSRUWHQW OHV FRQVpTXHQFHV GHV DUEUHV HW G¶DXWUHV W\SHV GH YpJpWDWLRQ VXU OHV EDUUDJHV HQ
UHPEODLG¶(XURSH


3.2.14. Importance des conduites, des bajoyers d’évacuateurs, des mécanismes de fissuration
et des zones mal compactées


&RPPHLQGLTXpGDQVOH7DEOHDXODFDXVHGHSUqVGHODPRLWLpGHVLQFLGHQWVG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQH
GDQVOHVUHPEODLVLPSOLTXHGHVFRQGXLWHVWUDYHUVDQWHVRXOHVPXUVEDMR\HUVGHO¶pYDFXDWHXUGHFUXHV
&HX[FLVRQWOLpVjXQPDXYDLVFRPSDFWDJHRXXQWDVVHPHQWGLIIpUHQWLHORXELHQjXQHIIHWYR€WHVXU
OHVULYHV

(Q GHKRUV GHV FRQGXLWHV HW OHV PXUV GH O¶pYDFXDWHXU GH FUXHV OD UpSDUWLWLRQ GHV FDXVHV
G¶LQFLGHQWV HQWUH ILVVXUDWLRQ HW ]RQHV GH IDLEOH FRPSDFWDJH HVWG¶DSUqV OHV GRQQpHV GH OD &,*%
UDVVHPEOpHVSDU)RVWHUet al D 

- )LVVXUHVSDUWDVVHPHQWGLIIpUHQWLHO 
- =RQHVWUqVSHUPpDEOHVHWSHXFRPSDFWpHV 

/DUpSDUWLWLRQHVWGpWDLOOpHGDQVOH7DEOHDX

7DEOHDX
3URSRUWLRQVUHODWLYHVGHVLQFLGHQWV )HOOet alEDVpVXU)RVWHUHW)HOOD 
 1EGHFDV GHVFDV
7DVVHPHQWGLIIpUHQWLHOULYHjULYH  
7DVVHPHQWGLIIpUHQWLHOGHODVHFWLRQWUDQVYHUVDOH  
0pFDQLVPHVGH
7DVVHPHQWGLIIpUHQWLHOGHODIRQGDWLRQ  
ILVVXUDWLRQ
7DVVHPHQWGLIIpUHQWLHOGHODSODWHIRUPHGXUHPEODL  

)LVVXUDWLRQGHGHVVLFFDWLRQ  
9DOOpHpWURLWH  
7RWDOGHVPpFDQLVPHVGHILVVXUDWLRQ  
=RQHVWUqVSHUPpDEOHVHW $XFRQWDFWGHVIRQGDWLRQV  
SHXFRPSDFWpHV 'DQVOHUHPEODL  
7RWDOGHV]RQHVWUqVSHUPpDEOHVHWSHXFRPSDFWpHV  


 &5,7Ê5(6


3.3.1. La procédure

/HPRGHRSpUDWRLUHSRXUpYDOXHUOHULVTXHG¶LQLWLDWLRQG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHGDQVXQHILVVXUHRXXQH
IDLEOHVVHHVWOHVXLYDQW

(VWLPHU OD FRQWUDLQWH GH FLVDLOOHPHQW K\GUDXOLTXH GDQV OD ILVVXUH SRXU OH QLYHDX GH UHWHQXH
__________________________________________________________________________
FRQVLGpUp HQ SUHQDQW HQ FRPSWH OD JpRPpWULH GX QR\DX GHV UHFKDUJHV GHV GLPHQVLRQV GH ILVVXUH
26
pYDOXpHV HW OHXUV HPSODFHPHQWV UHODWLIV SDU UDSSRUW j OD VXUIDFH GH OD UHWHQXH SHUPHWWDQW GH
GpWHUPLQHUOHJUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXH

&RPSDUHU FHWWH FRQWUDLQWH j OD FRQWUDLQWH GH FLVDLOOHPHQW FULWLTXH TXL SURYRTXHUD O¶pURVLRQ GX
PDWpULDX GX QR\DX WF  DX GHJUp GH VDWXUDWLRQ GX VRO GDQV OD ILVVXUH 3UHQGUH HQ FRPSWH OHV
SURSULpWpVGLVSHUVLYHVGXVROHWODFRPSRVLWLRQFKLPLTXHGHO
HDXG
LQILOWUpH

,O\DWRXMRXUVXQHFHUWDLQHLQFHUWLWXGHFRQFHUQDQWOHVSDUDPqWUHVG
HQWUpHO
DQDO\VHGRLWGRQF
YpULILHUODVHQVLELOLWpGHVUpVXOWDWVDX[K\SRWKqVHVUHWHQXHV

/DVHFWLRQVXLYDQWHGRQQHXQDSHUoXGHFHSURFHVVXV


3.3.2. Estimation de la largeur et de la profondeur d’une fissure


&RPPH GpFULW FLGHVVXV OHV ILVVXUHV TXL DSSDUDLVVHQW VXU ODFUrWH GHVUHPEODLV VRQW IRUPpHV
SDUODGHVVLFFDWLRQOHWDVVHPHQWGHFRQVROLGDWLRQOHUHWUDLWOHVVHFRXVVHVVLVPLTXHVRXSDUOHV]RQHV
76
WUqVSHUPpDEOHVSHXFRPSDFWpHV

/H WDVVHPHQW GX UHPEODL pWLUH VRQ SURILO GX EDUUDJH HW SURYRTXH GHV ILVVXUHV ORQJLWXGLQDOHV
SDUDOOqOHVjO¶D[HGXEDUUDJHPDLVDXVVLpWLUHODFUrWHHWSURYRTXHGHVILVVXUHVWUDQVYHUVDOHVTXLVRQW
- 5RRW SHQHWUDWLRQ RI FRQGXLW MRLQWV DQG MRLQWV LQ FRQFUHWH VWUXFWXUHV DQG RSHQLQJ WKH MRLQWV WR
DOORZHURVLRQLQWRRURXWRIWKHFRQGXLWRUZDOO
- &ORJJLQJHPEDQNPHQWXQGHUGUDLQV\VWHPV
- ,QWHUIHULQJZLWKHIIHFWLYHYLVXDOLQVSHFWLRQ

)(0$ E 7HFKQLFDO0DQXDOIRU'DP2ZQHUV,PSDFWVRI3ODQWVRQ(DUWKHQGDPV)(0$
5HSRUWSURYLGHVLQIRUPDWLRQDQGJXLGDQFHRQKRZWRPDQDJH WKLVSUREOHP=DQHWWLet al  
UHSRUWRQWKHLPSDFWVRIWUHHVDQGRWKHUYHJHWDWLRQRQHPEDQNPHQWVLQ(XURSH


3.2.14. Relative importance of conduits, spillway walls, cracking mechanisms, and poorly
compacted zones


$VGHWDLOHGLQ7DEOHDERXWKDOIRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQLQFLGHQWVLQHPEDQNPHQWVKDYHKLVWRULFDOO\
LQYROYHGFRQGXLWVWKURXJKWKHHPEDQNPHQWDQGVSLOOZD\ZDOOVVXSSRUWLQJWKHHPEDQNPHQW7KHVHDUH
UHODWHGWRSRRUFRPSDFWLRQGLIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWDQGDUFKLQJHIIHFWV

([FOXGLQJ FRQGXLWV DQG VSLOOZD\ ZDOOV WKH UHODWLYH SURSRUWLRQ RI LQFLGHQWV LQ WKH )RVWHU et al
D ,&2/'GDWDEDVHFDXVHGE\FUDFNLQJDQGSRRUO\FRPSDFWHG]RQHVLV

- 'LIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWFUDFNLQJ± 
- 3RRUO\FRPSDFWHGDQGKLJKSHUPHDELOLW\]RQHV± 

$IXUWKHUDVVHVVPHQWRIWKHFDVHVWXG\LQIRUPDWLRQUHVXOWVLVJLYHQLQ7DEOH

7DEOH
5HODWLYHSURSRUWLRQRILQFLGHQWVIURPWKHGLIIHUHQWFDXVHVRIFUDFNIRUPDWLRQ
)HOOet alEDVHGRQ)RVWHUDQG)HOOD 
 1RRIFDVHV RIFDVHV
'LIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWFURVVYDOOH\  
'LIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWFURVVVHFWLRQ  
&UDFNLQJPHFKDQLVPV 'LIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWIRXQGDWLRQ  
 'LIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWHPEDQNPHQWVWDJLQJ  
'HVLFFDWLRQFUDFNLQJ  
&ORVXUHVHFWLRQ  
7RWDOIRUFUDFNLQJPHFKDQLVPV  
3RRUO\&RPSDFWHGDQG )RXQGDWLRQFRQWDFW  
+LJKSHUPHDELOLW\]RQHV ,QHPEDQNPHQW  
7RWDOIRU3RRUO\&RPSDFWHGDQG+LJK3HUPHDELOLW\=RQHV  


 &5,7(5,$)25,1,7,$7,212)&21&(175$7('/($.6


3.3.1. The procedure


7KHSURFHGXUHIRUDVVHVVLQJZKHWKHUHURVLRQZLOOLQLWLDWHLQDFUDFNRUIODZLVWR

(VWLPDWH WKH K\GUDXOLF VKHDU VWUHVVHV LQ WKH FUDFN IRU WKH UHVHUYRLU OHYHO XQGHU FRQVLGHUDWLRQ
WDNLQJ DFFRXQW RI WKH JHRPHWU\ RI WKH FRUH RI WKH HPEDQNPHQW DQG WKH DVVXPHG FUDFN GLPHQVLRQV
DQGORFDWLRQUHODWLYHWRWKHUHVHUYRLUVXUIDFHVRWKHIORZJUDGLHQWFDQEHGHWHUPLQHG

&RPSDUHWKLVK\GUDXOLFVKHDUVWUHVVWRWKHFULWLFDOVKHDUVWUHVVZKLFKZLOOLQLWLDWHHURVLRQIRUWKH
VRLOLQWKHFRUHRIWKHHPEDQNPHQW WF DWWKHGHJUHHRIVDWXUDWLRQRIWKHVRLORQWKHVLGHVRIWKHFUDFN
,QGRLQJWKLVWDNHDFFRXQWRIWKHGLVSHUVLRQSURSHUWLHVRIWKHVRLODQGWKHFKHPLVWU\RIWKH VHHSDJH
ZDWHU

7KHUHLVDOZD\VVRPHXQFHUWDLQW\UHJDUGLQJWKHLQSXWSDUDPHWHUVVRWKHDQDO\VLVVKRXOGFKHFN

WKHVHQVLWLYLW\WRWKHDVVXPSWLRQVPDGH

7KHIROORZLQJVHFWLRQVJLYHDQRXWOLQHRIWKLVSURFHVV

 26
3.3.2. Estimation of width and depth of cracks


$V GHVFULEHG DERYH FUDFNV IRUP LQ WKH FUHVWV RI HPEDQNPHQWV IURP GHVLFFDWLRQ IURP
VHWWOHPHQWUHVXOWLQJIURPFRQVROLGDWLRQFUHHSRUHDUWKTXDNHVKDNLQJRULQSRRUO\FRPSDFWHGDQGKLJK
SHUPHDELOLW\]RQHV
 77
6HWWOHPHQWFDXVHVVSUHDGLQJRIWKHHPEDQNPHQWWKLVUHVXOWVLQORQJLWXGLQDOFUDFNVSDUDOOHOWR
WKH FHQWHUOLQH RI WKH GDP EXW VHWWOHPHQW UHVXOWLQJ LQ WUDQVYHUVH FUDFNV SDVVLQJ WKURXJK WKH FUHVW RI
HPEDQNPHQWV IURP WKH XSVWUHDP IDFH WR WKH GRZQVWUHDP IDFH DUH VLWHV ZKHUH FRQFHQWUDWHG OHDN
HURVLRQPD\RFFXU,WLVQHFHVVDU\WRHVWLPDWHWKHZLGWKDQGGHSWKRIVXFKFUDFNV DQGWKHK\GUDXOLF

,O\DWRXMRXUVXQHFHUWDLQHLQFHUWLWXGHFRQFHUQDQWOHVSDUDPqWUHVG
HQWUpHO
DQDO\VHGRLWGRQF
YpULILHUODVHQVLELOLWpGHVUpVXOWDWVDX[K\SRWKqVHVUHWHQXHV

/DVHFWLRQVXLYDQWHGRQQHXQDSHUoXGHFHSURFHVVXV


3.3.2. Estimation de la largeur et de la profondeur d’une fissure


&RPPH GpFULW FLGHVVXV OHV ILVVXUHV TXL DSSDUDLVVHQW VXU ODFUrWH GHVUHPEODLV VRQW IRUPpHV
SDUODGHVVLFFDWLRQOHWDVVHPHQWGHFRQVROLGDWLRQOHUHWUDLWOHVVHFRXVVHVVLVPLTXHVRXSDUOHV]RQHV
WUqVSHUPpDEOHVSHXFRPSDFWpHV

/H WDVVHPHQW GX UHPEODL pWLUH VRQ SURILO GX EDUUDJH HW SURYRTXH GHV ILVVXUHV ORQJLWXGLQDOHV
SDUDOOqOHVjO¶D[HGXEDUUDJHPDLVDXVVLpWLUHODFUrWHHWSURYRTXHGHVILVVXUHVWUDQVYHUVDOHVTXLVRQW
GHV OLHX[ G¶pURVLRQ GH FRQGXLW GH OD IDFH DPRQW j OD IDFH DYDO ,O HVW GRQF QpFHVVDLUH G¶HVWLPHU OD
ODUJHXU HW OD SURIRQGHXU GH FHV ILVVXUHV HW OH JUDGLHQW K\GUDXOLTXH  HQ XWLOLVDQW OHV PpWKRGHV GH OD
6HFWLRQ  SRXU V¶DVVXUHU TXH OD FRQWUDLQWH GH FLVDLOOHPHQW K\GUDXOLTXH QH GpSDVVHUD SDV OD
FRQWUDLQWH GH FLVDLOOHPHQW DGPLVVLEOH GX VRO DSSHOpH FULWLTXH GDQV OHV SDURLV GH OD ILVVXUH FH TXL
SHUPHWG¶pYLWHUO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQH

/HV ILVVXUHV WUDQVYHUVDOHV IRUPpHV SDU WDVVHPHQW RQW SRXU HIIHW G¶DOORQJHU OD FUrWH &HWWH
pORQJDWLRQVHUDXQLIRUPHGRQQDQWOLHXjGHQRPEUHXVHVILVVXUHVILQHVVLOHSURILOGHODIRQGDWLRQHVW
WHOTXHGHVWDVVHPHQWVORFDOLVpVQHSHXYHQWSDVVHSURGXLUH6LOHSURILOGHODIRQGDWLRQHVWLUUpJXOLHU
YRLUH[HPSOH)LJHW GHVWDVVHPHQWVGLIIpUHQWLHOVVHSURGXLURQWGRQQDQWOLHXjGHVpORQJDWLRQV
ORFDOHV GH OD FUrWH SOXV LPSRUWDQWHV HW GHV ILVVXUHV ORFDOHPHQW SOXV JUDQGHV DXGHVVXV GHV
LUUpJXODULWpV /¶HVWLPDWLRQ GH OD ODUJHXU GH OD ILVVXUH SHXW rWUH IDLWH HQ DSSOLTXDQW FHV SULQFLSHV HOOH
LPSOLTXHUDFHSHQGDQWGHQRPEUHXVHVDSSUR[LPDWLRQVHWLQFHUWLWXGHV

/D ODUJHXU HW OD SURIRQGHXU GHV ILVVXUHV SHXYHQW rWUH HVWLPpHV GH PDQLqUH SOXV ILDEOH HQ
XWLOLVDQWOHVPpWKRGHVGpFULWHVSDU)HOOet al  HW)HOOet al  /HVPpWKRGHVQpFHVVLWHQWXQH
pYDOXDWLRQ GH OD SUREDELOLWp GH OD IRUPDWLRQ GH ILVVXUH \ FRPSULV SDU FODTXDJH K\GUDXOLTXH FHOOHVFL
VRQW EULqYHPHQW GpFULWHV GDQV OD 6HFWLRQ  &HSHQGDQW OHV PpWKRGHV EDVpHV VXU O¶REVHUYDWLRQ
GHV ILVVXUHV FRPPH 6KHUDUG   7DOERW   HW /DZUHQFH   RX VXU OHV UpVXOWDWV G¶XQH
PRGpOLVDWLRQ QXPpULTXH SDU %XL et al    VRQW XQH DLGH j O¶pYDOXDWLRQ GH OD SURIRQGHXU
SUREDEOH GH OD ILVVXUH /HV YDOHXUV HVWLPpHV SDU FHV PpWKRGHV VRQW DXVVL DSSUR[LPDWLYHV FHWWH
LQFHUWLWXGHQHSHUPHWGRQFSDVXQHERQQHpYDOXDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQH

/¶pYDOXDWLRQGHODODUJHXUHWGHODSURIRQGHXUGHVILVVXUHVQpFHVVLWHXQH[DPHQHWXQHDQDO\VH
PLQXWLHXVH HQ XWLOLVDQW SUREDEOHPHQW SOXV G¶XQH VHXOH PpWKRGH /H 7DEOHDX  GRQQH GHV
LQIRUPDWLRQVVXUOHVVLWXDWLRQVSRXUOHVTXHOOHVO¶pURVLRQGHFRQGXLWGDQVOHUHPEODLDOHSOXVGHFKDQFH
GH VH SURGXLUH 6L OHV ILVVXUHV VHPEOHQW SRXYRLU VH IRUPHU OHV PpWKRGHV HW OHV UpIpUHQFHV
PHQWLRQQpHVFLGHVVXVGHYURQWrWUHXWLOLVpHVSRXUHVWLPHUOHVGLPHQVLRQVGHODILVVXUH3RXUDLGHUjOD
YpULILFDWLRQ GH FHV HVWLPDWLRQV OH 7DEOHDX  EDVp VXU FHV PpWKRGHV GRQQH TXHOTXHV H[HPSOHV GH
GLPHQVLRQVPD[LPDOHVGHILVVXUHVIRUPpHVSDUXQWDVVHPHQWGLIIpUHQWLHOULYHjULYHRXGHVIRQGDWLRQV
,O IDXW QRWHU TX¶LO FRPSUHQG GHV H[HPSOHV GH VLWXDWLRQV R OHV GHX[ W\SHV GH ILVVXUHV pWURLWHV RX
ODUJHV  SHXYHQW VH IRUPHU ,O FRPSUHQG pJDOHPHQW OHV UpIpUHQFHV DX[ )LJ  HW  SRXU LOOXVWUHU
FRPPHQW OHV GLIIpUHQWV SURILOV HW OHV FRQGLWLRQV GH OD IRQGDWLRQ SURYRTXHQW GLIIpUHQWV WDVVHPHQWV HW
FRQWUDLQWHVODWpUDOHVUpVXOWDQWGHVGLIIpUHQWHVGLPHQVLRQVGHILVVXUHV

__________________________________________________________________________
 
27

78


7KHIROORZLQJVHFWLRQVJLYHDQRXWOLQHRIWKLVSURFHVV


3.3.2. Estimation of width and depth of cracks


$V GHVFULEHG DERYH FUDFNV IRUP LQ WKH FUHVWV RI HPEDQNPHQWV IURP GHVLFFDWLRQ IURP
VHWWOHPHQWUHVXOWLQJIURPFRQVROLGDWLRQFUHHSRUHDUWKTXDNHVKDNLQJRULQSRRUO\FRPSDFWHGDQGKLJK
SHUPHDELOLW\]RQHV

6HWWOHPHQWFDXVHVVSUHDGLQJRIWKHHPEDQNPHQWWKLVUHVXOWVLQORQJLWXGLQDOFUDFNVSDUDOOHOWR
WKH FHQWHUOLQH RI WKH GDP EXW VHWWOHPHQW UHVXOWLQJ LQ WUDQVYHUVH FUDFNV SDVVLQJ WKURXJK WKH FUHVW RI
HPEDQNPHQWV IURP WKH XSVWUHDP IDFH WR WKH GRZQVWUHDP IDFH DUH VLWHV ZKHUH FRQFHQWUDWHG OHDN
HURVLRQPD\RFFXU,WLVQHFHVVDU\WRHVWLPDWHWKHZLGWKDQGGHSWKRIVXFKFUDFNV DQGWKHK\GUDXOLF
JUDGLHQWVLQWKHP WRDVFHUWDLQXVLQJWKHPHWKRGVLQ6HFWLRQLIWKHK\GUDXOLFVKHDUIRUFHZLOORUZLOO
QRWH[FHHGWKHK\GUDXOLFVKHDUVWUHQJWKRIWKHVRLOLQWKHZDOOVRIWKHFUDFNWKHUHE\LQLWLDWLQJRUQRW
LQLWLDWLQJLQWHUQDOHURVLRQ

7UDQVYHUVH FUDFNV IRUP DV D FRQVHTXHQFH RI YHUWLFDO VHWWOHPHQW ZKLFK KDV WKH HIIHFW RI
HORQJDWLQJ WKH FUHVW 7KH HORQJDWLRQ ZLOO EH XQLIRUP JLYLQJ ULVH WR QXPHURXV ILQH FUDFNV LI WKH
IRXQGDWLRQ SURILOH LV VXFK WKDW VKDUS ORFDO GLIIHUHQFHV LQ VHWWOHPHQW ZLOO QRW RFFXU ,I WKH IRXQGDWLRQ
SURILOHLVLUUHJXODU VHH)LJDQGIRUH[DPSOH GLIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWZLOORFFXUJLYLQJULVHWRORFDOO\
JUHDWHU HORQJDWLRQ RI WKH FUHVW DQG ORFDOO\ ZLGHU FUDFNV LQ WKH FUHVW DERYH WKH LUUHJXODULWLHV LQ WKH
IRXQGDWLRQSURILOH(VWLPDWHVRIFUDFNZLGWKPD\EHPDGHE\DSSO\LQJWKHVHSULQFLSOHVEXWWKHUHZLOO
EHPDQ\DSSUR[LPDWLRQVDQGXQFHUWDLQWLHV

7KHZLGWKDQGGHSWKRIFUDFNVZKLFKPD\EHSUHVHQWLQWKHHPEDQNPHQWPD\EHPRUHUHOLDEO\
HVWLPDWHG XVLQJ PHWKRGV GHWDLOHG LQ )HOO HW DO   DQG )HOO HW DO   7KH PHWKRGV UHTXLUH
DVVHVVLQJWKHOLNHOLKRRGRIFUDFNVIRUPLQJLQFOXGLQJE\K\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUHDQGDUHEULHIO\GHVFULEHGLQ
6HFWLRQ+RZHYHUWKH\DUHEDVHGRQDUHYLHZRIWKHOLWHUDWXUHRQREVHUYHGFUDFNLQJLQFOXGLQJ
6KHUDUG  7DOERW  DQG/DZUHQFH  DQGWKHUHVXOWVRIQXPHULFDOPRGHOLQJE\%XLHWDO
 ZKLFKDVVLVWVLQDVVHVVLQJWKHOLNHO\GHSWKRIFUDFNLQJ7KHYDOXHVHVWLPDWHGE\ WKHVH
PHWKRGVDUHDOVRDSSUR[LPDWHDQGWKLVXQFHUWDLQW\VKRXOGEHDOORZHGIRULQDVVHVVLQJLQWHUQDOHURVLRQ

$VVHVVPHQWRIFUDFNZLGWKVDQGGHSWKVUHTXLUHVFDUHIXOFRQVLGHUDWLRQDQGDQDO\VLVSUREDEO\E\
PRUHWKDQRQHPHWKRG7DEOHJLYHVLQIRUPDWLRQRQVLWXDWLRQVLQZKLFKFUDFNVRUFRQFHQWUDWHGOHDNV
DUH XQOLNHO\ WR IRUP LQ HPEDQNPHQWV ,I FUDFNV VHHP OLNHO\ WR IRUP WKH PHWKRGV DQG UHIHUHQFHV
PHQWLRQHGDERYHVKRXOGEHXVHGWRHVWLPDWHFUDFNGLPHQVLRQV7RDVVLVWLQFKHFNLQJVXFKHVWLPDWHV
7DEOH  JLYHV VRPH H[DPSOHV RI WKHOLNHO\ PD[LPXP FUDFN GHSWKV DQG ZLGWKV IRUPHG DVD UHVXOW RI
FURVVYDOOH\GLIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWRUGLIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWLQWKHIRXQGDWLRQXVLQJWKHVHPHWKRGV,W
VKRXOGEHQRWHGWKDWLWLQFOXGHVH[DPSOHVRIVLWXDWLRQVZKHUHERWKQDUURZFUDFNVDQGZLGHFUDFNVPD\
EHIRUPHGLQFOXGLQJUHIHUULQJWR)LJ DQGWRVKRZKRZGLIIHUHQWIRXQGDWLRQSURILOHVDQGGLIIHUHQW
IRXQGDWLRQ FRQGLWLRQV FDXVH GLIIHUHQW DPRXQWV RI VHWWOHPHQW DQG ODWHUDO VWUDLQ UHVXOWLQJ LQ FUDFNV RI
GLIIHUHQWZLGWKVDQGGHSWKV

 

27

79
7DEOHDX
([HPSOHVGHFDUDFWpULVDWLRQGHODODUJHXUHWODSURIRQGHXUPD[LPDOHVGHVILVVXUHVIRUPpHVSDUXQ
WDVVHPHQWGLIIpUHQWLHOGHODYDOOpHRXGHVIRQGDWLRQV
3URIRQGHXUPD[LPDOH /DUJHXUPD[LPDOHSUREDEOHHQ
6LWXDWLRQVVHPEODEOHV
SUREDEOHGHODILVVXUHj IRQFWLRQGHODSURIRQGHXUjSDUWLUGH
'HVFULSWLRQ jFHOOHVPRQWUpHV
SDUWLUGHODFUrWHGX ODFUrWHGXEDUUDJH
GDQVOD
EDUUDJH P P P
3HQWHGHULYHXQLIRUPHVDQV
PDUFKHG¶HVFDOLHUSHQWHIDLEOH
 P PP PP 
ƒKDXWHXUGXEDUUDJH
LQIpULHXUHjP
*UDQGHODUJHXUGHWKDOZHJ
SHQWHGHVDSSXLVPRGpUpH
)LJ P PP PP 
ƒjƒKDXWHXUGX
EDUUDJHHQWUHHWP
*UDQGHRXYHUWXUHHQKDXWGHV
DSSXLVSHQWHGHVDSSXLV
)LJ P PP PP PP
HQWUHƒHWƒKDXWHXUGX
EDUUDJHHQWUHHWP
*UDQGHRXYHUWXUHGHVDSSXLV
DXQLYHDXGHODFUrWHSHQWH
)LJ P PP PP PP
GHVDSSXLVWUqVpOHYpH!ƒ
KDXWHXUGXEDUUDJH!P
)RQGDWLRQURFKHXVHRXGHVRO
XQLIRUPHSHQWHGHVSDURLV
 P PP PP 
FRPSUHVVLEOHVIDLEOHƒ
KDXWHXUGXEDUUDJHP
6ROVVXSHUILFLHOVWDVVHPHQWV
GLIIpUHQWLHOVGHOD
KDXWHXUGXUHPEODLSHQWHGHV
)LJ P PP PP 
SDURLVFRPSUHVVLEOHV
PRGpUpHƒjƒKDXWHXU
GXEDUUDJHHQWUHHWP
3URIRQGHXUGHVROPRGpUp
WDVVHPHQWVGLIIpUHQWLHOVHQWUH
HWGHODKDXWHXUGX
UHPEODLSHQWHGHVSDURLV )LJ P PP PP PP
FRPSUHVVLEOHVHQWUHƒHW
ƒKDXWHXUGXEDUUDJHHQWUH
PHWP
6ROSURIRQGWDVVHPHQWV
GLIIpUHQWLHOV!GHOD
KDXWHXUGXUHPEODLSHQWHGHV )LJ P PP PP PP
SDURLVFRPSUHVVLEOHV!ƒ
KDXWHXUGXEDUUDJH!P


3.3.3. Estimation de la contrainte de cisaillement hydraulique


:DQ  :DQHW)HOO DE HW)HOOet al  GRQQHQWGHVGpWDLOVVXUODIDoRQ
G¶HVWLPHUODFRQWUDLQWHGHFLVDLOOHPHQWK\GUDXOLTXHGDQVOHVILVVXUHVHWOHVFRQGXLWVF\OLQGULTXHV

,OVGRQQHQWOHVpTXDWLRQVVXLYDQWHVSRXUHVWLPHUODFRQWUDLQWHGHFLVDLOOHPHQWK\GUDXOLTXHVXUOD
VXUIDFH G¶XQ FRQGXLW F\OLQGULTXH RX VXU OHV SDURLV SDUDOOqOHV G¶XQH ILVVXUH WUDQVYHUVDOH GDQV XQ
UHPEODL/HVK\SRWKqVHVVRQWOHVVXLYDQWHV

- 3HUWHGHFKDUJHOLQpDLUHGHO¶DPRQWYHUVO¶DYDO
- eFRXOHPHQWKRPRJqQHHWUpJXOLHUOHORQJGHODILVVXUH
- 3UHVVLRQQXOOHjO
H[WUpPLWpDYDO
- &RQWUDLQWHGHFLVDLOOHPHQWXQLIRUPHOHORQJGHODILVVXUHRXGXWXEHF\OLQGULTXH
- )RUFHPRWULFH 5pVLVWDQFHHQIULFWLRQ


D  7XEHF\OLQGULTXH E  )LVVXUHYHUWLFDOHWUDQVYHUVDOH
gH f d U w gH f W
W Uw  W 
L  H f  W L

__________________________________________________________________________
29

80



7DEOH
([DPSOHVWRDVVLVWLQDVVHVVLQJWKHOLNHO\PD[LPXPFUDFNGHSWKVDQGZLGWKVIRUPHGDVDUHVXOWRI
FURVVYDOOH\GLIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWRUGLIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWGXHWRVRLOLQWKHIRXQGDWLRQ
6LWXDWLRQVVLPLODUWR 0D[LPXP/LNHO\&UDFN:LGWKDW
0D[LPXP/LNHO\'HSWKRI
'HVFULSWLRQ WKRVHVKRZQLQSDUWV 'HSWK6KRZQ%HORZ'DP&UHVW
&UDFNLQJ%HORZ'DP&UHVW
RI P P P
8QLIRUPDEXWPHQWZLWKRXW
EHQFKHVJHQWOHDEXWPHQW
 P PP PP 
VORSHVRGDPOHVVWKDQ
PKLJK
:LGHEHQFKORZLQDEXWPHQW
PRGHUDWHDEXWPHQWVORSHV
)LJ P PP PP 
RWRRGDPPWR
PKLJK
:LGHEHQFKKLJKLQDEXWPHQW
VWHHSDEXWPHQWVORSHVR
)LJ P PP PP PP
WRRGDPPWRP
KLJK
:LGHEHQFKQHDUFUHVWLQ
DEXWPHQWYHU\VWHHS
)LJ P PP PP PP
DEXWPHQWVORSHV!RGDP
!PKLJK
5RFNRUXQLIRUPVRLO
IRXQGDWLRQJHQWOHVORSHV
 P PP PP 
RRQVLGHVRIFRPSUHVVLEOH
]RQHGDPOHVVWKDQPKLJK
6KDOORZVRLOVGLIIHUHQWLDO
VHWWOHPHQWVRIOHVVWKDQ
RIHPEDQNPHQWKHLJKW
)LJ P PP PP 
PRGHUDWHVORSHVRWR
 RQVLGHVRIFRPSUHVVLEOH
R

]RQHGDPPWRPKLJK
0RGHUDWHGHSWKRIVRLOV
GLIIHUHQWLDOVHWWOHPHQWVRI
WRRIHPEDQNPHQW
)LJ P PP PP PP
KHLJKWVWHHSVORSHVRWR
RRQVLGHVRIFRPSUHVVLEOH
]RQHGDPPWRPKLJK
'HHSVRLOVGLIIHUHQWLDO
VHWWOHPHQWV!RI
HPEDQNPHQWKHLJKWYHU\
)LJ P PP PP PP
VWHHSVORSHV!RRQVLGHVRI
FRPSUHVVLEOH]RQHGDP
!PKLJK


3.3.3. The estimation of hydraulic shear stresses in cracks and erosion pipes


:DQ   :DQ DQG )HOO   D E  DQG )HOO et al   JLYH GHWDLOV RQ KRZ WR
HVWLPDWHWKHK\GUDXOLFVKHDUVWUHVVHVLQFUDFNVDQGF\OLQGHUV

7KH\JLYHWKHIROORZLQJHTXDWLRQVIRUHVWLPDWLQJWKHK\GUDXOLFVKHDUVWUHVVRQWKHVXUIDFHRID
F\OLQGULFDOSLSHRUSDUDOOHOVLGHGWUDQVYHUVHFUDFNLQDQHPEDQNPHQW7KHDVVXPSWLRQVDUH

- /LQHDUKHDGORVVIURPXSVWUHDPWRGRZQVWUHDP
- 6WHDG\XQLIRUPIORZDORQJWKHFUDFN
- =HURSUHVVXUHKHDGDWWKHGRZQVWUHDPHQG
- 8QLIRUPIULFWLRQDOUHVLVWDQFHDORQJWKHVXUIDFHRIWKHFUDFNRUF\OLQGULFDOSLSH
- 'ULYLQJIRUFH IULFWLRQDOUHVLVWDQFH

D  &\OLQGULFDOSLSH E  9HUWLFDOWUDQVYHUVHFUDFN
gH f d U w gH f W
W Uw  W 
L  H f  W L


28

81

R  
 W  &RQWUDLQWHGHFLVDLOOHPHQWK\GUDXOLTXHHQ1P
 Uw  'HQVLWpGHO¶HDXHQNJP
 g  $FFpOpUDWLRQGXHjODJUDYLWp PV
 Hf   3HUWH GH FKDUJH GDQV OH WXEH RX OD ILVVXUH GXH j OD IULFWLRQ HQ
PqWUHV
 L  /RQJXHXUGXWXEHRXGHODILVVXUHHQPqWUHV
 d  'LDPqWUHGXWXEHHQPqWUHV
 W  /DUJHXUGHODILVVXUHHQPqWUHV

%RQHOOL HW %ULYRLV   RQW GpYHORSSp XQH pTXDWLRQ JpQpUDOLVpH SRXU GpWHUPLQHU OD YLWHVVH
G¶pODUJLVVHPHQW


3.3.4. Estimation de la résistance à l’érosion d’un noyau de barrage


,OHVWLPSRUWDQWGHUDSSHOHUTXHODUpVLVWDQFHGXQR\DXjO
LQLWLDWLRQGHO
pURVLRQGHFRQGXLWHVW
FDUDFWpULVpH SDU OD FRQWUDLQWH GH FLVDLOOHPHQW FULWLTXH HW TXH OD YLWHVVH G¶pODUJLVVHPHQW GX FRQGXLW
GDQVODSKDVHGHSURJUHVVLRQHVWFDUDFWpULVpHSDUOHFRHIILFLHQWG¶pURVLRQ

/D ORL G¶pURVLRQ GH FRQGXLW SHXW rWUH GpWHUPLQpH SDU GHV HVVDLV FRQVLVWDQW j IDLUH WRXUQHU XQ
F\OLQGUHYRLU$UXODQDQGDQHW3HUU\  &KDSLXV DE /LP  /LPHW.KDOLOL  6ORW
(URVLRQ7HVWV 6(7 O¶(VVDLG¶pURVLRQGHWURX +(7 FRPPH:DQ  :DQHW)HOO D
E %RQHOOLet al  HW-HWeURVLRQ7HVWVFRPPH+DQVRQ  +DQVRQHW&RRN  &HV
HVVDLVSHUPHWWHQWGHGpWHUPLQHUODFRQWUDLQWHGHFLVDLOOHPHQWFULWLTXHTXLLQLWLHUDO¶pURVLRQHWODYLWHVVH
GHFHWWHpURVLRQ¬O¶KHXUHDFWXHOOHO¶HVVDLOHSOXVXWLOLVpHVWO¶(VVDLG¶pURVLRQGHWURXHWOH-HW(URVLRQ
7HVW3OXVGHGpWDLOVVXUFHVWHVWVVRQWGRQQpVGDQVOH9ROXPHGHFH%XOOHWLQ

:DQHW)HOO DE HW:DQ  RQWH[SULPpODYLWHVVHGHO¶pURVLRQSDUO¶,QGLFHGH
FLQpWLTXHG¶pURVLRQ,+(7GpILQLSDU

,+(7 ORJ &H   
&HHVWOH&RHIILFLHQWG¶pURVLRQLOHVWOLpjO¶,QGLFHGHFLQpWLTXHG¶pURVLRQSDU
İƔ &H IJ±IJF R İƔHVWODYLWHVVHG¶pURVLRQSDUXQLWpGHVXUIDFH
IJHVWODFRQWUDLQWHGHFLVDLOOHPHQW
IJFHVWOD&RQWUDLQWHGH&LVDLOOHPHQW&ULWLTXHSRXUO¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQ

/¶,QGLFHGHFLQpWLTXHG¶pURVLRQUHSUpVHQWDWLIƬ+(7HVWO¶LQGLFHGHFLQpWLTXHG¶pURVLRQ,+(7SRXUOH
VROFRPSDFWpjGHODGHQVLWpVqFKHPD[LPDOHjODWHQHXUHQHDXRSWLPDOH

/HV VROV SHXYHQW rWUH FODVVpV HQ  JURXSHV HQ IRQFWLRQ GH OHXU,QGLFH GH FLQpWLTXH G¶pURVLRQ
UHSUpVHQWDWLI Ƭ+(7 /H 7DEOHDX  SUpVHQWH FHV  JURXSHV ,O IDXW UHPDUTXHU TX¶LO V¶DJLW G¶XQH pFKHOOH
ORJDULWKPLTXHHWTXHODYLWHVVHG¶pURVLRQGXVROYDULHDXPD[LPXPGHFLQTRUGUHVGHJUDQGHXU

7DEOHDX
'HVFULSWLRQGHVYLWHVVHVG¶pURVLRQGHVVROV :DQ 
,QGLFHGHFLQpWLTXH
*URXSH1R 'HVFULSWLRQ
G¶pURVLRQ5HSUpVHQWDWLI
  ([WUrPHPHQWUDSLGH
 ± 7UqVUDSLGH
 ± 0RGpUpPHQWUDSLGH
 ± 0RGpUpPHQWOHQW
 ± 7UqVOHQW
 ! ([WUrPHPHQWOHQW


(Q O¶DEVHQFH GH YDOHXUV SURYHQDQW G¶HVVDLV HQ ODERUDWRLUH O¶,QGLFH GH FLQpWLTXH G¶pURVLRQ
UHSUpVHQWDWLI Ƭ+(7 SHXWrWUHDSSUR[LPDWLYHPHQWHVWLPpjSDUWLUGHVSURSULpWpVGXVRO/H7DEOHDXD
pWp FRQoX j SDUWLU GH GRQQpHV G¶HVVDLV HQ ODERUDWRLUH SRXU GRQQHU XQH SUHPLqUH DSSUR[LPDWLRQ GHV
YDOHXUVSUREDEOHVGHO¶Ƭ+(7HQIRQFWLRQGHODFODVVLILFDWLRQGXVROQRQGLVSHUVLI

__________________________________________________________________________
7DEOHDX
30
,QGLFHGHFLQpWLTXHG¶pURVLRQUHSUpVHQWDWLI Ƭ+(7 HQIRQFWLRQGHODFODVVLILFDWLRQGHVVROVQRQ
GLVSHUVLIVEDVpHVXU:DQHW)HOO  
82  ,QGLFHGHFLQpWLTXHG¶pURVLRQUHSUpVHQWDWLI Ƭ+(7 
&ODVVLILFDWLRQ8QLILpHGHV6ROV 0LQLPXP3RVVLEOH 0HLOOHXUH(VWLPDWLRQ 0D[LPXP3RVVLEOH
60DYHFILQHV   
60DYHF!ILQHV  j 
6&DYHFILQHV  j 


ZKHUH   
 W  +\GUDXOLFVKHDUVWUHVVLQ1P
 Uw   'HQVLW\RIZDWHULQNJP
 g  $FFHOHUDWLRQGXHWRJUDYLW\ PV
 Hf  +HDGORVVLQSLSHRUFUDFNGXHWRIULFWLRQLQPHWHUV

 L  /HQJWKRISLSHRUFUDFNEDVHLQPHWHUV
 d  'LDPHWHURIWKHSLSHLQPHWHUV
 W  :LGWKRIFUDFNLQPHWHUV

%RQHOOLDQG%ULYRLV  KDYHGHYHORSHGDJHQHUDOL]HGHTXDWLRQIRUWKHUDWHRIHQODUJHPHQW


3.3.4. Estimation of erosion resistance of dam cores


,WLVLPSRUWDQWWRUHLWHUDWHWKDWWKHUHVLVWDQFHWRLQLWLDWLRQRIHURVLRQRIWKHFRUHWRFRQFHQWUDWHG
OHDNHURVLRQLVFKDUDFWHUL]HGE\WKHFULWLFDOVKHDUVWUHVVDQGWKHUDWHRIHQODUJHPHQWRIWKHSLSHLQWKH
SURJUHVVLRQSKDVHLVFKDUDFWHUL]HGE\WKHHURVLRQFRHIILFLHQW

7KH HURVLRQ SURSHUWLHV RI VRLOV IRU FRQFHQWUDWHG OHDN HURVLRQ FDQ EH GHWHUPLQHG E\ URWDWLQJ
F\OLQGHU WHVWV HJ $UXODQDQGDQ DQG 3HUU\   &KDSLXV D E  /LP   /LP DQG .KDOLOL
 6ORW(URVLRQ7HVWV 6(7 DQGWKH+ROH(URVLRQ7HVWV +(7 HJ:DQ  :DQDQG)HOO
DE %RQHOOLHWDO  DQG-HW(URVLRQ7HVWVHJ+DQVRQ  +DQVRQDQG
&RRN  7KHVHWHVWVDOORZGHWHUPLQDWLRQRIWKHFULWLFDOVKHDUVWUHVVIRULQLWLDWLRQRIHURVLRQDQG
WKHHURVLRQUDWH$WWKLVWLPHWKHPRVWZLGHO\XVHGWHVWVDUHWKH+ROH(URVLRQ7HVWDQGWKH-HW(URVLRQ
7HVW0RUHGHWDLOVRQWKHVHWHVWVDUHJLYHQLQ9ROXPHRIWKH%XOOHWLQ

:DQ DQG )HOO  D E  DQG :DQ   H[SUHVVHG WKH HURVLRQ UDWH LQ WKH IRUP RI DQ
(URVLRQ5DWH,QGH[,+(7 GHILQHGE\

,+(7 ORJ &H   
&HLVWKH&RHIILFLHQWRI6RLO(URVLRQDQGLVGHULYHGIURPWKH+ROH(URVLRQ7HVWLQZKLFK
İƔ &H IJ±IJF ZKHUH İƔLVWKHHURVLRQUDWHSHUXQLWDUHD
IJLVWKHVKHDUVWUHVV
IJFLVWKH&ULWLFDO6KHDU6WUHVVIRULQLWLDWLRQRIHURVLRQ

7KHUHSUHVHQWDWLYHHURVLRQUDWHLQGH[Ƭ+(7LVWKHKROHHURVLRQLQGH[,+(7IRUVRLOFRPSDFWHGWRD
GHQVLW\UDWLRRIRIVWDQGDUGPD[LPXPGU\GHQVLW\DWRSWLPXPPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW

6RLOVFDQEHFODVVLILHGLQWRJURXSVDFFRUGLQJWRWKHLU5HSUHVHQWDWLYH(URVLRQ5DWH,QGH[Ƭ+(7
7KHJURXSVDUHDVVKRZQLQ7DEOH1RWHWKDWWKLVLVDORJDULWKPLFVFDOHDQGWKHUDWHRIHURVLRQRI
VRLOVYDULHVE\XSWRILYHRUGHUVRIPDJQLWXGH

7DEOH
'HVFULSWRUVIRUHURVLRQUDWHVRIVRLOV :DQ 
'HVFULSWRUVIRUHURVLRQ 'HVFULSWRUVIRUHURVLRQ
'HVFULSWRUVIRUHURVLRQUDWHVRIVRLOV
UDWHVRIVRLOV UDWHVRIVRLOV
  ([WUHPHO\UDSLG
 ± 9HU\UDSLG
 ± 0RGHUDWHO\UDSLG
 ± 0RGHUDWHO\VORZ
 ± 9HU\VORZ
 ! ([WUHPHO\VORZ


,Q WKH DEVHQFH RI ODERUDWRU\ WHVW YDOXHV WKH 5HSUHVHQWDWLYH (URVLRQ 5DWH ,QGH[ Ƭ+(7  FDQ EH
UHODWHG DSSUR[LPDWHO\ WR VRLO SURSHUWLHV 7DEOH  KDV EHHQ GHYHORSHG IURP WHVW GDWD WR JLYH D ILUVW
DSSUR[LPDWLRQWRWKHOLNHO\UDQJHRIƬ+(7IRUGLIIHUHQWFODVVLILFDWLRQVRIQRQGLVSHUVLYHVRLOV


29

83
En l’absence de valeurs provenant d’essais en laboratoire, l’Indice de cinétique d’érosion
représentatif (ĨHET) peut être approximativement estimé à partir des propriétés du sol. Le Tableau 10 a
pWp FRQoX à
été conçu j partir
SDUWLU de
GH données
GRQQpHV d’essais
G¶HVVDLV en
HQ laboratoire
ODERUDWRLUH pour
SRXU donner
GRQQHU XQH
une SUHPLqUH
première DSSUR[LPDWLRQ
approximation GHV
des
YDOHXUVSUREDEOHVGHO¶Ƭ
valeurs probables de l’ĨHET +(7HQIRQFWLRQGHODFODVVLILFDWLRQGXVROQRQGLVSHUVLI
en fonction de la classification du sol non-dispersif.

7DEOHDX
Tableau 10
,QGLFHGHFLQpWLTXHG¶pURVLRQUHSUpVHQWDWLI Ƭ+(7 HQIRQFWLRQGHODFODVVLILFDWLRQGHVVROVQRQ
Indice de cinétique d’érosion représentatif (ĨHET) en fonction de la classification des sols non-dispersifs
GLVSHUVLIVEDVpHVXU:DQHW)HOO  
basée sur Wan et Fell (2002)
 ,QGLFHGHFLQpWLTXHG¶pURVLRQUHSUpVHQWDWLI Ƭ
Indice de cinétique d’érosion représentatif (ĨHET 
+(7)
&ODVVLILFDWLRQ8QLILpHGHV6ROV
Classification Unifiée des Sols 0LQLPXP3RVVLEOH
Minimum Possible 0HLOOHXUH(VWLPDWLRQ
Meilleure Estimation 0D[LPXP3RVVLEOH
Maximum Possible
60DYHFILQHV
SM avec < 30% fines 
1 
<2 
2.5
60DYHF!ILQHV
SM avec > 30% fines 
<2 j
2 à3 
3.5
6&DYHFILQHV
SC avec < 30% fines 
<2 j
2 à3 
3.5
6&DYHF!ILQHV
SC avec >30% fines 
2 
3 
4
0/
ML 
2 j
2 à3 
3
&/0/
CL-ML 
2 
3 
4
&/
CL 
3 j
3 à4 
4.5
&/&+
CL-CH 
3 
4 
5
0+
MH 
3 j
3 à4 
4.5
&+DYHFXQH/LPLWHGH/LTXLGLWp
CH avec une Limite de Liquidité < 65% 
3 
4 
5
&+DYHFXQH/LPLWHGH/LTXLGLWp!
CH avec une Limite de Liquidité > 65% 
4 
5 
6
1RWHV
Notes :
 8WLOLVHUODYDOHXUGHOD0HLOOHXUH(VWLPDWLRQSRXUREWHQLUGHPHLOOHXUHVSUREDELOLWpV9pULILHUODFRKpUHQFHVLOHUpVXOWDWHVWWUqV
(1) Utiliser la valeur de la Meilleure Estimation pour obtenir de meilleures probabilités. Vérifier la cohérence si le résultat est très
pORLJQp
éloigné.
 3RXUG¶LPSRUWDQWHGpFLVLRQLOIDXWUpDOLVHUO¶(VVDLG¶pURVLRQGHWURXSOXW{WTXHGHV
DSSX\HUVXUFHWDEOHDXTXLUHVWH
(2) Pour d’importante décision il faut réaliser l’Essai d’érosion de trou plutôt que de s'appuyer sur ce tableau qui reste
DSSUR[LPDWLI
approximatif.


/D contrainte
La FRQWUDLQWH deGH cisaillement
FLVDLOOHPHQW FULWLTXH
critique HVW
est OLpH
liée j
à O¶LQGLFH
l’indice GH
de FLQpWLTXH G¶pURVLRQ 8QH
cinétique d’érosion. Une HVWLPDWLRQ
estimation
approximative et l’intervalle probable de la contrainte de cisaillement critique (cF) VRQWGRQQpVGDQVOH
DSSUR[LPDWLYHHWO¶LQWHUYDOOHSUREDEOHGHODFRQWUDLQWHGHFLVDLOOHPHQWFULWLTXH W sont donnés dans le
7DEOHDX 
Tableau 11, LOV
ils GRLYHQW
doivent rWUH
être XWLOLVpV DYHF précaution,
utilisés avec SUpFDXWLRQ lorsque
ORUVTXH OHVYDOHXUV
les valeurs GH
de O¶HVVDL
l’essai G¶pURVLRQ
d’érosion GH
de WURX
trou
+ QHVRQWSDVGLVSRQLEOHV
(7)
(HET ne sont pas disponibles.

7DEOHDX
Tableau 11
(VWLPDWLRQVDSSUR[LPDWLYHVHWLQWHUYDOOHSUREDEOHGHODFRQWUDLQWHGHFLVDLOOHPHQWFULWLTXH WF YHUVXV
Estimations approximatives et intervalle probable de la contrainte de cisaillement critique (c) versus
O¶LQGLFHGHFLQpWLTXHG¶pURVLRQ ,+(7  )HOOet
l’indice de cinétique d’érosion (IHET) (Fell et alal 
2008)
,QGLFHGHFLQpWLTXH
Indice de cinétique Contrainte de Cisaillement Critique pour initier l’érosion (cF) 3D
&RQWUDLQWHGH&LVDLOOHPHQW&ULWLTXHSRXULQLWLHUO¶pURVLRQ W Pa
G¶pURVLRQ ,
d’érosion (IHET 
+(7)
6RODYHFXQ&RPSRUWHPHQW1RQ'LVSHUVLI
Sol avec un Comportement Non Dispersif 6RODYHFXQ&RPSRUWHPHQW'LVSHUVLI
Sol avec un Comportement Dispersif

0HLOOHXUHHVWLPDWLRQ
Meilleure estimation ,QWHUYDOOHSUREDEOH
Intervalle probable 0HLOOHXUHHVWLPDWLRQ
Meilleure estimation ,QWHUYDOOHSUREDEOH
Intervalle probable
 

<2 
2 j
1 à5 
1 j
0.5 à2
j
2 à3 2 j
1 à5 
1 j
0.5 à2

3.5 5 2j
à 20 
2 j
1 à5

4 
25 j
10 à 50 
5 j
2 à 10

5 
60 j
25 à 100 
5 j
2 à 10

6 
100 j
60 à 140 
5 j
2 à 10
1RWHYDOHXUVjXWLOLVHUDYHFSUpFDXWLRQ3RXUGHVULVTXHVLPSRUWDQWVXWLOLVHUO¶(VVDLG¶pURVLRQGHWURXSRXUGpWHUPLQHUOD
Note : valeurs à utiliser avec précaution. Pour des risques importants, utiliser l’Essai d’érosion de trou pour déterminer la
&RQWUDLQWHGH&LVDLOOHPHQW&ULWLTXH WF 
Contrainte de Cisaillement Critique (c)


,O faut
Il IDXW souligner
VRXOLJQHU TX
LO
qu'il HVW
est SUpIpUDEOH
préférable G
HIIHFWXHU
d'effectuer XQH
une VpULH
série G¶(VVDLV G¶eURVLRQ GH
d’Essais d’Érosion de 7URX
Trou DYHF
avec
GLIIpUHQWHV charges
différentes FKDUJHV hydrauliques
K\GUDXOLTXHV ouRX d’utiliser
G¶XWLOLVHU la
OD méthode
PpWKRGH de GH Bonelli
%RQHOOL et al  
al (2007) ; %RQHOOL
Bonelli HWet %ULYRLV
Brivois
(2008) pour définir la contrainte de cisaillement critique (cF) SOXW{WTXHG¶XWLOLVHUFHVWDEOHDX[
 SRXUGpILQLUODFRQWUDLQWHGHFLVDLOOHPHQWFULWLTXH W plutôt que d’utiliser ces tableaux.

0DURW et al
Marot   ont
al (2011) RQW effectué
HIIHFWXp une
XQH série
VpULH d’essais
G¶HVVDLV d’érosion
G¶pURVLRQ de
GH trou
WURX (HET)
+(7  et
HW d’érosion
G¶pURVLRQ GH
de MHW
jet
-(7  sur
(JET) VXU différentes
GLIIpUHQWHV granulométries
JUDQXORPpWULHV de GH sols
VROV fins,
ILQV couvrant
FRXYUDQW unXQ large
ODUJH intervalle
LQWHUYDOOH G¶pURGDELOLWp
d’érodabilité. ,OV RQW
Ils ont
PRQWUpTXHOHVPpWKRGHVJpQpUDOHPHQWXWLOLVpHV -(7HW+(7 GRQQHQWXQFRHIILFLHQWG¶pURVLRQHWXQH
montré que les méthodes généralement utilisées (JET et HET) donnent un coefficient d’érosion et une
FRQWUDLQWH de
contrainte GH cisaillement
FLVDLOOHPHQW critique
FULWLTXH GLIIpUHQWV
différents. 'H
De SOXV
plus OHV
les FODVVLILFDWLRQV UHODWLYHV des
classifications relatives GHV sols
VROV provenant
SURYHQDQW
GHV
des GHX[
deux HVVDLV
essais G¶pURVLRQ
d’érosion QH
ne VRQW
sont SDV
pas LGHQWLTXHV
identiques. /¶,QGLFH
L’Indice GH
de 5pVLVWDQFH
Résistance j à O¶eURVLRQ
l’Érosion, EDVp
basé VXU
sur XQH
une
DSSURFKHpQHUJpWLTXHHVWGpWHUPLQpDYHFOHVGHX[DSSDUHLOV -(7HW+(7 HWXQHFODVVLILFDWLRQGHOD
approche énergétique, est déterminé avec les deux appareils (JET et HET) et une classification de la
UpVLVWDQFH
résistance j à O¶pURVLRQ
l’érosion GH
de VXUIDFH
surface HVW
est SURSRVpH
proposée. 3RXU OHV deux
Pour les GHX[ appareils,
DSSDUHLOV OHV
les YDOHXUV
valeurs GH
de O¶LQGLFH
l’indice GH
de
UpVLVWDQFH
résistance j à O¶pURVLRQ
l’érosion VRQW
sont VHQVLEOHPHQW
sensiblement YRLVLQHV SRXU chaque
voisines pour FKDTXH VRO
sol HW
et XQH
une VHXOH
seule FODVVLILFDWLRQ
classification de GH
O¶pURVLRQGHVVROVHVWREWHQXH
l’érosion des sols est obtenue.

/HV DXWUHV SRLQWV j UHPDUTXHU VRQW O¶LPSDFW GX GHJUp GH VDWXUDWLRQ GX VRO HW O¶LPSDFW GH OD
__________________________________________________________________________
GLVSHUVLRQ (Q GLVWLQJXDQW OHV VROV SRVVpGDQW XQ 30 FRPSRUWHPHQW GLVSHUVLI HW FHX[ QRQ GLVSHUVLI
5HJD]]RQLHW0DURW  RQWSURSRVpXQHH[SUHVVLRQGHO¶LQGLFHGH5pVLVWDQFHjO¶eURVLRQTXLHVW
XQHIRQFWLRQjWURLVSDUDPqWUHVOHFRPSDFWDJHOHGHJUpGHVDWXUDWLRQHWODGLIIpUHQFHHQWUHODWHQHXU
__________________________________________________________________________
HQHDXGHO¶DUJLOHHWODOLPLWHGHOLTXLGLWp 31


3.3.5. Application du critère d’initiation d’érosion de conduit

84 
/HULVTXHG¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHGDQVXQHILVVXUHHVWpYDOXpHQHVWLPDQWODFRQWUDLQWH
GHFLVDLOOHPHQWK\GUDXOLTXHHWHQOHFRPSDUDQWjODFRQWUDLQWHGHFLVDLOOHPHQWFULWLTXHGXVROPHVXUpH
HQSUHQDQWHQFRPSWHODWHQHXUHQHDXGXQR\DXHWODFRPSRVLWLRQFKLPLTXHGHO¶HDXGHODUHWHQXH


7DEOH
5HSUHVHQWDWLYHHURVLRQUDWHLQGH[ Ƭ+(7 YHUVXVVRLOFODVVLILFDWLRQIRUQRQGLVSHUVLYHVRLOVEDVHGRQ
:DQDQG)HOO  
5HSUHVHQWDWLYH(URVLRQ5DWH,QGH[ Ƭ+(7 
8QLILHG6RLO&ODVVLILFDWLRQ
/LNHO\0LQLPXP %HVW(VWLPDWH /LNHO\0D[LPXP
60ZLWKILQHV   
60ZLWK!ILQHV  WR 
6&ZLWKILQHV  WR 
6&ZLWK!ILQHV   
0/  WR 
&/0/   
&/  WR 
&/&+   
0+  WR 
&+ZLWK/LTXLG/LPLW   
&+ZLWK/LTXLG/LPLW!   
1RWHV
 8VHEHVWHVWLPDWHYDOXHIRUEHVWHVWLPDWHSUREDELOLWLHV&KHFNVHQVLWLYLW\LIWKHRXWFRPHLVVWURQJO\GHSHQGHQWRQWKHUHVXOWV
 )RULPSRUWDQWGHFLVLRQVFDUU\RXW+ROH(URVLRQ7HVWVUDWKHUWKDQUHO\LQJRQWKLVWDEOHZKLFKLVDSSUR[LPDWH


7KH&ULWLFDO6KHDU6WUHVVLVUHODWHGWRWKH(URVLRQ5DWH,QGH[7KHDSSUR[LPDWHHVWLPDWHVDQG
OLNHO\UDQJHRI&ULWLFDO6KHDU6WUHVV WF LQ7DEOHKDYHWREHXVHGZLWKFDXWLRQZKHQ+ROH(URVLRQ
7HVWYDOXHVDUHQRWDYDLODEOH

7DEOH
$SSUR[LPDWHHVWLPDWHVDQGOLNHO\UDQJHRI&ULWLFDO6KHDU6WUHVV Wc YHUVXV+ROH(URVLRQ,QGH[ ,+(7 
)HOOet al 
+ROH(URVLRQ,QGH[ &ULWLFDO6KHDU6WUHVVIRULQLWLDWLRQRIHURVLRQ WF 3D
,+(7  1RQ'LVSHUVLYH6RLO%HKDYLRU 1RQ'LVSHUVLYH6RLO%HKDYLRU

%HVW(VWLPDWH %HVW(VWLPDWH %HVW(VWLPDWH %HVW(VWLPDWH

  WR  WR


j  WR  WR
  WR  WR
  WR  WR
  WR  WR
  WR  WR
1RWH7REHXVHGZLWKFDXWLRQ)RULPSRUWDQWGHFLVLRQVFDUU\RXW+ROH(URVLRQ7HVWVWRGHWHUPLQHWKH&ULWLFDO6KHDU6WUHVV WF 


,WLVHPSKDVL]HGWKDWLWLVEHWWHUWRFDUU\RXWDVHULHVRI+ROH(URVLRQ7HVWVDWYDU\LQJKHDGVRU
WRXVHWKHPHWKRGRI%RQHOOLHWDO  %RQHOOLDQG%ULYRLV  WRGHILQHWKH&ULWLFDO6KHDU6WUHVV
WF WKDQWRUHO\RQWKHVHUHODWLRQVKLSV

0DURWHWDO  SHUIRUPHGDVHULHVRI+ROH(URVLRQ7HVWVDQG-HW(URVLRQ7HVWVRQGLIIHUHQW
ILQHJUDLQHGVRLOVFRYHULQJDODUJHUDQJHRIHURGLELOLW\,WLVVKRZQWKDWZLWKFRPPRQO\XVHGPHWKRGV
HURVLRQ FRHIILFLHQW DQG DYHUDJH FULWLFDO VKHDU VWUHVV DUH GLIIHUHQW ZLWK WKH -(7 DQG ZLWK WKH +(7
0RUHRYHU WKH UHODWLYH VRLOV FODVVLILFDWLRQV \LHOGHG E\ WKH WZR HURGLPHWHUV DUH QRW H[DFWO\ WKH VDPH
%DVHG RQ WKH HQHUJ\ PHWKRG DQ HURVLRQ UHVLVWDQFH LQGH[ LV GHWHUPLQHG IRU ERWK WKH -(7 DQG +(7
DSSDUDWXVDQGDFODVVLILFDWLRQRIVXUIDFHHURVLRQUHVLVWDQFHLVSURSRVHG)RUERWKDSSDUDWXVYDOXHVRI
HURVLRQUHVLVWDQFHLQGH[DUHURXJKO\WKHVDPHIRUHDFKVRLODQGDVLQJOHFODVVLILFDWLRQRIVRLOHURGLELOLW\
LVREWDLQHG

2WKHUSRLQWVWRQRWHDUHWKHHIIHFWRIGHJUHHRIVDWXUDWLRQRIWKHVRLODQGWKHHIIHFWRIGLVSHUVLRQ
%\ GLVWLQJXLVKLQJ GLVSHUVLYH EHKDYLRU IURP QRQGLVSHUVLYH EHKDYLRU 5HJD]]RQL DQG 0DURW  
SURSRVHG DQ H[SUHVVLRQ RI WKH HURVLRQ UHVLVWDQFH LQGH[ DV D IXQFWLRQ RI WKUHH SK\VLFDO SDUDPHWHUV
FRPSDFWLRQVDWXUDWLRQUDWLRDQGGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQFOD\ZDWHUFRQWHQWDQGOLTXLGOLPLW


3.3.5. Applying the concentrated leak criteria



30

85
5HJD]]RQLHW0DURW  RQWSURSRVpXQHH[SUHVVLRQGHO¶LQGLFHGH5pVLVWDQFHjO¶eURVLRQTXLHVW
XQHIRQFWLRQjWURLVSDUDPqWUHVOHFRPSDFWDJHOHGHJUpGHVDWXUDWLRQHWODGLIIpUHQFHHQWUHODWHQHXU
HQHDXGHO¶DUJLOHHWODOLPLWHGHOLTXLGLWp


3.3.5. Application du critère d’initiation d’érosion de conduit


/HULVTXHG¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHGDQVXQHILVVXUHHVWpYDOXpHQHVWLPDQWODFRQWUDLQWH
GHFLVDLOOHPHQWK\GUDXOLTXHHWHQOHFRPSDUDQWjODFRQWUDLQWHGHFLVDLOOHPHQWFULWLTXHGXVROPHVXUpH
HQSUHQDQWHQFRPSWHODWHQHXUHQHDXGXQR\DXHWODFRPSRVLWLRQFKLPLTXHGHO¶HDXGHODUHWHQXH
&HWWH pYDOXDWLRQ GRLW rWUH HQ SUHQDQW HQ FRPSWH OHV LQFHUWLWXGHV GX FDOFXO HW FHOOHV GHV
FDUDFWpULVWLTXHVGXVRO

3RXU XQ JUDGLHQW PR\HQ GH  GDQV XQH ILVVXUH GH  PP GH ODUJHXU OD FRQWUDLQWH GH
FLVDLOOHPHQWK\GUDXOLTXHHVWGH3D3RXUXQHILVVXUHGHPPGHODUJHXUHOOHHVWGH3DHWSRXU
XQHILVVXUHGHPPGHODUJHXUHOOHHVWGH3D3DUFRQVpTXHQWjSDUWLUGX7DEOHDXSRXUOHV
VROV GLVSHUVLIV HW G¶DXWUHV VROV WUqV pURGDEOHV PrPH XQH ILVVXUH pWURLWH HVW VXIILVDQWH SRXU LQLWLHU
O¶pURVLRQ

,OHVWLPSRUWDQWGHFRQVWDWHUTXHO¶pURVLRQGDQVOHVILVVXUHVRXOHVGpIDXWVQ¶HVWSDVOHUpVXOWDW
GHO¶pWDEOLVVHPHQWG¶XQUpVHDXG¶pFRXOHPHQWFRQWLQXPDLVHVWGXHjXQpFRXOHPHQWGDQVOHVILVVXUHV
RXYHUWHV &HFL VH SURGXLW UDSLGHPHQW GqV TXH OH QLYHDX GH OD UHWHQXH DWWHLQW OHV ]RQHV ILVVXUpHV
/¶DQDO\VHGHVUpJLPHVSHUPDQHQWVRXWUDQVLWRLUHVHQPLOLHXSRUHX[QHVRQWGRQFSDVSHUWLQHQWVGDQV
FHSURFHVVXV


3.3.6. Importance des sols dispersifs


Qu’est-ce qu’un sol dispersif ?


/HVVROVROHVSDUWLFXOHVG¶DUJLOHVHGpWDFKHQWXQHjXQHGXVTXHOHWWHGXVROVDQVpFRXOHPHQW
G¶HDXHWUHVWHQWHQVXVSHQVLRQVRQWDSSHOpHVDUJLOHVGLVSHUVLYHV

/HVSDUWLFXOHVG¶DUJLOHVGDQVGHQRPEUHX[VROVDUJLOHX[VHWURXYHQWVRXVIRUPHG¶DJJORPpUDWV
FRQQXV VRXV OH QRP GH IORFV 'DQV FHV VROV OD PRGLILFDWLRQ GH OD FRPSRVLWLRQ FKLPLTXH GH O¶HDX
LQWHUVWLWLHOOHSURYRTXpHSDUH[HPSOHSDUXQHLQILOWUDWLRQjWUDYHUVOHEDUUDJHSHXWGLVSHUVHUOHVIORFVOD
GpIORFXODWLRQUHQGDQWOHVSDUWLFXOHVSOXVSHWLWHVHWGRQFSOXVIDFLOHPHQWpURGDEOH

/HFDUDFWqUHGLVSHUVLIGHVVROVHVWGLUHFWHPHQWOLpjODPLQpUDORJLHGHVDUJLOHV(QSDUWLFXOLHUOHV
VROVDYHFXQWDX[LPSRUWDQWGHVRGLXPpFKDQJHDEOHFRPPHODPRQWPRULOORQLWH1DRX&DWHQGHQWj
rWUH GLVSHUVLIV DORUV TXH OD NDROLQLWH HW OHV PLQpUDX[ DVVRFLpV SDU H[HPSOH O¶KDOOR\VLWH  VRQW QRQ
GLVSHUVLIV/HVVROVFRQWHQDQWGHO¶LOOLWHWHQGHQWjrWUHPRGpUpPHQWGLVSHUVLIV

/HFDUDFWqUHGLVSHUVLIGpSHQGDXVVLGHODFRPSRVLWLRQFKLPLTXHGHO¶HDXLQWHUVWLWLHOOH8QHHDX
LQWHUVWLWLHOOH DYHF XQH IDLEOH FRQFHQWUDWLRQ HQ VHO HQWUDvQH XQ FRPSRUWHPHQW GLVSHUVLI DORUV TX¶XQH
LPSRUWDQWH FRQFHQWUDWLRQ HQ VHO SHXW VXSSULPHU FH FRPSRUWHPHQW GDQV OHV VROV VHQVLEOHV j OD
GLVSHUVLRQ

'H QRPEUHXVHV UXSWXUHV RQW pWp REVHUYpHV VXU GHV EDUUDJHV FRQVWUXLWV DYHF GH O¶DUJLOH
GLVSHUVLYH 0LWFKHOO   LQGLTXH TXH FHV GHUQLqUHV RQW pWp GXHV DX[ DUJLOHV j SODVWLFLWp PR\HQQH
&/ HW &/&+  FRQWHQDQW GH OD PRQWPRULOORQLWH )HOO et al   VRQW DUULYpV DX PrPH FRQVWDW j
VDYRLU TXH OHV VROV OHV SOXV VHQVLEOHV j OD GLVSHUVLRQ QH VRQW SDV FHX[ TXL SRVVqGHQW XQH JUDQGH
SODVWLFLWpPDLVFHX[FRQWHQDQWODIUDFWLRQVXIILVDQWHG¶DUJLOHGRQQDQWXQHSODVWLFLWpIDLEOHRXPR\HQQH

6KHUDUGet al.  RQWFHSHQGDQWUpDOLVpO¶(VVDLGHWURXG¶pSLQJOHVXUTXHOTXHVVROVGLVSHUVLIV
FRQWHQDQWXQGHSDVVDQWPP!/HPHLOOHXUFRPSRUWHPHQWGHVDUJLOHVjIRUWHSODVWLFLWp
HVW SUREDEOHPHQW OLp j XQH SOXV JUDQGH UpVLVWDQFH j O¶pURVLRQ HW j XQH SOXV JUDQGH DSWLWXGH j OD
IHUPHWXUHGHVILVVXUHVSDUJRQIOHPHQW

__________________________________________________________________________
6XUODEDVHGHOHXUVHVVDLV6KHUDUGet al.  LQGLTXHQWTXHOHVVROVDYHFPRLQVGHGH
ILQHV GH GLPHQVLRQ LQIpULHXUH j  PP VHPEOHQW 32 QH SDV DYRLU DVVH] G¶DUJLOH SRXU pYLWHU
O¶HIIRQGUHPHQWGXFRQGXLWGDQVXQVROGLVSHUVLI


Comment peut-on identifier les sols dispersifs ?

86 ,OH[LVWHSOXVLHXUVHVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUHSRXYDQWGpWHUPLQHUOHFDUDFWqUHGLVSHUVLIG¶XQVRO

D  ODFODVVLILFDWLRQG¶(PHUVRQ(Standards Australia  HVVDL$6HW86%5
 /¶HVVDLHVWUpDOLVpDYHFGHO¶HDXGLVWLOOpHPDLVSHXWrWUHUpSpWpDYHFGHO¶HDXGX

2WKHUSRLQWVWRQRWHDUHWKHHIIHFWRIGHJUHHRIVDWXUDWLRQRIWKHVRLODQGWKHHIIHFWRIGLVSHUVLRQ
%\ GLVWLQJXLVKLQJ GLVSHUVLYH EHKDYLRU IURP QRQGLVSHUVLYH EHKDYLRU 5HJD]]RQL DQG 0DURW  
SURSRVHG DQ H[SUHVVLRQ RI WKH HURVLRQ UHVLVWDQFH LQGH[ DV D IXQFWLRQ RI WKUHH SK\VLFDO SDUDPHWHUV
FRPSDFWLRQVDWXUDWLRQUDWLRDQGGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQFOD\ZDWHUFRQWHQWDQGOLTXLGOLPLW


3.3.5.  Applying the concentrated leak criteria


7RDVVHVVWKHOLNHOLKRRGWKDWHURVLRQZLOOLQLWLDWHLQDFUDFNWKHHVWLPDWHGK\GUDXOLFVKHDUVWUHVV
LVFRPSDUHGWRWKHLQLWLDOVKHDUVWUHVVIRUWKHVRLOWDNLQJDFFRXQWRIWKHPRLVWXUHFRQWHQWRIWKHVRLOLQ
WKH FRUH DQG WKH FKHPLVWU\ RI WKH ZDWHU LQ WKH30
UHVHUYRLU :KHQ GRLQJ WKLV DVVHVVPHQW DOORZDQFH
VKRXOGEHPDGHIRUWKHXQFHUWDLQW\LQWKHFDOFXODWLRQVDQGSURSHUWLHV

)RU DQ DYHUDJH JUDGLHQW RI  LQ D PP ZLGH FUDFN WKH K\GUDXOLF VKHDU VWUHVV LV 3D IRU D
PP ZLGH FUDFN 3D DQG IRU D PP ZLGH FUDFN 3D +HQFH IURP 7DEOH  IRU GLVSHUVLYH DQG
RWKHUKLJKO\HURGLEOHVRLOVHYHQQDUURZFUDFNVZLOOEHVXIILFLHQWIRUHURVLRQWRLQLWLDWH

,WLVLPSRUWDQWWRUHFRJQL]HWKDWHURVLRQLQFUDFNVRUIODZVLVQRWDUHVXOWRIHVWDEOLVKPHQWRID
IORZQHWEXWLVGXHWRIORZLQRSHQFUDFNV7KLVRFFXUVTXLFNO\DVWKHUHVHUYRLUULVHVLQWRWKHFUDFNHG
]RQH6WHDG\VWDWHDQGWUDQVLHQWIORZQHWDQDO\VHVDUHLUUHOHYDQWWRWKLVSURFHVV


3.3.6. Importance of dispersive soils


What are dispersive soils?


6RLOVLQZKLFKWKHFOD\SDUWLFOHVZLOOGHWDFKIURPHDFKRWKHUDQGIURPWKHVRLOVWUXFWXUHZLWKRXWD
IORZRIZDWHUDQGJRLQWRVXVSHQVLRQDUHWHUPHGGLVSHUVLYHFOD\V

7KH FOD\ SDUWLFOHV LQ PDQ\ FOD\ VRLOV H[LVW LQ DFFXPXODWLRQV NQRZQ DV IORFV ,Q WKHVH VRLOV
FKDQJHVLQSRUHZDWHUFKHPLVWU\EURXJKWDERXWE\VHHSDJHWKURXJKDGDPIRUH[DPSOHFDQFDXVH
WKHIORFVWREUHDNGRZQGHIORFFXODWHDQGHIIHFWLYHO\EHFRPHVPDOOHUPRUHHDVLO\HURGHGSDUWLFOHV

7KHGLVSHUVLYLW\RIDVRLOLVGLUHFWO\UHODWHGWRLWVFOD\PLQHUDORJ\,QSDUWLFXODUVRLOVZLWKDKLJK
H[FKDQJHDEOH VRGLXP SHUFHQWDJH VXFK DV 1D RU &D PRQWPRULOORQLWH SUHVHQW WHQG WR EH GLVSHUVLYH
ZKLOHNDROLQLWHDQGUHODWHGPLQHUDOV HJKDOOR\VLWH DUHQRQGLVSHUVLYH6RLOVZLWKLOOLWHSUHVHQWWHQGWR
EHPRGHUDWHO\GLVSHUVLYH

7KHGLVSHUVLYLW\GHSHQGVDOVRRQWKHSRUHZDWHUFKHPLVWU\/RZSRUHZDWHUVDOWFRQFHQWUDWLRQV
OHDGWRJUHDWHUGLVSHUVLYLW\DQGKLJKVDOWFRQFHQWUDWLRQVFDQVXSSUHVVGLVSHUVLRQLQVXVFHSWLEOHVRLOV
+HQFHSHUFRODWLRQRIDVDOLQHVRLOZLWKIUHVKZDWHUFDQOHDGWRGLVSHUVLRQ

7KHUH KDYH EHHQ PDQ\ IDLOXUHV RI GDPV FRQVWUXFWHG RI GLVSHUVLYH FOD\V 0LWFKHOO  
LQGLFDWHV WKHVH KDYH EHHQ PRVWO\ ORZ WR PHGLXP SODVWLFLW\ &/ DQG &/&+  FOD\V WKDW FRQWDLQHG
PRQWPRULOORQLWH)HOOHWDO  LQGLFDWHWKDWWKHLUH[SHULHQFHLVVLPLODUWKDWLVWKHPRVWVXVFHSWLEOH
VRLOVDUHQRWWKRVHZLWKDKLJKSODVWLFLW\EXWWKRVHZLWKOLPLWHGFOD\VL]HIUDFWLRQVVXIILFLHQWRQO\WRJLYH
ORZWRPHGLXPSODVWLFLW\

6KHUDUGHWDO  KRZHYHUWHVWHGVRPHVRLOVDVGLVSHUVLYHLQWKHSLQKROHWHVWZLWKSDVVLQJ
PPJUHDWHUWKDQ7KHEHWWHUSHUIRUPDQFHRIWKHKLJKHUSODVWLFLW\FOD\VSUREDEO\UHODWHVWR
JUHDWHUUHVLVWDQFHWRHURVLRQDQGJUHDWHUOLNHOLKRRGIRUFUDFNVWRFORVHDVWKHVRLOVZHOOV

6KHUDUG HW DO   LQGLFDWH WKDW EDVHG RQ WKHLU WHVWV VRLOV ZLWK OHVV WKDQ  ILQHU WKDQ
PPPD\QRWKDYHHQRXJKFOD\WRVXSSRUWGLVSHUVLYHSLSLQJ


How can dispersive soils be identified?


7KHUHDUHVHYHUDOODERUDWRU\WHVWVZKLFKFDQEHXVHGWRGHWHUPLQHWKHGLVSHUVLYLW\RIDVRLO

D  (PHUVRQ FODVV QXPEHU 6WDQGDUGV $XVWUDOLD   WHVW $6   DQG 86%5
 7KHWHVWLVFDUULHGRXWLQGLVWLOOHGZDWHUEXWPD\EHUHSHDWHGLQZDWHUIURPWKH
GDPRUJURXQGZDWHU7KLVRIWHQJLYHVVLJQLILFDQWO\GLIIHUHQWUHVXOWVGXHWRWKHSUHVHQFH
RI GLVVROYHG VDOWV LQ WKH ZDWHU KLJKHU VDOW FRQWHQW JLYHV OHVV GLVSHUVLYH UHVXOWV  7KH
VRLOV DUH JUDGHG DFFRUGLQJ WR FODVV ZLWK &ODVV  EHLQJ WKH KLJKO\ GLVSHUVLYH &ODVV 

87
31
IHUPHWXUHGHVILVVXUHVSDUJRQIOHPHQW
fermeture des fissures par gonflement.

6XUODEDVHGHOHXUVHVVDLV6KHUDUGet
Sur la base de leurs essais, Sherard et al. (1976) indiquent que les sols avec moins de 10% de
al.  LQGLTXHQWTXHOHVVROVDYHFPRLQVGHGH
ILQHV
fines GH
de GLPHQVLRQ LQIpULHXUH à
dimension inférieure j 
0.005 PP mm VHPEOHQW
semblent QH ne SDV
pas DYRLU
avoir DVVH]
assez G¶DUJLOH
d’argile SRXU pYLWHU
pour éviter
O¶HIIRQGUHPHQWGXFRQGXLWGDQVXQVROGLVSHUVLI
l’effondrement du conduit dans un sol dispersif.


Comment peut-on identifier les sols dispersifs ?


,OH[LVWHSOXVLHXUVHVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUHSRXYDQWGpWHUPLQHUOHFDUDFWqUHGLVSHUVLIG¶XQVRO
Il existe plusieurs essais en laboratoire pouvant déterminer le caractère dispersif d’un sol :

D 
a) ODFODVVLILFDWLRQG¶(PHUVRQ(Standards
La classification d’Emerson (Standards Australia  HVVDL$6HW86%5
Australia (1997) ; essai AS 1289, 3.81 et USBR
 /¶HVVDLHVWUpDOLVpDYHFGHO¶HDXGLVWLOOpHPDLVSHXWrWUHUpSpWpDYHFGHO¶HDXGX
(1979). L’essai est réalisé avec de l’eau distillée, mais peut être répété avec de l’eau du
EDUUDJHRXOHVHDX[VRXWHUUDLQHV,OGRQQHVRXYHQWGHVUpVXOWDWVWUqVGLIIpUHQWVjFDXVH
barrage ou les eaux souterraines. Il donne souvent des résultats très différents à cause
GH
de OD
la SUpVHQFH
présence GDQVdans O¶HDX
l’eau GH
de VHO
sel GLVVRXV
dissous XQH
(une WHQHXU
teneur HQen VHO
sel pOHYpH GRQQH une
élevée donne XQH
GLVSHUVLRQSOXVIDLEOH /HVVROVVRQWGLYLVpVHQIRQFWLRQGHOHXUFODVVHOD&ODVVHVRQW
dispersion plus faible). Les sols sont divisés en fonction de leur classe, la Classe 1 sont
OHV
les VROV
sols WUqV GLVSHUVLIV Classe
très dispersifs, &ODVVH 8  sont
VRQW les
OHV sols
VROV non
QRQ dispersifs.
GLVSHUVLIV /HV
Les VROV
sols GH
de FODVVH
classe
(PHUVRQHQWUHHWVRQWjXWLOLVHUDYHFXQHH[WUrPHSUpFDXWLRQSRXUODFRQVWUXFWLRQ
Emerson entre 1 et 4 sont à utiliser avec une extrême précaution pour la construction
G¶XQEDUUDJH
d’un barrage.
E 
b) (VVDL
Essai de GH dispersion
GLVSHUVLRQ SCS6&6 (Soil
6RLO Conservation Service 
Service) DXVVL
aussi FRQQX
connu FRPPH
comme O¶HVVDL
l’essai GX
du
GRXEOHK\GURPqWUHRXO¶HVVDLGXSRXUFHQWDJHGLVSHUVLI $670HVVDL' 
double hydromètre ou l’essai du pourcentage dispersif (ASTM 2001 essai D42291-99).
6KHUDUG
Sherard et al. al.  
(1976) PRQWUHQW
montrent TXH que OHV
les VROV
sols, DYHF
avec XQun SRXUFHQWDJH
pourcentage GH de VRO
sol GLVSHUVLI
dispersif
VXSpULHXU
supérieur j à 
50 %, VRQW
sont SOXV
plus VXVFHSWLEOHV
susceptibles GH de SURYRTXHU
provoquer OD la UXSWXUH
rupture desGHV barrages
EDUUDJHV parSDU
GLVSHUVLRQ
dispersion, DORUV
alors TXH
que FHX[
ceux DYHF
avec XQ un SRXUFHQWDJH
pourcentage LQIpULHXU
inférieur jà 
15 % QHne OH VRQW SDV
le sont &HW
pas. Cet
HVVDL
essai HWet O¶HVVDL
l’essai GXdu ©WULSOHª
« triple » K\GURPqWUH
hydromètre GDQVdans OHVTXHOV
lesquels OD la GLVSHUVLRQ
dispersion du GX sol
VRO se
VH fait
IDLW
pJDOHPHQW
également avec DYHF deGH l’eau
O¶HDX du
GX réservoir,
UpVHUYRLU comparent
FRPSDUHQW la OD dispersion
GLVSHUVLRQ dansGDQV O¶HDX
l’eau jà OD
la
GLVSHUVLRQTXLVHSURGXLWjO¶DLGHG¶XQGLVSHUVDQWXWLOLVpFRPPHGpIORFFXODQWFRPPHFH
dispersion qui se produit à l’aide d’un dispersant utilisé comme déflocculant comme ce
TXLHVWUpDOLVpGDQVOHVHVVDLVVWDQGDUGVHQODERUDWRLUH
qui est réalisé dans les essais standards en laboratoire.
F 
c) /¶HVVDLGHWURXG¶pSLQJOHDXVVLFRQQXFRPPHO¶HVVDL6KHUDUGGHWURXG¶pSLQJOH $670
L’essai de trou d’épingle, aussi connu comme l’essai Sherard de trou d’épingle (ASTM
WHVW' 6KHUDUGet
1998 ; test D4647-93). Sherard et al  RQWUHPDUTXpTXHOHVVROVFODVVpV'HW'
al (1976) ont remarqué que les sols classés D1 et D2
VRXIIUHQWGHUXSWXUHSDUpURVLRQGHFRQGXLWGDQVOHVEDUUDJHVHQWHUUHHWGHGRPPDJHV
souffrent de rupture par érosion de conduit dans les barrages en terre, et de dommages
VpYqUHVSDUpURVLRQORUVGHSUpFLSLWDWLRQVVXUOHVUHPEODLVHWOHVGpS{WVQDWXUHOVDORUV
sévères par érosion lors de précipitations sur les remblais et les dépôts naturels alors
TXH
que FHX[
ceux FODVVpV
classés FRPPH
comme 1' ND1 HW et 1'
ND2, QH
ne OH
le VRQW
sont SDV
pas. &RPPH
Comme OH le QXPpUR
numéro GH de FODVVH
classe
(PHUVRQ
Emerson, OHV UpVXOWDWV GpSHQGHQW
les résultats dépendent GH de OD
la FRPSRVLWLRQ
composition FKLPLTXH
chimique GHde O¶HDX
l’eau XWLOLVpH
utilisée SRXU
pour
O¶HVVDL O¶HVVDLVWDQGDUGXWLOLVHGHO¶HDXGLVWLOOpH 
l’essai (l’essai standard utilise de l’eau distillée).
G  G (VVDLVFKLPLTXHV%DVpVVXUODFRUUpODWLRQHQWUHOHVQRPEUHXVHVUXSWXUHVGHEDUUDJH
d) Essais chimiques. Basés sur la corrélation entre les nombreuses ruptures de barrage et
HWOHVROGHVEDUUDJHVTXLRQWSUpVHQWpGHVIXLWHVLQLQWHUURPSXHV VDQVDXFXQILOWUHSRXU
le sol des barrages qui ont présenté des fuites ininterrompues (sans aucun filtre pour
FRQWU{OHU O¶pURVLRQ  sans
contrôler l’érosion) VDQV rompre
URPSUH (Sherard
6KHUDUG et alal,  
1976). &HV
Ces HVVDLV
essais SURSRVHQW
proposent GH de
GpWHUPLQHU
déterminer le OH caractère
FDUDFWqUH dispersif
GLVSHUVLI des GHV sols
VROV à j partir
SDUWLU du
GX pourcentage
SRXUFHQWDJH de GH sodium
VRGLXP
pFKDQJHDEOHHWGXWDX[G¶DEVRUSWLRQGXVRGLXPGpILQLVSDU
échangeable et du taux d’absorption du sodium définis par :
3RXUFHQWDJH de
Pourcentage GH sodium
VRGLXP échangeable
pFKDQJHDEOH (ESP) (63  qui
TXL est
HVW le
OH pourcentage
SRXUFHQWDJH de GH la
OD TXDQWLWp
quantité de GH
VRGLXP échangeable
sodium pFKDQJHDEOH Na+ 1D sur
VXU la
OD quantité
TXDQWLWp de
GH cations
FDWLRQV échangeables
pFKDQJHDEOHV (CEC) &(&  DYHF
avec SRXU
pour
XQLWpPHTJGHVROVHF/HVVROVGRQWO¶(63HVWVXSpULHXURXpJDOjTXLVRQW
unité : meq/100g de sol sec. Les sols dont l’ESP est supérieur ou égal à 10, qui sont
VXVFHSWLEOHV d’avoir
susceptibles G¶DYRLU des
GHV sels
VHOV libres
OLEUHV entrainés
HQWUDLQpV par
SDU une
XQH eau
HDX de
GH percolation
SHUFRODWLRQ UHODWLYHPHQW
relativement
SXUHVRQWFODVVpVGLVSHUVLIV
pure, sont classés dispersifs.

Na 
(63=
ESP  
x100
CEC( Total sel dissous)

Na +
1D
RX
ou = +
[ 100
x  
&D
Ca +
 Mg ++ 
+ 0J Na + 
+ 1D +.K +

/HWDX[G¶DEVRUSWLRQGHVRGLXP 6$5 HVW


Le taux d’absorption de sodium (SAR) est :
Na 

6$5 
Ca 
 Mg  
__________________________________________________________________________
32
__________________________________________________________________________

33
DYHF1D&DHW0JHQPLOOLpTXLYDOHQWSDUOLWUHG¶HDXLQWHUVWLWLHOOH/HVGpWDLOVVRQWGRQQpVGDQV
6KHUDUGet al  

/DSOXSDUWGHVDXWHXUVFRQVLGqUHTX¶LOHVWQpFHVVDLUHG¶XWLOLVHUSOXVG¶XQHVVDLSRXUV¶DVVXUHUGX
FDUDFWqUH GLVSHUVLI GX VRO 6KHUDUG HW 'HFNHU   VXJJqUHQW O¶XWLOLVDWLRQ GH  HVVDLV Soil
Conservation Service, pinhole, Emerson and chemical test ,OV FRQVLGqUHQW TXH O¶HVVDL GH WURX
G¶pSLQJOHHVWOHPHLOOHXU

3RXUSOXVGHGpWDLOVVXUFHVHVVDLVHWOHVSURSULpWpVGHVVROVGLVSHUVLIVVHUHSRUWHUj)HOOet al
 
88 
$ORUVTXHOHVHVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUHVRQWGHVPR\HQVHIILFDFHVSRXULGHQWLILHUOHVVROVGLVSHUVLIV
/DSOXSDUWSHXYHQWrWUHLGHQWLILpVHQREVHUYDQWOHXUFRPSRUWHPHQWLQVLWX

PPJUHDWHUWKDQ7KHEHWWHUSHUIRUPDQFHRIWKHKLJKHUSODVWLFLW\FOD\VSUREDEO\UHODWHVWR
JUHDWHUUHVLVWDQFHWRHURVLRQDQGJUHDWHUOLNHOLKRRGIRUFUDFNVWRFORVHDVWKHVRLOVZHOOV

6KHUDUG HW DO   LQGLFDWH WKDW EDVHG RQ WKHLU WHVWV VRLOV ZLWK OHVV WKDQ  ILQHU WKDQ
PPPD\QRWKDYHHQRXJKFOD\WRVXSSRUWGLVSHUVLYHSLSLQJ


How can dispersive soils be identified?


7KHUHDUHVHYHUDOODERUDWRU\WHVWVZKLFKFDQEHXVHGWRGHWHUPLQHWKHGLVSHUVLYLW\RIDVRLO

D  (PHUVRQ FODVV QXPEHU 6WDQGDUGV $XVWUDOLD   WHVW $6   DQG 86%5
 7KHWHVWLVFDUULHGRXWLQGLVWLOOHGZDWHUEXWPD\EHUHSHDWHGLQZDWHUIURPWKH
 GDPRUJURXQGZDWHU7KLVRIWHQJLYHVVLJQLILFDQWO\GLIIHUHQWUHVXOWVGXHWRWKHSUHVHQFH
RI GLVVROYHG VDOWV LQ WKH ZDWHU KLJKHU VDOW FRQWHQW JLYHV OHVV GLVSHUVLYH UHVXOWV  7KH
VRLOV DUH JUDGHG DFFRUGLQJ WR FODVV ZLWK &ODVV  EHLQJ WKH KLJKO\ GLVSHUVLYH &ODVV 
QRQGLVSHUVLYH6RLOVZLWK(PHUVRQ&ODVVWRQHHGVWREHWUHDWHGZLWKH[WUDFDXWLRQ
LQGDPFRQVWUXFWLRQ
E  6RLO &RQVHUYDWLRQ 6HUYLFH WHVW DOVR NQRZQ DV WKH GRXEOH K\GURPHWHU WHVW RU SHUFHQW
31
GLVSHUVLRQ WHVW $670  WHVW '  6KHUDUG HW DO   LQGLFDWH WKDW VRLOV
ZLWK D SHUFHQW GLVSHUVLRQ JUHDWHU WKDQ  DUH VXVFHSWLEOH WR GLVSHUVLRQ IDLOXUH LQ
GDPVDQGWKRVHZLWKDSHUFHQWGLVSHUVLRQOHVVWKDQDUHQRWVXVFHSWLEOH7KLVWHVW
DQG WKH µWULSOH¶ K\GURPHWHU WHVW LQ ZKLFK WKH VRLO LV DOVR GLVSHUVHG LQ UHVHUYRLU ZDWHU
FRPSDUHV WKH GLVSHUVLRQ LQ ZDWHU WR WKH GLVSHUVLRQ WKDW RFFXUV ZKHQ D FKHPLFDO
GLVSHUVDQW LV XVHG SXUSRVHO\ WR GHIORFFXODWH WKH VRLO DV LW LV LQ VWDQGDUG ODERUDWRU\
SDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQSURFHGXUHV
F  3LQKROHGLVSHUVLRQFODVVLILFDWLRQDOVRNQRZQDVWKHSLQKROHWHVWRU6KHUDUGSLQKROHWHVW
$670WHVW' 6RLOVZKLFKWHVWHGDV'DQG'ZHUHIRXQGE\6KHUDUG
HWDO  WRKDYHVXIIHUHGSLSLQJIDLOXUHLQHDUWKGDPVDQGVHYHUHHURVLRQGDPDJH
E\ UDLQIDOO LQ HPEDQNPHQWV DQG QDWXUDO GHSRVLWV ZKLOH WKRVH ZLWK 1' DQG 1'
FODVVLILFDWLRQKDGQRW$VIRUWKH(PHUVRQFODVVQXPEHUWKHUHVXOWVDUHGHSHQGHQWRQ
WKHFKHPLVWU\RIWKHZDWHUXVHGIRUWKHWHVW WKHVWDQGDUGWHVWXVHVGLVWLOOHGZDWHU 
G  &KHPLFDOWHVWV%DVHGRQFRUUHODWLRQZLWKPDQ\GDPIDLOXUHVDQGVRLOIURPGDPVZKLFK
KDYHOHDNHGFRQWLQXRXVO\ ZLWKRXWDQ\ILOWHUVWRFRQWUROHURVLRQ DQGQRWIDLOHG 6KHUDUG
HWDO SURSRVHGWRGHWHUPLQHWKHGLVSHUVLYLW\RIVRLOEDVHGRQWKHSHUFHQWVRGLXP
DQGVRGLXPDGVRUSWLRQUDWLR7KHVHDUHGHILQHGDV
([FKDQJHDEOH 6RGLXP 3HUFHQW (63  LV WKH SHUFHQW VRGLXP GLVVROYHG 1D RQ WKH
&DWLRQ([FKDQJH&DSDFLW\ &(& ZLWKXQLWRIPHTJRIGU\VRLO6RLOVZLWK(63RI
RU DERYHZKLFK DUH VXEMHFW WR KDYLQJ IUHH VDOWV OHDFKHG E\ VHHSDJH RI UHODWLYHO\ SXUH
ZDWHUDUHFODVVLILHGDVGLVSHUVLYH

1D 
3HUFHQWVRGLXP  [  
7RWDO GLVVROYHG VDOWV

1D 
RU3HUFHQWVRGLXP  
[  
&D  0J   1D   . 

7KH6RGLXPDGVRUSWLRQUDWLR 6$5 RIWKHSRUHZDWHULV


Na 

6$5 
Ca    Mg   

  
LQZKLFK1D &D DQG0J DUHPHDVXUHGLQPLOOLHTXLYDOHQWVSHUOLWHURIVDWXUDWLRQH[WUDFW'HWDLOV
DUHJLYHQLQ6KHUDUGet al  

0RVWDXWKRUVFRQVLGHUWKDWLWLVQHFHVVDU\WRXVHPRUHWKDQRQHWHVWWRDVFHUWDLQWKHGLVSHUVLYLW\RI
D VRLO 6KHUDUG DQG 'HFNHU   VXJJHVW WKDW IRXU WHVWV VKRXOG EH XVHG 6RLO &RQVHUYDWLRQ 6HUYLFH
SLQKROH(PHUVRQDQGFKHPLFDOWHVW7KH\ZHUHRIWKHRSLQLRQWKDWWKHSLQKROHWHVWZDVEHVW

0RUHGHWDLOVRQWKHVHWHVWVDQGWKHSURSHUWLHVRIGLVSHUVLYHVRLOVFDQEHIRXQGLQ)HOOHWDO  

:KLOHODERUDWRU\WHVWVDUHDXVHIXOZD\RILGHQWLI\LQJGLVSHUVLYHVRLOVPXFKFDQEHGHWHUPLQHG
E\REVHUYLQJWKHEHKDYLRURIWKHVRLOVLQWKHILHOGHJ

- 7KH SUHVHQFH RI GHHS HURVLRQ JXOOLHV DQG SLSLQJ IDLOXUH LQ H[LVWLQJ VPDOO IDUP GDPV
XVXDOO\LQGLFDWHVWKHSUHVHQFHRIGLVSHUVLYHVRLOV
- (URVLRQ RI URDG FXWWLQJV WXQQHO HURVLRQ DORQJ JXOO\ OLQHV DQG HURVLRQ RI ZHDWKHUHG RU
FOD\LQILOOHGURFNMRLQWVPD\LQGLFDWHSRWHQWLDOO\GLVSHUVLYHVRLOV
- 7KH SUHVHQFH RI FORXG\ ZDWHU LQ IDUP GDPV DQG SXGGOHV RI ZDWHU DIWHU UDLQ LQGLFDWHV
GLVSHUVLYHVRLOV 89


Effect of dispersion on erosion properties


DYHF1D&DHW0JHQPLOOLpTXLYDOHQWSDUOLWUHG¶HDXLQWHUVWLWLHOOH/HVGpWDLOVVRQWGRQQpVGDQV
6KHUDUGet al  

/DSOXSDUWGHVDXWHXUVFRQVLGqUHTX¶LOHVWQpFHVVDLUHG¶XWLOLVHUSOXVG¶XQHVVDLSRXUV¶DVVXUHUGX
FDUDFWqUH GLVSHUVLI GX VRO 6KHUDUG HW 'HFNHU   VXJJqUHQW O¶XWLOLVDWLRQ GH  HVVDLV Soil
Conservation Service, pinhole, Emerson and chemical test ,OV FRQVLGqUHQW TXH O¶HVVDL GH WURX
G¶pSLQJOHHVWOHPHLOOHXU

3RXUSOXVGHGpWDLOVVXUFHVHVVDLVHWOHVSURSULpWpVGHVVROVGLVSHUVLIVVHUHSRUWHUj)HOOet al
 

$ORUVTXHOHVHVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUHVRQWGHVPR\HQVHIILFDFHVSRXULGHQWLILHUOHVVROVGLVSHUVLIV
/DSOXSDUWSHXYHQWrWUHLGHQWLILpVHQREVHUYDQWOHXUFRPSRUWHPHQWLQVLWX

- /D SUpVHQFH GH SURIRQGHV UDYLQHV G¶pURVLRQ HW GH UXSWXUH SDU FRQGXLW VXU OHV SHWLWV
EDUUDJHVDJULFROHVH[LVWDQWVLQGLTXHQWJpQpUDOHPHQWODSUpVHQFHGHVROVGLVSHUVLIV
- /¶pURVLRQGHVGpEODLVURXWLHUVXQWURXG¶pURVLRQOHORQJGHVUDYLQHVO¶pURVLRQGHVIDLOOHV
URFKHXVHV DOWpUpHV RX UHPSOLHV G¶DUJLOH SHXYHQW SRWHQWLHOOHPHQW LQGLTXHU GHV VROV
GLVSHUVLIV
- /DSUpVHQFHG¶HDXWURXEOHGDQVOHVEDUUDJHVDJULFROHVHWGHIODTXHERXHXVHDSUqVXQH
IRUWHSOXLHLQGLTXHQWODSUpVHQFHGHVROVGLVSHUVLIV


Impact de la dispersivité sur la loi d’érosion


9RLU6HFWLRQ


Impact de la dispersivité sur les filtres


9RLU6HFWLRQ
 

__________________________________________________________________________
34

90
6$5 
Ca    Mg   

  
LQZKLFK1D &D DQG0J DUHPHDVXUHGLQPLOOLHTXLYDOHQWVSHUOLWHURIVDWXUDWLRQH[WUDFW'HWDLOV
DUHJLYHQLQ6KHUDUGet al  

0RVWDXWKRUVFRQVLGHUWKDWLWLVQHFHVVDU\WRXVHPRUHWKDQRQHWHVWWRDVFHUWDLQWKHGLVSHUVLYLW\RI
D VRLO 6KHUDUG DQG 'HFNHU   VXJJHVW WKDW IRXU WHVWV VKRXOG EH XVHG 6RLO &RQVHUYDWLRQ 6HUYLFH
SLQKROH(PHUVRQDQGFKHPLFDOWHVW7KH\ZHUHRIWKHRSLQLRQWKDWWKHSLQKROHWHVWZDVEHVW

0RUHGHWDLOVRQWKHVHWHVWVDQGWKHSURSHUWLHVRIGLVSHUVLYHVRLOVFDQEHIRXQGLQ)HOOHWDO  

:KLOHODERUDWRU\WHVWVDUHDXVHIXOZD\RILGHQWLI\LQJGLVSHUVLYHVRLOVPXFKFDQEHGHWHUPLQHG
E\REVHUYLQJWKHEHKDYLRURIWKHVRLOVLQWKHILHOGHJ

- 7KH SUHVHQFH RI GHHS HURVLRQ JXOOLHV DQG SLSLQJ IDLOXUH LQ H[LVWLQJ VPDOO IDUP GDPV
XVXDOO\LQGLFDWHVWKHSUHVHQFHRIGLVSHUVLYHVRLOV
- (URVLRQ RI URDG FXWWLQJV WXQQHO HURVLRQ DORQJ JXOO\ OLQHV DQG HURVLRQ RI ZHDWKHUHG RU
FOD\LQILOOHGURFNMRLQWVPD\LQGLFDWHSRWHQWLDOO\GLVSHUVLYHVRLOV
- 7KH SUHVHQFH RI FORXG\ ZDWHU LQ IDUP GDPV DQG SXGGOHV RI ZDWHU DIWHU UDLQ LQGLFDWHV
GLVSHUVLYHVRLOV


Effectof dispersion on erosion properties


6HH6HFWLRQ


Effect of dispersion on filter design and assessment 32


6HH6HFWLRQ
 

91

 ,1,7,$7,21'(/¶e526,215e*5(66,9(



 '(6&5,37,21*e1e5$/('80e&$1,60(


/¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHSDUFRQGXLWVHSURGXLWGDQVOHVVROVILQVQRQSODVWLTXHV(OOHVHGpYHORSSH
SULQFLSDOHPHQWGDQVODIRQGDWLRQPDLVSHXWpJDOHPHQWVHSURGXLUHjO¶LQWpULHXUGHVUHPEODLV

&H SKpQRPqQH G¶pURVLRQ FRPPHQFH j SDUWLU G¶XQH VXUIDFH OLEUH SUpVHQWH VXU OD IDFH DYDO GX
EDUUDJHRXGHODGLJXHFRPPHOHPRQWUHOHV)LJHW&HWWHVXUIDFHOLEUHSHXWrWUHGDQVXQIRVVp
RXLVVXHGXFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXHGHODFRXYHUWXUHDUJLOHXVHUHFRXYUDQWOHVROSXOYpUXOHQWFRPPHOH
PRQWUHOD)LJRXELHQODVXUIDFHGHVXLQWHPHQWGXSDUHPHQWDYDOGXEDUUDJHRXHQFRUHOHOLWGX
FRXUVG¶HDXHQSLHGGHGLJXH


 3+e120Ê1(6(76,78$7,216


7URLVSURFHVVXVG¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHVRQWGLVWLQJXpV


4.2.1. L’érosion régressive dans une fondation sableuse


/¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH VH GpYHORSSH JpQpUDOHPHQW GH O¶DPRQW YHUV O¶DYDO VRXV OH EDUUDJH RX OD
GLJXH



)LJ
6FKpPDG¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHSDUFRQGXLWGH'HOIW 6HOOPHLMHUet al. 

YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ


3RXUTX¶HOOHVHSURGXLVHOHEDUUDJHRXODGLJXHRXODFRXYHUWXUHDUJLOHXVHGRLWSRXYRLUVRXWHQLU
OHWRLWGX©FRQGXLWªG¶pURVLRQ

/DSUpVHQFHG¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHGHFRQGXLWHVWVRXYHQWUHSpUpHSDUO¶DSSDULWLRQGHWXPXOXVGH
VDEOHVjO¶DYDOGXEDUUDJHRXGHODGLJXH

6HOOPHLMHUHWVHVFROODERUDWHXUVGHV/DERUDWRLUHVG¶+\GUDXOLTXHHWGH*pRWHFKQLTXHGH'HOIWDX
3D\V%DVRQWUpDOLVpSOXVGHHVVDLVG¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHGHFRQGXLW/HSUHPLHUGDQVXQFDQDOD
pWpSUpVHQWpSDU:LWWet al  6LOYLV  :HLMHUVHW6HOOPHLMHU  HWOH&RPLWp7HFKQLTXH
 /HVHVVDLVpWDLHQWOHSOXVVRXYHQWUpDOLVpVDYHFGXVDEOHILQRXPR\HQTXHOTXHVXQVDYHFGX
VDEOH PR\HQ RX JURVVLHU /HV VDEOHV DYDLHQW XQH JUDQXORPpWULH XQLIRUPH DYHF XQ FRHIILFLHQW
G¶XQLIRUPLWp&X j/HVSUHPLHUVHVVDLVpWDLHQWUpDOLVpVVXUGHVPRGqOHVUpGXLWV ORQJXHXU
GHODEDVHP OHVHVVDLVVXLYDQWVpWDLHQWVXUGHVPRGqOHVWUqVLPSRUWDQWV&HVH[SpULPHQWDWLRQV
HWFHOOHVUpDOLVpHVSDU7RZQVHQGet al  jO¶8QLYHUVLWpGH)ORULGHPRGpOLVHQWO¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYH
GDQVODIRQGDWLRQGHEDUUDJHVHWGHGLJXHV

&HV H[SpULPHQWDWLRQV RQW PRQWUp TXH O¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH V¶LQLWLH GDQV XQH pFKDQFUXUH GH OD
FRXYHUWXUH DUJLOHXVH UHFRXYUDQW OH VRO pURGDEOH TXL SHXW rWUH XQH ILVVXUH RX XQ IRVVp GH GUDLQDJH
/¶pURVLRQ SURJUHVVH HQ IRUPDQW XQH PXOWLWXGH GH SHWLWV ©FKHQDX[ª SOXW{W TX¶HQ IRUPDQW XQ VHXO
©FRQGXLWª&HVFKHQDX[VRQWUHODWLYHPHQWSHWLWVOHXUKDXWHXUHVWGHO¶RUGUHGHj G FHTXL
HVWVRXYHQWLQIpULHXUHjPP7RXWHFKDUJHK\GUDXOLTXHLQIpULHXUHjODFKDUJHFULWLTXHLQWHUURPSWOH
GpYHORSSHPHQW GH FHV FKHQDX[ 6L OD FKDUJH DXJPHQWH O¶pURVLRQ UHFRPPHQFH /D )LJ  PRQWUH
TXHOTXHV H[HPSOHV /D FKDUJH FULWLTXH VH SURGXLW ORUVTXH OD ORQJXHXU GX FRQGXLW O Ɛ )LJ   HVW
HQYLURQHQWUH/HW//ODGLVWDQFHG¶pFRXOHPHQW3RXUGHVFKDUJHVLQIpULHXUHVjFHWWHFKDUJHOD
__________________________________________________________________________
SURJUHVVLRQGXFRQGXLWDWWHLQWXQHVLWXDWLRQVWDEOH3RXUGHVFKDUJHVVXSpULHXUHVjODFKDUJHFULWLTXH
34
OHV FKHQDX[ VH SURSDJHQW YHUV O¶DPRQW MXVTX
j DWWHLQGUH OD UHWHQXH /¶pURVLRQ SURJUHVVH DORUV WUqV
92
UDSLGHPHQW FRPPH XQH pURVLRQ GDQV XQ FRQGXLW RXYHUW 'DQV FHV H[SpULHQFHV OD YLWHVVH GH
SURJUHVVLRQ GX FRQGXLW pWDLW UHODWLYHPHQW FRQVWDQWH MXVTX¶j FH TXH OD ORQJXHXU GX FRQGXLW DWWHLJQH
 GH OD ORQJXHXU WRWDO GH O¶pFRXOHPHQW SXLV D DXJPHQWp 'DQV OD PDMRULWp GHV H[SpULHQFHV OH
FRQGXLWV¶HVWSURSDJpjHQYLURQPSDUKHXUH



 ,1,7,$7,212)%$&.:$5'(526,21



 %$&.:$5'(526,217+(29(5$//352&(66


%DFNZDUG HURVLRQ SLSLQJ RFFXUV LQ QRQSODVWLF VRLOV ,W PDLQO\ RFFXUV LQ IRXQGDWLRQV EXW PD\
RFFXUZLWKLQHPEDQNPHQWV

7KH HURVLRQ SURFHVV EHJLQV DW D IUHH VXUIDFH RQ WKH GRZQVWUHDP VLGH RI D GDP RU GLNH DV
VKRZQLQ)LJDQG7KLVIUHHVXUIDFHPD\EHLQDGLWFKRUPD\IRUPE\FUDFNLQJGXHWRKHDYLQJRI
WKHFRKHVLYHVWUDWDRYHUO\LQJWKHFRKHVLRQOHVVVRLODVVKRZQLQ)LJRULQVRPHFDVHVPD\EHWKH
VHHSLQJVXUIDFHRQWKHGRZQVWUHDPIDFHRIWKHGDPRULQRWKHUFDVHVWKHULYHUEHGRIWKHGLNH


 %$&.:$5'(526,21352&(66(6


7KHUHDUHWKUHHPDLQSURFHVVHVRIEDFNZDUGHURVLRQDVIROORZV


4.2.1. The process in sandy foundations of dams or dikes


7KH EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ SLSLQJ SURFHVV SURJUHVVHV IURP GRZQVWUHDP WR XSVWUHDP EHQHDWK WKH
GLNHRUGDPDVVKRZQLQ)LJ



)LJ
7KHEDFNZDUGHURVLRQSLSLQJPRGHO 6HOOPHLMHUet al 

6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ


)RUEDFNZDUGHURVLRQSLSLQJWRRFFXUWKHGLNHRUGDPRUDFRKHVLYHVWUDWXPPXVWIRUPDURRI
DERYHWKHHURGLQJ³SLSH´7KHDELOLW\RIVRLOVWRµKROGDURRI¶LVGHDOWZLWKLQ6HFWLRQDQG7DEOH

7KH RQVHW RI EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ SLSLQJ LV RIWHQ H[KLELWHG E\ WKH SUHVHQFH RI VDQG ERLOV DW WKH
GRZQVWUHDPVLGHRIWKHGDPRUGLNH

6HOOPHLMHU DQG FRZRUNHUV IURP 'HOIW +\GUDXOLFV DQG 'HOIW *HRWHFKQLFV /DERUDWRULHV LQ 7KH
1HWKHUODQGVFDUULHGRXWPRUHWKDQEDFNZDUGHURVLRQSLSLQJWHVWV7KHILUVWZHUHLQIOXPHVDQGDUH
UHSRUWHGLQGH:LWW et al  6LOYLV  :HLMHUVDQG6HOOPHLMHU  DQG7HFKQLFDO$GYLVRU\
&RPPLWWHH   7KH WHVWV ZHUH PRVWO\ RQ ILQH WR PHGLXP VDQGV ZLWK D IHZ WHVWV RQ PHGLXP WR
FRDUVHVDQGV7KHVDQGVZHUHXQLIRUPZLWKXQLIRUPLW\FRHIILFLHQWV&X WR(DUO\WHVWVZHUH
RQ VPDOO VFDOH PRGHOV EDVH OHQJWK  P  EXW ODWHU WHVWV ZHUH RQ YHU\ ODUJH PRGHOV 7KHVH
H[SHULPHQWVDQGWKRVHFDUULHGRXWE\7RZQVHQGet al  DW8QLYHUVLW\RI)ORULGDPRGHOEDFNZDUG
HURVLRQLQWKHIRXQGDWLRQRIGLNHVOHYHHVDQGGDPV

7KHVH H[SHULPHQWV VKRZHG WKDW EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ LQLWLDWHV LQ WKH VORW WKURXJK WKH VWUDWD
RYHUO\LQJ WKH HURGLQJ VRLO UHSUHVHQWLQJ D FUDFN RU GUDLQDJH GLWFK H[FDYDWHG WKURXJK WKH VWUDWD DQG
SURJUHVVHVLQPXOWLSOHVPDOO³FKDQQHOV´UDWKHUWKDQDVLQJOH³SLSH´7KHFKDQQHOVDUHTXLWHVPDOO7KH
KHLJKWRIWKHFKDQQHOVLVW\SLFDOO\WR G WKDWLVRIWHQOHVVWKDQPP)RUDQ\KHDGOHVVWKDQD
FULWLFDOKHDGWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIWKHFKDQQHOVVWRSV,IWKHKHDGLVLQFUHDVHGHURVLRQEHJLQVDJDLQ
)LJVKRZVVRPHH[DPSOHV7KHFULWLFDOKHDGRIWHQRFFXUVZKHQWKHOHQJWKRIWKHFKDQQHO ƐVHH
)LJ LVEHWZHHQWRRIWKHIORZSDWKOHQJWK / )RUKHDGVOHVVWKDQWKLVWKHSURJUHVVLRQRIWKH
SLSHUHDFKHVDVWDEOHFRQGLWLRQ)RUKHDGVJUHDWHUWKDQWKHFULWLFDOKHDGWKHSLSLQJFKDQQHOH[WHQGV

34

93
TXHOTXHV H[HPSOHV /D FKDUJH FULWLTXH VH SURGXLW ORUVTXH OD ORQJXHXU GX FRQGXLW O Ɛ )LJ   HVW
HQYLURQHQWUH/HW//ODGLVWDQFHG¶pFRXOHPHQW3RXUGHVFKDUJHVLQIpULHXUHVjFHWWHFKDUJHOD
SURJUHVVLRQGXFRQGXLWDWWHLQWXQHVLWXDWLRQVWDEOH3RXUGHVFKDUJHVVXSpULHXUHVjODFKDUJHFULWLTXH
OHV FKHQDX[ VH SURSDJHQW YHUV O¶DPRQW MXVTX
j DWWHLQGUH OD UHWHQXH /¶pURVLRQ SURJUHVVH DORUV WUqV
UDSLGHPHQW FRPPH XQH pURVLRQ GDQV XQ FRQGXLW RXYHUW 'DQV FHV H[SpULHQFHV OD YLWHVVH GH
SURJUHVVLRQ GX FRQGXLW pWDLW UHODWLYHPHQW FRQVWDQWH MXVTX¶j FH TXH OD ORQJXHXU GX FRQGXLW DWWHLJQH
 GH OD ORQJXHXU WRWDO GH O¶pFRXOHPHQW SXLV D DXJPHQWp 'DQV OD PDMRULWp GHV H[SpULHQFHV OH
FRQGXLWV¶HVWSURSDJpjHQYLURQPSDUKHXUH

(QHWG¶DXWUHVH[SpULHQFHVRQWpWpUpDOLVpHVj'HOWDUHV(OOHVVRQWSUpVHQWpHVGDQV
9DQ %HHN et al  D E  6HOOPHLMHU et al   HW 9DQ %HHN et al E  /D PDMRULWp pWDLW
SUDWLTXHPHQWUpDOLVpHjWDLOOHUpHOOH¬SDUWLUGHFHVH[SpULHQFHV9DQ%HHNet al E RQWDIILQpOD
GHVFULSWLRQGXSURFHVVXVG¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYH

  Phase 1 Écoulement dans la couche perméable,OQ¶\DYDLWSDVGHFRQILQHPHQWGDQV
FHVH[SpULHQFHV
  Phase 2 Érosion régressive $X GpEXW GX SURFHVVXV RQ REVHUYH XQ UpDUUDQJHPHQW
GHVJUDLQVSDUGpSODFHPHQWVLVROpVHWODIRUPDWLRQGHSHWLWVFKHQDX[/HSURFHVVXV
DWWHLQWVRQpTXLOLEUHSRXUXQHFKDUJHK\GUDXOLTXHGRQQpH'DQVFHWWHSKDVHGHWUqV
SHWLWHVTXDQWLWpVGHVDEOHGHO¶RUGUHGXFHQWLPqWUHFXEHVRQWWUDQVSRUWpHV/RUVTXH
OD FKDUJH K\GUDXOLTXH DXJPHQWH MXVTX¶j DWWHLQGUH OD FKDUJH FULWLTXH OH VDEOH HVW
WUDQVSRUWp HQ FRQWLQX'HV WXPXOXVGHVDEOH VHVRQW IRUPpV GDQV OHV H[SpULHQFHV j
JUDQGHpFKHOOHHWGHVFUDWqUHVGDQVOHVH[SpULHQFHVjSHWLWHRXPR\HQQHpFKHOOH,OV
LQGLTXHQWTXHODFKDUJHFULWLTXHDpWpDWWHLQWH/¶pFRXOHPHQWDXJPHQWHWUqVSHXGDQV
FHWWHSKDVH/RUVTXHODFKDUJHHVWSOXVLPSRUWDQWHTXHODFKDUJHFULWLTXHO¶pURVLRQQH
SHXWrWUHDUUrWpHHWODYLWHVVHG¶pURVLRQHVWGHO¶RUGUHGXGpFLPqWUHFXEHSDUKHXUH/D
YLWHVVHG¶pURVLRQDXJPHQWHDYHFODFKDUJH
  Phase 3 Elargissement du conduit /RUVTXH OH FRQGXLW DWWHLQW OD IDFH DPRQW RQ
REVHUYH XQH DXJPHQWDWLRQ GH OD SUHVVLRQ GDQV OH FRQGXLW &H TXL HQWUDvQH O¶pURVLRQ
UDSLGH GH JUDQGH TXDQWLWp GH VDEOH GDQV OHV H[SpULHQFHV j WDLOOH UpGXLWH 'DQV OHV
H[SpULHQFHV j WDLOOH PR\HQQH RX j WDLOOH UpHOOH OH FRQGXLW D pWp EORTXp SDU
O¶HIIRQGUHPHQW GX WRLW GX FRQGXLW DYDQW TXH OH SURFHVVXV G¶pODUJLVVHPHQW UHSUHQQH
/¶pODUJLVVHPHQWGXFRQGXLWVHIDLWGHO¶DYDOYHUVO¶DPRQW/¶pFRXOHPHQWHWOHWUDQVSRUW
GH VDEOH DX SRLQW GH VRUWLH Q¶DXJPHQWH SDV VLJQLILFDWLYHPHQW /H SURFHVVXV
G¶pODUJLVVHPHQW D SULV TXHOTXHV MRXUV GDQV OHV H[SpULHQFHV D WDLOOH UpHOOH 4XDQG OH
FRQGXLW pODUJL D SUHVTXH DWWHLQW OD IDFH DPRQW OH UHMHW GH VDEOH HW O¶pFRXOHPHQW
DXJPHQWHQWVRXGDLQHPHQW/HSDVVDJHGHVWXPXOXVGHVDEOHjFHWWHVLWXDWLRQSHXWVH
SURGXLUHVDQVDXFXQVLJQHSUpFXUVHXU
  Phase 4 Rupture /D UXSWXUH VH SURGXLW SHX GH WHPSV DSUqV OD ILQ GH OD SKDVH
G¶pODUJLVVHPHQW HOOH SHXW rWUH FHSHQGDQW UHWDUGpH SDU O¶HIIRQGUHPHQW GHV SUHPLHUV
FRQGXLWVG¶pURVLRQHWOHWDVVHPHQWGHODGLJXH




__________________________________________________________________________ 

)LJ
36
)LJ 
(VVDLVGXODERUDWRLUHG¶K\GUDXOLTXHGH'HOIWOHVUpVXOWDWVPRQWUHQWOHGpYHORSSHPHQWGHODORQJXHXU

(VVDLVGXODERUDWRLUHG¶K\GUDXOLTXHGH'HOIWOHVUpVXOWDWVPRQWUHQWOHGpYHORSSHPHQWGHODORQJXHXU
GXFRQGXLWDYHFO¶DXJPHQWDWLRQGHVFKDUJHV :HLMHUVHW6HOOPHLMHU 
)LJ
 GXFRQGXLWDYHFO¶DXJPHQWDWLRQGHVFKDUJHV :HLMHUVHW6HOOPHLMHU 
(VVDLVGXODERUDWRLUHG¶K\GUDXOLTXHGH'HOIWOHVUpVXOWDWVPRQWUHQWOHGpYHORSSHPHQWGHODORQJXHXU

94 GXFRQGXLWDYHFO¶DXJPHQWDWLRQGHVFKDUJHV :HLMHUVHW6HOOPHLMHU 
4.2.2.  Érosion régressive globale dans les barrages ou les digues

4.2.2.  Érosion régressive globale dans les barrages ou les digues


4.2.2. Érosion régressive globale dans les barrages ou les digues
3RXUTXHO¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHJOREDOHVHSURGXLVHGDQVXQEDUUDJHXQHGLJXHRXXQHOHYpHOHV



XSVWUHDPDQGEUHDNVWKURXJKWRWKHUHVHUYRLU7KHHURVLRQWKHQSURJUHVVHVUDSLGO\DVHURVLRQLQDQ
RSHQSLSH)RUWKHVHH[SHULPHQWVWKHUDWHRISURJUHVVLRQRIWKHSLSHZDVUHODWLYHO\XQLIRUPXQWLOWKH
OHQJWK DSSURDFKHV DERXW  RI WKH WRWDO VHHSDJH SDWK ,W WKHQ DFFHOHUDWHV 7KH SLSLQJ SURJUHVVHG
DERXWPHWHUVLQDQKRXULQWKHODUJHVWRIWKHH[SHULPHQWV

,QDQGIXUWKHUH[SHULPHQWVZHUHFDUULHGRXWDW'HOWDUHV7KHVHDUHUHSRUWHGLQ9DQ
%HHNHWDO DE 6HOOPHLMHUHWDO  DQG9DQ%HHNHWDO E 7KHODUJHVWRIWKHVHZDV
YLUWXDOO\ IXOO VFDOH )URP WKHVH H[SHULPHQWV 9DQ %HHN HW DO E  UHILQHG WKH GHVFULSWLRQ RI WKH
EDFNZDUGHURVLRQSURFHVVDVIROORZV

 Phase 1 Seepage occurs in the permeable strata ,Q WKH H[SHULPHQWV WKHUH ZHUH QR
FRQILQLQJVWUDWD
 Phase 2. Backward Erosion$WWKHEHJLQQLQJRIWKHSURFHVVWKHUHLVUHDUUDQJHPHQWRI
JUDLQV LQGLYLGXDO JUDLQ PRYHPHQWV DQG IRUPDWLRQ RI VPDOO FKDQQHOV 7KH SURFHVV
UHDFKHV HTXLOLEULXP IRU WKH K\GUDXOLF KHDG DSSOLHG 9HU\ VPDOO DPRXQWV RI VDQG DUH
WUDQVSRUWHG LQ WKH RUGHU RI FXELF FHQWLPHWHUV LQ WKLV SKDVH RI WKH SURFHVV :LWK DQ
LQFUHDVH LQ WKH K\GUDXOLFKHDG WR WKH FULWLFDO KHDG VDQG LV WUDQVSRUWHGFRQWLQXRXVO\$
YDULHW\RIHURVLRQSDWWHUQVLVREVHUYHGLQWKHVPDOODQGPHGLXPVFDOHH[SHULPHQWV,Q
WKHODUJHVFDOHH[SHULPHQWVDQGERLOVDUHIRUPHGDQGLQWKHVPDOODQGPHGLXPVFDOH
H[SHULPHQWV FUDWHUV DUH IRUPHG 7KHVH FKDUDFWHUL]H WKH UHDFKLQJ RI WKH FULWLFDO KHDG
7KH IORZ EDUHO\ LQFUHDVHV LQ WKLV SKDVH RI WKH SURFHVV $W D KHDG JUHDWHU WKDQ WKH
FULWLFDO KHDG WKH HURVLRQ GRHV QRW FHDVH DQG WKH HURVLRQ UDWH LV LQ WKH RUGHU RI FXELF
GHFLPHWHUVSHUKRXU7KHUDWHRIHURVLRQLQFUHDVHVZLWKLQFUHDVLQJKHDG
 Phase 3. Widening of the channel $V VRRQ DV WKH SLSH UHDFKHV WKH XSVWUHDP VLGH D
SUHVVXUHVXUJHRFFXUVLQWKHSLSH,QWKHVPDOOVFDOHH[SHULPHQWVWKLVLQWXUQFDXVHVD
ODUJHDPRXQWRIVDQGWREHHURGHGUDSLGO\,QWKHPHGLXPDQGODUJHVFDOHH[SHULPHQWV
EORFNDJHVFDXVHGE\ORFDOFROODSVHRIWKHURRIRIWKHSLSHWDNHSODFHDQGWKHZLGHQLQJ
SURFHVV WDNHV ORQJHU 7KH ZLGHQLQJ SLSH GHYHORSV IURP WKH XSVWUHDP WR GRZQVWUHDP
7KHIORZDQGVDQGWUDQVSRUWWRWKHH[LWSRLQWGRQRWLQFUHDVHVLJQLILFDQWO\7KHZLGHQLQJ
SURFHVVWRRNXSWRDIHZGD\VLQWKHODUJHVFDOHH[SHULPHQWV:KHQWKHZLGHQLQJSLSH
KDV DOPRVW UHDFKHG WKH GRZQVWUHDP VLGH WKH VDQG WUDQVSRUW DQG IORZ LQFUHDVHV
VXGGHQO\7KHVLWXDWLRQFDQFKDQJHIURPVDQGERLOVWRWKLVFRQGLWLRQZLWKRXWZDUQLQJ
 Phase 4 Failure and Breakthrough )DLOXUH RFFXUV VRRQ DIWHU WKH ZLGHQLQJ SKDVH LV
FRPSOHWHEXWFDQEHGHOD\HGGXHWRFROODSVHRIWKHOHYHHFDXVLQJWKHILUVWSLSHVWRFORVH




)LJ
'HOIW+\GUDXOLFVODERUDWRU\SLSLQJIOXPHWHVWPRGHOW\SLFDOWHVWUHVXOWVVKRZLQJWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIWKH
OHQJWKRIWKHWXQQHODVWKHKHDGLQFUHDVHV :HLMHUVDQG6HOOPHLMHU  

 35
4.2.2. The process within a dam, levee or dike
 95

)RU EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ SLSLQJ WR RFFXU ZLWKLQ D GDP OHYHH RU GLNH HPEDQNPHQW WKH IROORZLQJ
FULWHULDZRXOGKDYHWREHPHW



)LJ
(VVDLVGXODERUDWRLUHG¶K\GUDXOLTXHGH'HOIWOHVUpVXOWDWVPRQWUHQWOHGpYHORSSHPHQWGHODORQJXHXU
GXFRQGXLWDYHFO¶DXJPHQWDWLRQGHVFKDUJHV :HLMHUVHW6HOOPHLMHU 


4.2.2. Érosion régressive globale dans les barrages ou les digues


3RXUTXHO¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHJOREDOHVHSURGXLVHGDQVXQEDUUDJHXQHGLJXHRXXQHOHYpHOHV
FRQGLWLRQVVXLYDQWHVGRLYHQWrWUHUpXQLHV

  /HVROVDWXUpRVHGpYHORSSHOHFRQGXLWGRLWrWUHVDQVFRKpVLRQ
  3UpVHQFH G¶XQH VXUIDFH OLEUH VXU OD IDFH DYDO GX QR\DX j SDUWLU GH ODTXHOOH O¶pURVLRQ
SRXUUDLWV¶LQLWLHUSDUDEVHQFHGHILOWUHRXGHODFRQGLWLRQGHILOWUDWLRQHQWUHOHQR\DXHW
OD]RQHGHWUDQVLWLRQ
  /HQR\DXRXFHUWDLQHVFRXFKHVGXQR\DXGRLYHQWIRUPHUXQWRLWSRXUTXHOHFRQGXLWVH
GpYHORSSH &HOD SHXW VH SURGXLUH j OD OLPLWH GH OD QDSSH SKUpDWLTXH VL OH VRO
SDUWLHOOHPHQWVDWXUpDXGHVVXVHVWOLPRQHX[RXVLXQHFRXFKHSOXVFRKpVLYHUHFRXYUH
OHQR\DX

/HV H[SpULHQFHV PHQpHV DX[ eWDWV8QLV HW HQ (XURSH PRQWUHQW TXH O¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH SDU
FRQGXLWVHSURGXLWOHSOXVVRXYHQWGDQVODIRQGDWLRQGHVOHYpHVGLJXHVHWEDUUDJHVROHVROpURGDEOH
HVWGXVDEOHILQRXPR\HQDYHFXQFRHIILFLHQWG¶XQLIRUPLWp&X

/HV SDUWLFLSDQWV GX FROORTXH G¶$XVVRLV )HOO HW )U\   FRQVLGqUHQW TXH SRXU OHV JUDGLHQWV
VXVFHSWLEOHVGHVHSURGXLUHGDQVOHVEDUUDJHVRXOHXUVIRQGDWLRQVO¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHQ¶DSSDUDvWTXH
GDQV OHV VROV QRQ SODVWLTXHV RX DYHF XQH SODVWLFLWp OLPLWpH 3RXU XQH DSSOLFDWLRQ SUDWLTXH )HOO HW DO
  RQW FRQFOX j SDUWLU GHV GRQQpHV GLVSRQLEOHV j VDYRLU OHV UpVXOWDWV GHV HVVDLV VXU O¶LQVWDELOLWp
JUDQXORPpWULTXHGH:DQHW)HOO F OHXUVSURSUHVH[SpULHQFHVTXHOHVVROVDYHFXQ
,QGLFH GH 3ODVWLFLWp !  GRLYHQW rWUH FRQVLGpUpV FRPPH QRQ VXMHWV j O¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH SRXU OHV
JUDGLHQWVXWLOLVpV


4.2.3. Érosion régressive conduisant au déchaussement du parement aval


&H SURFHVVXV SHXW VH SURGXLUH VXU OHV EDUUDJHV HQ HQURFKHPHQW j PDVTXH DPRQW RX OHV
EDWDUGHDX[HQFRQVWUXFWLRQORUVGHIRUWHVFUXHVVXUYHQDQWDYDQWODILQGHODUpDOLVDWLRQGXPDVTXHHQ
EpWRQ/¶pFRXOHPHQWWUDYHUVDQWGpFOHQFKHGHIRUWVJUDGLHQWVjVRQH[XWRLUHTXLSHXYHQWpURGHUOHSLHG
__________________________________________________________________________
GX EDUUDJH &H SURFHVVXV HVW j O¶RULJLQH GH OD37UXSWXUH GX EDUUDJH GH +HOO +ROH HQ  3OXV
UpFHPPHQWLOHVWODFDXVHGHO¶DFFLGHQWGXEDUUDJHGH7RNZH0XNRUVLGDPDX=LPEDEZHHQ


 &5,7Ê5(6


4.3.1. Érosion régressive dans les fondations sablonneuses


Terzaghi et Peck (1948)


7HU]DJKL HW 3HFN   PRQWUHQW TXH O¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH V¶LQLWLHUD SDU FRQGXLW TXDQG XQ
FODTXDJH K\GUDXOLTXH VH SURGXLW GDQV OHV VROV ILQV SXOYpUXOHQWV DX SLHG DYDO GX EDUUDJH RX GH OD
GLJXH ,OV Q¶RQW SDV WUDLWp OHV FRQGLWLRQV QpFHVVDLUHV SRXU TXH OH FRQGXLW VH GpYHORSSH PDLV
UHFRQQDLVVHQWTX¶LOHVWQpFHVVDLUHTX¶XQWRLWVHIRUPHGDQVODGLJXHRXGDQVODFRXFKHVXSpULHXUH

/D SKLORVRSKLH GH 7HU]DJKL HW 3HFN   D HX XQH LQIOXHQFH PDMHXUH VXU OD FRQFHSWLRQ GHV
GLJXHV HW EDUUDJHV HW SDUWLFXOLqUHPHQW DX[ eWDWV8QLV YRLU 86$&(   :ROII   /HV
PpWKRGHVGHFRQFHSWLRQRQWSRXUEXWG¶pYLWHUOHVRXOqYHPHQWRXFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXH,ODFHSHQGDQW
VRXYHQWpWpVXSSRVpGXPRLQVLPSOLFLWHPHQWTXHO¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHFRPPHQFHSDUODIRUPDWLRQGH
WXPXOXV GH VDEOH HW SURJUHVVH VRXV IRUPH GH FRQGXLW ORUV GH PLVH HQ HDX UpSpWpH GHV FUXHV
VXFFHVVLYHV

/HVH[SpULHQFHVj'HOIWHWjO¶8QLYHUVLWpGH)ORULGH YRLUFLGHVVRXV PRQWUHQWTXHFHQ¶HVWSDV
IRUFpPHQW OH FDV HQ HIIHW OD SURJUHVVLRQ GX FRQGXLW SHXW VH VWDELOLVHU &HSHQGDQW OHV GHUQLqUHV
H[SpULHQFHVGX'HOWDUHVLQGLTXHQWTXHORUVTXHOHVWXPXOXVGHVDEOHVRQWIRUPpVOHJUDGLHQWFULWLTXH
TXL HVW QpFHVVDLUH SRXU IDLUH SURJUHVVHU OH FRQGXLW D pWp SUREDEOHPHQW GpSDVVp HW TXH O¶pURVLRQ GH
FRQGXLWVHSRXUVXLYUDWDQWTXHOHJUDGLHQWQ¶HVWSDVUpGXLWVRLWSDUODEDLVVHGXQLYHDXGXFRXUVG¶HDX
jO¶DPRQWVRLWSDUODVXUpOpYDWLRQGXQLYHDXG¶HDXjODVRUWLHGXFRQGXLWHQFRQVWUXLVDQWSDUH[HPSOH
96
GHVGLJXHVGHVDFVGHVDEOHDXWRXUGHODVRUWLHGXFRQGXLW


US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) (1993)


'HOIW+\GUDXOLFVODERUDWRU\SLSLQJIOXPHWHVWPRGHOW\SLFDOWHVWUHVXOWVVKRZLQJWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIWKH
OHQJWKRIWKHWXQQHODVWKHKHDGLQFUHDVHV :HLMHUVDQG6HOOPHLMHU  


4.2.2. The process within a dam, levee or dike


)RU EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ SLSLQJ WR RFFXU ZLWKLQ D GDP OHYHH RU GLNH HPEDQNPHQW WKH IROORZLQJ
FULWHULDZRXOGKDYHWREHPHW

 7KHVRLOZKHUHSLSHVGHYHORSZRXOGQHHGWREHQRQSODVWLF
 7KHUH ZRXOG KDYH WR EH D IUHH VXUIDFH DW WKH GRZQVWUHDP RI WKH GDP FRUH DW ZKLFK
HURVLRQFRXOGLQLWLDWHHJLIWKHUHLVQRILOWHURUDQLQDGHTXDWHO\ILOWHUHGFRQWDFWEHWZHHQ
WKHFRUHDQGDWUDQVLWLRQ]RQH
 7KH FRUH RU VRPH OD\HU ZLWKLQ WKH FRUH ZRXOG KDYH WR IRUP D URRI IRU WKH SLSH WR
SURJUHVV 7KLV PLJKW RFFXU DW WKH SKUHDWLF VXUIDFH LI WKH SDUWLDOO\ VDWXUDWHG VRLO DERYH
WKHVXUIDFHZDVVLOW\RULIPRUHFRKHVLYHVWUDWDZHUHOD\HUHGLQWKHFRUH

7KH H[SHULHQFH LQ 86$ DQG (XURSH LV WKDW EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ SLSLQJ PRVWO\ RFFXUV LQ WKH
IRXQGDWLRQVRIOHYHHVGLNHVDQGGDPVZKHUHWKHHURGLQJVRLOLVILQHWRPHGLXPJUDLQVL]HVDQGZLWKD
XQLIRUPLW\FRHIILFLHQW&X

7KHSDUWLFLSDQWVDWWKH$XVVRLV:RUNVKRS )HOODQG)U\ FRQVLGHUHGWKDWDWJUDGLHQWVOLNHO\
WRRFFXUZLWKLQDGDPRULWVIRXQGDWLRQEDFNZDUGHURVLRQLVSUREDEO\UHVWULFWHGWRQRQSODVWLFVRLOVRU
VRLOVZLWKRQO\OLPLWHGSODVWLFLW\)RUSUDFWLFDOSXUSRVHV)HOOHWDO  KDYHFRQFOXGHGWKDWEDVHGRQ
WKH DYDLODEOH GDWD WKH UHVXOWV RI :DQ DQG )HOO F    WHVWV RQ LQWHUQDO LQVWDELOLW\ DQG
WKHLU H[SHULHQFH DQG MXGJPHQW VRLOV ZLWK 3ODVWLFLW\ ,QGH[ !  VKRXOG EH FRQVLGHUHG QRW VXEMHFW WR
EDFNZDUGHURVLRQDWWKHJUDGLHQWVH[SHULHQFHGLQGDPVDQGWKHLUIRXQGDWLRQV


4.2.3. The process causing unraveling at the downstream face


7KLV SURFHVV PD\ RFFXU LQ &)5'V RU FRIIHUGDPV XQGHU KLJK IORRG OHYHOV RFFXUULQJ GXULQJ
FRQVWUXFWLRQ EHIRUH WKH FRPSOHWLRQ RI WKH FRQFUHWH IDFH VODEV 7KH WKURXJKIORZ WULJJHUV KLJK H[LW
K\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWVWKDWFDQHURGHWKHGRZQVWUHDPWRHRIWKHGDP7KLVSURFHVVLQLWLDWHGWKHIDLOXUHRI
+HOO +ROH GDP LQ  0RUH UHFHQWO\ LW ZDV WKH FDXVH RI WKH DFFLGHQW DW 7RNZH0XNRUVL GDP LQ
=LPEDEZHLQ


 &5,7(5,$)25,1,7,$7,212)%$&.:$5'(526,21


4.3.1 Backward erosion in sandy foundations


Terzaghi and Peck (1948)


7HU]DJKLDQG3HFN  VKRZWKDWEDFNZDUGHURVLRQSLSLQJZLOOLQLWLDWHZKHQDKHDYHRU]HUR
HIIHFWLYHVWUHVVFRQGLWLRQRFFXUVLQFRKHVLRQOHVVVRLOVDWWKHGRZQVWUHDPWRHRIDGLNHOHYHHRUGDP
7KH\ GR QRW FRQVLGHU WKH FRQGLWLRQV XQGHU ZKLFK WKH EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ ZLOO SURJUHVV WR IRUP D SLSH
H[FHSWWRUHFRJQL]HWKDWLWLVQHFHVVDU\IRUDURRIWREHIRUPHGLQDQRYHUO\LQJVWUDWXPRUE\WKHOHYHH

7KH 7HU]DJKL DQG 3HFN   SKLORVRSK\ KDV EHHQ WKH GRPLQDWLQJ LQIOXHQFH LQ GHVLJQ RI
OHYHHV GLNHV  DQG GDPV SDUWLFXODUO\ LQ WKH 86$ HJ 86$&(   :ROII   'HVLJQ
PHWKRGV KDYH FRQFHQWUDWHG RQ DYRLGLQJ WKH KHDYH RU EORZRXW FRQGLWLRQ ,W KDV KRZHYHU FRPPRQO\
EHHQDVVXPHGDWOHDVWLPSOLFLWO\WKDWLIEDFNZDUGHURVLRQLQLWLDWHVWRIRUPDVDQGERLOLWZLOOSURJUHVV
WRIRUPDSLSHDWOHDVWXQGHUUHSHDWHGORDGLQJIURPVXFFHVVLYHIORRGV


36

97
/D SKLORVRSKLH GH 7HU]DJKL HW 3HFN   D HX XQH LQIOXHQFH PDMHXUH VXU OD FRQFHSWLRQ GHV
GLJXHV HW EDUUDJHV HW SDUWLFXOLqUHPHQW DX[ eWDWV8QLV YRLU 86$&(   :ROII   /HV
PpWKRGHVGHFRQFHSWLRQRQWSRXUEXWG¶pYLWHUOHVRXOqYHPHQWRXFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXH,ODFHSHQGDQW
VRXYHQWpWpVXSSRVpGXPRLQVLPSOLFLWHPHQWTXHO¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHFRPPHQFHSDUODIRUPDWLRQGH
WXPXOXV GH VDEOH HW SURJUHVVH VRXV IRUPH GH FRQGXLW ORUV GH PLVH HQ HDX UpSpWpH GHV FUXHV
VXFFHVVLYHV

/HVH[SpULHQFHVj'HOIWHWjO¶8QLYHUVLWpGH)ORULGH YRLUFLGHVVRXV PRQWUHQWTXHFHQ¶HVWSDV
IRUFpPHQW OH FDV HQ HIIHW OD SURJUHVVLRQ GX FRQGXLW SHXW VH VWDELOLVHU &HSHQGDQW OHV GHUQLqUHV
H[SpULHQFHVGX'HOWDUHVLQGLTXHQWTXHORUVTXHOHVWXPXOXVGHVDEOHVRQWIRUPpVOHJUDGLHQWFULWLTXH
TXL HVW QpFHVVDLUH SRXU IDLUH SURJUHVVHU OH FRQGXLW D pWp SUREDEOHPHQW GpSDVVp HW TXH O¶pURVLRQ GH
FRQGXLWVHSRXUVXLYUDWDQWTXHOHJUDGLHQWQ¶HVWSDVUpGXLWVRLWSDUODEDLVVHGXQLYHDXGXFRXUVG¶HDX
jO¶DPRQWVRLWSDUODVXUpOpYDWLRQGXQLYHDXG¶HDXjODVRUWLHGXFRQGXLWHQFRQVWUXLVDQWSDUH[HPSOH
GHVGLJXHVGHVDFVGHVDEOHDXWRXUGHODVRUWLHGXFRQGXLW


US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) (1993)


$X[ eWDWV8QLV OHV GLJXHV VRQW VRXYHQW FRQVWUXLWHV GDQV GHV SODLQHV DOOXYLDOHV GRQW OD
FRXYHUWXUHVXSHUILFLHOOHGpSRVpHSDUOHVFUXHVHVWFRQVWLWXpHG¶DUJLOHVRXGHOLPRQVTXLFRQILQHQWGHV
GpS{WV VDEOHX[  &HV FRXFKHV VDEOHXVHV VRQW GHV DTXLIqUHV JpQpUDOHPHQW DQLVRWURSHV R OD IRUWH
SHUPpDELOLWp HW O¶pFRXOHPHQW KRUL]RQWDO SHXW SURYRTXHU OH FODTXDJH K\GUDXOLTXH GH OD FRXYHUWXUH
DUJLOHXVH/DFRQGLWLRQGHFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXHGHFHWWHFRXYHUWXUHSHXWrWUHHVWLPpHSDUOHPRGqOH
VLPSOLILpGH86$&( 86$&( HQIRQFWLRQGHODJpRPpWULHGHVSHUPpDELOLWpVHWGXQLYHDXG¶HDX
HQFUXH


__________________________________________________________________________
38

)LJ
1RWDWLRQVSRXUOHPRGqOHG¶pFRXOHPHQW 86$&( 

6LODFRXYHUWXUHDUJLOHXVHDPRQWQ¶HVWSDVFRXSpHSDUGHVWUDQFKpHVODORQJXHXUG¶LQILOWUDWLRQ/ P 
HVW

݇௙
‫ܮ‬ଵ ൌ ඨ ܼ ݀
݇௕௨ ௕௨

R
NI  SHUPpDELOLWpKRUL]RQWDOHGHODFRXFKHVDEOHXVHGHIRQGDWLRQ PV 
NEX  SHUPpDELOLWpYHUWLFDOHGHODFRXYHUWXUHDPRQW PV 
=EX  pSDLVVHXUGHODFRXYHUWXUHDPRQW P 
G  pSDLVVHXUGHO¶DTXLIqUH P 

/DORQJXHXUGHUpVXUJHQFHGHODFRXYHUWXUHDYDO/ P HVW

݇௙
‫ܮ‬ଷ ൌ ඨ ܼ ݀
݇௕ௗ ௕ௗ

R
NEG  SHUPpDELOLWpYHUWLFDOHGHODFRXYHUWXUHDYDO PV 
=EG  pSDLVVHXUGHODFRXYHUWXUHDYDO P 

/DFKDUJHK\GUDXOLTXHDXGHVVXVGXWHUUDLQQDWXUHODSSOLTXpHSDUO¶DTXLIqUHjO¶H[WUpPLWpGXSLHGDYDO
HVW
98

‫ܮ‬ଷ
݄௢ ൌ ή ݄
‫ܮ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ܮ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ܮ‬ଷ



7KH'HOIWDQG8QLYHUVLW\RI)ORULGDH[SHULPHQWV VHHEHORZ VKRZWKDWWKLVLVQRWQHFHVVDULO\WKH


FDVHDQGWKDWWKHSURJUHVVLRQRIWKHSLSHPD\VWDELOL]H+RZHYHUWKHODWHVWH[SHULPHQWVE\'HOWDUHV
LQGLFDWH WKDW RQFH VDQG ERLOV IRUP WKH FULWLFDO JUDGLHQW DW ZKLFK SURJUHVVLRQ FRQWLQXHV KDV SUREDEO\
EHHQH[FHHGHGDQGEDFNZDUGHURVLRQZLOOSURJUHVVXQOHVVWKHJUDGLHQWLVUHGXFHGE\WKHULYHUOHYHO
GURSSLQJRUWKHWDLOZDWHUOHYHOEHLQJUDLVHGHJE\EXLOGLQJVDQGEDJOHYHHVDURXQGWKHVDQGERLO


US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) (1993)


,Q WKH 8QLWHG 6WDWHV OHYHHV DUH RIWHQ FRQVWUXFWHG RQ DOOXYLDO IORRG SODLQV ZLWK VLOW\ RU FOD\H\
EODQNHWV  µFRQILQLQJ OD\HUV¶  DW WKH VXUIDFH RYHUO\LQJ VDQG\ VRLO VWUDWD 7KHVH VDQG\ VWUDWD DUH
DTXLIHUV JHQHUDOO\ DQLVRWURSLF LQ ZKLFK KRUL]RQWDO SHUPHDELOLW\ DQG IORZ FDQ FDXVH XSOLIW RI WKH
FRQILQLQJOD\HU,QWKHVHVLWXDWLRQVWKHVDIHW\IDFWRUDJDLQVWXSOLIWPD\EHHVWLPDWHGE\WKHVLPSOLILHG
86$&(PRGHO 86$&( 




)LJ
*HRPHWULFQRWDWLRQVIRUXQGHUVHHSDJHDQDO\VLV 86$&( 

:KHQWKHXSVWUHDPLPSHUYLRXVEODQNHWLVQRWFRQWLQXRXVLWVXSVWUHDPHIIHFWLYHOHQJWK‫ܮ‬ଵ  P LV

݇௙
‫ܮ‬ଵ ൌ ඨ ܼ ݀
݇௕௨ ௕௨

ZKHUH
݇௙   KRUL]RQWDOSHUPHDELOLW\RIWKHSHUYLRXVIRXQGDWLRQ PV 
݇௕௨   YHUWLFDOSHUPHDELOLW\RIWKHXSVWUHDPEODQNHW PV 
ܼ௕௨   WKLFNQHVVRIWKHXSVWUHDPEODQNHW P 
݀  WKLFNQHVVRIWKHSHUYLRXVDTXLIHU P 

7KHHIIHFWLYHOHQJWKRIWKHGRZQVWUHDPEODQNHW‫ܮ‬ଷ  P LV

݇௙
‫ܮ‬ଷ ൌ ඨ ܼ ݀
݇௕ௗ ௕ௗ

ZKHUH
݇௕ௗ   YHUWLFDOSHUPHDELOLW\RIWKHGRZQVWUHDPEODQNHW PV 
ܼ௕ௗ   WKLFNQHVVRIWKHGRZQVWUHDPEODQNHW P 

7KHSUHVVXUHKHDGXQGHUWKHEODQNHWDWWKHGRZQVWUHDPWRHRIWKHOHYHHLVHVWLPDWHGDVIROORZV

37

99
‫ܮ‬ଷ ൌ ඨ ܼ௕ௗ ݀
݇௕ௗ

R
NEG  SHUPpDELOLWpYHUWLFDOHGHODFRXYHUWXUHDYDO PV 
=EG  pSDLVVHXUGHODFRXYHUWXUHDYDO P 

/DFKDUJHK\GUDXOLTXHDXGHVVXVGXWHUUDLQQDWXUHODSSOLTXpHSDUO¶DTXLIqUHjO¶H[WUpPLWpGXSLHGDYDO
HVW

‫ܮ‬ଷ
݄௢ ൌ ή ݄
‫ܮ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ܮ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ܮ‬ଷ

R
L1  ORQJXHXUGXQR\DXLPSHUPpDEOHRXGHODEDVHGHODGLJXH P 

/HFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXHVXUYLHQWjO¶H[WUpPLWpGXSLHGDYDOTXDQGODFKDUJHKHVWpJDOHjODFKDUJH
FULWLTXHKF

ߛԢ
݄௖ ൌ ܼ௕ௗ 
ߛ௪



Méthode de Sellmeijer

__________________________________________________________________________
 39
6HOOPHLMHU  6HOOPHLMHUHW.RHQGHUV  .RHQGHUVHW6HOOPHLMHU  RQWGpYHORSSp
XQPRGqOHPDWKpPDWLTXHSRXUO¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHSDUFRQGXLWjSDUWLUGHVH[SpULHQFHVUpDOLVpHVSDU
OHV/DERUDWRLUHVGX'HOIWGDQVOHVDQQpHV

&H PRGqOH D pWp FRPSOpWp JUkFH DX[ UpVXOWDWV GHV HVVDLV GH 'HOWDUHV LO HVW SUpVHQWp GDQV
9DQ%HHNet al  HW6HOOPHLMHUet al  

/H JUDGLHQW FULWLTXH HVW GpILQL FRPPH OH SURGXLW GH WURLV WHUPHV XQ IDFWHXU GH UpVLVWDQFH XQ
IDFWHXUG¶pFKHOOHHWXQIDFWHXUJpRPpWULTXH&HWWHUHODWLRQDpWpREWHQXHjSDUWLUGHHVVDLVjSHWLWH
pFKHOOH HQ DSSOLTXDQW XQH UpJUHVVLRQ PXOWLSOH /¶pTXDWLRQ GX JUDGLHQW FULWLTXH SRXU OHTXHO O¶pURVLRQ
UpJUHVVLYHVHGpYHORSSHHVW

‫ͳ ܪ‬
ൌ ൌ ‫ܨ‬௥ ‫ܨ‬௦ ‫ܨ‬௚ 
‫ܿ ܮ‬

଴Ǥଷହ
ߛԢ௣ ܴ‫ܦ‬ ܷ ଴Ǥଵଷ ‫ି ܵܣܭ‬଴Ǥ଴ଶ
‫ܨ‬௥ ൌ ߟ ‫ ߴ݊ܽݐ‬൬ ൰ ൬ ൰ ൬ ൰ 
ߛ௪ ܴ‫ܦ‬௠ ܷ௠ ‫ܵܣܭ‬௠

݀଻଴ ݀଻଴௠ ଴Ǥ଺
‫ܨ‬௦ ൌ య ൬ ൰ 
ξ݇‫଻݀ ܮ‬଴ 


 
§ D · § D ·
F*  ¨ ¸ ¨© L ¸¹ 
©L¹

2   
 H >P@ FKDUJHK\GUDXOLTXHGDQVOHV\VWqPH
 L >P@ ORQJXHXUGHO¶pFRXOHPHQW ORQJXHXUGHODEDVHGXUHPEODL 
 D >P@ pSDLVVHXUGHODFRXFKHGHVDEOHVRXVOHUHPEODL
 c >@ FRHIILFLHQWG¶pURVLRQ
 F5 >@ IDFWHXUGHUpVLVWDQFH
 F6 >@ IDFWHXUG¶pFKHOOH
 F* >@ IDFWHXUJpRPpWULTXH
 RD >@ GHQVLWpUHODWLYH
 U >@ FRHIILFLHQWG¶XQLIRUPLWp&X GG
 KAS >@ FRHIILFLHQWGHVSKpULFLWpGXVRO
 d70 >P@ GLDPqWUHGHODSDUWLFXOHGHVROSRXUOHTXHOOHGLDPqWUHGHGXVROHVWSOXVSHWLW
 >N1P@ SRLGVYROXPLTXHVXEPHUJpGHVSDUWLFXOHVGHVRO * 
J
S 
 * >WP@ PDVVHYROXPLTXHGHVJUDLQV
 JZ  >N1P@ SRLGVYROXPLTXHGHO¶HDX

 K >@ FRHIILFLHQWGH:KLWHV
100
 -  >'(*@ DQJOHGHIURWWHPHQW DXUHSRV GXVDEOH
 N >P@ SHUPpDELOLWpLQWULQVqTXHRXJpRPpWULTXH
R X 
N  N
J
‫ܮ‬ଷ ൌ ඨ ܼ௕ௗ ݀
݇௕ௗ

ZKHUH
݇௕ௗ   YHUWLFDOSHUPHDELOLW\RIWKHGRZQVWUHDPEODQNHW PV 
ܼ௕ௗ    WKLFNQHVVRIWKHGRZQVWUHDPEODQNHW P 

7KHSUHVVXUHKHDGXQGHUWKHEODQNHWDWWKHGRZQVWUHDPWRHRIWKHOHYHHLVHVWLPDWHGDVIROORZV

‫ܮ‬ଷ
݄௢ ൌ ή ݄
‫ܮ‬ଵ ൅37‫ܮ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ܮ‬ଷ
ZKHUH
‫ܮ‬ଵ   OHQJWKRILPSHUYLRXVFRUHRUOHYHHEDVH P 

8SOLIW RFFXUV DW WKH GRZQVWUHDP WRH RI WKH OHYHH ZKHQ WKH SUHVVXUH KHDG ݄௢  LV HTXDO WR WKH FULWLFDO
SUHVVXUHKHDG݄௖ 

ߛԢ
݄௖ ൌ ܼ௕ௗ 
ߛ௪


The Sellmeijer method


6HOOPHLMHU  6HOOPHLMHUDQG.RHQGHUV  .RHQGHUVDQG6HOOPHLMHU  GHYHORSHGD
PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHO IRU EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ SLSLQJ EDVHG RQ WKH H[SHULPHQWV FDUULHG RXW DW 'HOIW
/DERUDWRULHVLQWKH¶V

7KLVPRGHOZDVUHILQHGXVLQJWKHUHVXOWVRIWKH'HOWDUHVWHVWLQJDQGLVSUHVHQWHGLQ9DQ%HHNHW
DO  DQG6HOOPHLMHUHWDO  

7KHFULWLFDOJUDGLHQWLVGHWHUPLQHGDVDSURGXFWRIWKUHHFRQWULEXWLRQVUHVLVWDQFHIDFWRUVFDOH
IDFWRU DQG JHRPHWULFDO VKDSH IDFWRU 7KH LPSURYHPHQW LV UHDOL]HG E\ WKH RXWFRPH RI  VPDOOVFDOH
WHVWV DSSO\LQJ WKH PXOWLYDULDWH PHWKRG 7KH UHILQHG HTXDWLRQV IRU WKH FULWLFDO JUDGLHQW DW ZKLFK
EDFNZDUGHURVLRQZLOOSURJUHVVDUH

‫ͳ ܪ‬
ൌ ൌ ‫ܨ‬௥ ‫ܨ‬௦ ‫ܨ‬௚ 
‫ܿ ܮ‬

଴Ǥଷହ
ߛԢ௣ ܴ‫ܦ‬ ܷ ଴Ǥଵଷ ‫ି ܵܣܭ‬଴Ǥ଴ଶ
‫ܨ‬௥ ൌ ߟ ‫ ߴ݊ܽݐ‬൬ ൰ ൬ ൰ ൬ ൰ 
ߛ௪ ܴ‫ܦ‬௠ ܷ௠ ‫ܵܣܭ‬௠

݀଻଴ ݀଻଴௠ ଴Ǥ଺
‫ܨ‬௦ ൌ య ൬ ൰ 
ξ݇‫଻݀ ܮ‬଴ 


 
§ D · § D ·
F*  ¨ ¸ ¨© L ¸¹ 
©L¹

ZKHUH   
 ‫ܪ‬ >P@ K\GUDXOLFKHDGDFURVVVWUXFWXUH
 ‫ܮ‬ >P@ VHHSDJHOHQJWK EDVHOHQJWKRIWKHHPEDQNPHQW 
 ‫ܦ‬ >P@ WKLFNQHVVRIVDQGOD\HUXQGHUWKHHPEDQNPHQW
 ܿ >@ HURVLRQFRHIILFLHQW
 ‫ܨ‬௥  >@ UHVLVWDQFHIDFWRU
 ‫ܨ‬௦  >@ VFDOHIDFWRU
 ‫ ீܨ‬ >@ JHRPHWULFDOVKDSHIDFWRU
 ܴ‫ܦ‬ >@ UHODWLYHGHQVLW\
 ܷ >@ XQLIRUPLW\FRHIILFLHQW&X GG
 ‫ܵܣܭ‬ >@ URXQGQHVV
 ݀଻଴  >P@ VRLOSDUWLFOHGLDPHWHUIRUZKLFKE\ZHLJKWRIWKHVRLOLVILQHU
 ߛԢ௣  >N1P@ VXEPHUJHGXQLWZHLJKWRIVRLOSDUWLFOHV * 
 ‫ܩ‬ >WP@ VRLOSDUWLFOHGHQVLW\
 ߛ௪  >N1P@ XQLWZHLJKWRIZDWHU

38
101

 
§ D · § D ·
F*  ¨ ¸ ¨© L ¸¹ 
©L¹

2   
 H >P@ FKDUJHK\GUDXOLTXHGDQVOHV\VWqPH
 L >P@ ORQJXHXUGHO¶pFRXOHPHQW ORQJXHXUGHODEDVHGXUHPEODL 
 D >P@ pSDLVVHXUGHODFRXFKHGHVDEOHVRXVOHUHPEODL
 c >@ FRHIILFLHQWG¶pURVLRQ
 F5 >@ IDFWHXUGHUpVLVWDQFH
 F6 >@ IDFWHXUG¶pFKHOOH
 F* >@ IDFWHXUJpRPpWULTXH
 RD >@ GHQVLWpUHODWLYH
 U >@ FRHIILFLHQWG¶XQLIRUPLWp&X GG
 KAS >@ FRHIILFLHQWGHVSKpULFLWpGXVRO
 d70 >P@ GLDPqWUHGHODSDUWLFXOHGHVROSRXUOHTXHOOHGLDPqWUHGHGXVROHVWSOXVSHWLW
 >N1P@ SRLGVYROXPLTXHVXEPHUJpGHVSDUWLFXOHVGHVRO * 
J
S 
 * >WP@ PDVVHYROXPLTXHGHVJUDLQV
 JZ  >N1P@ SRLGVYROXPLTXHGHO¶HDX

 K >@ FRHIILFLHQWGH:KLWHV
 -  >'(*@ DQJOHGHIURWWHPHQW DXUHSRV GXVDEOH
 N >P@ SHUPpDELOLWpLQWULQVqTXHRXJpRPpWULTXH
R X 
N  N
J
 X>PVHF@ YLVFRVLWpFLQpPDWLTXH
 J>PVHF@ FRQVWDQWHGHJUDYLWp
 N>PVHF@ SHUPpDELOLWp


+ ' HW / VRQW GpILQLV GDQV OD )LJ  GX &KDSLWUH  'DQV FHV pTXDWLRQV OHV YDULDEOHV VRQW
QRUPpHVSDUOHXUVYDOHXUVPR\HQQHV/HVYDOHXUVPR\HQQHVGHO
HQVHPEOHGHVGRQQpHVXWLOLVpHVSDU
FHVDXWHXUVVRQWGpFULWHVGHPDQLqUHGpWDLOOpHGDQVOH7DEOHDX


/D )LJ  SHXW rWUH XWLOLVpH SRXU pYDOXHU OHV JUDGLHQWV FULWLTXHV GHV VROV GDQV OHV OLPLWHV
__________________________________________________________________________
GpILQLHVSDUOH7DEOHDX,OHVWDQRWpTXH)*HVWLQFOXVGDQVOHVFRXUEHVGHOD)LJ
40




)LJ
*UDGLHQWFULWLTXHSRXUGLIIpUHQWHVYDOHXUVGH)5 )6HQIRQFWLRQGHVGLPHQVLRQVGXUHPEODL+'HW/
VRQWGpILQLVGDQVOD)LJ3DUH[HPSOHSRXU)5 )6 HWXQ'/ OHJUDGLHQWFULWLTXHTXL
SHUPHWjO¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHGHSURJUHVVHUVRXVIRUPHGHFRQGXLWYHUVODUHWHQXHHVW+/ 
$YHFO
DLPDEOHDXWRULVDWLRQGH'U+DQV6HOOPHLMHUHW9HUDYDQ%HHN 


6HOOPHLMHUet al  LQGLTXHQWTXHO¶HQVHPEOHGHOHXUVYDOHXUVVRQWYDODEOHVSRXUXQDQJOHHQ
SLHGGHWDOXVGHƒXQ&RHIILFLHQWGH:KLWHVGHXQHHDXjƒ&HOVLXVHWXQN [ N 
RNHVWHQPNHVWHQPV,OVQHSUHQQHQWSDVHQFRPSWHOHFRHIILFLHQWGHVSKpULFLWpHWOHFRHIILFLHQW
G¶XQLIRUPLWpFDULOVQHVRQWSDVSUpSRQGpUDQWV

,OV LQGLTXHQW TXH OHV SUpFLVLRQV RQW pWp DSSRUWpHV JUkFH j GHV HVVDLV j SHWLWH pFKHOOH OD
SRVVLELOLWpG¶XQHIIHWG¶pFKHOOHQ¶HVWSDVH[FOXHGHVRUWHTXHOHFRPSRUWHPHQWGHVJUDQGHVVWUXFWXUHV
QH SHXW SDV rWUH FRUUHFWHPHQW PRGpOLVp ,OV LQGLTXHQW pJDOHPHQW TXH OHV pTXDWLRQV GRLYHQW rWUH
102
DSSOLTXpHV ORUVTXH OHV SDUDPqWUHV VH WURXYHQW GDQVOHV LQWHUYDOOHV OLPLWHV GH O¶HVVDL &HV LQWHUYDOOHV
OLPLWHVVRQWGRQQpVGDQVOH7DEOHDX

7DEOHDX
/LPLWHVGHODPpWKRGH6HOOPHLMHUet al  

 
§ D · § D ·
F*  ¨ ¸ ¨© L ¸¹ 
©L¹

ZKHUH   
 ‫ܪ‬ >P@ K\GUDXOLFKHDGDFURVVVWUXFWXUH
 ‫ܮ‬ >P@ VHHSDJHOHQJWK EDVHOHQJWKRIWKHHPEDQNPHQW 
 ‫ܦ‬ >P@ WKLFNQHVVRIVDQGOD\HUXQGHUWKHHPEDQNPHQW
 ܿ >@ HURVLRQFRHIILFLHQW
 ‫ܨ‬௥  >@ UHVLVWDQFHIDFWRU
 ‫ܨ‬௦  >@ VFDOHIDFWRU
 ‫ ீܨ‬ >@ JHRPHWULFDOVKDSHIDFWRU
 ܴ‫ܦ‬ >@ UHODWLYHGHQVLW\
 ܷ >@ XQLIRUPLW\FRHIILFLHQW&X GG
 ‫ܵܣܭ‬ >@ URXQGQHVV
 ݀଻଴  >P@ VRLOSDUWLFOHGLDPHWHUIRUZKLFKE\ZHLJKWRIWKHVRLOLVILQHU
 ߛԢ௣  >N1P@ VXEPHUJHGXQLWZHLJKWRIVRLOSDUWLFOHV * 

 ‫ܩ‬ >WP@ VRLOSDUWLFOHGHQVLW\
 ߛ௪  >N1P@ XQLWZHLJKWRIZDWHU
 ߟ >@ :KLWHVGUDJFRHIILFLHQW
 ߴ >'(*@ EHGGLQJDQJOH DQJOHRIUHSRVH RIVDQG
 ݇ >P@ LQWULQVLFSHUPHDELOLW\
ZKHUH X  38
N  N
J
 X>PVHF@ NLQHPDWLFYLVFRVLW\
 J>PVHF@ JUDYLW\
 N>PVHF@ K\GUDXOLFSHUPHDELOLW\


+'DQG/DUHGHILQHGLQ)LJLQ&KDSWHU,QWKHVHHTXDWLRQVWKHYDULDEOHVDUHQRUPDOL]HGE\
WKH PHDQ YDOXHV LQ WKH GDWD VHW )RU WKH GDWD VHW XVHG E\ WKRVH DXWKRUV WKH PHDQ YDOXHV DUH DV
GHWDLOHGLQ7DEOH

)LJFDQEHXVHGWRDVVHVVFULWLFDOJUDGLHQWVIRUVRLOVZLWKLQWKHOLPLWVLQ7DEOH1RWHWKDW
WKHHIIHFWRIWKH)*WHUPLVLQFOXGHGLQWKHFXUYHVRQ)LJ




)LJ
&ULWLFDOJUDGLHQWIRUYDULRXV)5 )6YDOXHVDQGHPEDQNPHQWGLPHQVLRQV+'DQG/DUHGHILQHGLQ
)LJ$VDQH[DPSOHIRU)5 )6 '/ FULWLFDOJUDGLHQWDWZKLFKEDFNZDUGHURVLRQZLOO
SURJUHVVWRIRUPDSLSHEDFNWRUHVHUYRLULV+/ 
&RXUWHV\RI'U+DQV6HOOPHLMHUDQG9HUDYDQ%HHN 


6HOOPHLMHUet al  LQGLFDWHWKDWWKHLUGDWDVHWDVVXPHVDEHGGLQJDQJOHRIƒDQGD:KLWHV
FRHIILFLHQW RI  )RU ZDWHU DW   &HOVLXV N   [  N  ZKHUH N LV P N LV LQ PVHF 7KH\
R

LQGLFDWH WKDW WKH\ LJQRUH WKH URXQGQHVV DQG 8QLIRUPLW\ &RHIILFLHQW WHUPV DV WKH\ GR QRW FRQWULEXWH
VLJQLILFDQWO\

7KH\LQGLFDWHWKDWWKHUHILQHPHQWVKDYHEHHQGHWHUPLQHGIURPWKHVPDOOVFDOHWHVWVDQGLWLVQRW
DOWRJHWKHU FOHDU LI WKHUH PD\ EH D VFDOH HIIHFW VR WKDW WKH RXWFRPH IRU ODUJH VWUXFWXUHV PD\ QRW EH
SURSHUO\ PRGHOHG 7KH\ DOVR LQGLFDWH WKDW WKH HTXDWLRQV VKRXOG RQO\ DSSO\ ZLWKLQ WKH OLPLWV RI WKH
SDUDPHWHUVGXULQJWHVWLQJ7KHVHOLPLWVDUHJLYHQLQ7DEOH
 103
7DEOH
/LPLWVRIWKH6HOOPHLMHUet al  PHWKRG
3DUDPHWHU 0LQLPXP PD[LPXP PHDQ
5'   


6HOOPHLMHUet al  LQGLTXHQWTXHO¶HQVHPEOHGHOHXUVYDOHXUVVRQWYDODEOHVSRXUXQDQJOHHQ
SLHGGHWDOXVGHƒXQ&RHIILFLHQWGH:KLWHVGHXQHHDXjƒ&HOVLXVHWXQN [ N 
RNHVWHQPNHVWHQPV,OVQHSUHQQHQWSDVHQFRPSWHOHFRHIILFLHQWGHVSKpULFLWpHWOHFRHIILFLHQW
G¶XQLIRUPLWpFDULOVQHVRQWSDVSUpSRQGpUDQWV

,OV LQGLTXHQW TXH OHV SUpFLVLRQV RQW pWp DSSRUWpHV JUkFH j GHV HVVDLV j SHWLWH pFKHOOH OD
SRVVLELOLWpG¶XQHIIHWG¶pFKHOOHQ¶HVWSDVH[FOXHGHVRUWHTXHOHFRPSRUWHPHQWGHVJUDQGHVVWUXFWXUHV
QH SHXW SDV rWUH FRUUHFWHPHQW PRGpOLVp ,OV LQGLTXHQW pJDOHPHQW TXH OHV pTXDWLRQV GRLYHQW rWUH
DSSOLTXpHV ORUVTXH OHV SDUDPqWUHV VH WURXYHQW GDQVOHV LQWHUYDOOHV OLPLWHV GH O¶HVVDL &HV LQWHUYDOOHV
OLPLWHVVRQWGRQQpVGDQVOH7DEOHDX

7DEOHDX
/LPLWHVGHODPpWKRGH6HOOPHLMHUet al  
3DUDPqWUH 0LQLPXP PD[LPXP PLOLHX
5'   
8   
.$6   
ȝPRX ȝPRX( ȝPRX
G
(P P (P


,OV RQW WURXYp TXH OHV pTXDWLRQV SRXU SUpGLUH OH FRPSRUWHPHQW GH VWUXFWXUH j WDLOOH UpHOOH
GRQQHQWG¶DVVH]ERQVUpVXOWDWVVXUOHVVROVILQVPDLVHOOHVQHVRQWSDVDXVVLSUpFLVHVSRXUOHVVROV
DYHFXQG ȝP

/¶HIIHWG¶pFKHOOHHVWWUqVLPSRUWDQW(QHIIHWSOXVODVWUXFWXUHHVWSHWLWHSOXVOHJUDGLHQWFULWLTXH
HVWJUDQG'DQVOHVHVVDLVOHVYDOHXUVGXIDFWHXUG¶pFKHOOH)VYDULHGHSRXUOHVHVVDLVjJUDQGH
pFKHOOHSRXUOHVHVVDLVjWDLOOHPR\HQQHjSRXUOHVHVVDLVGHSHWLWHWDLOOH

,OGRLWrWUHQRWpTXH6HOOPHLMHUHWet al  VRXOLJQHQWTXHOHVpTXDWLRQVFLGHVVXVQHSUHQQHQW
SDVHQFRPSWHGHPDUJHGHVpFXULWpHWTXHOHVQRUPHVGHFRQVWUXFWLRQVRQWVXVFHSWLEOHVG
DSSOLTXHU
GHVIDFWHXUVGHVpFXULWp

9DQ %HHN et al D  RQW FRQWLQXp OHV WUDYDX[ SUpFpGHQWV SRXU SHUPHWWUH OD SUpGLFWLRQ GH
FRQGXLWG¶pURVLRQGDQVODIRQGDWLRQPXOWLFRXFKH


__________________________________________________________________________
Méthode hydraulique d’Hoffmans
41


+RIIPDQV D DQDO\Vp GH QRXYHDX OHV UpVXOWDWV GHV H[SpULHQFHV GX 'HOIW +RIIPDQV  
&RPPH 6HOOPHLMHU LO VRXOLJQH TXH OD FRQGLWLRQ SRXU TXH O¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH SURJUHVVH HVW TXH OHV
SDUWLFXOHVVHWURXYDQWjO¶H[WUpPLWpDPRQWGXFRQGXLWSXLVVHQWrWUHWUDQVSRUWpHVjO¶LQWpULHXUGXFRQGXLW
3DU FRQVpTXHQW F¶HVW O¶LQWpUDFWLRQ HQWUH OH JUDGLHQW j O¶H[WUpPLWp DYDO GX FRQGXLW G¶pURVLRQ HW OH
JUDGLHQWG¶pFRXOHPHQWGDQVOHFRQGXLWTXLFRQWU{OHOHSURFHVVXV&HGHUQLHUHVWFRQWUROpSDUOHGpELW
HQWUDQWGDQVOHFRQGXLWPDLVDXVVLSDUODSHUPpDELOLWpGXVROTXLSURGXLWOHGpELWGDQVOHFRQGXLW

+RIIPDQV GpFULW XQ PRGqOH DQDO\WLTXH EDVp VXU O¶DQDORJLH GH OD ORL G¶2KP HW GH 'DUF\
/¶pFRXOHPHQW VRXV OD GLJXH HVW GpFRPSRVp HQ SOXVLHXUV SDUWLHV /H GpELW HQ HVW FDOFXOp SDU OD
GpWHUPLQDWLRQ GH OHXU UpVLVWDQFH HW GH OHXU SHUWH GH FKDUJH /¶pFRXOHPHQW HVW GpFRPSRVp HQ
pFRXOHPHQWDPRQWDOLPHQWpSDUODUHWHQXHpFRXOHPHQWYHUWLFDOYHUVOHFRQGXLWG¶pURVLRQO¶pFRXOHPHQW
TXLDUULYHDXIRQGGX RXGHV FRQGXLW V O¶pFRXOHPHQWTXLVRUWGXFRQGXLWHWO¶pFRXOHPHQWVRXWHUUDLQ
TXLVRUWjO¶DYDO3RXUpFULUHOHSDVVDJHGHODSHUWHG¶pTXLOLEUHGHODFRQGLWLRQK\GUDXOLTXHjODUXSWXUH
GH OD GLJXH OH PRGqOH GLVWLQJXH GHX[ SHUWHV GH FKDUJH FULWLTXHV OD SHUWH GH FKDUJH j O¶DPRQW GX
FRQGXLW FULWqUHGHVWDELOLWpJpRWHFKQLTXH HWODSHUWHGHFKDUJHGDQVOHFRQGXLW FULWqUHK\GUDXOLTXHGH
WUDQVSRUW 

/¶pFRXOHPHQWVRXWHUUDLQHVWVXSSRVpODPLQDLUHHWGpFULWSDUODORLGH'DUF\/¶pFRXOHPHQWGDQV
OH FRQGXLW HVW VXSSRVp ODPLQDLUH HW GpFULW SDU OD ORL GH 3RLVHXLOOH RX +DJHQ /H VHXLO GH PLVH HQ
PRXYHPHQWGHVSDUWLFXOHVGDQVOHFRQGXLWHVWUHSUpVHQWpSDUOH GLDJUDPPHGH6KLHOGV0DOJUpTXH
6KLHOGV D H[DPLQp OD PLVH HQ PRXYHPHQW VRXV GHV pFRXOHPHQWV SULQFLSDOHPHQW WXUEXOHQWV VRQ
GLDJUDPPH D pWp pWHQGX DX[ pFRXOHPHQWV ODPLQDLUHV /¶pTXDWLRQ GpWHUPLQDQW OH JUDGLHQW FULWLTXH
FRPSRUWH GHX[ WHUPHV TXL VRQW OH JUDGLHQW FULWLTXH GH 6KLHOGV HW OH JUDGLHQW FULWLTXH GH 'DUF\ /H
SUHPLHUUHSUpVHQWHODUpVLVWDQFHOLPLWHGXFRQGXLWRXGHVFKHQDX[jO¶pFRXOHPHQWHWOHVHFRQGLQWqJUH
ODUpVLVWDQFHjO¶pFRXOHPHQWGXPLOLHXSRUHX[jO¶DPRQWGXFRQGXLW

0DOJUpTX¶HQUpDOLWpOHVFRQGXLWVVRXVODGLJXHDUJLOHXVHQHSURJUHVVHQWSDVHQOLJQHGURLWHGH
O¶DYDO YHUV O¶DPRQW LOV VRQW PRGpOLVpV FRPPH GHV FRQHV WURQTXpV GH ORQJXHXU FURLVVDQWH
/¶pFRXOHPHQWVRXVODGLJXHHVWWUqVFRPSOH[HHWHVWO¶H[HPSOHW\SLTXHGHFDOFXOjIDLUHSDURUGLQDWHXU
,FLXQHVLPSOHH[SUHVVLRQDQDO\WLTXHHVWXWLOLVpHXVHGSRXUHVWLPHUOHGpELWGUDLQpSDUOHFRQGXLW(Q
FRPELQDQWOHVK\SRWKqVHVGpFULWHVSUpFpGHPPHQWDYHFOHVFDUDFWpULVWLTXHVJpRPpWULTXHVGXFRQGXLW
104
DYHF OHV pTXDWLRQV GH FRQVHUYDWLRQ G¶pQHUJLH HW GH PDVVH RQ DUULYH j XQH pTXDWLRQ XQLTXH GX
GpYHORSSHPHQW GX FRQGXLW /¶pWDORQQDJH HW OD YDOLGDWLRQ GH FHWWH IRUPXOH VRQW ILQDOLVpV VXU OHV
GRQQpHVDFTXLVHVjODIRLVSDUOHVHVVDLVGHODERUDWRLUHHWOHVSURWRW\SHVVXUVLWH



6HOOPHLMHUet al  LQGLFDWHWKDWWKHLUGDWDVHWDVVXPHVDEHGGLQJDQJOHRIƒDQGD:KLWHV
FRHIILFLHQW RI  )RU ZDWHU DW R &HOVLXV N   [  N  ZKHUH N LV P N LV LQ PVHF 7KH\
LQGLFDWH WKDW WKH\ LJQRUH WKH URXQGQHVV DQG 8QLIRUPLW\ &RHIILFLHQW WHUPV DV WKH\ GR QRW FRQWULEXWH
VLJQLILFDQWO\

7KH\LQGLFDWHWKDWWKHUHILQHPHQWVKDYHEHHQGHWHUPLQHGIURPWKHVPDOOVFDOHWHVWVDQGLWLVQRW
DOWRJHWKHU FOHDU LI WKHUH PD\ EH D VFDOH HIIHFW VR WKDW WKH RXWFRPH IRU ODUJH VWUXFWXUHV PD\ QRW EH
SURSHUO\ PRGHOHG 7KH\ DOVR LQGLFDWH WKDW WKH HTXDWLRQV VKRXOG RQO\ DSSO\ ZLWKLQ WKH OLPLWV RI WKH
SDUDPHWHUVGXULQJWHVWLQJ7KHVHOLPLWVDUHJLYHQLQ7DEOH

7DEOH
/LPLWVRIWKH6HOOPHLMHUet al  PHWKRG
3DUDPHWHU 0LQLPXP PD[LPXP PHDQ
5'   
8   
.$6   
ȝPRU ȝPRU( ȝPRU
G
(P P (P



7KH\IRXQGWKDWWKHHTXDWLRQVSUHGLFWHGWKHODUJHVFDOHH[SHULPHQWEHKDYLRUTXLWHZHOOIRUWKH
ILQHJUDLQHGVRLOEXWWKDWLWZDVQRWVRDFFXUDWHIRUWKHVRLOZLWKDG ȝP
 39
7KHUH DUH YHU\ VLJQLILFDQW VFDOH HIIHFWV 7KH VPDOOHU WKH VWUXFWXUH WKH KLJKHU WKH FULWLFDO
JUDGLHQW ,Q WKH WHVWV WKHYDOXH RI WKHVFDOH IDFWRU FS UDQJHG IURP  IRU WKH ODUJHVFDOH WHVWV WR
IRUWKHPHGLXPVFDOHWHVWVDQGIRUWKHVPDOOVFDOHWHVWV

,W VKRXOG EH QRWHG WKDW 6HOOPHLMHU et al   HPSKDVL]H WKDW WKH DERYH HTXDWLRQV GR QRW
LQFOXGHDQ\PDUJLQRIVDIHW\DQGWKDWIRUGHVLJQUXOHVWKH\DUHOLNHO\WRDSSO\IDFWRUVRIVDIHW\

9DQ %HHN et al D  H[WHQGHG WKH HDUOLHU ZRUN WR PDNH LW DSSOLFDEOH WR WKH SUHGLFWLRQ RI
SLSLQJLQPXOWLOD\HUIRXQGDWLRQV


Hoffman’s Hydraulic Approach


+RIIPDQVUHDQDO\]HGWKHUHVXOWVRIWKH'HOIWH[SHULPHQWV +RIIPDQV +HOLNH6HOOPHLMHU
UHFRJQL]HGWKDWIRUEDFNZDUGHURVLRQWRSURJUHVVWKHSDUWLFOHVEHLQJUHOHDVHGIURPWKHLQLWLDWLQJ]RQH
DW WKH XSVWUHDP HQG RI WKH SLSLQJ FKDQQHO PXVW EH WUDQVSRUWHG GRZQ WKH FKDQQHO +HQFH LW LV WKH
LQWHUDFWLRQRIWKHJUDGLHQWVDWWKHEDFNZDUGHURGLQJKHDGRIWKHSLSLQJFKDQQHODQGWKHIORZJUDGLHQW
LQWKHSLSLQJFKDQQHOVZKLFKFRQWUROVWKHSURFHVV7KHODWWHULVFRQWUROOHGE\WKHJUDGLHQWVRIIORZLQWR
WKHSLSHVEXWDOVRE\WKHSHUPHDELOLW\RIWKHVRLODVWKLVDIIHFWVWKHIORZTXDQWLW\LQWKHSLSHV

+RIIPDQV GHVFULEHV DQ DQDO\WLFDO PRGHO EDVHG RQ 2KP
V ODZ RU 'DUF\
V ODZ  7KH IORZ
XQGHUQHDWKWKHLPSHUPHDEOHGLNHLVVFKHPDWLVHGE\GLIIHUHQWIORZV7KHPDJQLWXGHRIWKHVHIORZVLV
GHWHUPLQHGE\LWVUHVLVWDQFHVDQGLWVSRWHQWLDOGLIIHUHQFHV7KHUHOHYDQWIORZVDUHWKHJURXQGZDWHUIORZ
RQWKHULYHUVLGHWKHYHUWLFDOLQIORZWRZDUGVWKHSLSHVWKHSLSHIORZRQWKHHQWU\SRLQWVWKHSLSHIORZ
RQ WKH ODQGVLGH DQG WKH JURXQGZDWHU IORZ RQ WKH ODQGVLGH 7R HVWLPDWH WKH WUDQVLWLRQ IURP VWDEOH WR
XQVWDEOH K\GUDXOLF FRQGLWLRQV DQG LQWR GLNH IDLOXUH WKH PRGHO GLVWLQJXLVKHV WZR FULWLFDO SRWHQWLDO
GLIIHUHQFHV QDPHO\ WKH FULWLFDO SRWHQWLDO GLIIHUHQFH XSVWUHDP RI WKH SLSHV JHRWHFKQLFDO FULWHULRQ
KHDYH DQGWKHFULWLFDOSRWHQWLDOGLIIHUHQFHLQWKHSLSHV K\GUDXOLFFULWHULRQLQLWLDWLRQRIPRWLRQ 

7KHJURXQGZDWHUIORZLVDVVXPHGWREHODPLQDUDQGPRGHOOHGE\'DUF\
VODZ7KHSLSHIORZLV
DOVRODPLQDUDQGFDOFXODWHGE\WKH+DJHQ3RLVHXLOOHIORZ7KHLQFLSLHQWPRWLRQRISDUWLFOHVLQWKHSLSHV
LV DSSUR[LPDWHG E\ WKH 6KLHOGV GLDJUDP $OWKRXJK 6KLHOGV H[DPLQHG WKH LQFLSLHQW PRWLRQ XQGHU
WXUEXOHQWIORZFRQGLWLRQVWKHGLDJUDPKDVEHHQH[WHQGHGIRUODPLQDUIORZ7KHHTXDWLRQIRUSUHGLFWLQJ
WKHFULWLFDOK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWFRQVLVWVRIWZRWHUPVQDPHO\WKHFULWLFDOJUDGLHQWVRI6KLHOGVDQG'DUF\
7KHFULWLFDO6KLHOGVJUDGLHQWUHSUHVHQWVWKHFULWLFDOIORZUHVLVWDQFHLQWKHSLSHVFKDQQHOVDQGWKHFULWLFDO
'DUF\JUDGLHQWUHIOHFWVWKHVHHSDJHUHVLVWDQFHLQWKHDTXLIHU

$OWKRXJK WKH SLSHV EHQHDWK WKH FOD\H\ GLNH GR QRW UHDOLVWLFDOO\ DGYDQFH LQ D OLQH IURP
GRZQVWUHDPWRXSVWUHDPLQWKHPRGHOWKHSLSHVDUHVLPXODWHGDVWUXQFDWHGFRQHVDQGKDYHDYDULDEOH
OHQJWK 7KH JURXQGZDWHU IORZ XQGHUQHDWK WKH GLNH LV YHU\ FRPSOH[ DQG LV W\SLFDOO\ FRPSXWHG E\
DSSO\LQJ PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHOV +HUH D VLPSOH DQDO\WLFDO HTXDWLRQ LV XVHG IRU HVWLPDWLQJ WKH
JURXQGZDWHUIORZWRZDUGVWKHSLSHV:KHQWKHDIRUHPHQWLRQHGDVVXPSWLRQVDUHDSSOLHGLQUHODWLRQWR
WKH JHRPHWULFDO SLSH FRQGLWLRQV WKH IULFWLRQ HTXDWLRQV DQG WR WKH PDVV EDODQFH D VLPSOH SLSLQJ
HTXDWLRQLVGHGXFHG7KHFDOLEUDWLRQDQGYDOLGDWLRQRIWKLVIRUPXODLVEDVHGRQERWKIOXPHH[SHULPHQWV
DQGSURWRW\SHWHVWV

7DEOHJLYHV+RIIPDQV¶HTXDWLRQVDQGOLVWVWKHSDUDPHWHUV7KHPRVWLPSRUWDQWSDUDPHWHUVLQ
105
WKH +RIIPDQV DSSURDFK DUH WKH K\GUDXOLF FRQGXFWLYLW\ K  WKH SDUWLFOH VL]HV d d DQG WKH DTXLIHU
GLPHQVLRQVWKHGHSWKRIWKHVDQGOD\HU D DQGVHHSDJHOHQJWK L 

PRXYHPHQWGHVSDUWLFXOHVGDQVOHFRQGXLWHVWUHSUpVHQWpSDUOH GLDJUDPPHGH6KLHOGV0DOJUpTXH
6KLHOGV D H[DPLQp OD PLVH HQ PRXYHPHQW VRXV GHV pFRXOHPHQWV SULQFLSDOHPHQW WXUEXOHQWV VRQ
GLDJUDPPH D pWp pWHQGX DX[ pFRXOHPHQWV ODPLQDLUHV /¶pTXDWLRQ GpWHUPLQDQW OH JUDGLHQW FULWLTXH
FRPSRUWH GHX[ WHUPHV TXL VRQW OH JUDGLHQW FULWLTXH GH 6KLHOGV HW OH JUDGLHQW FULWLTXH GH 'DUF\ /H
SUHPLHUUHSUpVHQWHODUpVLVWDQFHOLPLWHGXFRQGXLWRXGHVFKHQDX[jO¶pFRXOHPHQWHWOHVHFRQGLQWqJUH
ODUpVLVWDQFHjO¶pFRXOHPHQWGXPLOLHXSRUHX[jO¶DPRQWGXFRQGXLW

0DOJUpTX¶HQUpDOLWpOHVFRQGXLWVVRXVODGLJXHDUJLOHXVHQHSURJUHVVHQWSDVHQOLJQHGURLWHGH
O¶DYDO YHUV O¶DPRQW LOV VRQW PRGpOLVpV FRPPH GHV FRQHV WURQTXpV GH ORQJXHXU FURLVVDQWH
/¶pFRXOHPHQWVRXVODGLJXHHVWWUqVFRPSOH[HHWHVWO¶H[HPSOHW\SLTXHGHFDOFXOjIDLUHSDURUGLQDWHXU
,FLXQHVLPSOHH[SUHVVLRQDQDO\WLTXHHVWXWLOLVpHXVHGSRXUHVWLPHUOHGpELWGUDLQpSDUOHFRQGXLW(Q
FRPELQDQWOHVK\SRWKqVHVGpFULWHVSUpFpGHPPHQWDYHFOHVFDUDFWpULVWLTXHVJpRPpWULTXHVGXFRQGXLW
DYHF OHV pTXDWLRQV GH FRQVHUYDWLRQ G¶pQHUJLH HW GH PDVVH RQ DUULYH j XQH pTXDWLRQ XQLTXH GX
GpYHORSSHPHQW GX FRQGXLW /¶pWDORQQDJH HW OD YDOLGDWLRQ GH FHWWH IRUPXOH VRQW ILQDOLVpV VXU OHV
GRQQpHVDFTXLVHVjODIRLVSDUOHVHVVDLVGHODERUDWRLUHHWOHVSURWRW\SHVVXUVLWH

/H7DEOHDXGRQQHOHVpTXDWLRQVGH+RIIPDQVHWODOLVWHGHVYDULDEOHV/HVYDULDEOHVOHVSOXV
LPSRUWDQWHVGDQVO¶DSSURFKHG¶+RIIPDQVRQWODFRQGXFWLYLWpK\GUDXOLTXH . ODWDLOOHGHVSDUWLFXOHVd
dODORQJXHXUFULWLTXHGXFRQGXLW Ɛz,c HWOHFRHIILFLHQW ĮH/HVGHX[GHUQLHUVVRQWGpWHUPLQpVjSDUWLU
G¶HVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUH

  7DEOHDX
5pVXPpGHO¶pTXDWLRQG¶+RIIPDQV G¶DSUqV+RIIPDQV 


ሺ‫ܪ‬ଵ  െ ‫ܪ‬ଶ ሻ௖ ඥ݃ሺȲ௟௔௠ǡ௖ ȟ݀ଵହ ሻଷȀସ ݈௖ ݀ହ଴ ߭


ൌ ൅  ൬ͳ െ ൰ 
‫ܮ‬ ߥඥߙோ௘ǡ௟ ‫݈ ܮ‬ோ௘ ‫ܦܭ‬
DYHF
݈௖ ߙ௙ ‫ ܦ‬ଶ ඥ݃ሺȲ݈ܽ݉ǡܿ ȟ݀ͳͷ ሻ͵Ȁʹ
ൌ ݁‫ ݌ݔ‬ቆെ ൬ ൰ ቇ 
‫ܮ‬ ‫ܮ‬ ߥඥߙܴ݁ǡ݈

6\PEROH ,QWHUYDOOH 'HVFULSWLRQ
G PPGPP GSRXUOHTXHOGHVSDUWLFXOHVVRQWSOXVILQHVTXHG
G PPGPP 'LDPqWUHPpGLDQGHVSDUWLFXOHV
' P'P eSDLVVHXUGHODFRXFKHGHVDEOH

__________________________________________________________________________


D d  'g  Q 

'  &RHIILFLHQWDGLPHQVLRQQHOGHWDLOOHGHSDUWLFXOH
 42
J J PV $FFpOpUDWLRQGHODSHVDQWHXU
(H1 – H2)FL  +±+ F/ *UDGLHQWFULWLTXHK\GUDXOLTXH
H1 PjP 1LYHDXGXFRXUVG¶HDX
H VRXYHQWDVP 1LYHDXGHO¶HDXGDQVOHIRVVpSDUUDSSRUWDXFRQGXLW
K PVKPV 3HUPpDELOLWp
 5DSSRUWHQWUHODORQJXHXUFULWLTXHGXFRQGXLWHWODORQJXHXU
Ɛc Ɛ
 cL G¶pFRXOHPHQW
" 5H  Ɛ5H ÂP /RQJXHXUG¶pFKHOOHJpRPpWULTXH/RQJXHXUGHO¶pFRXOHPHQW
L PLP &RHIILFLHQWJpRPpWULTXHGHVHDX[VRXWHUUDLQHV
Df Df  &RHIILFLHQWJpRPpWULTXHGXFRQGXLW
D5H,Ɛ D5HƐ  'HQVLWpUHODWLYH
ǻ ȡsȡ± ǻ  VDEOH 9LVFRVLWpFLQpPDWLTXH
Ȟ ±PVȞā±PV 3DUDPqWUHGHFRQWUDLQWHFULWLTXH SRXUXQIOX[ODPLQDLUH 
<Ɛam,c  D  <Ɛam,c 1LYHDXGHO¶HDXGDQVOHIRVVpSDUUDSSRUWDXFRQGXLW
VLƐ O
pTXLOLEUHHVWVWDEOH RXO
pURVLRQQHVHSURGXLWSDV 
VLƐƐc O¶pTXLOLEUHHVWURPSX RXO¶pURVLRQHVWWHPSRUDLUHPHQWDFWLYpH 
VLƐtƐcO¶pTXLOLEUHQ¶HVWSOXVDWWHLQW RXO¶pURVLRQQHFHVVHMXVTX¶jODUXSWXUHGXEDUUDJH 


Méthode de Schmertmann


6FKPHUWPDQQ  DGpYHORSSpXQHPpWKRGHEDVpHVXUGHVHVVDLVG¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHHQ
FDQDO j O¶8QLYHUVLWp GH )ORULGH &HV GHUQLHUV RQW pWp UpDOLVpV VXU GH QRPEUHXVHV FRQILJXUDWLRQV
FRPSUHQDQW FHOOHV GH 7RZQVHQG et al   UHSUpVHQWDQW  HVVDLV &HV WHVWV RQW pWp UpDOLVpV VXU
XQHVpULHGHVRODOODQWGHVVDEOHVILQVjWDLOOHPR\HQQHMXVTX¶DXPpODQJHGHJUDYLHUILQHWGHVDEOH
JURVVLHU

106 /HVHVVDLVpWDLHQWGLIIpUHQWVjFHX[GX'HOIWSDUOHIDLWTXHOHFRQGXLWDpWpLQLWLpjO¶H[WUpPLWp
DYDO/DFKDUJHDpWpSURJUHVVLYHPHQWDXJPHQWpHSRXUDVVXUHUODSURJUHVVLRQGXWXQQHOYHUVO¶DPRQW
MXVTX¶jDWWHLQGUHOHFKDUJHPHQWFULWLTXHSURYRTXDQWODIRUPDWLRQG¶XQWXQQHOGHSXLVO¶DYDO

/D SOXSDUW GHV HVVDLV  VXU   GH 6FKPHUWPDQQ   RQW pWp UpDOLVp DYHF GX VDEOH
DOVRODPLQDUDQGFDOFXODWHGE\WKH+DJHQ3RLVHXLOOHIORZ7KHLQFLSLHQWPRWLRQRISDUWLFOHVLQWKHSLSHV
LV DSSUR[LPDWHG E\ WKH 6KLHOGV GLDJUDP $OWKRXJK 6KLHOGV H[DPLQHG WKH LQFLSLHQW PRWLRQ XQGHU
WXUEXOHQWIORZFRQGLWLRQVWKHGLDJUDPKDVEHHQH[WHQGHGIRUODPLQDUIORZ7KHHTXDWLRQIRUSUHGLFWLQJ
WKHFULWLFDOK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWFRQVLVWVRIWZRWHUPVQDPHO\WKHFULWLFDOJUDGLHQWVRI6KLHOGVDQG'DUF\
7KHFULWLFDO6KLHOGVJUDGLHQWUHSUHVHQWVWKHFULWLFDOIORZUHVLVWDQFHLQWKHSLSHVFKDQQHOVDQGWKHFULWLFDO
'DUF\JUDGLHQWUHIOHFWVWKHVHHSDJHUHVLVWDQFHLQWKHDTXLIHU

$OWKRXJK WKH SLSHV EHQHDWK WKH FOD\H\ GLNH GR QRW UHDOLVWLFDOO\ DGYDQFH LQ D OLQH IURP
GRZQVWUHDPWRXSVWUHDPLQWKHPRGHOWKHSLSHVDUHVLPXODWHGDVWUXQFDWHGFRQHVDQGKDYHDYDULDEOH
OHQJWK 7KH JURXQGZDWHU IORZ XQGHUQHDWK WKH GLNH LV YHU\ FRPSOH[ DQG LV W\SLFDOO\ FRPSXWHG E\
DSSO\LQJ PDWKHPDWLFDO PRGHOV +HUH D VLPSOH DQDO\WLFDO HTXDWLRQ LV XVHG IRU HVWLPDWLQJ WKH
JURXQGZDWHUIORZWRZDUGVWKHSLSHV:KHQWKHDIRUHPHQWLRQHGDVVXPSWLRQVDUHDSSOLHGLQUHODWLRQWR
WKH JHRPHWULFDO SLSH FRQGLWLRQV WKH IULFWLRQ HTXDWLRQV DQG WR WKH PDVV EDODQFH D VLPSOH SLSLQJ
HTXDWLRQLVGHGXFHG7KHFDOLEUDWLRQDQGYDOLGDWLRQRIWKLVIRUPXODLVEDVHGRQERWKIOXPHH[SHULPHQWV
DQGSURWRW\SHWHVWV

7DEOHJLYHV+RIIPDQV¶HTXDWLRQVDQGOLVWVWKHSDUDPHWHUV7KHPRVWLPSRUWDQWSDUDPHWHUVLQ
WKH +RIIPDQV DSSURDFK DUH WKH K\GUDXOLF FRQGXFWLYLW\ K  WKH SDUWLFOH VL]HV d d DQG WKH DTXLIHU
GLPHQVLRQVWKHGHSWKRIWKHVDQGOD\HU D DQGVHHSDJHOHQJWK L 

7DEOH
2YHUYLHZRI+RIIPDQV¶SLSLQJHTXDWLRQ IURP+RIIPDQV 

ሺ‫ܪ‬ଵ  െ ‫ܪ‬ଶ ሻ௖ ඥ݃ሺȲ௟௔௠ǡ௖ ȟ݀ଵହ ሻଷȀସ ݈௖ ݀ହ଴ ߭
ൌ ൅  ൬ͳ െ ൰ 
‫ܮ‬ ߥඥߙோ௘ǡ௟ ‫݈ ܮ‬ோ௘ ‫ܦܭ‬


:LWK
40
݈௖ ߙ௙ ‫ ܦ‬ଶ ඥ݃ሺȲ݈ܽ݉ǡܿ ȟ݀ͳͷ ሻ͵Ȁʹ
ൌ ݁‫ ݌ݔ‬ቆെ ൬ ൰ ቇ 
‫ܮ‬ ‫ܮ‬ ߥඥߙܴ݁ǡ݈


6\PERO ,QGLFDWLYHUDQJH &RPPHQW


݀ଵହ PPGPP GIRUZKLFKRIWKHSDUWLFOHVLVILQHUWKDQG
݀ହ଴ PPGPP PHDQSDUWLFOHGLDPHWHU
‫ܦ‬ P'P WKLFNQHVVRIWKHVDQGOD\HU
d 'g  Q 


D

'  GLPHQVLRQOHVVSDUWLFOHGLDPHWHU

݃ J PV 
DFFHOHUDWLRQRIJUDYLW\
(H1 – H2)FL  +±+ F/ FULWLFDOK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQW
‫ܪ‬ଵ PWRP VHDRUULYHUOHYHO
‫ܪ‬ଶ  XVXDOO\WDNHQDVP ZDWHUOHYHOLQGLWFKRUDWVRLOVXUIDFH
‫ܭ‬ PVKPV K\GUDXOLFFRQGXFWLYLW\ VHHDOVR(T 
݈௖ Ɛ
 cL UDWLRRIFULWLFDOSLSHOHQJWKDQGVHHSDJHOHQJWK
݈ோ௘  Ɛ5H ÂP JHRPHWULFDOOHQJWKVFDOH VHHDOVR6HFWLRQ$
‫ܮ‬ PLP VHHSDJHOHQJWK
ߙ௙ ߙ௙  JHRPHWULFDOJURXQGZDWHUFRHIILFLHQW 6HFWLRQ$ 
ߙோ௘ǡ௟ D5HƐ  JHRPHWULFDOSLSHFRHIILFLHQW VHHDOVR6HFWLRQ$ 
ǻ ȡsȡ± ǻ  VDEOH UHODWLYHGHQVLW\
ߥ ±PVȞā±PV NLQHPDWLFYLVFRVLW\
Ȳ௟௔௠ǡ௖   D  <Ɛam,c FULWLFDO6KLHOGVSDUDPHWHU IRUODPLQDUIORZ 
LIƐ WKHQWKHHTXLOLEULXPLVVWDEOH RUQRHURVLRQRFFXUV 
LIƐƐc WKHQWKHHTXLOLEULXPLVXQVWDEOH RURFFDVLRQDOHURVLRQRFFXUV 
LIƐtƐcWKHQWKHUHLVQRHTXLOLEULXPDQ\PRUH RUHURVLRQRFFXUVXQWLOWKHGLNHIDLOV 


Schmertmann’s Method


6FKPHUWPDQQ  GHYHORSHGDPHWKRGEDVHGRQEDFNZDUGHURVLRQSLSLQJWHVWVLQIOXPHVDW
8QLYHUVLW\RI)ORULGD7KHVHZHUHFDUULHGRXWLQDQXPEHURIVHWVLQFOXGLQJWKRVHE\7RZQVHQGHWDO
 ZKRFDUULHGRXWWHVWV7KRVHWHVWVZHUHFDUULHGRXWRQDUDQJHRIVRLOVIURPILQHWRPHGLXP
VDQGVXSWRFRDUVHVDQGILQHJUDYHOPL[HV

7KHWHVWVZHUHGLIIHUHQWWRWKH'HOIWWHVWVLQWKDWDVWDUWHUSLSHZDVIRUPHGDWWKHGRZQVWUHDP
HQG7KHKHDGGLIIHUHQWLDOZDVLQFUHDVHGSURJUHVVLYHO\WRNHHSWKHWXQQHOSURJUHVVLQJXSVWUHDPXQWLO
107
WKHFULWLFDOKHDGZDVUHDFKHGFDXVLQJWKHWXQQHOWRIRUPDSLSHWRWKHXSVWUHDPVRXUFH

0RVW RI WKH WHVWV  RXW RI   ZKLFK 6FKPHUWPDQQ   UHOLHG XSRQ ZHUH FDUULHG RXW RQ
<Ɛam,c  D  <Ɛam,c 1LYHDXGHO¶HDXGDQVOHIRVVpSDUUDSSRUWDXFRQGXLW
VLƐ O
pTXLOLEUHHVWVWDEOH RXO
pURVLRQQHVHSURGXLWSDV 
VLƐƐc O¶pTXLOLEUHHVWURPSX RXO¶pURVLRQHVWWHPSRUDLUHPHQWDFWLYpH 
VLƐtƐcO¶pTXLOLEUHQ¶HVWSOXVDWWHLQW RXO¶pURVLRQQHFHVVHMXVTX¶jODUXSWXUHGXEDUUDJH 


Méthode de Schmertmann


6FKPHUWPDQQ  DGpYHORSSpXQHPpWKRGHEDVpHVXUGHVHVVDLVG¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHHQ
FDQDO j O¶8QLYHUVLWp GH )ORULGH &HV GHUQLHUV RQW pWp UpDOLVpV VXU GH QRPEUHXVHV FRQILJXUDWLRQV
FRPSUHQDQW FHOOHV GH 7RZQVHQG et al   UHSUpVHQWDQW  HVVDLV &HV WHVWV RQW pWp UpDOLVpV VXU
XQHVpULHGHVRODOODQWGHVVDEOHVILQVjWDLOOHPR\HQQHMXVTX¶DXPpODQJHGHJUDYLHUILQHWGHVDEOH
JURVVLHU

/HVHVVDLVpWDLHQWGLIIpUHQWVjFHX[GX'HOIWSDUOHIDLWTXHOHFRQGXLWDpWpLQLWLpjO¶H[WUpPLWp
DYDO/DFKDUJHDpWpSURJUHVVLYHPHQWDXJPHQWpHSRXUDVVXUHUODSURJUHVVLRQGXWXQQHOYHUVO¶DPRQW
MXVTX¶jDWWHLQGUHOHFKDUJHPHQWFULWLTXHSURYRTXDQWODIRUPDWLRQG¶XQWXQQHOGHSXLVO¶DYDO

/D SOXSDUW GHV HVVDLV  VXU   GH 6FKPHUWPDQQ   RQW pWp UpDOLVp DYHF GX VDEOH
SRVVpGDQWXQFRHIILFLHQWG¶XQLIRUPLWpLQIpULHXUj/HVDXWUHVHVVDLVRQWpWpUpDOLVpVDYHFGXVROj
JUDQXORPpWULHGLVFRQWLQXHRXpWHQGXHSRVVpGDQWGHVFRHIILFLHQWVG¶XQLIRUPLWpSURFKHGH

6FKPHUWPDQQ   D UHPDUTXp VXU OHV VROV WHVWpV TXH OH JUDGLHQW FULWLTXH PR\HQଓҧ௣௠௧  
GpFOHQFKDQW O¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH pWDLW OLp DX FRHIILFLHQW G¶XQLIRUPLWp &X GG  SDU OD UHODWLRQ
VXLYDQWH

__________________________________________________________________________
ଓҧ௣௠௧ ൌ ͲǤͲͷ ൅43ͲǤͳͺ͵ሺ‫ܥ‬௨ െ ͳሻ

,ODpJDOHPHQWUHSUpVHQWpOHVHVVDLVGH'HOIWHWDWURXYpXQHUHODWLRQVLPLODLUH&HSHQGDQWVXU
FHUWDLQVHVVDLVOHFRHIILFLHQWG¶XQLIRUPLWp&XpWDLWVXSpULHXUj

/DPpWKRGHLPSOLTXHG¶LPSRUWDQWVDMXVWHPHQWVSDUHIIHWG¶pFKHOOH(WDQWGRQQpTXHODPpWKRGH
HVWEDVpHVXUXQQRPEUHOLPLWpGHGRQQpHVHWFRXYUDQWXQODUJHLQWHUYDOOHGXFRHIILFLHQWG¶XQLIRUPLWp
HWTXHFHUWDLQVVROVRQWpWpDIIHFWpVSDUO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHODIRUPXOHGRLWrWUHXWLOLVpHDYHFSUpFDXWLRQ
SRXUGHVVROVDYHFXQ&X!


Observations de terrain


/HUS Army Corps of Engineers 86$&( DVVXPHDYHFO¶pWDWOHVJRXYHUQHPHQWVORFDX[HWOHV
H[SORLWDQWV OD JHVWLRQ GX UpVHDX GH GLJXHV VXU OD PDMRULWp GHV IOHXYHV GHV eWDWV8QLV LQFOXDQW OH
0LVVLVVLSSL 86$&( D UpDOLVp HQWUH OHV DQQpHV  HW  GHV UHFKHUFKHV DSSURIRQGLHV VXU OHV
LQILOWUDWLRQVOHORQJGXFRXUVFHQWUDOHWDYDOGXIOHXYH0LVVLVVLSSLG¶$OWRQGDQVO¶,OOLQRLVjOD 1RXYHOOH
2UOpDQVHQ/RXLVLDQH&RPPHLQGLTXpSDU6LOOVHW9URPDQ  FHVSUHPLqUHVpWXGHVRQWDERXWLDX
GpYHORSSHPHQWGHVPpWKRGHVDFWXHOOHV86$&(GHFRQFHSWLRQGHGLJXHYDOLGpHVSDUGHVGpFHQQLHV
G¶REVHUYDWLRQVLQVLWXHWG¶HVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUH

'HVUHFKHUFKHVUpFHQWHV :ROIIHW6KDQQRQHW:LOVRQ,QF:LOVRQHW
*O\QHW.XV]PDXO RQWpWXGLpODSHUIRUPDQFHGHVDQFLHQQHVGLJXHV9RLFLXQDSHUoXGHOHXUV
REVHUYDWLRQV

6XUOHVGLJXHVGX'LVWULFWG¶86$&(SDUH[HPSOHFHOOHGH6W/RXLVXQHFUXHTXHOFRQTXHSHXW
SURYRTXHUSOXVLHXUVFHQWDLQHVGHWXPXOXVGHVDEOHYHQDQWGHVIRQGDWLRQV&HSHQGDQWSHXGHEUqFKH
SDUFRQGXLWRQWpWpUDSSRUWpHV&HFLV¶H[SOLTXHSDUOHVHIIHWV GHODSROLWLTXHGHSURWHFWLRQFRQWUHOHV
FUXHVPHQpHVSDUOH'LVWULFWHWOHVH[SORLWDQWV(OOHFRQVLVWHjPHWWUHHQSODFHGHVVDFVGHVDEOHRX
GHVSHWLWHVGLJXHVDXWRXUGHO¶H[WUpPLWpDYDOGXFRQGXLWSHUPHWWDQWGHVWRSSHUOHUHMHWGHVDEOH PDLV
SDVO¶pFRXOHPHQWG¶HDX /HVTXHOTXHVFDVGRFXPHQWpVGHEUqFKHFRQILUPHQWOHVHVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUH
YRLUDXGHVVXV jVDYRLUTXHO¶pURVLRQVHGpFOHQFKHjGHVJUDGLHQWVPR\HQVSOXVIDLEOHVTXHOH
JUDGLHQWFULWLTXHQpFHVVDLUHSRXUIDLUHSURJUHVVHUFHWWHpURVLRQVRXVIRUPHG¶XQFRQGXLWFRQWLQXHQWUH
O¶DYDOHWO¶DPRQWGHODGLJXH'HVDQDO\VHVFRPSOpPHQWDLUHVLQVLWXVRQWQpFHVVDLUHVSRXUGpWHUPLQHU
OHVFRQGLWLRQVGDQVOHVTXHOOHVOHVWXPXOXVGHVDEOHSURGXLWVSDUO¶pURVLRQGpERXFKHQWVXUODUXSWXUHGH
ODGLJXH

:ROII  *O\QQHW.XV]PDXO  HW6LOOVHW9URPDQ  SUpVHQWHQWTXHOTXHVFDVGH
GLJXHRGHVWXPXOXVGHVDEOHVRQWDSSDUXVORUVG¶XQHVpULHGHJUDGLHQWVPR\HQVGpFURLVVDQWV VpULH
GH QLYHDX[ G¶HDX DPRQW GpFURLVVDQWV  *O\QQ HW .XV]PDXO   PRQWUHQW VXU OHV GLJXHV pWXGLpHV
TXHODSOXVJUDQGHSDUWLHGHVWXPXOXVVHVRQWSURGXLWVORUVGHVFUXHVGHHWQRQORUVGHFHOOHVGH
ELHQTXHOHQLYHDXG¶HDXpWDLWSOXVEDVHQ(QGHVWXPXOXVVHVRQWSURGXLWVDX
108
YRLVLQDJH GH FHX[ IRUPpV HQ  /H SKpQRPqQH G¶XQH SRVVLEOH GLPLQXWLRQ GX JUDGLHQW DX FRXUV
G¶pURVLRQV UpJUHVVLYHV VXFFHVVLYHV D pWp pYRTXp GDQV OHV SUHPLqUHV UHFRQQDLVVDQFHV PHQpHV SDU
O¶86$&( PDLV Q¶D SDV pWp TXDQWLILp ,O Q
D SDV pWp pWXGLp SDU GHV HVVDLV HQ ODERUDWRLUH GpFULWV HQ
 6LOOV HW 9URPDQ   VXJJqUHQW TXH FH SKpQRPqQH SHXW V¶H[SOLTXHU SDU OH IDLW TX¶DSUqV OD
FUpDWLRQGHVWXPXOXVOHVFRQGXLWVG¶pURVLRQQHVRQWSDVUHPSOLVGHQRXYHDXHWUHVWHQWSUREDEOHPHQW
Ȳ௟௔௠ǡ௖   D  <Ɛam,c FULWLFDO6KLHOGVSDUDPHWHU IRUODPLQDUIORZ 
LIƐ WKHQWKHHTXLOLEULXPLVVWDEOH RUQRHURVLRQRFFXUV 
LIƐƐc WKHQWKHHTXLOLEULXPLVXQVWDEOH RURFFDVLRQDOHURVLRQRFFXUV 
LIƐtƐcWKHQWKHUHLVQRHTXLOLEULXPDQ\PRUH RUHURVLRQRFFXUVXQWLOWKHGLNHIDLOV 


Schmertmann’s Method


6FKPHUWPDQQ  GHYHORSHGDPHWKRGEDVHGRQEDFNZDUGHURVLRQSLSLQJWHVWVLQIOXPHVDW
8QLYHUVLW\RI)ORULGD7KHVHZHUHFDUULHGRXWLQDQXPEHURIVHWVLQFOXGLQJWKRVHE\7RZQVHQGHWDO
 ZKRFDUULHGRXWWHVWV7KRVHWHVWVZHUHFDUULHGRXWRQDUDQJHRIVRLOVIURPILQHWRPHGLXP
VDQGVXSWRFRDUVHVDQGILQHJUDYHOPL[HV

7KHWHVWVZHUHGLIIHUHQWWRWKH'HOIWWHVWVLQWKDWDVWDUWHUSLSHZDVIRUPHGDWWKHGRZQVWUHDP
HQG7KHKHDGGLIIHUHQWLDOZDVLQFUHDVHGSURJUHVVLYHO\WRNHHSWKHWXQQHOSURJUHVVLQJXSVWUHDPXQWLO
WKHFULWLFDOKHDGZDVUHDFKHGFDXVLQJWKHWXQQHOWRIRUPDSLSHWRWKHXSVWUHDPVRXUFH

0RVW RI WKH WHVWV  RXW RI   ZKLFK 6FKPHUWPDQQ   UHOLHG XSRQ ZHUH FDUULHG RXW RQ
VDQGV ZLWK D XQLIRUPLW\ FRHIILFLHQW OHVV WKDQ  7KH RWKHU  WHVWV ZHUH FDUULHG RXW RQ JDSJUDGHG
VRLOVDQGDZHOOJUDGHGVRLOZLWKXQLIRUPLW\FRHIILFLHQWVDURXQG

6FKPHUWPDQQ   IRXQG WKDW WKH FULWLFDO DYHUDJH JUDGLHQW ଓҧ௣௠௧  DERYH ZKLFK EDFNZDUG
HURVLRQ ZRXOG RFFXU ZDV UHODWHG WR WKH XQLIRUPLW\ FRHIILFLHQW &X GG  RI WKH VRLOV WHVWHG DV
IROORZV

ଓҧ௣௠௧ ൌ ͲǤͲͷ ൅ ͲǤͳͺ͵ሺ‫ܥ‬௨ െ ͳሻ

+HDOVRSORWWHGWKH'HOIWWHVWVDQGIRXQGDVLPLODUFRUUHODWLRQ+RZHYHUWKHUHZHUHIHZWHVWVRQ
VRLOVZLWKD&X!


7KHPHWKRGLQYROYHVTXLWHODUJHFRUUHFWLRQVIRUVFDOHHIIHFWV*LYHQLWLVEDVHGRQOLWWOHGDWDLQ
41
WKH ODUJHU XQLIRUPLW\ FRHIILFLHQW UDQJH DQG VRPH RI WKHVH PD\ EH DIIHFWHG E\ LQWHUQDO LQVWDELOLW\
FDXWLRQVKRXOGEHH[HUFLVHGLQXVLQJWKHPHWKRGIRUVRLOVZLWK&X!


Some field observations


7KH 86 $UP\ &RUSV RI (QJLQHHUV 86$&(  KDYH D VKDUHG UHVSRQVLELOLW\ ZLWK VWDWH DQG ORFDO
JRYHUQPHQWV DQG ORFDO OHYHH ERDUGV IRU PDQDJLQJ WKH OHYHH V\VWHPV DORQJ PDMRU 86$ 5LYHUV
LQFOXGLQJWKH0LVVLVVLSSL86$&(FDUULHGRXWH[WHQVLYHXQGHUVHHSDJHLQYHVWLJDWLRQVIURPWKHVWR
WKH V FRYHULQJ WKH PLGGOH DQG ORZHU 0LVVLVVLSSL 5LYHU IURP $OWRQ ,OOLQRLV WR 1HZ 2UOHDQV
/RXLVLDQD$VUHFRUGHGE\6LOOVDQG9URPDQ  WKHVHHDUO\VWXGLHVUHVXOWHGLQWKHGHYHORSPHQWRI
FXUUHQW86$&(OHYHHGHVLJQPHWKRGVZKLFKZHUHYDOLGDWHGGXULQJGHFDGHVRIILHOGREVHUYDWLRQVDQG
ODERUDWRU\WHVWV

0RUHUHFHQWLQYHVWLJDWLRQV :ROIIDQG6KDQQRQDQG:LOVRQ,QF:LOVRQ
DQG *O\Q DQG .XV]PDXO   KDYH REVHUYHG WKH DJHLQJ OHYHH V\VWHPV¶ SHUIRUPDQFH 6RPH
REVHUYDWLRQVIURPWKHVHLQFOXGH

,Q DQ\ RQH IORRG WKH OHYHHV LQ RQH 86$&( 'LVWULFW HJ 6W /RXLV PD\ H[SHULHQFH PDQ\
KXQGUHGVRIVDQGERLOVLQWKHIRXQGDWLRQV+RZHYHUWKHUHDUHIHZGRFXPHQWHGFDVHVRIEUHDFKLQJRI
WKHOHYHHVIURPSLSLQJ7KLVLVLQIOXHQFHGE\WKH³IORRGILJKWLQJ´HIIRUWVRIWKH'LVWULFWVDQGWKH/HYHH
%RDUGSHUVRQQHO7KH\EXLOGVDQGEDJULQJVDQGLQVRPHFDVHVVXEOHYHHVDURXQGWKHVDQGERLOVWR
VWRS WKH IORZ RI VDQG EXW QRW WKH IORZ RI ZDWHU  7KH IHZ GRFXPHQWHG EUHDFKHV PD\ VXSSRUW WKH
ODERUDWRU\ WHVWV VHH  DERYH  ZKLFK VKRZ WKDW HURVLRQ LQLWLDWHV DW ORZHU DYHUDJH JUDGLHQWV WKDQ
WKHKLJKHUFULWLFDOJUDGLHQWVUHTXLUHGWRSURJUHVVWKHHURVLRQWRIRUPDFRQWLQXRXVSLSHIURPWKHODQG
VLGHWRWKHULYHUVLGH0RUHDQDO\VLVRIWKHILHOGGDWDLVUHTXLUHGWRLQYHVWLJDWHWKHFRQGLWLRQVDWZKLFK
HURVLRQFDXVLQJVDQGERLOVSURJUHVVHGWRHURVLRQFDXVLQJOHYHHIDLOXUH

:ROII   *O\QQ DQG .XV]PDXO   DQG 6LOOV DQG 9URPDQ   UHSRUW WKDW WKHUH DUH
VRPHFDVHVRIOHYHHVZKLFKKDYHVDQGERLODFWLYLW\RFFXUULQJDWVXFFHVVLYHO\ORZHUDYHUDJHJUDGLHQWV
ORZHUULYHUVWDJHV *O\QQDQG.XV]PDXO  VKRZWKDWJUHDWHUVDQGERLODFWLYLW\RFFXUUHGLQWKH
 IORRG WKDQ WKH  IORRG DORQJ WKH OHYHHV VWXGLHG HYHQ WKRXJK WKH ULYHU VWDJH ZDV ORZHU LQ
,QRIWKHVDQGERLOVRFFXUUHGDWORFDWLRQVFORVHWRWKHRQHV7KHSKHQRPHQRQ
RISRVVLEO\GHFUHDVLQJJUDGLHQWVDWZKLFKVXFFHVVLYHEDFNZDUGHURVLRQWRIRUPVDQGERLOVRFFXUVZDV
GLVFXVVHG LQ WKH HDUO\ LQYHVWLJDWLRQV E\ 86$&( EXW QRW TXDQWLILHG ,W ZDV QRW LQYHVWLJDWHG E\ WKH
ODERUDWRU\WHVWVGHVFULEHGLQDERYH6LOOVDQG9URPDQ  VXJJHVWWKDWLWPD\DULVHEHFDXVH
DIWHU VDQG ERLO HSLVRGHV WKH HURVLRQ SLSHV DUH QRW UHILOOHG DQG SUREDEO\ UHPDLQ RSHQ WKHUHE\109
LQFUHDVLQJWKHSHUPHDELOLW\SRURVLW\RIWKHVRLODQGUHGXFLQJWKHJUDGLHQWDWZKLFKEDFNZDUGHURVLRQ
FRPPHQFHVGXULQJVXEVHTXHQWKLJKZDWHUOHYHOHYHQWV

SDVO¶pFRXOHPHQWG¶HDX /HVTXHOTXHVFDVGRFXPHQWpVGHEUqFKHFRQILUPHQWOHVHVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUH
YRLUDXGHVVXV jVDYRLUTXHO¶pURVLRQVHGpFOHQFKHjGHVJUDGLHQWVPR\HQVSOXVIDLEOHVTXHOH
JUDGLHQWFULWLTXHQpFHVVDLUHSRXUIDLUHSURJUHVVHUFHWWHpURVLRQVRXVIRUPHG¶XQFRQGXLWFRQWLQXHQWUH
O¶DYDOHWO¶DPRQWGHODGLJXH'HVDQDO\VHVFRPSOpPHQWDLUHVLQVLWXVRQWQpFHVVDLUHVSRXUGpWHUPLQHU
OHVFRQGLWLRQVGDQVOHVTXHOOHVOHVWXPXOXVGHVDEOHSURGXLWVSDUO¶pURVLRQGpERXFKHQWVXUODUXSWXUHGH
ODGLJXH

:ROII  *O\QQHW.XV]PDXO  HW6LOOVHW9URPDQ  SUpVHQWHQWTXHOTXHVFDVGH
GLJXHRGHVWXPXOXVGHVDEOHVRQWDSSDUXVORUVG¶XQHVpULHGHJUDGLHQWVPR\HQVGpFURLVVDQWV VpULH
GH QLYHDX[ G¶HDX DPRQW GpFURLVVDQWV  *O\QQ HW .XV]PDXO   PRQWUHQW VXU OHV GLJXHV pWXGLpHV
TXHODSOXVJUDQGHSDUWLHGHVWXPXOXVVHVRQWSURGXLWVORUVGHVFUXHVGHHWQRQORUVGHFHOOHVGH
ELHQTXHOHQLYHDXG¶HDXpWDLWSOXVEDVHQ(QGHVWXPXOXVVHVRQWSURGXLWVDX
YRLVLQDJH GH FHX[ IRUPpV HQ  /H SKpQRPqQH G¶XQH SRVVLEOH GLPLQXWLRQ GX JUDGLHQW DX FRXUV
G¶pURVLRQV UpJUHVVLYHV VXFFHVVLYHV D pWp pYRTXp GDQV OHV SUHPLqUHV UHFRQQDLVVDQFHV PHQpHV SDU
O¶86$&( PDLV Q¶D SDV pWp TXDQWLILp ,O Q
D SDV pWp pWXGLp SDU GHV HVVDLV HQ ODERUDWRLUH GpFULWV HQ
 6LOOV HW 9URPDQ   VXJJqUHQW TXH FH SKpQRPqQH SHXW V¶H[SOLTXHU SDU OH IDLW TX¶DSUqV OD
FUpDWLRQGHVWXPXOXVOHVFRQGXLWVG¶pURVLRQQHVRQWSDVUHPSOLVGHQRXYHDXHWUHVWHQWSUREDEOHPHQW
RXYHUWVFHTXLDXJPHQWHODSHUPpDELOLWpSRURVLWpGXVROHWUpGXLWOHJUDGLHQWGpFOHQFKHXUGHO¶pURVLRQ
ORUVGHVFUXHVVXLYDQWHV

86$&(   HW :ROII   PRQWUHQW pJDOHPHQW TXH OD JpRORJLH ORFDOH D XQH JUDQGH
LPSRUWDQFH VXU O¶DSSDULWLRQ GHV WXPXOXV GH VDEOHV /HV WXPXOXV GH VDEOH RQW SOXV GH FKDQFH GH VH
SURGXLUHORUVTXHOHIRVVpFUppjODEDVHGXWXPXOXVGHVDEOHHVWLPSRUWDQW SHQWHGXWDOXVLPSRUWDQWH 
HWPDLQWLHQWO¶pFRXOHPHQWHQSLHGGHEDUUDJH*O\QQet al  RQWPHQpGHVDQDO\VHVVWDWLVWLTXHV
VXU OHV]RQHV GH WXPXOXVHW RQW WURXYp TXH OHV SDUDPqWUHV OHV SOXV VLJQLILFDWLIV VRQW OHV FRQGLWLRQV
JpRORJLTXHVO¶pSDLVVHXUGHODFRXYHUWXUHDUJLOHXVHODWDLOOHGHVJUDLQVGHVDEOHHWO¶HPSODFHPHQWGHV
SUpFpGHQWHV]RQHVGHWXPXOXV(QXWLOLVDQWXQHUpJUHVVLRQPXOWLSOHGHFHVSDUDPqWUHVGHVPRGqOHV
__________________________________________________________________________
VWDWLVWLTXHV RQW pWp GpYHORSSpV SRXU FDOFXOHU OD SUREDELOLWp G¶DSSDULWLRQ GH WXPXOXV GH VDEOH VXU OHV
44 SHXW rWUH XWLOLVpH SRXU GpYHORSSHU XQ PRGqOH
WURQoRQV pWXGLpV GH OD GLJXH /D UpJUHVVLRQ PXOWLSOH
VWDWLVWLTXH XQLTXH GH SUpGLFWLRQ G¶DSSDULWLRQ GH WXPXOXV GH VDEOH SRXU XQH GLJXH TXHOFRQTXH 'HV
UHFKHUFKHVFRPSOpPHQWDLUHVVRQWSUpYXHVSRXUDSSOLTXHUOHPRGqOHDGHVULYLqUHVDSSDUWHQDQWjGHV
FRQWH[WHVJpRORJLTXHVGLIIpUHQWV

.DQQLQJ  DGpYHORSSpGHVPRGqOHVSRXUpYDOXHUODSUREDELOLWpGHIRUPDWLRQGHFRQGXLWV
G¶pURVLRQVGDQVXQVROGHSHUPpDELOLWpDOpDWRLUH,OFRQVWDWHTX¶XQHFDUDFWpULVDWLRQUpJLRQDOLVpHGXVRO
FRPELQpH DYHF GHV UHQIRUFHPHQWV ORFDX[ GH OD GLJXH SHXW rWUH XQH PHVXUH UHQWDEOH ORUVTXH O¶RQ D
GHVSUREDELOLWpVWURSLPSRUWDQWHVGHUXSWXUHSDUpURVLRQUpJUHVVLYH


4.3.2. Érosion régressive globale de noyaux de barrages


/¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHJOREDOHDSSDUDvWORUVTXHOHVROHQYLURQQDQWQHSHXWSDVVRXWHQLUOHWRLWGHV
FRQGXLWVG¶pURVLRQQDLVVDQWVHWV¶HIIRQGUH/DVHFWLRQHWOD7DEOHGRQQHQWTXHOTXHVFRQVHLOV
SRXUGpWHUPLQHUODFDSDFLWpGHVVROVj©WHQLUOHWRLWªG¶XQFRQGXLWG¶pURVLRQ

9UDLVHPEODEOHPHQWO¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHJOREDOHGXQR\DXGHVEDUUDJHV YRLUOD)LJGDQVOD
6HFWLRQ HVWXQPpFDQLVPHG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHTXLQHVHSURGXLWTX¶jGHVJUDGLHQWVUHODWLYHPHQW
IRUWVVDXIVLOHVROFRQVWLWXDQWOHQR\DXHVWVDQVFRKpVLRQGHJUDQXORPpWULHLQVWDEOHHWGRQFVXMHWWHj
ODVXIIXVLRQRXTXHOHQR\DXHVWDXFRQWDFWGHYLGHVLPSRUWDQWV

D  /HVHVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUHGH6XQ  0DURWet al  %HQGDKPDQHet al  
RQWFRQILUPpTXHO¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHSRXUUDLWVHSURGXLUHGDQVOHVVROVSOXVFRKpVLIV
PDLVHOOHHVWGpFOHQFKpHSDUGHVJUDGLHQWVWURSpOHYpVSRXUTX¶LOSXLVVHH[LVWHUGDQV
OHEDUUDJHRXVDIRQGDWLRQ
E  /HVHVVDLVUpDOLVpVDX/DERUDWRLUH9RGJHR91,,HWSUpVHQWpVSDU,VWRPLQD   )LJ
  RQW PRQWUp TXH OH JUDGLHQW K\GUDXOLTXH FULWLTXH G¶XQ VRO DYHF XQH WUqV IDLEOH
SODVWLFLWpHWXQHOLPLWHGHOLTXLGLWppJDOHjHVWSOXVJUDQGTX¶XQVRODYHFXQHOLPLWH
GHOLTXLGLWppJDOHjSRXUGHVWHQHXUVHQHDXSURFKHGHO¶2SWLPXP3URFWRU,OVRQW
PRQWUpTXHOHJUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXHFULWLTXHQHGpSHQGSDVXQLTXHPHQWGHODSODVWLFLWp
PDLVDXVVLGHODFRQVLVWDQFHPrPHGXVROHWGLPLQXHIRUWHPHQWTXDQGODWDLOOHGHOD
FDYLWpDXJPHQWH SDUH[HPSOHGHjSRXUXQHWDLOOHGHYLGHUHVSHFWLYHPHQWGHj
PPDYHFXQHIDLEOHSODVWLFLWp 


110
%RDUGSHUVRQQHO7KH\EXLOGVDQGEDJULQJVDQGLQVRPHFDVHVVXEOHYHHVDURXQGWKHVDQGERLOVWR
VWRS WKH IORZ RI VDQG EXW QRW WKH IORZ RI ZDWHU  7KH IHZ GRFXPHQWHG EUHDFKHV PD\ VXSSRUW WKH
ODERUDWRU\ WHVWV VHH  DERYH  ZKLFK VKRZ WKDW HURVLRQ LQLWLDWHV DW ORZHU DYHUDJH JUDGLHQWV WKDQ
WKHKLJKHUFULWLFDOJUDGLHQWVUHTXLUHGWRSURJUHVVWKHHURVLRQWRIRUPDFRQWLQXRXVSLSHIURPWKHODQG
VLGHWRWKHULYHUVLGH0RUHDQDO\VLVRIWKHILHOGGDWDLVUHTXLUHGWRLQYHVWLJDWHWKHFRQGLWLRQVDWZKLFK
HURVLRQFDXVLQJVDQGERLOVSURJUHVVHGWRHURVLRQFDXVLQJOHYHHIDLOXUH

:ROII   *O\QQ DQG .XV]PDXO   DQG 6LOOV DQG 9URPDQ   UHSRUW WKDW WKHUH DUH
VRPHFDVHVRIOHYHHVZKLFKKDYHVDQGERLODFWLYLW\RFFXUULQJDWVXFFHVVLYHO\ORZHUDYHUDJHJUDGLHQWV
ORZHUULYHUVWDJHV *O\QQDQG.XV]PDXO  VKRZWKDWJUHDWHUVDQGERLODFWLYLW\RFFXUUHGLQWKH
 IORRG WKDQ WKH  IORRG DORQJ WKH OHYHHV VWXGLHG HYHQ WKRXJK WKH ULYHU VWDJH ZDV ORZHU LQ
,QRIWKHVDQGERLOVRFFXUUHGDWORFDWLRQVFORVHWRWKHRQHV7KHSKHQRPHQRQ
RISRVVLEO\GHFUHDVLQJJUDGLHQWVDWZKLFKVXFFHVVLYHEDFNZDUGHURVLRQWRIRUPVDQGERLOVRFFXUVZDV
GLVFXVVHG LQ WKH HDUO\ LQYHVWLJDWLRQV E\ 86$&( EXW QRW TXDQWLILHG ,W ZDV QRW LQYHVWLJDWHG E\ WKH
ODERUDWRU\WHVWVGHVFULEHGLQDERYH6LOOVDQG9URPDQ  VXJJHVWWKDWLWPD\DULVHEHFDXVH
DIWHU VDQG ERLO HSLVRGHV WKH HURVLRQ SLSHV DUH QRW UHILOOHG DQG SUREDEO\ UHPDLQ RSHQ WKHUHE\
LQFUHDVLQJWKHSHUPHDELOLW\SRURVLW\RIWKHVRLODQGUHGXFLQJWKHJUDGLHQWDWZKLFKEDFNZDUGHURVLRQ
FRPPHQFHVGXULQJVXEVHTXHQWKLJKZDWHUOHYHOHYHQWV

86$&(  DQG:ROII  DOVRVKRZWKDWORFDOJHRORJ\KDVDQLPSRUWDQWLQIOXHQFHRQWKH
RFFXUUHQFH RI VDQG ERLOV 6DQG ERLOV DUH PRUH OLNHO\ WR RFFXU ZKHUH VZDOHV IURP SRLQW EDU GHSRVLWV
FURVV WKH OHYHH DW DQ DQJOH DQG FRQFHQWUDWH VHHSDJH DW WKH WRH *O\QQ HW DO   FRQGXFWHG
VWDWLVWLFDODQDO\VHVRIVDQGERLOORFDWLRQVDQGIRXQGWKDWWKHSDUDPHWHUVPRVWVLJQLILFDQWWRVDQGERLO
ORFDWLRQVDUHJHRORJLFDOFRQGLWLRQVODQGVLGHFRQILQLQJOD\HUWKLFNQHVVHIIHFWLYHJUDLQVL]HFRHIILFLHQWV
DQG SUHYLRXV VDQGERLO ORFDWLRQV 8VLQJ ORJLVWLF UHJUHVVLRQ RI WKHVHVLJQLILFDQW SDUDPHWHUV HPSLULFDO
PRGHOV ZHUH GHYHORSHG IRU FDOFXODWLQJ WKH SUREDELOLW\ RI VDQG ERLOV GHYHORSLQJ DW VHOHFWHG OHYHH
VHJPHQWV7KHORJLVWLFUHJUHVVLRQPRGHOLQJPHWKRGFDQEHXVHGWRGHYHORSDXQLTXHVWDWLVWLFDOPRGHO
IRUSUHGLFWLQJVDQGERLODFWLYLW\IRUDQ\OHYHHV\VWHP0RUHUHVHDUFKLVSODQQHGWRDSSO\WKHPRGHOLQJ
PHWKRGWRULYHUVORFDWHGLQGLIIHUHQWJHRORJLFUHJLRQV

.DQQLQJ  GHYHORSHGDPRGHOWRDVVHVVWKHSUREDELOLW\RIWKHIRUPDWLRQRISLSLQJHURVLRQ
SDWKV LQ VSDWLDOO\ YDULDEOH VRLOV ,W ZDV IRXQG WKDW ORFDO VRLO PHDVXUHPHQWV LQ FRPELQDWLRQ ZLWK ORFDO
GLNH LPSURYHPHQWV FDQ EH D FRVWHIIHFWLYH PHWKRG WR GHDO ZLWK XQDFFHSWDEO\ KLJK SUREDELOLWLHV RI
SLSLQJIDLOXUH


4.3.2. Global backward erosion in dam cores


*OREDO EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ RFFXUV ZKHQ WKH VRLO VXUURXQGLQJ LQFLSLHQW EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ SLSHV
FDQQRWVXSSRUWDURRIDQGFROODSVHV6HFWLRQDQG7DEOHJLYHJXLGDQFHRQVRLOVWKDWZLOOµKROGD
42
URRI¶DERYHHURVLRQSLSHV

7KH DYDLODEOH HYLGHQFH RQ WKH RFFXUUHQFH RI JOREDO EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ VHH )LJ LQ
6HFWLRQ LQFHQWUDOFRUHGDPVLVWKDWWKLVLQWHUQDOHURVLRQPRGHZLOORQO\RFFXUDWUHODWLYHO\KLJK
JUDGLHQWVH[FHSWZKHQWKHFRUHFRQVLVWVRIFRKHVLRQOHVVLQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOHVRLOVXEMHFWWRVXIIXVLRQRU
ZKHQODUJHFDYLWLHVDUHLQFRQWDFWZLWKWKHFRUH7KLVHYLGHQFHLQFOXGHV

D  /DERUDWRU\ WHVWV E\ 6XQ   0DURW HW DO   DQG %HQGDKPDQH HW DO  
FRQILUPHGWKDWEDFNZDUGHURVLRQFRXOGRFFXULQPRUHFRKHVLYHVRLOVEXWLQLWLDWHGDWYHU\
KLJKJUDGLHQWVZKLFKZHUHQRWOLNHO\WRRFFXULQGDPVRUWKHLUIRXQGDWLRQV
E  7KHWHVWVGRQHDWWKH91,,9RGJHR/DERUDWRU\DQGUHSRUWHGE\,VWRPLQD  VKRZQ
LQ )LJ JLYH WKH FULWLFDO K\GUDXOLF JUDGLHQW IRU D  FP GLDPHWHU KROH RI EDFNZDUG
HURVLRQRIFOD\VZLWKOLPLWRIOLTXLGLW\EHWZHHQDQGYHUVXVWKHLUPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW
7KH\VKRZHGWKDWWKHFULWLFDOK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWQRWRQO\LQFUHDVHVZLWKWKHSODVWLFLW\EXW
GHFUHDVHVZLWKWKHOLTXLGLW\LQGH[DQGDOVRGHFUHDVHVPDUNHGO\ZLWKWKHLQFUHDVHRIWKH
GLDPHWHU RI WKH YRLGV IRU LQVWDQFH LW GHFUHDVHV IURP  WR  ZLWK  FP WR  FP
GLDPHWHUKROHVUHVSHFWLYHO\LQFOD\ZLWKZ Z/  


111


SODVWLFLWpHWXQHOLPLWHGHOLTXLGLWppJDOHjHVWSOXVJUDQGTX¶XQVRODYHFXQHOLPLWH
GHOLTXLGLWppJDOHjSRXUGHVWHQHXUVHQHDXSURFKHGHO¶2SWLPXP3URFWRU,OVRQW
PRQWUpTXHOHJUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXHFULWLTXHQHGpSHQGSDVXQLTXHPHQWGHODSODVWLFLWp
PDLVDXVVLGHODFRQVLVWDQFHPrPHGXVROHWGLPLQXHIRUWHPHQWTXDQGODWDLOOHGHOD
FDYLWpDXJPHQWH SDUH[HPSOHGHjSRXUXQHWDLOOHGHYLGHUHVSHFWLYHPHQWGHj
PPDYHFXQHIDLEOHSODVWLFLWp 


)LJ
*UDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXHFULWLTXHIXQFWLRQGHODWHQHXUHQHDX D G¶DUJLOHVGHZ/DYHFXQWURXGH
FPHW E G¶XQHDUJLOHjZ/ DYHFXQWURXGHGLDPqWUHFRPSULVHQWUHGFP ,VWRPLQD 

F  %HQGDKPDQHet al  RQWUpDOLVpGHVHVVDLVTXLPRQWUHQWTXHOHVVROVFRPSRVpV

GHGHNDROLQHWGHVDEOHILQVRQWDIIHFWpVSDUO¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHSRXUXQ
JUDGLHQWFRPSULVHQWUHHWHQIRQFWLRQGHODFRQWUDLQWHGHFRQILQHPHQW3RXUOHV
__________________________________________________________________________
VROV FRQWHQDQW  j  GH NDROLQ O¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH VH SURGXLW SRXU GHV
JUDGLHQWV VXSpULHXUV j  ,OV 45RQW REVHUYp OH SKpQRPqQH GH VXIIXVLRQ SRXU GHV
JUDGLHQWV LQIpULHXUV j  LOV SUpFLVHQW FHSHQGDQW TXH FHWWH LQpTXDWLRQ Q¶HVW
JpQpUDOHPHQWSDVDSSOLFDEOH
G  0RIIDW HW )DQQLQ   HW 0RIIDW et al   LQGLTXHQW TXH SRXU OHV VROV VDQV
FRKpVLRQV WHVWpV RQ REVHUYH XQ PRXYHPHQW LQLWLDO GHV SDUWLFXOHV ILQHV SRXU XQ
JUDGLHQWHQYLURQpJDOjHWXQPRXYHPHQWVXSSOpPHQWDLUHGHVILQHVHWG¶XQHSDUWLH
GHVSDUWLFXOHVJURVVLqUHVjGHVJUDGLHQWVSOXVpOHYpVDX[DOHQWRXUVGHjSRXU
OHVVROVWHVWpV
H  0DURWet al  %HQGDKPDQHet al  RQWXWLOLVpGHVVROVDUJLOHX[HW6DLOet al
 RQWXWLOLVpVGHVVROVSODVWLTXHVjJUDQXORPpWULHGLVFRQWLQXHDYHFGHILQHV
,OVRQWREVHUYpTXHOTXHVPRXYHPHQWVGHSDUWLFXOHVjGHVJUDGLHQWVHQYLURQpJDX[j
HWXQPRXYHPHQWSOXVLPSRUWDQWSRXUGHVJUDGLHQWVEHDXFRXSSOXVpOHYpV
I  'HVHVVDLVUpFHQWVVXUOHVWLOOVSURYHQDQWG¶XQEDUUDJHDXVWUDOLHQRQWPRQWUpTXHSRXU
XQpFRXOHPHQWYHUWLFDOYHUVOHEDV PRGpOLVDQWODVLWXDWLRQGHOD)LJ FHTXLVHPEOH
rWUH GH O¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH VXUYLHQW GDQV OHV VROV VDQV FRKpVLRQ j JUDQXORPpWULH
pWHQGXH SRXU XQ JUDGLHQW pJDO j  /¶pURVLRQ DYDLW SURJUHVVp HQ  MRXUV SRXU XQ
JUDGLHQW GH  HW DXUDLW SX DWWHLQGUH OD FRQGLWLRQ GH UXSWXUH VDQV DXJPHQWDWLRQ GX
JUDGLHQW VL OD GXUpH GH O¶HVVDL DYDLW pWp SOXV JUDQGH &HOD VRXOqYH OD TXHVWLRQ GH
O¶LQIOXHQFH GX WHPSV VXU FH W\SH G¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH pWDQW GRQQp TXH FH SURFHVVXV
SHXWrWUHWUqVOHQW'HVHVVDLVFRPSOpPHQWDLUHVVRQWQpFHVVDLUHVSRXUFRPSUHQGUHFH
SKpQRPqQH

$FWXHOOHPHQWLOQ
\DSDVGHPpWKRGHILDEOHSRXUSUpGLUHO¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHJOREDOHGDQVOHV
QR\DX[FRQVWLWXpVGHVROVVDQVFRKpVLRQjJUDQXORPpWULHpWHQGXHFRPPHOHWLOORXOHGpYHORSSHPHQW
GH FRQGXLW YHUWLFDO FRPPH GDQV OD )LJ 3RXU FHV VLWXDWLRQV LO HVW UHFRPPDQGp GH UpDOLVHU GHV
HVVDLVVSpFLILTXHVHQODERUDWRLUH


4.3.3. Érosion régressive du parement


,OV
DJLWG
XQPpFDQLVPHGHUXSWXUHTXLSHXWVXUYHQLUVHXOHPHQWVXUGHVGLJXHVRXGHVEDUUDJHV
FRQVWUXLWVHQVLOWVDEOHRXHQJUDYLHURXELHQVXUGHVEDUUDJHVHQHQURFKHPHQWHQFRQVWUXFWLRQDYDQW
ODSRVHGXPDVTXHHQEpWRQ

/HV SDUWLFXOHV VH GpWDFKHQW GH OD IDFH DPRQW VRXV O¶DFWLRQ GH OD JUDYLWp HW GH OD SRXVVpH GX
JUDGLHQW K\GUDXOLTXH DX GpEXW GH OD ]RQH GH UpVXUJHQFH GX SDUHPHQW DYDO RX GX SLHG /H PRGH GH
UXSWXUHHVWOHGpFKDXVVHPHQWGHVJUDLQVGHODIDFHDYDOSOXW{WTXHODIRUPDWLRQG¶XQFRQGXLWGDQVOH
UHPEODL

/H GpFKDXVVHPHQW GHYLHQW SRVVLEOH TXDQG OH GLDPqWUH GHV SDUWLFXOHV HVW LQIpULHXU j OD WDLOOH
112
FULWLTXHGHVEORFVjSDUWLUGXTXHOOHGpELWGHUpVXUJHQFHHQWUDvQHO¶pURVLRQ&HODSHXWrWUHpYDOXpHQ
XWLOLVDQW OD PpWKRGH GH 6ROYLN    RX UHYXH SDU (%/ .RPSHWDQ]H $6   /¶pTXDWLRQ
VXLYDQWHHVWXWLOLVDEOHSRXUGpWHUPLQHUO¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQDXQLYHDXGXSLHGGXEDUUDJHVRXPLVj
XQpFRXOHPHQW
LQ )LJ JLYH WKH FULWLFDO K\GUDXOLF JUDGLHQW IRU D  FP GLDPHWHU KROH RI EDFNZDUG
HURVLRQRIFOD\VZLWKOLPLWRIOLTXLGLW\EHWZHHQDQGYHUVXVWKHLUPRLVWXUHFRQWHQW
7KH\VKRZHGWKDWWKHFULWLFDOK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWQRWRQO\LQFUHDVHVZLWKWKHSODVWLFLW\EXW
GHFUHDVHVZLWKWKHOLTXLGLW\LQGH[DQGDOVRGHFUHDVHVPDUNHGO\ZLWKWKHLQFUHDVHRIWKH
GLDPHWHU RI WKH YRLGV IRU LQVWDQFH LW GHFUHDVHV IURP  WR  ZLWK  FP WR  FP
GLDPHWHUKROHVUHVSHFWLYHO\LQFOD\ZLWKZ Z/  



)LJ
6KRZLQJFULWLFDOK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWYHUVXVZDWHUFRQWHQWLQSODVWLFVRLOV OHIW ZLWKZ/DQGD
FPGLDPHWHUKROHDQG E ZLWKZ/ DQGDGLDPHWHUKROHGFP ,VWRPLQD 


F  %HQGDKPDQHHWDO  FDUULHGRXWWHVWVZKLFKVKRZHGWKDWVRLOVFRQVLVWLQJRI
NDROLQ   ILQH VDQG LQLWLDWHG EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ DW JUDGLHQWV EHWZHHQ  DQG
GHSHQGLQJRQFRQILQLQJSUHVVXUH)RUNDROLQFRQWHQWVDQGQREDFNZDUG
HURVLRQRFFXUUHGDWJUDGLHQWVDVKLJKDV7KH\REVHUYHGZKDWWKH\FDOOHGVXIIXVLRQ
ZLWKJUDGLHQWVDVORZDVEXWQRWHGWKDWWKLVYDOXHVKRXOGQRWEHWDNHQDVJHQHUDOO\
DSSOLFDEOH
G  0RIIDW DQG )DQQLQ   DQG 0RIIDW HW DO   LQGLFDWH WKDW WKHUH LV DQ LQLWLDO
PRYHPHQWRIILQHUSDUWLFOHVDWJUDGLHQWVRIDERXWIRUWKHFRKHVLRQOHVVVRLOVWKH\WHVWHG
DQG PRUH H[WHQVLYH PRYHPHQW RI ILQHU DQG VRPH FRDUVHU IUDFWLRQ VRLOV DW KLJKHU
JUDGLHQWV IURP DERXW  WR  LQ WKH VRLOV WHVWHG 7KHVH PRYHPHQWV RI SDUWLFOHV DUH
DFFRPSDQLHG E\ D UHGXFWLRQ LQ YROXPH DV SDUWLFOHV DUH HURGHG IURP WKH VRLO WKURXJK
LQDGHTXDWHILOWHUV
 H  0DURWHWDO  DQG%HQGDKPDQHHWDO  WHVWHGFOD\VRLOVDQG6DLOHWDO  D
QRQSODVWLF JDS JUDGHG VRLOV ZLWK  ILQHU IUDFWLRQ 7KH\ REVHUYHG VRPH SDUWLFOH
PRYHPHQWDWDJUDGLHQWRIDERXWDQGPDMRUPRYHPHQWDWPXFKKLJKHUJUDGLHQWV
I  6RPH UHFHQW WHVWV RQ JODFLDO WLOO VRLOV IURP DQ $XVWUDOLDQ GDP VKRZHG WKDW IRU YHUWLFDO
GRZQZDUG IORZ WR PRGHO WKH FRQGLWLRQ LQ )LJ ZKDW DSSHDUV WR EH EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ
RFFXUUHG LQ EURDGO\ JUDGHG FRKHVLRQOHVV VRLOV DW D JUDGLHQW RI  (URVLRQ KDG
SURJUHVVHG IRU DERXW  GD\V DW D 43JUDGLHQW RI  DQG PD\ KDYH UHDFKHG WKH IDLOXUH
FRQGLWLRQZLWKRXWWKHLQFUHDVHGJUDGLHQWLIWKHGXUDWLRQRIWKHWHVWKDGEHHQORQJHU7KLV
UDLVHV TXHVWLRQV DV WR WLPH HIIHFWV IRU WKLV W\SH RI EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ DV LW VHHPV WKH
SURFHVVPD\EHYHU\VORZ0RUHWHVWLQJLVUHTXLUHGWRH[SORUHWKLVSKHQRPHQRQ

7KHUHDUHQRNQRZQUHOLDEOHPHWKRGVIRUSUHGLFWLQJJOREDOEDFNZDUGHURVLRQLQEURDGO\JUDGHG
FRKHVLRQOHVVVRLOVVXFKDVJODFLDOWLOOVLQWKHFRUHVRIGDPVDQGIRUGHYHORSPHQWRIYHUWLFDOSLSLQJDV
VKRZQ LQ )LJ )RU WKHVH VLWXDWLRQV LW LV UHFRPPHQGHG WKDW VSHFLILFDOO\ GHVLJQHG ODERUDWRU\ WHVWV
VKRXOGEHFDUULHGRXW


4.3.3. Global backward erosion causing unraveling at the downstream face


7KLVPRGHPD\RFFXULQGLNHVRUGDPVFRQVWUXFWHGRQO\RIVLOWVDQGRUJUDYHORULQ&)5'XQGHU
FRQVWUXFWLRQEHIRUHSODFLQJWKHXSVWUHDPIDFLQJ

7KHUH LV D SRWHQWLDO IRU SDUWLFOHV WR EH UHPRYHG IURP WKH GRZQVWUHDP VORSH E\ JUDYLW\ DQG
K\GUDXOLFVHHSDJHJUDGLHQWXQGHUWKHWKURXJKIORZEUHDNRXWOLQHZKHUHWKHSKUHDWLFVXUIDFHHPHUJHV
RQ WR WKH GRZQVWUHDP IDFH RU WRH 7KH IDLOXUH PRGH LV RQH RI XQUDYHOLQJ RI WKH GRZQVWUHDP VORSH
UDWKHUWKDQIRUPDWLRQRIDSLSHWKURXJKWKHHPEDQNPHQW

,WLVYHU\OLNHO\WKDWXQUDYHOLQJZLOORFFXULIWKHSDUWLFOHGLDPHWHULVXQGHUDFULWLFDOVL]HDVVRFLDWHG
WR WKH GLVFKDUJH UDWH 7KLV FDQ EH DVVHVVHG E\ WKH PHWKRG RI 6ROYLN    DQG WKH UHYLVHG
PHWKRG E\ (%/ .RPSHWDQ]H $6   7KH IROORZLQJ HTXDWLRQ LV UHFRPPHQGHG WR GHVFULEH 113
WKH
LQLWLDWLRQRIHURVLRQRIGDPWRHVXEMHFWWRWKURXJKIORZ

d  S   q   

/HV SDUWLFXOHV VH GpWDFKHQW GH OD IDFH DPRQW VRXV O¶DFWLRQ GH OD JUDYLWp HW GH OD SRXVVpH GX
JUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXHDXGpEXWGHOD]RQHGHUpVXUJHQFHGXSDUHPHQWDYDORXGXSLHG/H PRGHGH
UXSWXUHHVWOHGpFKDXVVHPHQWGHVJUDLQVGHODIDFHDYDOSOXW{WTXHODIRUPDWLRQG¶XQFRQGXLWGDQVOH
UHPEODL

/H GpFKDXVVHPHQW GHYLHQW SRVVLEOH TXDQG OH GLDPqWUH GHV SDUWLFXOHV HVW LQIpULHXU j OD WDLOOH
FULWLTXHGHVEORFVjSDUWLUGXTXHOOHGpELWGHUpVXUJHQFHHQWUDvQHO¶pURVLRQ&HODSHXWrWUHpYDOXpHQ
XWLOLVDQW OD PpWKRGH GH 6ROYLN    RX UHYXH SDU (%/ .RPSHWDQ]H $6   /¶pTXDWLRQ
VXLYDQWHHVWXWLOLVDEOHSRXUGpWHUPLQHUO¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQDXQLYHDXGXSLHGGXEDUUDJHVRXPLVj
XQpFRXOHPHQW

d  S   q   

$YHFGWDLOOHGHVEORFVHQPqWUHV6ODSHQWHGXWDOXVHWTOHGpELWG¶pURVLRQXQLWDLUHHQPVP

&HSURFHVVXVSHXWrWUHDFFpOpUpSDUOHSKpQRPqQHGHVXIIXVLRQGDQVOHVPDWpULDX[XWLOLVpV


4.3.4. Approches empiriques de Bligh et Lane

 HV PpWKRGHV GH %OLJK   HW /DQH   DLQVL TXH OHV SURFpGXUHV GpULYpHV GH FHV
/
PpWKRGHV RX G¶H[SpULHQFHV SDU H[HPSOH FHOOHV GH 86$&( FRPPH O¶H[SOLTXHQW 6LOOV HW 9URPDQ
  VRQW ODUJHPHQW XWLOLVpHV SRXU YpULILHU VL OD ORQJXHXU GH O¶pFRXOHPHQW VRXV OHV VWUXFWXUHV HVW
__________________________________________________________________________
VXIILVDQWHSRXUHPSrFKHUO¶pURVLRQGHFRQGXLW2QUHPDUTXHTXHOHVPpWKRGHVGH%OLJKHW/DQHVRQW
45
EkWLHV VXU GHV GRQQpHV TXL UDVVHPEOHQW G¶DXWUHV PpFDQLVPHV GH UXSWXUH TXH O¶pURVLRQ UpJUHVVLYH
/¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHHVWDERUGpHGDQVFH%XOOHWLQGHPDQLqUHSOXVULJRXUHXVHTXHGDQVFHOOHGHFHV
DQFLHQQHVPpWKRGHV3DUH[HPSOH6HOOPHLMHUDUHPDUTXpTXHGHO¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHSRXYDLWV¶LQLWLHU
GDQVOHVIRQGDWLRQVVDEOHXVHVDYHFGHVJUDGLHQWVK\GUDXOLTXHVLQIpULHXUVjFHX[UHSRUWpVSDU%OLJK
DQG /DQH WDQGLV TXH OHXUV IRUPXOHV HPSLULTXHV VXUHVWLPHQW OD SRVVLELOLWp G¶DYRLU GH O¶pURVLRQ
UpJUHVVLYHHQIRQGDWLRQDUJLOHXVH

'DQVODPpWKRGHGH%OLJKHW/DQHODSUpYHQWLRQFRQWUHODUXSWXUHSDUUHQDUGHQV¶DVVXUDQWTXH
OD GLVWDQFH GH SHUFRODWLRQ / HVW VXIILVDPPHQW JUDQGH SRXU UHQGUH OH JUDGLHQW K\GUDXOLTXH JOREDO
L ǻ+/ LQIpULHXU j OD YDOHXU FULWLTXH LF  R ǻ+ UHSUpVHQWH OD SHUWH GH FKDUJH WRWDOH HQWUH O¶DPRQW HW
O¶DYDO P /DGLVWDQFHGHSHUFRODWLRQ/HVWGpILQLHG¶DSUqV%OLJK  HW/DQH  UHVSHFWLYHPHQW
SDU

/ 9E+

R
9GLVWDQFHGHSHUFRODWLRQYHUWLFDOH P 
+GLVWDQFHGHSHUFRODWLRQKRUL]RQWDOH P 
ESRXU%OLJKHWSRXU/DQHHQUpDOLWpFHIDFWHXUSURYLHQWGXUpVHDXG¶pFRXOHPHQWGDQVXQ
IDFLqVJpRORJLTXHHWSHXWrWUHHVWLPpGDQVXQHFRXFKHKRPRJqQHSDUODUDFLQHFDUUpHGXUDSSRUWGH
ODSHUPpDELOLWpKRUL]RQWDOHVXUODSHUPpDELOLWpYHUWLFDOHpTXLYDOHQWjXQUDSSRUWG¶DQLVRWURSLHGHSRXU
%OLJKHWGHSRXU/DQH

/DFRQGLWLRQGHQRQUXSWXUHV¶pFULWLLFRLFGpSHQGGXW\SHGHVRO 7DEOHDX 

7DEOHDX
9DOHXUVGXJUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXHFULWLTXH
7\SHGHVRO *UDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXHFULWLTXHGH/DQH *UDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXHFULWLTXHGH%OLJK
VDEOHWUqVILQRXVLOW  
VDEOHILQ  
VDEOHPR\HQ  
6DEOHJURVVLHU   
JUDYHWWHRXJUDYHVDEOHXVH  
JUDYHPR\HQQH  
*UDYHJURVVLqUH  
JDOHWVJUDYHHWVDEOH  j
$UJLOH j 


4.3.5. Approche russe


%HONRYDet al  =KLOHQNRYet al  HW5XP\DQWVHYet al  GRQQHQWGHVUpVXPpV
VXU OHV QRUPHV GH FRQFHSWLRQ UXVVH FRQFHUQDQW O¶pFRXOHPHQW GDQV OH UHPEODL RX OD IRQGDWLRQ GX
EDUUDJH5DGFKHQNRet al  GRQQHQWSOXVGHSUpFLVLRQV,OVLQGLTXHQWTXHFHVQRUPHVQpFHVVLWHQW
GHVDQDO\VHVQXPpULTXHVGHO¶pFRXOHPHQWGDQVOHFRUSVGXEDUUDJHODIRQGDWLRQHWOHVULYHVGXIOHXYH
114
HQSUHQDQWHQFRPSWHOHVFRQGLWLRQVJpRORJLTXHVQRQXQLIRUPHVHWO¶DQLVRWURSLH

/HV QRUPHV QpFHVVLWHQW OD GpWHUPLQDWLRQ SDU pWXGH HW DQDO\VH GHV SDUDPqWUHV G¶pFRXOHPHQW
VXLYDQWV
FRQVWUXFWLRQEHIRUHSODFLQJWKHXSVWUHDPIDFLQJ

7KHUH LV D SRWHQWLDO IRU SDUWLFOHV WR EH UHPRYHG IURP WKH GRZQVWUHDP VORSH E\ JUDYLW\ DQG
K\GUDXOLFVHHSDJHJUDGLHQWXQGHUWKHWKURXJKIORZEUHDNRXWOLQHZKHUHWKHSKUHDWLFVXUIDFHHPHUJHV
RQ WR WKH GRZQVWUHDP IDFH RU WRH 7KH IDLOXUH PRGH LV RQH RI XQUDYHOLQJ RI WKH GRZQVWUHDP VORSH
UDWKHUWKDQIRUPDWLRQRIDSLSHWKURXJKWKHHPEDQNPHQW

,WLVYHU\OLNHO\WKDWXQUDYHOLQJZLOORFFXULIWKHSDUWLFOHGLDPHWHULVXQGHUDFULWLFDOVL]HDVVRFLDWHG
WR WKH GLVFKDUJH UDWH 7KLV FDQ EH DVVHVVHG E\ WKH PHWKRG RI 6ROYLN    DQG WKH UHYLVHG
PHWKRG E\ (%/ .RPSHWDQ]H $6   7KH IROORZLQJ HTXDWLRQ LV UHFRPPHQGHG WR GHVFULEH WKH
LQLWLDWLRQRIHURVLRQRIGDPWRHVXEMHFWWRWKURXJKIORZ

d  S   q   

:KHUHGLVURFNVL]HLQPHWHUV6VORSHRIURFNILOODQGTXQLWGLVFKDUJHLQPVP

,IVXIIXVLRQRFFXUVLQWKHPDWHULDOXVHGWRFRQVWUXFWWKHGLNHWKLVSURFHVVPD\EHDFFHOHUDWHG


4.3.4. Empirical approaches of Bligh and Lane


7KHHPSLULFDODSSURDFKHVRI%OLJK  DQG/DQH  DQGSURFHGXUHVGHULYHGIURPWKHP
E\86$&(IRUH[DPSOHDVUHSRUWHGLQ6LOOVDQG9URPDQ DUHZLGHO\XVHGWRFKHFNZKHWKHUWKH
VHHSDJHOHQJWKEHORZVWUXFWXUHVLVVXIILFLHQWWRSUHYHQWSLSLQJXQGHUWKHP,WVKRXOGEHQRWHGWKDWGDWD
IURP PHFKDQLVPV RWKHU WKDQ EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ LQ VDQG\ IRXQGDWLRQV ZDV XVHG WR GHYHORS WKH %OLJK
DQG /DQH PHWKRGV 7KH %XOOHWLQ DSSURDFKHV EDFNZDUG HURVLRQ PRUH ULJRURXVO\ WKDQ WKHVH ROGHU
PHWKRGV)RULQVWDQFHEDFNZDUGHURVLRQLQVDQG\IRXQGDWLRQVZDVREVHUYHGE\6HOOPHLMHUWRRFFXUDW
K\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWORZHUWKDQWKHYDOXHVUHSRUWHGE\%OLJKDQG/DQHDQGGHSHQGVRQWKHWKLFNQHVVRI
WKH VDQG OD\HU DFFRUGLQJ WR WKH VFDOH HIIHFW LJQRUHG E\ %OLJK DQG /DQH PRUHRYHU WKH OLNHOLKRRG RI
EDFNZDUGHURVLRQLQFOD\IRXQGDWLRQVLVRYHUHVWLPDWHGE\WKHLUUXOHV

,QWKH%OLJKDQG/DQHPRGHOVSLSLQJPD\EHSUHYHQWHGE\HQVXULQJWKDWWKHVHHSDJHOHQJWK/LV
VXIILFLHQWO\ODUJHWRPDNHWKHJOREDOK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWL ǻ+/ORZHUWKDQLWVFULWLFDOYDOXHLFZKHUHǻ+
UHSUHVHQWVWKHRYHUDOOKHDGGLIIHUHQFH P 7KHVHHSDJHOHQJWK/LVGHILQHGDFFRUGLQJWR%OLJK  
DQG/DQH  UHVSHFWLYHO\E\

/ 9E+

ZKHUH
9YHUWLFDOVHHSDJHOHQJWK P 
+KRUL]RQWDOVHHSDJHOHQJWK P 
E  IRU %OLJK DQG  IRU /DQH LQ IDFW WKLV IDFWRU LV DVVRFLDWHG WR WKH IORZ QHW LQ WKH JHRORJLFDO
VWUDWXPDQGFRXOGEHHVWLPDWHGLQDKRPRJHQHRXVOD\HUE\WKHVTXDUHURRWRIWKHUDWLRRIKRUL]RQWDO
SHUPHDELOLW\WRWKHYHUWLFDOSHUPHDELOLW\ 44

7KLVFRQGLWLRQPD\EHH[SUHVVHGDVLLFZKHUHLFGHSHQGVRQWKHW\SHRIVRLO VHH7DEOH 

7DEOH
9DOXHRIFULWLFDOK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQW
7\SHRIVRLO &ULWLFDOK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWRI/DQH &ULWLFDOK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWRI%OLJK
9HU\ILQHVDQGRUVLOW  
)LQHVDQG  
0HGLXPVL]HVDQG  
&RDUVHVDQG   
)LQHJUDYHORUVDQGDQGJUDYHO  
0HGLXPVL]HJUDYHO  
&RDUVHJUDYHO  
%RXOGHUVJUDYHODQGVDQG  WR
&OD\ WR 


4.3.5. The Russian Design Methods


%HONRYD HW DO   =KLOHQNRY HW DO   DQG 5XP\DQWVHY HW DO   JLYH VXPPDULHV RI
5XVVLDQ VWDQGDUGV IRU GHVLJQ IRU VHHSDJH IORZ LQ WKH HPEDQNPHQW DQG IRXQGDWLRQV RI GDPV
5DGFKHQNRHWDO  JLYHPRUHGHWDLOV7KH\LQGLFDWHWKDWWKHVHVWDQGDUGVUHTXLUHWKDWQXPHULFDO
DQDO\VHVRIVHHSDJHLQWKHGDPERG\IRXQGDWLRQDQGULYHUEDQNVDUHPDGHLQFOXGLQJDFFRXQWLQJIRU
QRQXQLIRUPDQGDQLVRWURSLFJHRORJLFDOFRQGLWLRQV

7KH VWDQGDUGV UHTXLUH WKDW WKH IROORZLQJ SDUDPHWHUVRI VHHSDJHIORZVKRXOG EH GHWHUPLQHG 115 LQ
VWXGLHVDQGDQDO\VHV

- SRVLWLRQRISKUHDWLFVXUIDFHLQWKHGDPERG\DQGEDQNV
- VHHSDJHIORZUDWHWKURXJKWKHGDPERG\IRXQGDWLRQDQGEDQNV
JUDYHWWHRXJUDYHVDEOHXVH  
JUDYHPR\HQQH  
*UDYHJURVVLqUH  
JDOHWVJUDYHHWVDEOH  j
$UJLOH j 


4.3.5. Approche russe


%HONRYDet al  =KLOHQNRYet al  HW5XP\DQWVHYet al  GRQQHQWGHVUpVXPpV
VXU OHV QRUPHV GH FRQFHSWLRQ UXVVH FRQFHUQDQW O¶pFRXOHPHQW GDQV OH UHPEODL RX OD IRQGDWLRQ GX
EDUUDJH5DGFKHQNRet al  GRQQHQWSOXVGHSUpFLVLRQV,OVLQGLTXHQWTXHFHVQRUPHVQpFHVVLWHQW
GHVDQDO\VHVQXPpULTXHVGHO¶pFRXOHPHQWGDQVOHFRUSVGXEDUUDJHODIRQGDWLRQHWOHVULYHVGXIOHXYH
HQSUHQDQWHQFRPSWHOHVFRQGLWLRQVJpRORJLTXHVQRQXQLIRUPHVHWO¶DQLVRWURSLH

/HV QRUPHV QpFHVVLWHQW OD GpWHUPLQDWLRQ SDU pWXGH HW DQDO\VH GHV SDUDPqWUHV G¶pFRXOHPHQW
VXLYDQWV

- ODSRVLWLRQGHODVXUIDFHSLp]RPpWULTXHGHODQDSSHSKUpDWLTXHDXQLYHDXGXFRUSVGX
EDUUDJHHWGHVULYHV
- OHGpELWG¶LQILOWUDWLRQjWUDYHUVOHFRUSVGXEDUUDJHODIRQGDWLRQHWOHVULYHV
- OD FKDUJH RX JUDGLHQW K\GUDXOLTXH  GH O¶pFRXOHPHQW GDQV OH FRUSV GX EDUUDJH OHV
IRQGDWLRQV OHV ]RQHV G¶pFRXOHPHQWV GDQV OH GUDLQDJH RX j OD VRUWLH GX SLHG DYDO OHV
]RQHV GH FRQWDFW HQWUH OHV VROV GH FDUDFWpULVWLTXHV GLIIpUHQWHV HW DX[ IURQWLqUHV GHV
]RQHVLPSHUPpDEOHV

__________________________________________________________________________
/HV SDUDPqWUHV G¶pFRXOHPHQW GRLYHQW rWUH GpWHUPLQpV SDU GHV DQDO\VHV SRXU OHV EDUUDJHV
47
FRQVWUXLWVGDQVGHV]RQHVFOLPDWLTXHVIURLGHVHWSRVVpGDQWVXQQR\DXVHQVLEOHDXJHO

/HV SRVVLEOHV IOXFWXDWLRQV WHPSRUHOOHV GHV SDUDPqWUHV G¶pFRXOHPHQW GRLYHQW rWUH pJDOHPHQW
SULVHVHQFRPSWH
 
3RXU GpWHUPLQHU FH TXL HVW DSSHOp OD ©UpVLVWDQFH j O
LQILOWUDWLRQª GX V\VWqPH GDQV VRQ
HQVHPEOHHWGDQVVHVPDWpULDX[FRQVWLWXWLIVGHX[FRQFHSWVVRQWXWLOLVpVODIRUFHG¶LQILOWUDWLRQJOREDOH
HWODIRUFHG¶LQILOWUDWLRQORFDOH

/D©UpVLVWDQFHjO
LQILOWUDWLRQªGDQVOHFRUSVGXEDUUDJHHWOHV]RQHVLPSHUPpDEOHVHVWHVWLPpH
jSDUWLUG¶DQDO\VHVQXPpULTXHVHWG¶HVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUHVXUOHVVROVVRXPLVDXJUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXH
DWWHQGX GDQV OHV pOpPHQWV VWUXFWXUDX[ GX EDUUDJH /HV DQDO\VHV VRQW UpDOLVpHV HQ XWLOLVDQW OD SOXV
JUDQGH YDOHXU GH FKDUJH QLYHDX G¶HDX GX UpVHUYRLU  DWWHQGX VXU OH EDUUDJH /
pWDW GH FRQWUDLQWH
GpIRUPDWLRQGXEDUUDJHHWVDIRQGDWLRQHVWDXVVLjSUHQGUHHQFRPSWH

(QXWLOLVDQWOHVUpVXOWDWVODUpVLVWDQFHjO¶LQILOWUDWLRQHVWYpULILpHHWVLQpFHVVDLUHODGLVSRVLWLRQGX
EDUUDJHHQSDUWLFXOLHUODORFDOLVDWLRQGXGUDLQDJHHVWDMXVWpHSRXUUpSRQGUHDXFULWqUHGHFRQFHSWLRQ

3RXUOHFRUSVGXEDUUDJHOHVSDUDPqWUHVVXLYDQWVVRQWGpWHUPLQpV

- )DFWHXUGHSHUPpDELOLWpk
- &RHIILFLHQWG¶DEVRUSWLRQGHO¶HDXTSRXUOHV]RQHVGHVROVHQVLEOHVDXJHO
- 3DUDPqWUHVGHODUpVLVWDQFHjO¶LQILOWUDWLRQGDQVOHVRO JUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXHFULWLTXHORFDO
HWPR\HQJcrDQGJcr,mHWODYLWHVVHFULWLTXHG¶pFRXOHPHQWVcr 

6L QpFHVVDLUH OHV VROXWLRQV VWUXFWXUDOHV VRQW DMXVWpHV DSUqV YpULILFDWLRQV QXPpULTXHV GH OD
UpVLVWDQFHGHVIRQGDWLRQV

'DQVODIRQGDWLRQOHVQRUPHVH[LJHQWTXHOHVVLWXDWLRQVVXLYDQWHVGRLYHQWrWUHpYLWpHV

- 3HUWHGHODUpVLVWDQFHjO¶LQILOWUDWLRQGDQVODIRQGDWLRQPHXEOH
- 'RPPDJHV RSpUDWLRQV LQHIILFDFHV GDQV OHV PDWpULDX[ LPSHUPpDEOHV GHV IRQGDWLRQV
TXLSURYRTXHQWGHVSHUWHVG¶HDXLQDFFHSWDEOHVGHVIXLWHVODVDWXUDWLRQGHVWDOXVHWF
- 'pSODFHPHQWV GLIIpUHQWLHOV HQ IRQGDWLRQ TXL SRXUUDLHQW SURYRTXHU OD UXSWXUH GHV
PDWpULDX[LPSHUPpDEOHV
- $XJPHQWDWLRQGHODSUHVVLRQLQWHUVWLWLHOOHRXGXGpELWG¶LQILOWUDWLRQ

$XILQDOOHVUpVLVWDQFHVVXLYDQWHVGRLYHQWrWUHGpWHUPLQpHV

- 5pVLVWDQFHJOREDOHjO¶LQILOWUDWLRQGHODIRQGDWLRQPHXEOH
- 5pVLVWDQFHORFDOHjO¶LQILOWUDWLRQGHVIRQGDWLRQVURFKHXVHHWPHXEOHHQFDVG¶pURVLRQGH
FRQGXLW

/HV SULQFLSDX[ SDUDPqWUHV XWLOLVpV GDQV O¶HVWLPDWLRQ GH OD UpVLVWDQFH j O¶pURVLRQ VRQW OH
116
JUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXH PR\HQRXORFDO HWOHGpELWG¶LQILOWUDWLRQ

/HFULWqUHGHUpVLVWDQFHjO¶pURVLRQHVWUHSUpVHQWpSDUO¶LQpTXDWLRQVXLYDQWH

)LQHJUDYHORUVDQGDQGJUDYHO  
0HGLXPVL]HJUDYHO  
&RDUVHJUDYHO  
%RXOGHUVJUDYHODQGVDQG  WR
&OD\ WR 


4.3.5. The Russian Design Methods


%HONRYD HW DO   =KLOHQNRY HW DO   DQG 5XP\DQWVHY HW DO   JLYH VXPPDULHV RI
5XVVLDQ VWDQGDUGV IRU GHVLJQ IRU VHHSDJH IORZ LQ WKH HPEDQNPHQW DQG IRXQGDWLRQV RI GDPV
5DGFKHQNRHWDO  JLYHPRUHGHWDLOV7KH\LQGLFDWHWKDWWKHVHVWDQGDUGVUHTXLUHWKDWQXPHULFDO
DQDO\VHVRIVHHSDJHLQWKHGDPERG\IRXQGDWLRQDQGULYHUEDQNVDUHPDGHLQFOXGLQJDFFRXQWLQJIRU
QRQXQLIRUPDQGDQLVRWURSLFJHRORJLFDOFRQGLWLRQV

7KH VWDQGDUGV UHTXLUH WKDW WKH IROORZLQJ SDUDPHWHUVRI VHHSDJHIORZVKRXOG EH GHWHUPLQHG LQ
VWXGLHVDQGDQDO\VHV

- SRVLWLRQRISKUHDWLFVXUIDFHLQWKHGDPERG\DQGEDQNV
- VHHSDJHIORZUDWHWKURXJKWKHGDPERG\IRXQGDWLRQDQGEDQNV
- KHDGV RUK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWV RIVHHSDJHIORZLQWKHGDPERG\IRXQGDWLRQDQG]RQHV
RI RXWIORZ LQWR WKH GUDLQDJH RU GRZQVWUHDP RI WKH GRZQVWUHDP WRH LQ WKH ]RQHV RI
FRQWDFW RI VRLOV RI GLIIHUHQW VRLO SDUDPHWHUV DQG DW WKH ERXQGDULHV RI LPSHUYLRXV
HOHPHQWV

,Q VHHSDJH DQDO\VHV RI WKDZLQJ HDUWK GDPV FRQVWUXFWHG LQ WKH QRUWKHUQ FRQVWUXFWLRQ DQG
FOLPDWLF]RQHSDUDPHWHUVRIVHHSDJHIORZVKRXOGEHGHWHUPLQHG

3RVVLEOHYDULDWLRQRIVHHSDJHSDUDPHWHUVZLWKWLPHVKRXOGDOVREHWDNHQLQWRDFFRXQW

7RGHWHUPLQHZKDWLVWHUPHGWKH³VHHSDJHVWUHQJWK´RIWKHV\VWHPDVDZKROHDQGLWVVHSDUDWH
HOHPHQWVWZRFRQFHSWVWKRVHRIRYHUDOODQGORFDOVHHSDJHVWUHQJWKDUHXVHG

7KH³VHHSDJHVWUHQJWK´RIWKHGDPERG\DQGLPSHUYLRXVHOHPHQWVLVHVWLPDWHGRQWKHEDVLVRI
QXPHULFDODQDO\VHVDQGODERUDWRU\WHVWLQJRIVRLOVXQGHUWKHK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWVH[SHFWHGWREHDFWLQJ
LQ WKH VWUXFWXUDO HOHPHQWV RI WKH GDP 7KH DQDO\VHV DUH PDGH XVLQJ WKH KLJKHVW YDOXH RI KHDG
UHVHUYRLU ZDWHU OHYHO  H[SHFWHG WR RFFXU DW WKH GDP 7KH VWUHVVVWUDLQ VWDWH RI WKH GDP DQG LWV
IRXQGDWLRQDUHDOVRWDNHQLQWRDFFRXQW

8VLQJ WKH UHVXOWV WKH VHHSDJH VWUHQJWK LV FKHFNHG DQG WKH GDP OD\RXW LQ SDUWLFXODU WKH
ORFDWLRQRIGUDLQDJHLVDGMXVWHGLIQHFHVVDU\WRVDWLVI\WKHGHVLJQFULWHULD

)RUWKHGDPERG\WKHIROORZLQJDUHGHWHUPLQHG

- SHUPHDELOLW\IDFWRUk
- XQLWZDWHUDEVRUSWLRQqIRUVRLOVLQWKHIUHH]LQJ]RQH
- SDUDPHWHUVRIVRLOVHHSDJHVWUHQJWK ORFDODQGDYHUDJHGFULWLFDOK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWVJcr
DQGJcr,PDQGFULWLFDOVHHSDJHUDWHVVcr 

,IQHFHVVDU\VWUXFWXUDOVROXWLRQVDUHDGMXVWHGDIWHUQXPHULFDOFKHFNVRIWKHIRXQGDWLRQVWUHQJWK
45

7KHVWDQGDUGVUHTXLUHWKDWLQWKHIRXQGDWLRQVWKHIROORZLQJVKRXOGEHSUHYHQWHG

- ORVVRIRYHUDOOVHHSDJHVWUHQJWKRIQRQURFNIRXQGDWLRQV
- GDPDJH WR RU LQHIIHFWLYH RSHUDWLRQ RI LPSHUYLRXV HOHPHQWV LQ WKH IRXQGDWLRQ ZKLFK
FDXVHVXQDFFHSWDEOHORVVRIZDWHUIORRGLQJVDWXUDWLRQRIVORSHVHWF
- QRQXQLIRUP GLVSODFHPHQWV RI IRXQGDWLRQ VHFWLRQV ZKLFK PLJKW FDXVH IDLOXUH RI
LPSHUYLRXVHOHPHQWV
- LQFUHDVHRISRUHSUHVVXUHVRUVHHSDJHIORZUDWH

$VDUHVXOWWKHIROORZLQJVKRXOGEHGHWHUPLQHG

- RYHUDOOVHHSDJHVWUHQJWKRIQRQURFNIRXQGDWLRQV
- ORFDOVHHSDJHVWUHQJWKRIURFNDQGQRQURFNIRXQGDWLRQVLQFDVHVZKHQSLSLQJFKDQQHOV
PD\RFFXU

7KH PDLQ SDUDPHWHUV XVHG IRU WKH HVWLPDWLRQ RI VHHSDJH VWUHQJWK DUH K\GUDXOLF JUDGLHQW
DYHUDJHRUORFDO RUVHHSDJHIORZUDWH

7KHFULWHULRQRIVHHSDJHVWUHQJWKLVWKHIROORZLQJLQHTXDOLW\

ͳ 117
‫ܬ‬௘௦௧ǡ௠ ൑ ‫ܬ‬௖௥ǡ௠ 
ߛ௡

ZKHUH

$XILQDOOHVUpVLVWDQFHVVXLYDQWHVGRLYHQWrWUHGpWHUPLQpHV

- 5pVLVWDQFHJOREDOHjO¶LQILOWUDWLRQGHODIRQGDWLRQPHXEOH
- 5pVLVWDQFHORFDOHjO¶LQILOWUDWLRQGHVIRQGDWLRQVURFKHXVHHWPHXEOHHQFDVG¶pURVLRQGH
FRQGXLW

/HV SULQFLSDX[ SDUDPqWUHV XWLOLVpV GDQV O¶HVWLPDWLRQ GH OD UpVLVWDQFH j O¶pURVLRQ VRQW OH
JUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXH PR\HQRXORFDO HWOHGpELWG¶LQILOWUDWLRQ

/HFULWqUHGHUpVLVWDQFHjO¶pURVLRQHVWUHSUpVHQWpSDUO¶LQpTXDWLRQVXLYDQWH

ͳ
‫ܬ‬௘௦௧ǡ௠ ൑ ‫ܬ‬௖௥ǡ௠ 
ߛ௡

DYHF
Jest,m JUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXHPR\HQDJLVVDQWGDQVOD]RQHG¶LQILOWUDWLRQDQDO\VpH
Jn   FRHIILFLHQW SDUWLHO GH VpFXULWp IRQFWLRQ GHV FRQVpTXHQFHV pFRQRPLTXHV HW VRFLDOHV TXH
SURYRTXHUDLWODUXSWXUHGXEDUUDJH
Jcr,m  JUDGLHQW K\GUDXOLTXH FULWLTXH PR\HQ EDVp VXU OHV HVVDLV GH VRO GDQV OHV FRQGLWLRQV
G¶H[SORLWDWLRQGXEDUUDJH
__________________________________________________________________________

48 Jcr,m GX 7DEOHDX  SRXU OHV VROV VLWXpV GDQV OH
/RUV G¶DQDO\VHV SUpOLPLQDLUHV OHV YDOHXUV GH
UHPEODL RXGX7DEOHDX SRXUOHVVROVVLWXpVGDQVOHVIRQGDWLRQV SHXYHQWrWUHXWLOLVpHV

7DEOHDX
9DOHXUVGHVJUDGLHQWVK\GUDXOLTXHVFULWLTXHVPR\HQVJcr,m
6RO 7DSLV WUDQFKpHQR\DX &RUSVGXEDUUDJH
$UJLOHJUDYHDUJLOHXVH   
$UJLOHVDEOHXVH   
6DEOHDUJLOHX[   
6DEOHGHWDLOOHPR\HQ   
6DEOHILQ   

7DEOHDX
9DOHXUVGHJcr,mSRXUOHVVROVGHVIRQGDWLRQV
7\SHGHVRO *UDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXHFULWLTXHPR\HQFDOFXOp
6DEOHILQ 
6DEOHPR\HQQHPHQWJURVVLHU 
6DEOHJURVVLHU 
$UJLOHVDEOHXVH 
/LPRQ 
$UJLOH 

/HV YDOHXUV GX JUDGLHQW FULWLTXH PR\HQ VRQW GpWHUPLQpHV HQ IRQFWLRQ GHV SURSULpWpV
PpFDQLTXHV HW SK\VLTXHV GHV VROV HW GHV PpWKRGHV XWLOLVpHV SRXU OD PLVH HQ SODFH GHV PDWpULDX[
'HVYDOHXUVLPSRUWDQWHVGXJcr,mFRUUHVSRQGHQWjGHVVROVGHQVHV

3RXUO¶HVWLPDWLRQGHODUpVLVWDQFHORFDOHjO¶pURVLRQOHVUHODWLRQVVXLYDQWHVVRQWXWLOLVpHV

ͳ ܸ௖௥ை
‫ܬ‬௘௦௧  ൑ ‫ܬ‬௖௥ ‫ ܸݎ݋‬൑ ݊ 
ߛ௡ ߛ௡

DYHF
Jest±JUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXHDFWXHOGpWHUPLQpSDUGHVDQDO\VHVQXPpULTXHVGHVPRGpOLVDWLRQVRX
GHVREVHUYDWLRQVLQVLWX
Jcr Vcro ± YDOHXUV FULWLTXHV ORFDO GX JUDGLHQW K\GUDXOLTXH HW GH OD YLWHVVH G¶pFRXOHPHQW GHV
]RQHVpWXGLpHVSDUGHVPpWKRGHVQXPpULTXHVRXSDUGHVHVVDLVGHUpVLVWDQFHjO¶pURVLRQGHFRQGXLW
HQODERUDWRLUHRXLQVLWX
J, V±YDOHXUVPR\HQQHVORFDOGXJUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXHHWGHODYLWHVVHG¶pFRXOHPHQWSRXUOHV
PrPHV]RQHVSDUGHVDQDO\VHVG¶pFRXOHPHQW
n±SRURVLWp
 

118

$VDUHVXOWWKHIROORZLQJVKRXOGEHGHWHUPLQHG

- RYHUDOOVHHSDJHVWUHQJWKRIQRQURFNIRXQGDWLRQV
- ORFDOVHHSDJHVWUHQJWKRIURFNDQGQRQURFNIRXQGDWLRQVLQFDVHVZKHQSLSLQJFKDQQHOV
PD\RFFXU

7KH PDLQ SDUDPHWHUV XVHG IRU WKH HVWLPDWLRQ RI VHHSDJH VWUHQJWK DUH K\GUDXOLF JUDGLHQW
DYHUDJHRUORFDO RUVHHSDJHIORZUDWH

7KHFULWHULRQRIVHHSDJHVWUHQJWKLVWKHIROORZLQJLQHTXDOLW\

ͳ
‫ܬ‬௘௦௧ǡ௠ ൑ ‫ܬ‬௖௥ǡ௠ 
ߛ௡

ZKHUH
‫ܬ‬௘௦௧ǡ௠  DYHUDJHK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWDFWLQJLQWKHDQDO\]HGVHHSDJH]RQH
Jn UHOLDELOLW\IDFWRUZKLFKGHSHQGVRQWKHVRFLDODQGHFRQRPLFFRQVHTXHQFHVRIIDLOXUHRIWKH
GDP
‫ܬ‬௖௥ǡ௠   DYHUDJH FULWLFDO K\GUDXOLF JUDGLHQW WDNHQ RQ WKH EDVLV RI VRLO WHVWLQJ LQ FRQGLWLRQV
UHSUHVHQWLQJRSHUDWLRQDOFRQGLWLRQVDWWKHGDP

,Q SUHOLPLQDU\ DQDO\VHV YDOXHV RI ‫ܬ‬௖௥ǡ௠  PD\ EH WDNHQ XVLQJ DYDLODEOH VLPLODU UHVXOWV RU IURP
7DEOH IRUVRLOVLQGDP]RQHV DQG7DEOH IRUVRLOVHPEHGGHGLQVWUXFWXUHIRXQGDWLRQ 

7DEOH
9DOXHVRIDYHUDJHFULWLFDOK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWV‫ܬ‬௘௦௧ǡ௠
6RLO $SURQ 'LDSKUDJPFRUH 'DPERG\
&OD\FOD\FRQFUHWH   
6DQG\FOD\   
&OD\H\VDQG   
0HGLXPVDQG   
)LQHVDQG   

7DEOH
9DOXHVRI‫ܬ‬௖௥ǡ௠ IRUVRLOVHPEHGGHGLQVWUXFWXUHIRXQGDWLRQ
6RLO &DOFXODWHGDYHUDJHGFULWLFDOK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQW
)LQHVDQG 
$YHUDJHFRDUVHVDQG 
&RDUVHVDQG 
6DQG\FOD\ 
/RDP 
&OD\ 

7KH YDOXHV RI DYHUDJH FULWLFDO JUDGLHQW DUH GHWHUPLQHG GHSHQGLQJ RQ WKH SK\VLFDO DQG

PHFKDQLFDO SURSHUWLHV RI VRLOV DQG WKH PHWKRGV RI VRLO SODFHPHQW KLJKHU YDOXHV RI ‫ܬ‬௖௥ǡ௠ DUH VHW IRU
GHQVHUVRLOV

,QWKHHVWLPDWLRQRIORFDOVHHSDJHVWUHQJWKWKHIROORZLQJFRQGLWLRQVDUHXVHG
 46
ͳ ܸ௖௥ை
‫ܬ‬௘௦௧  ൑ ‫ܬ‬௖௥ ‫ ܸݎ݋‬൑ ݊ 
ߛ௡ ߛ௡

ZKHUH
‫ܬ‬௘௦௧   DFWXDO K\GUDXOLF JUDGLHQW GHWHUPLQHG E\ QXPHULFDO DQDO\VHV PRGHOLQJ RU IURP ILHOG
REVHUYDWLRQGDWD
Jcrܸ௖௥ை ± ORFDO FULWLFDO K\GUDXOLF JUDGLHQWV DQG VHHSDJH IORZ UDWHV LQ SRUHV GHWHUPLQHG LQ WDUJHW
]RQHVE\QXPHULFDOPHWKRGVRUE\WHVWLQJSLSLQJVWUHQJWKRIVRLOVLQODERUDWRU\RUILHOGFRQGLWLRQV
JV±DFWXDOORFDOK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWVDQGVHHSDJHIORZUDWHVGHWHUPLQHGLQWKHVDPH]RQHVE\
VHHSDJHDQDO\VLV
݊ SRURVLW\
 

119

 ,1,7,$7,21'(/¶e526,21'(&217$&7



 '(6&5,37,21*e1e5$/('80e&$1,60(


/¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFWVXUYLHQWORUVTX¶XQVROJURVVLHUFRPPHOHJUDYLHUHVWHQFRQWDFWDYHFXQVRO
ILQ HW TX¶XQ pFRXOHPHQW SDUDOOqOH j OD VXUIDFH GH FRQWDFW GDQV OH VRO JURVVLHU pURGH OH VRO ILQ 3DU
H[HPSOHXQpFRXOHPHQWjWUDYHUVGHVDOOXYLRQVJURVVLqUHVGHODIRQGDWLRQSHXWpURGHUODFRXFKHGH
VLOWjODEDVHGHO¶RXYUDJH )LJ RXXQHFRXFKHGHVROILQGXQR\DXSHXWrWUHpURGpHDXFRQWDFW
G¶XQHFRXFKHJUDYHOHXVHIRUPpHSDUVpJUpJDWLRQORUVGHODFRQVWUXFWLRQ

/HV SDUWLFXOHV GH OD FRXFKH GH VRO ILQ SHXYHQW rWUH DUUDFKpHV SDU O¶pFRXOHPHQW G¶HDX HW
WUDQVSRUWpHVjWUDYHUVOHVYLGHVGHODFRXFKHGHVROJURVVLHUSDUDOOqOHjO¶LQWHUIDFH

&HSKpQRPqQHQpFHVVLWHGHX[FRQGLWLRQV'¶DERUGODFRQGLWLRQJpRPpWULTXHTXLLPSOLTXHTXH
ODFRXFKHJURVVLqUHGRLWrWUHXQHWUDQVLWLRQJpRPpWULTXHRXYHUWHVXUO¶DXWUHFRXFKHF
HVWjGLUHTX¶HOOH
D GHV YLGHV VXIILVDPPHQW LPSRUWDQWV SRXU TXH OHV SDUWLFXOHV ILQHV SXLVVHQW SDVVHU j WUDYHUV /D
FRQGLWLRQK\GUDXOLTXHTXLLPSOLTXHTXHOHVYLWHVVHVG¶pFRXOHPHQWVRLHQWVXIILVDQWHVSRXUGpWDFKHUHW
WUDQVSRUWHUOHVSDUWLFXOHV


 3+e120Ê1(6(76,78$7,216
 

7RXWHV OHV LQWHUIDFHV HQWUH VROV GDQV OH EDUUDJH RX GDQV OD IRQGDWLRQ VRQW GHV VRXUFHV
SRWHQWLHOOHV G¶pURVLRQ GH FRQWDFW )LJ  0DLV FH VRQW VHXOHPHQW OHV LQWHUIDFHV R OH FRQWUDVWH
JUDQXORPpWULTXH HVW IRUW HQWUH OHV GHX[ FRXFKHV HW R OD YLWHVVH G¶pFRXOHPHQW HVW JUDQGH TXL VRQW
VXMHWWHV j O¶pURVLRQ GH FRQWDFW &HWWH VLWXDWLRQ VH SURGXLW VRXYHQW j O¶LQWHUIDFH GX QR\DX HW G¶XQH
IRQGDWLRQ JUDYHOHXVH 3DU H[HPSOH XQH YLQJWDLQH GH FDV GH IXLWHV DVVRFLpHV j XQ IRQWLV RX XQ
DIIDLVVHPHQW RQW pWp UDSSRUWpV &)*%   VXU OHV GLJXHV ]RQpHV GX 5K{QH FRPSRVpHV G¶XQ
QR\DX GH VLOW DUJLOHX[ HW GH UHFKDUJHV JUDYHOHXVHV /H SURFHVVXV FRPPHQFH SDU XQH pURVLRQ GH
FRQWDFWHQWUHOHVLOWHWOHJUDYLHUVRXYHQWjO¶LQWHUIDFHHQWUHOHUHPEODLHWODIRQGDWLRQRXjO¶LQWpULHXUGH
OD IRQGDWLRQ /¶pURVLRQ IRUPH XQH FDYLWp GDQV OH UHPEODL OD GpFRPSUHVVLRQ DXWRXU GH FHWWH FDYLWp
SURYRTXHO¶HIIRQGUHPHQWGHVDYRXWH/HVPDWpULDX[GXWRLWHIIRQGUpFRPEOHQWODSDUWLHLQIpULHXUHGHOD
FDYLWp HW ODLVVHQW HQ SODFH XQH QRXYHOOH FDYLWp DYHF XQH YRXWH SOXV KDXWH /HV PDWpULDX[ HIIRQGUpV
VRQW OHQWHPHQW pURGpV /D YR€WH VH GpFRPSULPH HW WRPEH j QRXYHDX 'H F\FOH HQ F\FOH OD FDYLWp
SURJUHVVHOHORQJG¶XQHFKHPLQpHSUDWLTXHPHQWYHUWLFDOHMXVTX¶jDWWHLQGUHODFUrWHRXODIDFHDPRQW
)LJ D  /¶pFRXOHPHQW GLPLQXH DSUqV OD FKXWH GHV PDWpULDX[ SXLV VH UpWDEOLW SURJUHVVLYHPHQW
pURGDQW OD EDVH GHV PDWpULDX[ WRPEpV MXVTX¶DX SURFKDLQ F\FOH 'DQV OD SOXSDUW GHV FDV OH YROXPH
GHVIRQWLVHVWG¶HQYLURQjP

/¶pURVLRQ GH FRQWDFW SHXW pJDOHPHQW VH GpFOHQFKHU HQWUH Q¶LPSRUWH TXHOOH FRXFKH JUDQXODLUH
ILOWUHGUDLQULSUDS HWXQVROILQHQFRQWDFWDYHFFHWWHFRXFKH3DUH[HPSOHGDQVOHVFDVRXQQLYHDX
H[FHSWLRQQHOGHODUHWHQXHGpSDVVHO¶DUDVHGXQR\DXO¶pFRXOHPHQWSHXWSDVVHUjWUDYHUVOHULSUDSRX
OD]RQHGHODUHFKDUJHJUDYHOHXVHDXGHVVXVGXQR\DXHWpURGHUOHQR\DX

'¶DXWUHVFRQVpTXHQFHVGHO¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFWDXWUHVTXHOHIRQWLVVRQWSRVVLEOHV )LJ /D
VHFRQGHHQIRQFWLRQGHVSURSULpWpVPpFDQLTXHVGXQR\DXHVWTXHODFDYLWpIRUPpHSDUO¶pURVLRQGH
FRQWDFWSRXUUDLWQHSDVV¶HIIRQGUHUHWIRUPHUOHFRQGXLWG¶XQHpURVLRQLQWHUQHFRQFHQWUpH )LJE &H
SURFHVVXVDpWpLGHQWLILpSDUGHVHVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUHG¶K\GUDXOLTXHjO¶pFKHOOHRO¶H[WUpPLWpDYDO
GH OD FDYLWp HVW VRXGDLQ DSSDUXH VXU OH SDUHPHQW DYDO SDU FODTXDJH K\GUDXOLTXH /D WURLVLqPH
FRQVpTXHQFH HVW XQ JOLVVHPHQW RX XQ GpFKDXVVHPHQW GH OD ]RQH DYDO )LJ F  /D GHUQLqUH OHV
SDUWLFXOHVILQHVpURGpHVYLHQQHQWREVWUXHUODFRXFKHSHUPpDEOHHWDXJPHQWHUODSUHVVLRQLQWHUVWLWLHOOH
DXSRLQWGHSURYRTXHUOHFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXHGXSLHGGXSDUHPHQWDYDO )LJG 


__________________________________________________________________________
50

120



 ,1,7,$7,212)&217$&7(526,21



 &217$&7(526,217+(29(5$//352&(66


&RQWDFWHURVLRQRFFXUVZKHUHDFRDUVHVRLOVXFKDVDJUDYHOLVLQFRQWDFWZLWKDILQHVRLODQG
IORZ SDUDOOHO WR WKH FRQWDFW LQ WKH FRDUVH VRLO HURGHV WKH ILQH VRLO )RU H[DPSOH IORZ WKURXJK JUDYHO
DOOXYLXP LQ WKH IRXQGDWLRQV RI GDP OHYHH RU GLNH PD\ HURGH WKH EDVH RI DQ RYHUO\LQJ VLOW OD\HU RU
HURVLRQ RI WKH ILQHU OD\HUV RI VRLO LQ D FRUH PD\ RFFXU LQWR D FRDUVH JUDYHOO\ OD\HU IRUPHG E\
VHJUHJDWLRQGXULQJFRQVWUXFWLRQ)LJVKRZVH[DPSOHV

3DUWLFOHV RI WKH ILQHU OD\HU PD\ EH GHVWDELOL]HG E\ WKH ZDWHU IORZ DQG WUDQVSRUWHG WKURXJK WKH
SRUHVRIWKHFRDUVHUOD\HUSDUDOOHOWRWKHLQWHUIDFH

7KLVSKHQRPHQRQUHTXLUHVWZRFRQGLWLRQV)LUVWWKHJHRPHWULFDOFRQGLWLRQPXVWEHVXFKWKDWWKH
FRDUVHOD\HUKDVWREHJHRPHWULFDOO\RSHQWRWKHRWKHUOD\HUWKDWLVWRVD\WRKDYHSRUHVVXIILFLHQWO\
ODUJHVRWKDWILQHSDUWLFOHVFDQSDVVWKURXJKWKHP6HFRQGWKHK\GUDXOLFFRQGLWLRQVPXVWEHVXFKWKDW
WKHIORZYHORFLW\LVVXIILFLHQWWRGHWDFKSDUWLFOHVDQGWRWUDQVSRUWWKHP


 &217$&7(526,21352&(66(6


$OO LQWHUIDFHV EHWZHHQ GLIIHUHQW VRLOV ZKLFK H[LVW LQ WKH GDP RU LQ WKH IRXQGDWLRQ PD\ EH D
YXOQHUDEOH WR FRQWDFW HURVLRQ )LJ  1HYHUWKHOHVV ORFDWLRQV ZLWK SRVVLEOH KLJK YHORFLWLHV LQ WKH
FRDUVHUOD\HUDQGKLJKSDUWLFOHVL]HJUDGLQJFRQWUDVWEHWZHHQOD\HUVDUHWKHPRVWOLNHO\WRH[SHULHQFH
FRQWDFW HURVLRQ 7KHVH FKDUDFWHULVWLFV RIWHQ RFFXU DW WKH LQWHUIDFH EHWZHHQ WKH FRUH DQG D JUDYHOO\
IRXQGDWLRQ )RU H[DPSOH DW WKH ]RQHG GLNHV RQ WKH 5KRQH 5LYHU ZLWK FOD\H\ VLOW FRUHV DQG JUDYHO
VKRXOGHUV VRPH WZHQW\ FDVHV RI OHDNDJH DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK GHYHORSPHQW RI D VLQNKROH RU VXEVLGHQFH
KDYHEHHQUHSRUWHG &)*% 7KHSURFHVVVWDUWVZLWKFRQWDFWHURVLRQDWWKHLQWHUIDFHEHWZHHQ
WKH VLOW DQG WKH JUDYHO RIWHQ DW WKH FRQWDFW EHWZHHQ WKH ILOO DQG WKH IRXQGDWLRQ RU LQ WKH IRXQGDWLRQ
7KLVFDXVHVDFDYLW\ZLWKLQWKHILOODQGWKHQWKHSUHVVXUHGURSVDURXQGWKDWFDYLW\FDXVLQJWKHURRI
FROODSVH 7KRVH PDWHULDOV ILOO LQ WKH ORZHU SDUW RI WKH FDYLW\ DQG HQODUJH LW DW WKH WRS 7KH FROODSVHG
PDWHULDOVDUHVORZO\HURGHG7KHQWKHURRIRIWKHQHZFDYLW\LVGHFRPSUHVVHGDQGVWHSE\VWHSWKH
FDYLW\ SURJUHVVHV DORQJ D SUDFWLFDOO\ YHUWLFDO FKLPQH\ WRZDUGV WKH FUHVW RU WKH XSVWUHDP IDFH
)LJD   /HDNDJH IORZV GHFUHDVH DIWHU WKH PDWHULDOV IDOO DQG WKHQ SURJUHVVLYHO\ EXLOG XS DJDLQ
FDUU\LQJDZD\WKHIDOOHQPDWHULDOXQWLOWKHQH[WRFFXUUHQFH,QPRVWFDVHVWKHVLQNKROHYROXPHLVDERXW
WRP

&RQWDFWHURVLRQPD\DOVRDSSHDUEHWZHHQDQ\JUDQXODUOD\HU ILOWHUGUDLQULSUDS DQGDILQHVRLO
LQFRQWDFWZLWKWKDWOD\HU)RUH[DPSOHLQWKHFDVHRIDEQRUPDOO\KLJKZDWHUOHYHOLQWKHUHVHUYRLUULVLQJ
DERYHWKHWRSRIWKHFRUHIORZFDQSDVVWKURXJKDULSUDSOD\HURUDJUDYHOO\VKRXOGHU]RQHRYHUWKHWRS
RIWKHFRUHDQGFDQHURGHWKHFRUH

&RQVHTXHQFHV RI FRQWDFW HURVLRQ RWKHU WKDQ VLQNKROHV DUH SRVVLEOH )LJ  $ VHFRQG
FRQVHTXHQFHGHSHQGLQJRIWKHPHFKDQLFDOSURSHUWLHVRIWKHFRUHLVWKDWWKHFDYLW\FUHDWHGE\FRQWDFW
HURVLRQPD\QRWFROODSVHDQGFDQEHDEHJLQQLQJIRUEDFNZDUGHURVLRQSLSLQJ )LJE 7KLVSURFHVV
KDVEHHQLGHQWLILHGLQK\GUDXOLFIOXPHWHVWVDWVFDOHZKHUHLWDSSHDUHGWKDWWKHGRZQVWUHDPSDUWRI
WKH RSHQLQJ ZDV KHOG RSHQ E\ K\GUDXOLF IUDFWXUH $ WKLUG FRQVHTXHQFH LV D ORVV RI VWDELOLW\ RU
XQUDYHOLQJ )LJF  7KH IRXUWK FRQVHTXHQFH LV WKDW WKH HURGHG ILQH SDUWLFOHV PD\ FORJ WKH
SHUPHDEOHOD\HUDQGLQFUHDVHSRUHZDWHUSUHVVXUHZKLFKPD\UHVXOWLQK\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUHDQGXSOLIWRI
WKHGRZQVWUHDPWRH )LJG 

48

121

)LJ
&RQVpTXHQFHVGHO¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFW %HJXLQ 
/HVIOqFKHVQRLUHVV\PEROLVHQWO¶pFRXOHPHQWVRXWHUUDLQjWUDYHUVXQHFRXFKHSHUPpDEOH JULVFODLU 
VLWXpHHQGHVVRXVG¶XQUHPEODLSHXSHUPpDEOH JULVIRQFp 


 &5,7Ê5(63285/¶,1,7,$7,21'(/¶(526,21'(&217$&7


5.3.1. Conditions géométriques et hydrauliques


'HX[FRQGLWLRQVVRQWQpFHVVDLUHVjO¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFW

  Condition géométrique OHV YLGHV GH OD FRXFKH JURVVLqUH GRLYHQW rWUH VXIILVDPPHQW
LPSRUWDQWVSRXUSHUPHWWUHOHSDVVDJHGHVSDUWLFXOHVILQHV&HUWDLQVDXWHXUVRQWSURSRVp
GHV FULWqUHV GDQV GHV VLWXDWLRQV VSpFLILTXHV G¶pURVLRQ GH FRQWDFW PDLV OH FULWqUH
FODVVLTXHGHILOWUHSHXWpJDOHPHQWrWUHXWLOLVp 6HFWLRQ,&2/' 
  Condition hydrauliqueODYLWHVVHGHO¶pFRXOHPHQWGRLWrWUHVXIILVDQWHSRXUGpWDFKHUHW
WUDQVSRUWHUOHVSDUWLFXOHV

3OXVLHXUV DXWHXUV RQW pWXGLp O¶pURVLRQGH FRQWDFW FRPPH %UDXQV   *UDDXZ et al  
:|UPDQ et al   'HQ $GHO et al   *XLGRX[ et al   HW RQW H[SULPp OD FRQGLWLRQ
K\GUDXOLTXH SRXU OH GpWDFKHPHQW HW OH WUDQVSRUW GHV SDUWLFXOHV VRXV IRUPH GH UHODWLRQ K\GUDXOLTXH
IRQFWLRQ GH FKDTXH FRQILJXUDWLRQ JUDQXORPpWULTXH pWXGLpH &HV ORLV RQW pWp pWDEOLHV j SDUWLU GH
UpVXOWDWVG¶HVVDLVGHODERUDWRLUH&HVDXWHXUVFRQVWDWHQWTXHSOXVOHVJUDQXORPpWULHVVHUDSSURFKHQW
GHODFRQGLWLRQJpRPpWULTXHSOXVOHFKDUJHPHQWK\GUDXOLTXHLQLWLDQWO¶pURVLRQHVWLPSRUWDQWSOXVHOOHV
V¶HQ pORLJQHQW SOXV OH FKDUJHPHQW HVW FRQVWDQW ,O H[LVWH GRQF XQH ]RQH GH WUDQVLWLRQ G¶LQIOXHQFH
FRPELQpHROHFKDUJHPHQWK\GUDXOLTXHQpFHVVDLUHSRXULQLWLHUO¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFWHVWSOXVJUDQGTXH
GDQVOHGRPDLQHG¶LQIOXHQFHK\GUDXOLTXHSXUHFRPPHOHPRQWUHOH7DEOHDX

/HV YDOHXUV GX 7DEOHDX  VRQW LVVXHV GH %UDXQV   :|UPDQ   HW 'HQ $GHO et al
  /RUVTXH OH UDSSRUW ' G HVW LQIpULHXU j  OD FRQGLWLRQ JpRPpWULTXH DVVXUH OD ILOWUDWLRQ
TXHOOHTXHVRLWODFKDUJHK\GUDXOLTXHGRQFO
pURVLRQGHFRQWDFWQHSHXWGRQFSDVVHSURGXLUH3RXU
GHV YDOHXUV GH ' G !  VHXOH OD FRQGLWLRQ K\GUDXOLTXH FRQWU{OH O¶pURVLRQ HW LO Q¶\ D SOXV GH
SKpQRPqQHV GH ILOWUDWLRQ (QWUH FHV GHX[ OLPLWHV OHV GHX[ FRQGLWLRQV JpRPpWULTXH HW K\GUDXOLTXH 
FRQWU{OHQWO¶pURVLRQ
 7DEOHDX
 
'RPDLQHG¶LQIOXHQFHGHVFRQGLWLRQVJpRPpWULTXHHWK\GUDXOLTXH
UHPHUFLHPHQWj5%HJXLQjSDUWLUGH%UDXQV:|UPDQHW'HQ$GHO 


1RWH  ' HVW OD GLPHQVLRQ GH OD SDUWLFXOH GX VRO JURVVLHU SRXU ODTXHOOH   GX VRO HVW SOXV ILQ G HVW OD GLPHQVLRQ GH OD
__________________________________________________________________________
SDUWLFXOHGHVROILQSRXUODTXHOOHGXVROHVWSOXVILQQHVWODSRURVLWp3RXU' +YRLUSOXVORLQGDQVODVHFWLRQ

 50

122 /D VHFRQGH IURQWLqUH HQWUH ©&RQGLWLRQ *pRPpWULTXH HW +\GUDXOLTXHª HW ©&RQGLWLRQ
+\GUDXOLTXHª GpILQLW OD OLPLWH G¶LQIOXHQFH GH OD JUDQXORPpWULH GH OD FRXFKH JURVVLqUH VXU OH FULWqUH
K\GUDXOLTXH SRXU O¶LQLWLDWLRQ GH O¶pURVLRQ 3DU H[HPSOH %UDXQV   PRQWUH TXH GDQV OH GRPDLQH
©&RQGLWLRQ+\GUDXOLTXHªODYLWHVVHFULWLTXHSRXUXQVROILQSHXWrWUHFDOFXOpVDQVSUHQGUHHQFRPSWH
OD JUDQXORPpWULH GX VRO JURVVLHU &HFL UHVWH YDODEOH GDQV VRQ LQWHUYDOOH G¶HVVDL   'G  



)LJ
&RQVHTXHQFHVRIFRQWDFWHURVLRQ %HJXLQ %ODFNDUURZVLQGLFDWHDJURXQGZDWHUIORZWKURXJKD 
SHUPHDEOHOD\HU OLJKWJUH\ XQGHUDORZSHUPHDEOHGDP GDUNJUH\ 
)LJ

&RQVHTXHQFHVRIFRQWDFWHURVLRQ %HJXLQ %ODFNDUURZVLQGLFDWHDJURXQGZDWHUIORZWKURXJKD
 SHUPHDEOHOD\HU OLJKWJUH\ XQGHUDORZSHUPHDEOHGDP GDUNJUH\ 
  &5,7(5,$)25,1,7,$7,212)&217$&7(526,21

  &5,7(5,$)25,1,7,$7,212)&217$&7(526,21
5.3.1.  Geometrical and hydraulic conditions

5.3.1.  Geometrical and hydraulic conditions
7KHWZRFRQGLWLRQVQHHGHGIRULQLWLDWLRQRIFRQWDFWHURVLRQDUH


 Geometrical condition SRUHV RI WKH FRDUVH OD\HU KDYH WR EH VXIILFLHQWO\ ODUJH WR DOORZ
7KHWZRFRQGLWLRQVQHHGHGIRULQLWLDWLRQRIFRQWDFWHURVLRQDUH
 SDUWLFOHVWRSDVVWKURXJK6RPHDXWKRUVKDYHSURSRVHGFULWHULDLQWKHVSHFLILFFRQWH[WRI
FRQWDFW HURVLRQ
 Geometrical EXW FODVVLF
condition SRUHVILOWHU FULWHULD
RI WKH FRDUVHFDQ DOVRKDYH
OD\HU EH XVHG
WR EH 6HFWLRQ 
VXIILFLHQWO\ DOVRWR
ODUJH ,&2/'
DOORZ
 
SDUWLFOHVWRSDVVWKURXJK6RPHDXWKRUVKDYHSURSRVHGFULWHULDLQWKHVSHFLILFFRQWH[WRI
 FRQWDFW
HydraulicHURVLRQ
conditionWKHIORZYHORFLW\KDVWREHVXIILFLHQWWRGHWDFKWKHSDUWLFOHVDQGDOVR
EXW FODVVLF ILOWHU FULWHULD FDQ DOVR EH XVHG 6HFWLRQ  DOVR ,&2/'
WRWUDQVSRUWWKHP
 
  Hydraulic conditionWKHIORZYHORFLW\KDVWREHVXIILFLHQWWRGHWDFKWKHSDUWLFOHVDQGDOVR
'LIIHUHQWDXWKRUVZKRKDYHVWXGLHGFRQWDFWHURVLRQHJ%UDXQV  GH*UDDXZHWDO  
WRWUDQVSRUWWKHP
:|UPDQ  HW DO   'HQ $GHO HW DO   *XLGRX[ HW DO   SURSRVHG H[SUHVVLRQV IRU WKH
K\GUDXOLFFRQGLWLRQVZKLFKLPSO\WKHGHWDFKPHQWDQGWKHWUDQVSRUWRISDUWLFOHV7KHVHODZVKDYHEHHQ
'LIIHUHQWDXWKRUVZKRKDYHVWXGLHGFRQWDFWHURVLRQHJ%UDXQV  GH*UDDXZHWDO  
HVWDEOLVKHG
:|UPDQ HW EDVHG RQ H[SHULPHQWDO
DO   'HQ $GHO HWUHVXOWV 7KHVH
DO   DXWKRUV
*XLGRX[ HWQRWLFHG WKDWSURSRVHG
DO   FORVH WR WKH JHRPHWULFDO
H[SUHVVLRQV IRUOLPLW
WKH
ILOWHU FULWHULRQ  WKH K\GUDXOLF ORDGLQJ IRU HURVLRQ LQLWLDWLRQ LV LQFUHDVLQJ DQG IDU IURP WKH JHRPHWULFDO
K\GUDXOLFFRQGLWLRQVZKLFKLPSO\WKHGHWDFKPHQWDQGWKHWUDQVSRUWRISDUWLFOHV7KHVHODZVKDYHEHHQ
OLPLW WKH K\GUDXOLF
HVWDEOLVKHG EDVHG RQORDGLQJ LV FRQVWDQW
H[SHULPHQWDO 7KHUH
UHVXOWV LV DDXWKRUV
7KHVH WUDQVLWLRQ ]RQH WKDW
QRWLFHG RI FRPELQHG LQIOXHQFH
FORVH WR WKH ZKHUHOLPLW
JHRPHWULFDO WKH
K\GUDXOLF
ILOWHU ORDGLQJ
FULWHULRQ  QHHGHG
WKH WR LQLWLDWH
K\GUDXOLF ORDGLQJFRQWDFW HURVLRQ
IRU HURVLRQ LV KLJKHU
LQLWLDWLRQ WKDQ LQ WKH
LV LQFUHDVLQJ DQGGRPDLQ
IDU IURPRIWKH
SXUH K\GUDXOLF
JHRPHWULFDO
LQIOXHQFHDVVKRZQLQ7DEOH
OLPLW WKH K\GUDXOLF ORDGLQJ LV FRQVWDQW 7KHUH LV D WUDQVLWLRQ ]RQH RI FRPELQHG LQIOXHQFH ZKHUH WKH
 ORDGLQJ QHHGHG WR LQLWLDWH FRQWDFW HURVLRQ LV KLJKHU WKDQ LQ WKH GRPDLQ RI SXUH K\GUDXOLF
K\GUDXOLF
7DEOHLVGHULYHGIURP%UDXQV  :|UPDQ  DQG'HQ$GHOHWDO  7KH\IRXQG
LQIOXHQFHDVVKRZQLQ7DEOH
 ' G UDWLRV OHVV WKDQ LQ WKH WKLUG FROXPQ WKHUH LV JHRPHWULFDO ILOWUDWLRQ ZKDWHYHU WKH
WKDW IRU
K\GUDXOLFORDGLQJVRFRQWDFWHURVLRQFRXOGQRWRFFXU)RU' GUDWLRVPRUHWKDQLQWKHILIWKFROXPQ
7DEOHLVGHULYHGIURP%UDXQV  :|UPDQ  DQG'HQ$GHOHWDO  7KH\IRXQG
K\GUDXOLF
WKDW IRU 'ORDGLQJ FRQWUROV
 G UDWLRV HURVLRQ
OHVV WKDQ DQG WKHUH
LQ WKH LVFROXPQ
WKLUG QR ILOWUDWLRQ HIIHFW
WKHUH ,Q EHWZHHQILOWUDWLRQ
LV JHRPHWULFDO WKHVH WZR OLPLWV ERWK
ZKDWHYHU WKH
JHRPHWULFDQGK\GUDXOLFIDFWRUVFRQWUROHURVLRQ
K\GUDXOLFORDGLQJVRFRQWDFWHURVLRQFRXOGQRWRFFXU)RU' GUDWLRVPRUHWKDQLQWKHILIWKFROXPQ
 ORDGLQJ FRQWUROV HURVLRQ DQG WKHUH LV QR ILOWUDWLRQ HIIHFW ,Q EHWZHHQ WKHVH WZR OLPLWV ERWK
K\GUDXOLF
JHRPHWULFDQGK\GUDXOLFIDFWRUVFRQWUROHURVLRQ 7DEOH
 'RPDLQRIJHRPHWULFDODQGK\GUDXOLFLQIOXHQFH
FRXUWHV\RI5%HJXLQIURP%UDXQV:|UPDQDQG'HQ$GHO 
7DEOH
'RPDLQRIJHRPHWULFDODQGK\GUDXOLFLQIOXHQFH
FRXUWHV\RI5%HJXLQIURP%UDXQV:|UPDQDQG'HQ$GHO 


1RWH'LVWKHSDUWLFOHVL]HRIWKHFRDUVHUVRLOIRUZKLFKLVILQHUG LVWKHSDUWLFOHVL]HRIWKHILQHUVRLOIRUZKLFKLV
ILQHUQLVSRURVLW\)RU'+VHHEHORZ

1RWH'LVWKHSDUWLFOHVL]HRIWKHFRDUVHUVRLOIRUZKLFKLVILQHUG LVWKHSDUWLFOHVL]HRIWKHILQHUVRLOIRUZKLFKLV
ILQHUQLVSRURVLW\)RU'+VHHEHORZ
49

49 123

1RWH  ' HVW OD GLPHQVLRQ GH OD SDUWLFXOH GX VRO JURVVLHU SRXU ODTXHOOH   GX VRO HVW SOXV ILQ G HVW OD GLPHQVLRQ GH OD
SDUWLFXOHGHVROILQSRXUODTXHOOHGXVROHVWSOXVILQQHVWODSRURVLWp3RXU'+YRLUSOXVORLQGDQVODVHFWLRQ


/D VHFRQGH IURQWLqUH HQWUH ©&RQGLWLRQ *pRPpWULTXH HW +\GUDXOLTXHª HW ©&RQGLWLRQ
+\GUDXOLTXHª GpILQLW OD OLPLWH G¶LQIOXHQFH GH OD JUDQXORPpWULH GH OD FRXFKH JURVVLqUH VXU OH FULWqUH
K\GUDXOLTXH SRXU O¶LQLWLDWLRQ GH O¶pURVLRQ 3DU H[HPSOH %UDXQV   PRQWUH TXH GDQV OH GRPDLQH
©&RQGLWLRQ+\GUDXOLTXHªODYLWHVVHFULWLTXHSRXUXQVROILQSHXWrWUHFDOFXOpVDQVSUHQGUHHQFRPSWH
OD JUDQXORPpWULH GX VRO JURVVLHU &HFL UHVWH YDODEOH GDQV VRQ LQWHUYDOOH G¶HVVDL   'G  
'DQVOHGRPDLQH©&RQGLWLRQ*pRPpWULTXHHW+\GUDXOLTXHªSRXU'GODYLWHVVHFULWLTXH
HVWIRQFWLRQGHODJUDQXORPpWULHGXVROJURVVLHU'HODPrPHPDQLqUHOHVORLVG¶pURVLRQSURSRVpHVSDU
'HQ $GHO   HW :|UPDQ   VRQW XQLTXHPHQW YDODEOHV GDQV OH GRPDLQH ©&RQGLWLRQ
+\GUDXOLTXHªRO¶LQIOXHQFHGXVROJURVVLHUVXUO¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQSHXWrWUHQpJOLJpH

3RXUXQVROILQHQSDUWLFXOLHUOHJUDGLHQW©FULWLTXHªTXLFRUUHVSRQGDXJUDGLHQWGDQVODFRXFKH
JURVVLqUH SDUDOOqOH j OD VXUIDFH GH FRQWDFW SRXU OHTXHO O¶pURVLRQ V¶LQLWLH SHXW YDULHU G¶XQ RUGUH GH
JUDQGHXUHQIRQFWLRQGHODSHUPpDELOLWpGHODFRXFKHJURVVLqUH&HSHQGDQWGDQVOHVPrPHVHVVDLV
ODYLWHVVH©FULWLTXHªGH'DUF\G¶LQLWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQQHGpSHQGSDVGHPDQLqUHVLJQLILFDWLYHGHOD
SHUPpDELOLWpGHODFRXFKHJURVVLqUHHOOHHVWVHXOHPHQWOLpHjODUpVLVWDQFHjO¶pURVLRQGXVROILQ&¶HVW
SRXUFHWWHUDLVRQTXHODYLWHVVHGH'DUF\DpWpFKRLVLHSDUOD PDMRULWpGHVDXWHXUVFRPPHpWDQWXQ
ERQ LQGLFDWHXU GH FKDUJHPHQW K\GUDXOLTXH 8QH DOWHUQDWLYH VHUDLW GH FKRLVLU OD YLWHVVH SDUWLFXODLUH
SRUDOHTXLHVWODYLWHVVHGH'DUF\GLYLVpHSDUODSRURVLWpHWODWRUWXRVLWp,FLµYLWHVVH¶VLJQLILH³YLWHVVH
GH'DUF\´WDQWTXHULHQG¶DXWUHQ¶HVWPHQWLRQQp

/HVFRQGLWLRQVK\GUDXOLTXHVSRXUO¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFWGpSHQGHQWGHODFRQILJXUDWLRQFRQVLGpUpH


5.3.2. Sol fin sans cohésion au-dessous d’une couche de sol grossier


&HWWHFRQILJXUDWLRQDpWpODUJHPHQWpWXGLpH ,VWRPLQD3UDYHGQ\%UDXQV
%H]XLMHQet al 

'DQVOHFDVGXVDEOHOHVSDUWLFXOHVpURGpHVVRQWJpQpUDOHPHQWWUDQVSRUWpHVSDUFKDUULDJHHW
OHV DXWHXUV DGPHWWHQW TXH O¶RQ SHXW XWLOLVHU OH FULWqUH HPSLULTXH FODVVLTXH G¶pURVLRQ HQ ULYLqUH SRXU
O¶DGDSWHUjO¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFW3DUFRQVpTXHQWLOVSURSRVHQWGHVORLVEDVpHVVXUOHFULWqUHGH6KLHOGV
 8QHGHVFRQFOXVLRQVHVWTXHOHGLDPqWUHGHVSDUWLFXOHVGHODFRXFKHJURVVLqUHDXQHIDLEOH
LQIOXHQFHVXUOHFULWqUHGHYLWHVVH

/HV UpVXOWDWV H[SpULPHQWDX[ GH %HJLQ   HW G¶DXWUHV FKHUFKHXUV VRQW UHJURXSpV GDQV OD
)LJ

/D YLWHVVH PLQLPDOH FULWLTXH HVW GH  FPV G¶DSUqV FHV UpVXOWDWV H[SpULPHQWDX[ /H PLQLPXP
HVW PV SRXU OHV SDUWLFXOHV GH GLDPqWUH PP —P  &HV UpVXOWDWV RQW pWp REWHQXV HQ

TXHOTXHVKHXUHVLOVSRXUUDLHQWrWUHPRGLILpVVXUOHORQJWHUPH
 
  )LJ

9LWHVVHFULWLTXHGH'DUF\GHO¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFWG¶XQVROILQVRXVXQVROJURVVLHUIRQFWLRQGXGLDPqWUH
)LJ
HIIHFWLIG+ 'pILQLDXG¶DSUqV%HJXLQ 
9LWHVVHFULWLTXHGH'DUF\GHO¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFWG¶XQVROILQVRXVXQVROJURVVLHUIRQFWLRQGXGLDPqWUH

HIIHFWLIG+ 'pILQLDXG¶DSUqV%HJXLQ 
__________________________________________________________________________
YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ 

YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ 51

/H
 GLDPqWUH HIIHFWLI GHV ILQHV G+ HVW FDOFXOp j SDUWLU GH OD IRUPXOH HQ  FLGHVVRXV &HWWH
H[SUHVVLRQDREWHQXOHPHLOOHXUFDODJHDX[UpVXOWDWVH[SpULPHQWDX[,OSHXWrWUHSUDWLTXHG¶XWLOLVHUDX
/H GLDPqWUH HIIHFWLI GHV ILQHV G+ HVW FDOFXOp j SDUWLU GH OD IRUPXOH HQ  FLGHVVRXV &HWWH
OH G HQ SUHPLqUH DSSURFKH HW VL OHV UpVXOWDWV LQGLTXHQW O¶RFFXUUHQFH GH O¶pURVLRQ GH UHSUHQGUH
H[SUHVVLRQDREWHQXOHPHLOOHXUFDODJHDX[UpVXOWDWVH[SpULPHQWDX[,OSHXWrWUHSUDWLTXHG¶XWLOLVHUDX
OH G HQ SUHPLqUH+DSSURFKH HW VL OHV UpVXOWDWV LQGLTXHQW O¶RFFXUUHQFH GH O¶pURVLRQ GH UHSUHQGUH
O¶DQDO\VHDYHFOHG

O¶DQDO\VHDYHFOHG +
/D
 ORL GH %UDXQV   HVW OD IRUPXOH OD SOXV VLPSOH j XWLOLVHU HW GRQQH XQH ERQQH
DSSUR[LPDWLRQSRXUOHVDEOH
/D ORL GH %UDXQV   HVW OD IRUPXOH OD SOXV VLPSOH j XWLOLVHU HW GRQQH XQH ERQQH

DSSUR[LPDWLRQSRXUOHVDEOH
 ߩ௦ െ  ߩ௪
ܷ௖௥௜௧ ൌ ͲǤ͸ͷǤ ݊஽ ඨ൬ ൰ ݃݀ହ଴ 
ߩ௦ െߩ௪ ߩ௪
ܷ௖௥௜௧ ൌ ͲǤ͸ͷǤ ݊஽ ඨ൬ ൰ ݃݀ହ଴ 
 ߩ௪
DYHFnDODSRURVLWpGHODFRXFKHJUDYHOHXVHȡs NJP ODGHQVLWpGXVDEOHȡw NJP ODGHQVLWpGH
O¶HDXG  P OHGLDPqWUHPpGLDQGHODFRXUEHJUDQXORPpWULTXHGXVDEOH
DYHFnDODSRURVLWpGHODFRXFKHJUDYHOHXVHȡ s NJP ODGHQVLWpGXVDEOHȡw NJP ODGHQVLWpGH
 

O¶HDXG  P OHGLDPqWUHPpGLDQGHODFRXUEHJUDQXORPpWULTXHGXVDEOH


3RXUOHVPDWpULDX[JUDQXODLUHVOkFKHV F
HVWjGLUHG!


P +RIIPDQV  SURSRVHXQH
124
pTXDWLRQ GRQQDQW OD YLWHVVH FULWLTXH GH 'DUF\ Ucrit EDVpH VXU
3RXUOHVPDWpULDX[JUDQXODLUHVOkFKHV F
HVWjGLUHG!  OD ORL GH 'DUF\ O¶pFRXOHPHQW GH
P +RIIPDQV  SURSRVHXQH
3RLVHXLOOHODFRQWUDLQWHGHFLVDLOOHPHQWGH6KLHOGV  HWOH1RPEUHGH6KLHOGV<
pTXDWLRQ GRQQDQW OD YLWHVVH FULWLTXH GH 'DUF\ Ucrit EDVpH VXU OD ORL GH 'DUF\ Ɛam,c GXWUDQVSRUW
O¶pFRXOHPHQW GH
GH VpGLPHQWV GDQV XQ pFRXOHPHQW ODPLQDLUH HW G¶DXWUHV K\SRWKqVHV VXU OHV SRUHVƐam,c
3RLVHXLOOHODFRQWUDLQWHGHFLVDLOOHPHQWGH6KLHOGV  HWOH1RPEUHGH6KLHOGV< DVVLPLOpV j GHV
GXWUDQVSRUW
FRQGXLWV
GH VpGLPHQWV GDQV XQ pFRXOHPHQW ODPLQDLUH HW G¶DXWUHV K\SRWKqVHV VXU OHV SRUHV DVVLPLOpV j GHV




7KHVHFRQGERXQGDU\EHWZHHQ³*HRPHWULFDODQG+\GUDXOLFFRQGLWLRQ´DQG³+\GUDXOLFFRQGLWLRQ´
GHILQHV LI WKH FRDUVH OD\HU JUDGLQJ KDV RU KDV QRW DQ LQIOXHQFH RQ WKH K\GUDXOLF FULWHULD IRU HURVLRQ
LQLWLDWLRQ )RU H[DPSOH %UDXQV   REWDLQHG WKDW LQ WKH ³+\GUDXOLF FRQGLWLRQ´ GRPDLQ WKH FULWLFDO
YHORFLW\ IRU D ILQH VRLO FDQ EH FDOFXODWHG ZLWKRXW WDNLQJ LQWR DFFRXQW WKH FRDUVH VRLO JUDGLQJ 7KLV LV
YDOLGLQLWVH[SHULPHQWDOUDQJH'G ,QWKH³*HRPHWULFDODQG+\GUDXOLFFRQGLWLRQ´GRPDLQ
IRU  ' G WKH FULWLFDO YHORFLW\ ZLOO EH DOVR IXQFWLRQ RI WKH FRDUVH VRLO JUDGLQJ ,Q D VLPLODU
PDQQHUHURVLRQODZVSURSRVHGE\'HQ$GHO  DQG:|UPDQ  DUHYDOLGLQWKHLU³+\GUDXOLF
FRQGLWLRQ´ GRPDLQ ZKHUH WKH LQIOXHQFH RI WKH FRDUVH OD\HU RQ WKH LQLWLDWLRQ RI HURVLRQ FDQ EH
QHJOHFWHG

)RU RQH SDUWLFXODU ILQH VRLO WKH ³FULWLFDO´ JUDGLHQW ZKLFK FRUUHVSRQGV WR WKH JUDGLHQW LQ WKH
FRDUVHOD\HUSDUDOOHOWRWKHFRQWDFWDWZKLFKWKHHURVLRQLQLWLDWHVFDQYDU\E\RQHRUGHURIPDJQLWXGH
GHSHQGLQJ RI WKH SHUPHDELOLW\ RI WKH FRDUVH OD\HU +RZHYHU LQ WKH VDPH WHVWV WKH ³FULWLFDO´ 'DUF\
YHORFLW\IRUHURVLRQLQLWLDWLRQGRHVQRWVLJQLILFDQWO\GHSHQGRQWKHFRDUVHOD\HUSHUPHDELOLW\DQGLVRQO\
UHODWHGWRWKHILQHVRLOUHVLVWDQFHWRHURVLRQ7KHUHIRUH'DUF\YHORFLW\KDVEHHQFKRVHQE\WKHPDMRULW\
RIDXWKRUVDVDJRRGLQGLFDWRURIWKHK\GUDXOLFORDGLQJ7KHDOWHUQDWLYHZRXOGKDYHEHHQSRUHYHORFLW\
ZKLFKLV'DUF\YHORFLW\SRURVLW\,QWKLVFKDSWHUµYHORFLW\¶PHDQV'DUF\YHORFLW\XQOHVVSRUHYHORFLW\LV
VSHFLILFDOO\PHQWLRQHG

7KHK\GUDXOLFFRQGLWLRQVIRUFRQWDFWHURVLRQGHSHQGRQWKHFRQILJXUDWLRQFRQVLGHUHG


5.3.2. Fine cohesionless soil below a coarse soil layer


7KLV FRQILJXUDWLRQ KDV EHHQ ZLGHO\ VWXGLHG ,VWRPLQD  3UDYHGQ\  %UDXQV 
%H]XLMHQHWDO 

,QWKHFDVHRIVDQGHURVLRQSDUWLFOHVDUHPDLQO\WUDQVSRUWHGDVEHGORDGDQGDXWKRUVFRQFOXGH
WKDWZHFDQXVHFODVVLFDOULYHUHURVLRQFULWHULDHPSLULFDOO\DGDSWHGWRWKHFDVHRIFRQWDFWHURVLRQ,Q
FRQVHTXHQFHWKH\SURSRVHODZVEDVHGRQ6KLHOGV  FULWHULRQ2QHFRQFOXVLRQRIWKHVHZRUNVLV
WKDWWKHGLDPHWHURIFRDUVHOD\HUSDUWLFOHVKDVDZHDNLQIOXHQFHRQWKHFULWLFDOYHORFLW\

([SHULPHQWDOUHVXOWV %HJXLQ DUHVKRZQLQ)LJZLWKRWKHUUHVXOWVEDVHGRQWKHZRUNRI
RWKHUUHVHDUFKHUV

([SHULPHQWDO UHVXOWV UDQJH EHWZHHQ PV DQG PV IRU WKH FULWLFDO 'DUF\ YHORFLW\ 7KH
PLQLPXPLVPVIRUSDUWLFOHVRIGLDPHWHUPP —P 7KHH[SHULPHQWVODVWVRPHKRXUVORQJ
WHUPH[SHULPHQWVFRXOGFKDQJHWKHUHVXOWV



)LJ 
&ULWLFDO'DUF\YHORFLWLHVIRUFRQWDFWHURVLRQRIILQHVRLODERYHDQGEHORZFRDUVHVRLO)RUG+VHHEHORZ
&RXUWHV\RI'U5HPL%HJXLQ 

6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ


7KH ILQH VRLO HIIHFWLYH GLDPHWHU G+ FDQ EH HYDOXDWHG IURP WKH IRUPXOD LQ  EHORZ 7KH
H[SUHVVLRQ ZDV IRXQG WR JLYH WKH EHVW ILW IRU WKH H[SHULPHQWDO UHVXOWV EXW SUDFWLWLRQHUV PD\ ILQG LI
FRQYHQLHQWWRXVHGIRUSUHOLPLQDU\LQYHVWLJDWLRQVDQGWKHPRUHGHWDLOHGDSSURDFKLIWKHSUHOLPLQDU\
UHVXOWVLQGLFDWHWKDWFRQWDFWHURVLRQPD\RFFXU

%UDXQV¶  ODZLVWKHVLPSOHVWIRUPXODWRXVHDQGJLYHVDJRRGDSSUR[LPDWLRQIRUVDQG

ߩ௦ െ  ߩ௪
ܷ௖௥௜௧ ൌ ͲǤ͸ͷǤ ݊஽ ඨ൬ ൰ ݃݀ହ଴ 
ߩ௪

ZLWK ݊஽  WKH SRURVLW\ RI WKH JUDYHO OD\HU ߩ௦  NJP  WKH GHQVLW\ RI WKH VDQG SDUWLFOHV ߩ௪  NJP  WKH
51
ZDWHUGHQVLW\݀ହ଴  P WKHPHGLDQGLDPHWHURIVDQGJUDGLQJFXUYH

)RUORRVHSDFNHGPDWHULDOV VD\d!P +RIIPDQV  SURSRVHGDQHTXDWLRQEDVHGRQ
'DUF\¶V ODZ WKH 3RLVHXLOOH IORZ WKH VKHDU VWUHVV DSSURDFK RI 6KLHOGV   WKH 6KLHOGV 1XPEHU 125
Ȳ௟௔௠ǡ௖ RI VHGLPHQW WUDQVSRUW LQ ODPLQDU IORZ DQG VRPH JHRPHWULFDO DVVXPSWLRQV UHJDUGLQJ WKH SLSHV
JLYLQJWKHFULWLFDO'DUF\YHORFLW\ܷ௖௥௜௧ 

ߩ௦ െ  ߩ௪
ܷ௖௥௜௧ ൌ ͲǤ͸ͷǤ ݊஽ ඨ൬ ൰ ݃݀ହ଴ 
ߩ௪

DYHFnDODSRURVLWpGHODFRXFKHJUDYHOHXVHȡs NJP ODGHQVLWpGXVDEOHȡw NJP ODGHQVLWpGH
O¶HDXG P OHGLDPqWUHPpGLDQGHODFRXUEHJUDQXORPpWULTXHGXVDEOH

3RXUOHVPDWpULDX[JUDQXODLUHVOkFKHV F
HVWjGLUHG!P +RIIPDQV  SURSRVHXQH
pTXDWLRQ GRQQDQW OD YLWHVVH FULWLTXH GH 'DUF\ Ucrit EDVpH VXU OD ORL GH 'DUF\ O¶pFRXOHPHQW GH
3RLVHXLOOHODFRQWUDLQWHGHFLVDLOOHPHQWGH6KLHOGV  HWOH1RPEUHGH6KLHOGV<Ɛam,cGXWUDQVSRUW
GH VpGLPHQWV GDQV XQ pFRXOHPHQW ODPLQDLUH HW G¶DXWUHV K\SRWKqVHV VXU OHV SRUHV DVVLPLOpV j GHV
FRQGXLWV

ܷ௖௥௜௧  ൌ  ඥͳȀʹܴ݁௠ǡ௖ Ȳ௟௔௠ǡ௖ ȟ݃݀ଵହ 

Ucrit GpSHQG DLQVL GX QRPEUH GH 5H\QROGV PD[LPXP FULWLTXH HW GH OD YLWHVVH FULWLTXH GH
FKDUULDJH HQ IRQG GH OLW 8QH H[SUHVVLRQ SRXU OH 1RPEUH GH 6KLHOGV GDQV OH FDV G¶XQ pFRXOHPHQW
ODPLQDLUHHVWGRQQpHGDQVOD6HFWLRQ(QFRQVLGpUDQWOHVFRQGLWLRQVG¶pFRXOHPHQWODPLQDLUHR
OH QRPEUH GH 5H\QROGV HQ PLOLHX SRUHX[ 5HI  HVW SOXV SHWLW TXH  O¶pTXDWLRQ G¶+RIIPDQV HVW
FRPSDUDEOHjODPpWKRGHSURSRVpHSDU*XLGRX[et al   YRLUSOXVORLQ 

3RXU pYDOXHU OD YLWHVVH G¶pYROXWLRQ GH O¶pURVLRQ WURLV PRGqOHV G¶pURVLRQ GX VDEOH RQW pWp
GpYHORSSp HW SHUPHWWHQW G¶HVWLPHU OD TXDQWLWp GH VDEOH WUDQVSRUWp HQ IRQFWLRQ GX FKDUJHPHQW
K\GUDXOLTXH :|UPDQ'HQ$GHO6FKHXHUPDQQ &HSHQGDQWFHVPRGqOHVRQWpWp
VHXOHPHQWYDOLGpVSRXUOHVVROVWHVWpVSDUOHXUVDXWHXUVLOVGRLYHQWGRQFrWUHXWLOLVpVDYHFSUpFDXWLRQ


5.3.3. Érosion des sols fins cohérents (particules < 75 µm)


8QHVpULHG¶H[SpULHQFHG¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFWDYHFGXVLOWHWGHO¶DUJLOHDpWpUpDOLVpHSDU*XLGRX[
et al  ,ODDMXVWpODORLGH%UDXQV  DYHFXQSDUDPqWUHHPSLULTXHSRXUSUHQGUHHQFRPSWH
OHVIRUFHVDGKpVLYHV,ODpJDOHPHQWSURSRVpG¶XWLOLVHUOHGLDPqWUHHIIHFWLIG+GXVROILQDXOLHXGXG
.R]HQ\   SRXU SUHQGUH HQ FRPSWH OHV VROV SRVVpGDQW XQH JUDQXORPpWULH pWHQGXH RX
GLVFRQWLQXH/HGLDPqWUHHIIHFWLIHVWGpILQLSDU

ିଵ

‫ܨ‬௝
݀ு ൌ ቌ෍ ቍ 
݀௝
௝ୀଵ

DYHFP HWG PPHWG GPD[ PP

DYHF)MOHGHODIUDFWLRQGHGLDPqWUHGMGDQVODFRXUEHJUDQXORPpWULTXHGXVRO

&HGLDPqWUHFRQVHUYHODVXUIDFHVSpFLILTXHGHODFRXUEHJUDQXORPpWULTXHLQLWLDOH
__________________________________________________________________________
 53
*XLGRX[et al  RQWSURSRVpGHGpWHUPLQHUODYLWHVVHFULWLTXHGH'DUF\UcritGHODPDQLqUH
VXLYDQWH

ߩ௦ െ  ߩ௪ ߚ
ܷ௖௥௜௧  ൌ  ͲǤ͸ͷǤ ݊஽ ඨ൬ ൰ ݃݀ு ቆͳ ൅ ଶ ቇ
ߩ௪ ݀௛

/H SDUDPqWUH HPSLULTXH ȕ GpSHQG GHV SURSULpWpV FRKpVLYHV GX VRO LO HVW FRQVLGpUp pJDO j
[ Pð SDU *XLGRX[ et al   /HV DXWUHV YDULDEOHV VRQW LGHQWLTXHV j FHOOHV GH O¶pTXDWLRQ GH
%UDXQV  FLGHVVXV


5.3.4. Sol fin au-dessus d’une couche de sol grossier


'DQV FHWWH FRQILJXUDWLRQ OHV GRQQpHV H[SpULPHQWDOHV VRQW OLPLWpHV /H SKpQRPqQH HVW
FRPSOH[HHWQHSHXWSDVrWUHGLUHFWHPHQWUHOLpjO¶pURVLRQGXIRQGGXOLWGHULYLqUH3DUFRQVpTXHQWOD
FRQGLWLRQK\GUDXOLTXHVpFXULWDLUHSRXUO¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFWGDQVFHWWHFRQILJXUDWLRQGRLWrWUHEDVpHVXU
ODYLWHVVHGHWUDQVSRUWGHVSDUWLFXOHVHQFRQVLGpUDQWTXHO¶DUUDFKHPHQWVHSURGXLWTXHOOHTXHVRLWOD
YLWHVVH G¶pFRXOHPHQW 3DU H[HPSOH *ROW] et al   RQW SURSRVp XQH ORL SRXU OH WUDQVSRUW GH
SDUWLFXOHVEDVpHVXUO¶DSSURFKHGH0XFNHQWKDOHU 0XFNHQWKDOHU3HU]OPDLHU TXLFRPSDUH
ODYLWHVVHGHVpGLPHQWDWLRQGHVSDUWLFXOHVDYHFODYLWHVVHSDUWLFXODLUHGHO¶HDXGDQVOHVSRUHV

6FKPLW]  DHIIHFWXpGHVHVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUHVXUO¶pURVLRQGHFRXFKHVGHVLOWDXGHVVXV
GH FRXFKHV GH SDUWLFXOHV JURVVLqUHV &RQWUDLUHPHQW j OD FRQILJXUDWLRQ SUpFpGHQWH VRO ILQ VRXVVRO
126
JURVVLHU LODUHPDUTXpTXHODFRQWUDLQWHGHFRQILQHPHQWDYDLWXQHLQIOXHQFHVXUODYDOHXUGHODYLWHVVH
FULWLTXHLOHVWSRVVLEOHTX¶LO\DLWDXVVLXQHIIHWGHUHSRUWGHFKDUJHGDQVVHVH[SpULHQFHV¬O¶H[FHSWLRQ
G¶XQH VHXOH YDOHXU SURYHQDQW G¶XQ HVVDL DSSDUHPPHQW HUURQp HW RPLV GDQV OD )LJ  OHV YLWHVVHV
FULWLTXHV PHVXUpHV VRQW GX PrPH RUGUH GH JUDQGHXU TXH FHOOHV GH O¶DXWUH FRQILJXUDWLRQ HQWUH
ߩ௦ െ  ߩ௪
ܷ௖௥௜௧ ൌ ͲǤ͸ͷǤ ݊஽ ඨ൬ ൰ ݃݀ହ଴ 
ߩ௪

ZLWK ݊஽  WKH SRURVLW\ RI WKH JUDYHO OD\HU ߩ௦  NJP  WKH GHQVLW\ RI WKH VDQG SDUWLFOHV ߩ௪  NJP  WKH
ZDWHUGHQVLW\݀ହ଴  P WKHPHGLDQGLDPHWHURIVDQGJUDGLQJFXUYH

)RUORRVHSDFNHGPDWHULDOV VD\d!P +RIIPDQV  SURSRVHGDQHTXDWLRQEDVHGRQ
'DUF\¶V ODZ WKH 3RLVHXLOOH IORZ WKH VKHDU VWUHVV DSSURDFK RI 6KLHOGV   WKH 6KLHOGV 1XPEHU
Ȳ௟௔௠ǡ௖ RI VHGLPHQW WUDQVSRUW LQ ODPLQDU IORZ DQG VRPH JHRPHWULFDO DVVXPSWLRQV UHJDUGLQJ WKH SLSHV
JLYLQJWKHFULWLFDO'DUF\YHORFLW\ܷ௖௥௜௧ 

ܷ௖௥௜௧  ൌ  ඥͳȀʹܴ݁௠ǡ௖ Ȳ௟௔௠ǡ௖ ȟ݃݀ଵହ 

WKXVܷ௖௥௜௧ GHSHQGVRQWKHPD[LPXPFULWLFDO5H\QROGVQXPEHUDQGWKHFULWLFDOEHGVKHDUYHORFLW\$Q
H[SUHVVLRQIRUWKH6KLHOGV1XPEHULQODPLQDUIORZLVJLYHQLQ6HFWLRQ&RQVLGHULQJWKHODPLQDU
IORZFRQGLWLRQVZKHUHWKH5H\QROGVILOWHUQXPEHU 5HI LVVPDOOHUWKDQLWLVQRWHGWKDW+RIIPDQ¶V
HTXDWLRQLVFRPSDUDEOHZLWKWKHPHWKRGDVSURSRVHGE\*XLGRX[HWDO   VHHEHORZ 

7R SUHGLFW WKH UDWH RI HURVLRQ HYROXWLRQ WKUHH PRGHOV RI VDQG HURVLRQ KDYH EHHQ GHYHORSHG
ZKLFK DOORZ HVWLPDWLRQ RI WKH DPRXQW RI WUDQVSRUWHG VDQG DV D IXQFWLRQ RI WKH K\GUDXOLF ORDGLQJ
:|UPDQ'HQ$GHO6FKHXHUPDQQ +RZHYHUWKHVHPRGHOVKDYHEHHQYDOLGDWHG
RQO\IRUWKHVRLOVWHVWHGE\WKHLUDXWKRUVDQGWKH\KDYHWREHXVHGZLWKFDXWLRQ


5.3.3. Silt and clay erosion (particles < 75µm)


*XLGRX[HWDO  FDUULHGRXWVRPHH[SHULPHQWDOWHVWVRIFRQWDFWHURVLRQZLWKVLOWDQGFOD\
+HDGDSWHG%UDXQV¶  ODZZLWKDQHPSLULFDOSDUDPHWHUWRWDNHLQWRDFFRXQWWKHDGKHVLYHIRUFHV
7RFRQVLGHUZLGHO\RUJDSJUDGHGVRLOVKHDOVRSURSRVHGWRXVHWKHHIIHFWLYHGLDPHWHUG+RIWKHILQH
VRLOLQVWHDGRIWKHG .R]HQ\ 7KHHIIHFWLYHGLDPHWHULVGHILQHGE\

ିଵ

‫ܨ‬௝
݀ு ൌ ቌ෍ ቍ 
݀௝
௝ୀଵ

ZLWKP G PPDQGG GPD[ PP

ZKHUH)MLVWKHSHUFHQWDJHRIWKHIUDFWLRQRIGLDPHWHUGMLQWKHJUDGLQJFXUYHRIWKHVRLO

7KLVGLDPHWHUFRQVHUYHVWKHVSHFLILFVXUIDFHRIWKHLQLWLDOJUDLQVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQ

*XLGRX[et al  SURSRVHGWKDWWKHFULWLFDO'DUF\YHORFLW\ܷ௖௥௜௧ FDQEHGHWHUPLQHGIURP

ߩ௦ െ  ߩ௪ ߚ
ܷ௖௥௜௧  ൌ  ͲǤ͸ͷǤ ݊஽ ඨ൬ ൰ ݃݀ு ቆͳ ൅ ଶ ቇ
ߩ௪ ݀௛

7KH HPSLULFDO SDUDPHWHU ȕ LV D IXQFWLRQ RI WKH FRKHVLYH SURSHUWLHV RI WKH VRLO VHOHFWHG DV
[PE\*XLGRX[et al  7KHRWKHUYDULDEOHVDUHDVIRU%UDXQV  DERYH7KLVIRUPXOD
JLYHV D UHDVRQDEOH ILW WR WKH H[SHULPHQWDO GDWD IRU WKHVH ILQHU VRLOV ,W FDQQRW EH DSSOLHG IRU YHU\
FRKHVLYHVRLOVZKLFKH[KLELWGLIIHUHQWHURVLRQEHKDYLRUOLQNHGQRWWRSDUWLFOHGLDPHWHUEXWWRRWKHUPRUH
UHOHYDQWSURSHUWLHVVXFKDVWKHFOD\PLQHUDORJ\DQGGHJUHHRIVDWXUDWLRQ


5.3.4.  Fine soil above a coarse soil layer


,Q WKLV FRQILJXUDWLRQ H[SHULPHQWDO GDWD LV OLPLWHG 7KH SKHQRPHQRQ LV FRPSOH[ DQG FDQQRW EH
GLUHFWO\OLQNHGWRULYHUHURVLRQ,QFRQVHTXHQFHDVDIHK\GUDXOLFFRQGLWLRQIRUFRQWDFWHURVLRQLQWKLV
FRQILJXUDWLRQVKRXOGEHEDVHGRQWKHWUDQVSRUWYHORFLW\IRUWKHSDUWLFOHVFRQVLGHULQJWKDWGHWDFKPHQWV
51
RFFXU ZKDWHYHU WKH IORZ YHORFLW\ LV )RU H[DPSOH *ROW] HW DO   SURSRVHG D ODZ IRU SDUWLFOH
WUDQVSRUW EDVHG RQ 0XFNHQWKDOHU¶V DSSURDFK 0XFNHQWKDOHU  3HU]OPDLHU   FRPSDULQJ
VHGLPHQWDWLRQYHORFLW\RISDUWLFOHVDQGSRUHYHORFLW\

6FKPLW]   FDUULHG RXW H[SHULPHQWDO WHVWV RI HURVLRQ RI VLOW OD\HUV DERYH FRDUVH OD\HUV ,Q
FRQWUDVW WR WKH SUHYLRXV FRQILJXUDWLRQ ILQH VRLO EHORZ FRDUVH VRLO  KH QRWLFHG DQ LQIOXHQFH RI WKH
FRQILQLQJVWUHVVRQWKHFULWLFDOYHORFLW\)RUKLJKHUYHUWLFDOVWUHVVHVRQWKHVDPSOHKHPHDVXUHGKLJKHU
FULWLFDOYHORFLWLHV([FHSWIRURQHYDOXHZKLFKFDPHIURPDQDSSDUHQWO\IODZHGWHVWLQZKLFKWKHUHZDV
WKRXJKWWREHDQDUFKLQJHIIHFWDQGKDVEHHQRPLWWHGIURP)LJWKHFULWLFDOYHORFLWLHVPHDVXUHGDUH 127
RIWKHVDPHRUGHURIPDJQLWXGHDVLQWKHRWKHUFRQILJXUDWLRQEHWZHHQPVWRPV )LJ +H
SURSRVHGDODZIRUFULWLFDOYHORFLW\GHSHQGLQJRQUHVXOWVRIYDQHVKHDUVWUHQJWKWHVWVRQWKHVRLOEXW
FRPSDULVRQ RI LWV PRGHO ZLWK UHVXOWV LV QRW YHU\ FRQYLQFLQJ 7KLV LV WR EH H[SHFWHG DV WKH FULWLFDO
K\GUDXOLFVKHDUVWUHVVIRUFOD\VRLOVLVQRWUHODWHGWRWKHVKHDUVWUHQJWKDVGLVFXVVHGLQ6HFWLRQ
FRPSOH[HHWQHSHXWSDVrWUHGLUHFWHPHQWUHOLpjO¶pURVLRQGXIRQGGXOLWGHULYLqUH3DUFRQVpTXHQWOD
FRQGLWLRQK\GUDXOLTXHVpFXULWDLUHSRXUO¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFWGDQVFHWWHFRQILJXUDWLRQGRLWrWUHEDVpHVXU
ODYLWHVVHGHWUDQVSRUWGHVSDUWLFXOHVHQFRQVLGpUDQWTXHO¶DUUDFKHPHQWVHSURGXLWTXHOOHTXHVRLWOD
YLWHVVH G¶pFRXOHPHQW 3DU H[HPSOH *ROW] et al   RQW SURSRVp XQH ORL SRXU OH WUDQVSRUW GH
SDUWLFXOHVEDVpHVXUO¶DSSURFKHGH0XFNHQWKDOHU 0XFNHQWKDOHU3HU]OPDLHU TXLFRPSDUH
ODYLWHVVHGHVpGLPHQWDWLRQGHVSDUWLFXOHVDYHFODYLWHVVHSDUWLFXODLUHGHO¶HDXGDQVOHVSRUHV

6FKPLW]  DHIIHFWXpGHVHVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUHVXUO¶pURVLRQGHFRXFKHVGHVLOWDXGHVVXV
GH FRXFKHV GH SDUWLFXOHV JURVVLqUHV &RQWUDLUHPHQW j OD FRQILJXUDWLRQ SUpFpGHQWH VRO ILQ VRXVVRO
JURVVLHU LODUHPDUTXpTXHODFRQWUDLQWHGHFRQILQHPHQWDYDLWXQHLQIOXHQFHVXUODYDOHXUGHODYLWHVVH
FULWLTXHLOHVWSRVVLEOHTX¶LO\DLWDXVVLXQHIIHWGHUHSRUWGHFKDUJHGDQVVHVH[SpULHQFHV¬O¶H[FHSWLRQ
G¶XQH VHXOH YDOHXU SURYHQDQW G¶XQ HVVDL DSSDUHPPHQW HUURQp HW RPLV GDQV OD )LJ  OHV YLWHVVHV
FULWLTXHV PHVXUpHV VRQW GX PrPH RUGUH GH JUDQGHXU TXH FHOOHV GH O¶DXWUH FRQILJXUDWLRQ HQWUH
PVHWPV )LJ ,ODSURSRVpXQHUHODWLRQGHODYLWHVVHFULWLTXHIRQFWLRQGHVUpVXOWDWVGH
UpVLVWDQFHDXFLVDLOOHPHQWDXVFLVVRPqWUHODFRPSDUDLVRQGHVRQPRGqOHDYHFOHVUpVXOWDWVQ¶HVWSDV
WUqV FRQYDLQFDQWH &HFL SHXW V¶H[SOLTXHU SDU OH IDLW TXH OD FRQWUDLQWH GH FLVDLOOHPHQW K\GUDXOLTXH
FULWLTXHSRXUOHVVROVDUJLOHX[Q¶HVWSDVOLpHjODFRQWUDLQWHGHFLVDLOOHPHQWFRPPHH[SOLTXpGDQVOD
6HFWLRQ

%HJXLQ   D UpDOLVp VL[ HVVDLV G¶XQ UHPEODL GH VLOW VXU GX JUDYLHU /HV UpVXOWDWV VRQW
UHSUpVHQWpVGDQVOD)LJ/HVYDOHXUVGHVYLWHVVHVFULWLTXHVVRQWSOXVGLVSHUVpHVTXHFHOOHVGHOD
FRQILJXUDWLRQ JUDYLHU VXU VLOW PDLV HOOHV VRQW GX PrPH RUGUH GH JUDQGHXU &HOD PRQWUH TXH PrPH
GDQVODFRQILJXUDWLRQVLOWVXUJUDYLHURO¶RQSRXUUDLWV¶DWWHQGUHjXQHLQWLDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQORUVTXHOHV
SDUWLFXOHV GH VLOW ©WRPEHQWª GDQV OH JUDYLHU O¶LQLWLDWLRQ GH O¶pURVLRQ HVW IRQFWLRQ GX WUDQVSRUW GHV
SDUWLFXOHVHWQRQGHO¶DUUDFKHPHQW


5.3.5. Influence de l’uniformité de la granulométrie


/RUVTXHO¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFWVHSURGXLWGDQVXQVROILQGHJUDQXORPpWULHpWHQGXHOHVSURFHVVXV
GH VpJUpJDWLRQ FRQWU{OHQW JpQpUDOHPHQW OH SKpQRPqQH G¶pURVLRQ /HV SDUWLFXOHV ILQHV VRQW pURGpHV
OHVSUHPLqUHVFDUHOOHVVRQWSOXVVHQVLEOHVjODVROOLFLWDWLRQK\GUDXOLTXH,OHVWDXVVLSUREDEOHTXHOHV
SOXV JURVVHV SDUWLFXOHV GH VLOW FRPEOHQW OHV YLGHV GH OD FRXFKH JURVVLqUH HW IRUPHQW XQH FRXFKH
ILOWUDQWH j OD VXUIDFH GH OD FRXFKH GH VRO ILQ &HFL SHXW VH SURGXLUH SRXU XQH FRXFKH GH VRO ILQ DX
GHVVXV RX HQ GHVVRXV G¶XQ VRO JURVVLHU HW D WHQGDQFH j GLPLQXHU OD YLWHVVH G¶pURVLRQ JUkFH DX
GpYHORSSHPHQWGHFHWWHFRXFKHILOWUDQWH3DUFRQVpTXHQWOHVFRQGLWLRQVJpRPpWULTXHHWK\GUDXOLTXH
FRQFHUQDQWO¶pURVLRQGHFRQWDFWSHXYHQWrWUHVDWLVIDLWHVPDLVDSUqVXQHFHUWDLQHTXDQWLWpGHVROpURGp
TXLSHXWrWUHH[FHVVLYHSRXUODVpFXULWpGXEDUUDJHRXQRQO¶pURVLRQV¶DUUrWH
 

__________________________________________________________________________
54

128
,Q WKLV FRQILJXUDWLRQ H[SHULPHQWDO GDWD LV OLPLWHG 7KH SKHQRPHQRQ LV FRPSOH[ DQG FDQQRW EH
GLUHFWO\OLQNHGWRULYHUHURVLRQ,QFRQVHTXHQFHDVDIHK\GUDXOLFFRQGLWLRQIRUFRQWDFWHURVLRQLQWKLV
FRQILJXUDWLRQVKRXOGEHEDVHGRQWKHWUDQVSRUWYHORFLW\IRUWKHSDUWLFOHVFRQVLGHULQJWKDWGHWDFKPHQWV
RFFXU ZKDWHYHU WKH IORZ YHORFLW\ LV )RU H[DPSOH *ROW] HW DO   SURSRVHG D ODZ IRU SDUWLFOH
WUDQVSRUW EDVHG RQ 0XFNHQWKDOHU¶V DSSURDFK 0XFNHQWKDOHU  3HU]OPDLHU   FRPSDULQJ
VHGLPHQWDWLRQYHORFLW\RISDUWLFOHVDQGSRUHYHORFLW\

6FKPLW]   FDUULHG RXW H[SHULPHQWDO WHVWV RI HURVLRQ RI VLOW OD\HUV DERYH FRDUVH OD\HUV ,Q
FRQWUDVW WR WKH SUHYLRXV FRQILJXUDWLRQ ILQH VRLO EHORZ FRDUVH VRLO  KH QRWLFHG DQ LQIOXHQFH RI WKH
FRQILQLQJVWUHVVRQWKHFULWLFDOYHORFLW\)RUKLJKHUYHUWLFDOVWUHVVHVRQWKHVDPSOHKHPHDVXUHGKLJKHU
FULWLFDOYHORFLWLHV([FHSWIRURQHYDOXHZKLFKFDPHIURPDQDSSDUHQWO\IODZHGWHVWLQZKLFKWKHUHZDV
WKRXJKWWREHDQDUFKLQJHIIHFWDQGKDVEHHQRPLWWHGIURP)LJWKHFULWLFDOYHORFLWLHVPHDVXUHGDUH
RIWKHVDPHRUGHURIPDJQLWXGHDVLQWKHRWKHUFRQILJXUDWLRQEHWZHHQPVWRPV )LJ +H
SURSRVHGDODZIRUFULWLFDOYHORFLW\GHSHQGLQJRQUHVXOWVRIYDQHVKHDUVWUHQJWKWHVWVRQWKHVRLOEXW
FRPSDULVRQ RI LWV PRGHO ZLWK UHVXOWV LV QRW YHU\ FRQYLQFLQJ 7KLV LV WR EH H[SHFWHG DV WKH FULWLFDO
K\GUDXOLFVKHDUVWUHVVIRUFOD\VRLOVLVQRWUHODWHGWRWKHVKHDUVWUHQJWKDVGLVFXVVHGLQ6HFWLRQ

%HJXLQ  FDUULHGRXWVL[WHVWVRQVLOWHPEDQNPHQWVRYHUJUDYHO7KHUHVXOWVDUHLQFOXGHGRQ
)LJ7KHFULWLFDOYHORFLWLHVZHUHPRUHVFDWWHUHGWKDQWKRVHIRUWKHJUDYHODERYHVLOWFRQILJXUDWLRQ
EXWRIDVLPLODURUGHURIPDJQLWXGH,WVHHPVWKDWHYHQLQWKHVLOWDERYHJUDYHOFRQILJXUDWLRQZKHUH
HURVLRQPLJKWEHH[SHFWHGWREHLQLWLDWHGZKHQVLOWSDUWLFOHVµIDOO¶LQWRWKHJUDYHOWKHLQLWLDWLRQRIHURVLRQ
LVGHSHQGHQWRQWKHWUDQVSRUWRISDUWLFOHVQRWE\GHWDFKPHQW


5.3.5. Influence of uniformity


:KHQ FRQWDFW HURVLRQ RFFXUV LQ D ZLGHO\ JUDGHG ILQH VRLO VHJUHJDWLRQ SURFHVVHV XVXDOO\
LQIOXHQFH WKH SURFHVV )LQHV SDUWLFOHV DUH HURGHG SUHIHUHQWLDOO\ EHFDXVH WKH\ DUH PRUH VHQVLWLYH WR
K\GUDXOLFORDGLQJ&RDUVHUSDUWLFOHVDUHDOVROLNHO\WRFORJWKHSRUHVRIWKHFRDUVHOD\HUDQGJHQHUDWHD
ILOWHUOD\HUDWWKHVXUIDFHRIWKHILQHOD\HU7KLVFDQRFFXUIRUDILQHOD\HUDERYHRUEHORZWKHFRDUVHVRLO
DQG WHQGV WR UHVXOW LQ D GHFUHDVH RI WKH HURVLRQ UDWH ZLWK WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI WKLV ILOWHU OD\HU ,Q
FRQVHTXHQFH WKH JHRPHWULFDO DQG WKH K\GUDXOLF FRQGLWLRQ IRU HURVLRQ PD\ EH IXOILOOHG IRU FRQWDFW
HURVLRQEXWDIWHUDFHUWDLQDPRXQWRIHURGHGVRLOZKLFKFDQEHH[FHVVLYHIRUGDPVDIHW\RUQRWHURVLRQ
VWRSV
 

52

129

 ,1,7,$7,21'(/$68))86,21



 '(6&5,37,21*e1e5$/('80e&$1,60(


/D VXIIXVLRQ VH SURGXLW ORUVTXH O¶HDX V¶pFRXOH j WUDYHUV GHV VROV VDQV FRKpVLRQ DYHF XQH
JUDQXORPpWULHpWHQGXHRXGLVFRQWLQXHFRPPHOHVDOOXYLRQVGHVJUDQGVIOHXYHVOHVFROOXYLRQVGDQVOH
OLWGHVFRXUVG¶HDXPRQWDJQHX[OHVQR\DX[GHEDUUDJHHQUHPEODLFRQVWUXLWVDYHFGHVVROVG¶RULJLQH
JODFLDLUHHWGDQVOHVILOWUHVTXLRQWXQHJUDQXORPpWULHWUqVpWHQGXHRXGLVFRQWLQXHRXTXLRQWXQH[FqV
GHILQHV'DQVWRXVFHVFDVOHVROHVWFRPSRVpG¶XQHGRXEOHGLVWULEXWLRQJUDQXORPpWULTXHXQVROILQ
HWXQVROJURVVLHU&DPEHIRUW LOOXVWUHFHODHQGpFRPSRVDQWODFRXUEHJUDQXORPpWULTXHG¶DOOXYLRQVHQ
VDEOHHWJUDYHVXUOD)LJ




)LJ
$OOXYLRQVQDWXUHOOHVW\SLTXHVG¶XQPpODQJHGHVDEOHHWGHJUDYH &DPEHIRUW 


/HV SHWLWHV SDUWLFXOHV GH VRO VRQW WUDQVSRUWpHV SDU O¶pFRXOHPHQW j WUDYHUV OHV YLGHV GHV
SDUWLFXOHVJURVVLqUHV/HVSDUWLFXOHVJURVVLqUHVQHVRQWSDVWUDQVSRUWpHVFDUHOOHVVRQWEORTXpHVSDU
OHVFRQWUDLQWHVHIIHFWLYHVWUDQVIpUpHVVXUOHXUPDWULFH

7URLVFULWqUHVGRLYHQWrWUHVDWLVIDLWVSRXULQLWLHUODVXIIXVLRQXQFULWqUHJpRPpWULTXHXQFULWqUH
VXUOHVFRQWUDLQWHVHWXQFULWqUHK\GUDXOLTXH

- Critère 1 /D WDLOOH GHV SDUWLFXOHV GX VRO ILQ GRLW rWUH SOXV SHWLWH TXH OD WDLOOH GHV
FRQVWULFWLRQV HQWUH OHV SDUWLFXOHV JURVVLqUHV IRUPDQW OH VTXHOHWWH JUDQXODLUH RX OD
PDWULFHGXVRO
- Critère 2/DTXDQWLWpGHSDUWLFXOHVGXVROILQGRLWrWUHSOXVSHWLWHTXHFHOOHQpFHVVDLUH
SRXUUHPSOLUOHVSRUHVHQWUHOHVSDUWLFXOHVJURVVLqUHVIRUPDQWOHVTXHOHWWH'DQVOHFDV
LQYHUVHRO¶RQQ¶DSOXVGHVROILQTXHFHTXLHVWQpFHVVDLUHSRXUUHPSOLUOHVSRUHVOHV
SDUWLFXOHV JURVVLqUHV ©IORWWHQWª GDQV OD PDWULFH GHV SDUWLFXOHV GH VRO ILQ DX OLHX GH
IRUPHUOHVTXHOHWWHGXVRO
- Critère 3 /D YLWHVVH G¶pFRXOHPHQW j WUDYHUV OHV YLGHV GX VTXHOHWWH GRLW LPSRVHU XQH
__________________________________________________________________________
FRQWUDLQWH VXIILVDPPHQW pOHYpH SRXU YDLQFUH OH SRLGV GHV SDUWLFXOHV ILQHV HW OHV
FRQWUDLQWHV TX¶HOOHV VXSSRUWHQW SRXU55 OHV WUDQVSRUWHU j WUDYHUV OHV FRQVWULFWLRQV GHV

130 SDUWLFXOHVGXVROJURVVLHU

/D)LJ YRLU,QVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXHGDQVOD7HUPLQRORJLH PRQWUHFRPPHQWODIUDFWLRQGH
©VRO ILQª HVW GpILQLH GDQV FH FDV VRQ GLDPqWUH PD[LPXP HVW GpILQL SDU OH SRLQW G¶LQIOH[LRQ GH OD
FRXUEH JUDQXORPpWULTXH 'HV HVVDLV GH ODERUDWRLUH SHUPHWWHQW GH GpWHUPLQHU OH SRXUFHQWDJH GH OD



 ,1,7,$7,212)68))86,21



 68))86,217+(29(5$//352&(66


6XIIXVLRQ RFFXUV ZKHQ ZDWHU IORZV WKURXJK ZLGHO\ JUDGHG RU JDS JUDGHG FRKHVLRQOHVV VRLOV
VXFK DV DOOXYLXP RI D ODUJH ULYHU FROOXYLXP LQ WKH EHG RI ULYHUV LQ PRXQWDLQRXV DUHDV HPEDQNPHQW
FRUHV FRQVWUXFWHG RI JODFLDO RULJLQ VRLOV DQG LQ ILOWHUV ZKLFK KDYH YHU\ EURDG RU JDS JUDGLQJV RU
H[FHVVLYH ILQHV FRQWHQW 6XIIXVLYH VRLOV DUH D PL[WXUH RI ILQH DQG FRDUVH VRLOV ZLWK DQ DEVHQFH RI
LQWHUPHGLDWH VL]HV &DPEHIRUW   LOOXVWUDWHV WKLV E\ SUHVHQWLQJ WKH JUDLQ VL]H GLVWULEXWLRQ RI
DOOXYLXPDQGLWVVDQG\DQGJUDYHOO\FRPSRQHQWVLQ)LJ




)LJ
1DWXUDODOOXYLXPLVDPL[WXUHRIVDQGDQGJUDYHOGLVWULEXWLRQ &DPEHIRUW 


7KHILQHSDUWLFOHVRIVRLODUHWUDQVSRUWHGE\WKHVHHSDJHIORZWKURXJKWKHSRUHVRIWKHFRDUVHU
SDUWLFOHV7KHFRDUVHUSDUWLFOHVDUHQRWWUDQVSRUWHGDQGWKHHIIHFWLYHVWUHVVHVDUHODUJHO\WUDQVIHUUHG
WKURXJKWKHPDWUL[RIWKHFRDUVHUSDUWLFOHV

)RU VXIIXVLRQ WR RFFXU WKH IROORZLQJ WKUHH FULWHULD JHRPHWULF FULWHULRQ VWUHVV FULWHULRQ DQG
K\GUDXOLFFULWHULRQKDYHWREHVDWLVILHG

- Criterion 1: 7KH VL]H RI WKH ILQHU VRLO SDUWLFOHV PXVW EH VPDOOHU WKDQ WKH VL]H RI WKH
FRQVWULFWLRQVEHWZHHQWKHFRDUVHUSDUWLFOHVZKLFKIRUPWKHEDVLFVNHOHWRQRIWKHVRLO
- Criterion 2:7KHDPRXQWRIILQHUVRLOSDUWLFOHVPXVWEHOHVVWKDQHQRXJKWRILOOWKHYRLGV
RI WKH EDVLF VNHOHWRQ IRUPHG E\ WKH FRDUVHU SDUWLFOHV ,I WKHUH DUH PRUH WKDQ HQRXJK
ILQHUVRLOSDUWLFOHVIRUYRLGILOOLQJWKHFRDUVHUSDUWLFOHVZLOOEH³IORDWLQJ´LQWKHPDWUL[RI
ILQHVRLOSDUWLFOHVLQVWHDGRIIRUPLQJWKHEDVLFVRLOVNHOHWRQ

53

131
SDUWLFXOHV JURVVLqUHV ©IORWWHQWª GDQV OD PDWULFH GHV SDUWLFXOHV GH VRO ILQ DX OLHX GH
IRUPHUOHVTXHOHWWHGXVRO
- Critère 3 /D YLWHVVH G¶pFRXOHPHQW j WUDYHUV OHV YLGHV GX VTXHOHWWH GRLW LPSRVHU XQH
FRQWUDLQWH VXIILVDPPHQW pOHYpH SRXU YDLQFUH OH SRLGV GHV SDUWLFXOHV ILQHV HW OHV
FRQWUDLQWHV TX¶HOOHV VXSSRUWHQW SRXU OHV WUDQVSRUWHU j WUDYHUV OHV FRQVWULFWLRQV GHV
SDUWLFXOHVGXVROJURVVLHU

/D)LJ YRLU,QVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXHGDQVOD7HUPLQRORJLH PRQWUHFRPPHQWODIUDFWLRQGH
©VRO ILQª HVW GpILQLH GDQV FH FDV VRQ GLDPqWUH PD[LPXP HVW GpILQL SDU OH SRLQW G¶LQIOH[LRQ GH OD
FRXUEH JUDQXORPpWULTXH 'HV HVVDLV GH ODERUDWRLUH SHUPHWWHQW GH GpWHUPLQHU OH SRXUFHQWDJH GH OD
IUDFWLRQILQHTXLGRQQHODGHQVLWpPD[LPDOHHWTXLUHPSOLWMXVWHOHVYLGHVGXVROJURVVLHU$XGHOjGHFH
SRXUFHQWDJHODIUDFWLRQILQHHVWGLWH©VXUDERQGDQWHªHQGHojHOOHHVW©LQVXIILVDQWHª&,*%  
GRQQHSOXVGHGpWDLOVVXUFHVVROVjIUDFWLRQILQHVXUDERQGDQWHRXLQVXIILVDQWH

/DVXIIXVLRQFRQGXLWG¶DERUGjXQHDXJPHQWDWLRQGHODSHUPpDELOLWpjGHVYLWHVVHVG¶LQILOWUDWLRQ
SOXV LPSRUWDQWHV HW VL GHV JUDGLHQWV K\GUDXOLTXHV SRWHQWLHOOHPHQW SOXV pOHYpV O¶DFFpOqUHQW j XQ
WUDQVSRUWPDVVLIGHILQHVSRXYDQWDPHQHUXQFROPDWDJHYRLUHXQFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXH

'HV VLWXDWLRQV VWDEOHV SHXYHQW rWUH DWWHLQWHV ORUVTX¶XQH SDUWLH GH OD IUDFWLRQ ILQH UHVWH HQ
pTXLOLEUHJUkFHDX[FRQWUDLQWHVG¶pFRXOHPHQWV/DVXIIXVLRQSHXWV¶LQLWLHUGHQRXYHDXORUVGHVF\FOHV
GHYLGDQJHUHPSOLVVDJHRXORUVTXHOHQLYHDXG¶HDXDPRQWHVWLPSRUWDQW

/DVXIIXVLRQVHSURGXLVDQWjO¶LQWpULHXUGXQR\DXRXGHODIRQGDWLRQGXEDUUDJHSHXWpJDOHPHQW
SURYRTXHU GHV WDVVHPHQWV GDQV OH UHPEODL 8Q ILOWUH FRQVWUXLW DYHF GHV PDWpULDX[ SRVVpGDQW XQH
LQVWDELOLWp JUDQXORPpWULTXH DXUD XQ SRWHQWLHO G¶pURVLRQ VXU OHV SDUWLFXOHV ILQHV GX ILOWUH UHQGDQW FH
GHUQLHUSOXVJURVVLHUHWGRQFPRLQVHIILFDFHSRXUSURWpJHUOHQR\DXGHO¶pURVLRQ

,O HVW LPSRUWDQW GH QRWHU TXH OD VpJUpJDWLRQ GHV VROV QRQSODVWLTXHV SRVVpGDQW XQH
JUDQXORPpWULH pWHQGXH RX GLVFRQWLQXH ORUV GH OD PLVH HQ °XYUH SHXW FUpHU GHV FRXFKHV SRVVpGDQW
XQHLQVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXHPrPHVLODJUDQXORPpWULHPR\HQQHGXVROHVWVWDEOH


 3+e120Ê1(6(76,78$7,216


6.2.1. Les sols suffusifs


/HV6ROVSRWHQWLHOOHPHQWVXVFHSWLEOHG¶rWUHVXIIXVLIVVRQW

- /HVPDWpULDX[PRUDLQLTXHVJURVVLHUV
- /HVDOOXYLRQVDYHFXQHJUDQXORPpWULHIRUWHPHQWGLVFRQWLQXH
- /HVFROOXYLRQVJURVVLqUHV
- /HVWHUUDLQVJUDQLWLTXHVDOWpUpV
- /HVGUDLQVGHEDUUDJHFRQWHQDQWXQH[FqVGHILQHV

¬GHVILQVSUDWLTXHV)HOOet al  RQWGpILQLjSDUWLUGHVGRQQpHVGLVSRQLEOHVTXHOHVVROV
DYHF XQ ,QGLFH GH 3ODVWLFLWp !  QH GHYUDLHQW SDV rWUH VXMHWV j OD VXIIXVLRQ G¶DSUqV OHV JUDGLHQWV
KDELWXHOOHPHQW SUpVHQWV GDQV OHV EDUUDJHV HW OHXU IRQGDWLRQ 6L SRXU XQH TXHOFRQTXH UDLVRQ OH
JUDGLHQW HVW VXSpULHXU j HQYLURQ  OHV VROV DYHF XQ ,QGLFH GH 3ODVWLFLWp ”  SRXUUDLHQW rWUH DXVVL
VXMHWVjODVXIIXVLRQ&HWWHDSSURFKHHVWMXJpHSOXW{WVpFXULWDLUH

,OHVWUHFRQQXTXHOHVVROVSRWHQWLHOOHPHQWVXVFHSWLEOHVjODVXIIXVLRQVRQWDXVVLSRWHQWLHOOHPHQW
VXMHWVjODVpJUpJDWLRQORUVGHOHXUPLVHHQSODFH3DUFRQVpTXHQWO¶pYDOXDWLRQGXULVTXHGHVXIIXVLRQ
GHV PDWpULDX[ GX EDUUDJH RX GH OD GLJXH GRLW SUHQGUH HQ FRPSWH OH IXVHDX JUDQXORPpWULTXH UpHO
LQWpJUDQWOHVHIIHWVGHODVpJUpJDWLRQ


6.2.2. Prise en compte de la ségrégation


/HV VROV VXMHWV j OD VXIIXVLRQ VRQW pJDOHPHQW VXMHWV j OD VpJUpJDWLRQ GDQV OHV ]RQHV GH
VWRFNDJHGHVPDWpULDX[HWORUVGHODPLVHHQ°XYUHGHVUHPEODLV/DVpJUpJDWLRQSHXWpJDOHPHQWrWUH
__________________________________________________________________________
SUREOpPDWLTXHSRXUOHVILOWUHVHWOHVVROVjJUDQXORPpWULHpWHQGXHFRPPHFHX[GHOD)LJ
56

3RXU OHV VROV FRPSRVpV GH JUDYHV VDEOHV HW VLOWV OHV IDFWHXUV DXJPHQWDQW OD SUREDELOLWp GH
VpJUpJDWLRQORUVGXSODFHPHQWVRQW
132 
- 8QHJUDQXORPpWULHpWHQGXHDYHFXQPD[LPXPGHSDUWLFXOHV!PP
- 8Q IDLEOH SRXUFHQWDJH GH VDEOHV HW GH JUDYHV ILQV  GH ILQHV LQIpULHXUHV j
PP 
- 0DXYDLVHV GLVSRVLWLRQV FRQVWUXFWLYHV SDU H[HPSOH GpYHUVHPHQW GLUHFW GX FDPLRQ


- Criterion 3: 7KH YHORFLW\ RI IORZ WKURXJK WKH VRLO PDWUL[ PXVW LPSRVH D KLJK HQRXJK
VWUHVVWRRYHUFRPHWKHVWUHVVHVLPSRVHGRQWKHSDUWLFOHVE\WKHVXUURXQGLQJVRLODQGWR
PRYHWKHILQHUVRLOSDUWLFOHVWKURXJKWKHFRQVWULFWLRQVEHWZHHQWKHODUJHUVRLOSDUWLFOHV

)LJ VHH,QWHUQDO,QVWDELOLW\LQ7HUPLQRORJ\ VKRZVKRZWKH³ILQHUVRLO´IUDFWLRQLVGHILQHGLQ
WKLVFDVHDVWKHSRLQWRILQIOHFWLRQRIWKHSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQSORW7KLVPD\DOVREHGHWHUPLQHGE\
H[SHULPHQWV WR GHWHUPLQH WKH SHUFHQWDJH RI ILQHU IUDFWLRQ ZKLFK JLYHV WKH PD[LPXP GHQVLW\ WKDW LV
ZKLFKMXVWILOOVWKHYRLGVLQWKHFRDUVHUIUDFWLRQ6RLOVZLWKPRUHILQHVRLODUHRYHUILOOHGWKRVHZLWKOHVV
DUHXQGHUILOOHG,&2/'  VD\VPRUHDERXWXQGHUDQGRYHUILOOHGVRLOV

6XIIXVLRQ UHVXOWV ILUVW LQ DQ LQFUHDVH LQ SHUPHDELOLW\ JUHDWHU VHHSDJH YHORFLWLHV DQG XQGHU
SRWHQWLDOO\KLJKHUK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWVDFFHOHUDWLQJWKHUDWHRIVXIIXVLRQLWFDQOHDGWRWKHWUDQVSRUWRI
VXEVWDQWLDODPRXQWVRIILQHVWKDWPD\FDXVHFORJJLQJDQGRFFDVLRQDOO\K\GUDXOLFIUDFWXUH

6WDEOH VLWXDWLRQV PD\ EH UHDFKHG ZLWK VRPHRI WKH ILQHU IUDFWLRQUHPDLQLQJ LQHTXLOLEULXPZLWK
WKH VHHSDJH VWUHVVHV 6XIIXVLRQ PD\ UHFRPPHQFH GXULQJ F\FOLQJ SHULRGV RI ZDWHU ORDGV RU GXULQJ
KLJKHUUHVHUYRLURUULYHUZDWHUOHYHO

6XIIXVLRQ RFFXUULQJ ZLWKLQ DQ HPEDQNPHQW FRUH RU WKH IRXQGDWLRQ RI D GDP PD\ DOVR OHDG WR
VRPH VHWWOHPHQW RI WKH HPEDQNPHQW $ ILOWHU FRQVWUXFWHG RI LQWHUQDOO\ XQVWDEOH PDWHULDOV ZLOO KDYH D
SRWHQWLDOIRUHURVLRQRIWKHILQHUSDUWLFOHVLQWKHILOWHUUHQGHULQJWKHILOWHUFRDUVHUDQGOHVVHIIHFWLYHLQ
SURWHFWLQJWKHFRUHPDWHULDOVIURPHURVLRQ

,W VKRXOG EH QRWHG WKDW VHJUHJDWLRQ RI EURDGO\ JUDGHG RU JDS JUDGHG QRQSODVWLF VRLOV GXULQJ
SODFHPHQW LQ WKH GDP PD\ FUHDWH OD\HUV ZKLFK DUH LQWHUQDOO\ XQVWDEOH HYHQ WKRXJK WKH DYHUDJH
JUDGLQJRIWKHVRLOLVLQWHUQDOO\VWDEOH


 68))86,21352&(66(6


6.2.1. Soils subject to suffusion


6RLOVSRWHQWLDOO\VXEMHFWWRVXIIXVLRQDUH

- %URDGO\JUDGHGJODFLDOWLOOV
- $OOXYLXPZLWKYHU\EURDGJDSJUDGLQJV
- %URDGO\JUDGHGFROOXYLXP
- %URDGO\JUDGHGZHDWKHUHGJUDQLWH
- %URDGO\JUDGHGGUDLQVLQGDPVFRQWDLQLQJH[FHVVLYHILQHVFRQWHQW

)RU SUDFWLFDO SXUSRVHV )HOO HW DO   KDYH FRQFOXGHG WKDW EDVHG RQ WKH GDWD GHVFULEHG
DYDLODEOHVRLOVZLWK3ODVWLFLW\,QGH[!VKRXOGEHFRQVLGHUHGQRWVXEMHFWWRVXIIXVLRQDWWKHJUDGLHQWV
XVXDOO\H[SHULHQFHGLQGDPVDQGWKHLUIRXQGDWLRQV,IIRUVRPHSDUWLFXODUUHDVRQWKHJUDGLHQWLVKLJKHU
WKDQ DERXW  WKHQ VRLOV ZLWK D 3ODVWLFLW\ ,QGH[ ”  VKRXOG EH FRQVLGHUHG IRU VXIIXVLRQ 7KLV ZDV
FRQVLGHUHGWREHDVRPHZKDWFRQVHUYDWLYHDSSURDFK

,WPXVWEHUHFRJQL]HGWKDWWKHW\SHVRIVRLOVZKLFKDUHSRWHQWLDOO\VXVFHSWLEOHWRVXIIXVLRQDUH
DOVRSRWHQWLDOO\VXEMHFWWRVHJUHJDWLRQGXULQJSODFHPHQWLQWKHGDPRUGLNH7KHUHIRUHZKHQDVVHVVLQJ
ZKHWKHU WKH PDWHULDO LQ WKH GDP RU GLNH LV SRWHQWLDOO\ VXIIXVLYH D UDQJH RI JUDGDWLRQV VKRXOG EH
FRQVLGHUHGZKLFKFRYHUVWKHSRWHQWLDOHIIHFWVRIVHJUHJDWLRQ


6.2.2. The effect of segregation


6RLOV ZKLFK DUH VXEMHFW WR VXIIXVLRQ DUH DOVR VXEMHFW WR VHJUHJDWLRQ LQ VWRFNSLOHV SULRU WR
SODFHPHQW DQG GXULQJ SODFHPHQW RQ WKH HPEDQNPHQW 6HJUHJDWLRQ LV DOVR D SUREOHP IRU EURDGO\
JUDGHGVRLOVVXFKDVWKRVHLQ)LJDQGLQILOWHUV

54

133

/HV VROV VXMHWV j OD VXIIXVLRQ VRQW pJDOHPHQW VXMHWV j OD VpJUpJDWLRQ GDQV OHV ]RQHV GH
VWRFNDJHGHVPDWpULDX[HWORUVGHODPLVHHQ°XYUHGHVUHPEODLV/DVpJUpJDWLRQSHXWpJDOHPHQWrWUH
SUREOpPDWLTXHSRXUOHVILOWUHVHWOHVVROVjJUDQXORPpWULHpWHQGXHFRPPHFHX[GHOD)LJ

3RXU OHV VROV FRPSRVpV GH JUDYHV VDEOHV HW VLOWV OHV IDFWHXUV DXJPHQWDQW OD SUREDELOLWp GH
VpJUpJDWLRQORUVGXSODFHPHQWVRQW

- 8QHJUDQXORPpWULHpWHQGXHDYHFXQPD[LPXPGHSDUWLFXOHV!PP
- 8Q IDLEOH SRXUFHQWDJH GH VDEOHV HW GH JUDYHV ILQV  GH ILQHV LQIpULHXUHV j
PP 
- 0DXYDLVHV GLVSRVLWLRQV FRQVWUXFWLYHV SDU H[HPSOH GpYHUVHPHQW GLUHFW GX FDPLRQ
KDXWHXUGHFRXFKHLPSRUWDQWHHWXQIDLEOHFRQWU{OHGHV]RQHVGHVWRFNDJH
- 6ROVPLVHQSODFHGXF{WpVHFGHO¶RSWLPXPSOXW{WTXHGHO¶KXPLGLILHUDYDQWODPLVHHQ
°XYUH

&HVFULWqUHVSURYLHQQHQWGH6KHUDUGHW'XQQLJDQ  HW.HQQH\HW:HVWODQG  0LOOLJDQ
 SUpVHQWHOHVHIIHWVGHO¶KXPLGLILFDWLRQSRXUpYLWHUODVpJUpJDWLRQHQVHEDVDQWVXU6XWKHUODQG
 TXLDpWXGLpOHVPpFDQLVPHVGHODVpJUpJDWLRQ

&HUWDLQHVLQIRUPDWLRQVVXUODVpJUpJDWLRQSHXYHQWrWUHH[WUDLWHVGHVFRXUEHVJUDQXORPpWULTXHV
SURYHQDQWGHODFRQVWUXFWLRQGHSKRWRJUDSKLHVGHODPLVHHQ°XYUHRXG¶pFKDQWLOORQVSUpOHYpVORUVGH
VRQGDJHVVXUOHUHPEODL

/DVpJUpJDWLRQSHXWGHYHQLUSUREOpPDWLTXHFDUHOOHSHXWVHSURGXLUHGDQVOHVFRXFKHVGHVRO
JURVVLHU TXL RQW XQH LQVWDELOLWp JUDQXORPpWULTXH DORUV TXH OD JUDQXORPpWULH PR\HQQH QH O¶D SDV 8Q
ILOWUHD\DQWVXELXQHVpJUpJDWLRQSHXWrWUHSOXVJURVVLHUTXHFHTXLDpWpUDSSRUWpGDQVOHGRVVLHUGX
EDUUDJH GHV VWUDWLILFDWLRQV RX GHV ]RQHV GH PDWpULDX[ FRPSRVpHV GH JDOHWV HW JUDYLHUV SHXYHQW
H[LVWHU


 &5,7Ê5(6


6.3.1. Pourcentage maximal de fines suffusives


/HV )LJ  HW  UHSUpVHQWHQW OD FRXUEH JUDQXORPpWULTXH GH FHUWDLQV VROV LGHQWLILpV FRPPH
LQVWDEOHV ORUV G¶HVVDLV HQ ODERUDWRLUH ,O FRQYLHQGUD GH QRWHU OD SUpVHQFH GH VROV j JUDQXORPpWULH
pWHQGXH HW j JUDQXORPpWULH GLVFRQWLQXH /HV VROV GH .HQQH\ HW GHV FRDXWHXUV VRQW GHV JUDYHV
VDEOHXVHV WDQGLV TXH OHV VROV GH :DQ HW )HOO VRQW GHV JUDYHV VDEORDUJLOHXVHV /HV VROV $ HW
SRVVqGHQWHWGHNDROLQFHTXLOHVUHQGHQWOpJqUHPHQWSODVWLTXHV

&RPPH O¶RQW VRXOLJQp .HQQH\ HW /DX    OHV VROV VRQW LQVWDEOHV HW VXMHWV j OD
VXIIXVLRQ ORUVTXH OH SRXUFHQWDJH GH OD IUDFWLRQ ILQH IUDFWLRQ SOXV ILQH TXH OH SRLQW G¶LQIOH[LRQ GH OD
FRXUEH JUDQXORPpWULTXH  HVW SOXV IDLEOH TXH O¶HVSDFH GLVSRQLEOH IRUPp SDU OHV YLGHV ,OV RQW SURSRVp
O¶LQWHUYDOOHVXLYDQWHQWUHGXWRWDOGXVROSRXUOHVVROVSRVVpGDQWXQHJUDQXORPpWULHELHQpWDOpHHW
SRXUOHVVROVjJUDQXORPpWULHVHUUpH:DQHW)HOO F RQWGpPRQWUpTX¶HQWKpRULHFHOD
SRXYDLW rWUH OH FDV MXVTX¶j  PDLV OHXUV HVVDLV GRQQHQW XQ LQWHUYDOOH FRPSULV HQWUH  HW 
SRXUOHVVROVjJUDQXORPpWULHpWHQGXHHWHQWUHHWSRXUOHVVROVjJUDQXORPpWULHGLVFRQWLQXH

3RXUXQHSOXVJUDQGHSURSRUWLRQGHVROILQOHVSDUWLFXOHVJURVVLqUHVVRQWHQYHORSSpHVSDUOHV
SDUWLFXOHV ILQHV &HV VROV QH VRQW SDV VXMHWV j OD VXIIXVLRQ PDLV SHXYHQW rWUH VXMHWV j O¶pURVLRQ
UpJUHVVLYHJOREDOH 
 )LJ D 

 eFKDQWLOORQGHJUDQXORPpWULHVFRQVLGpUpHVFRPPHLQVWDEOHV VXMHWWHVjODVXIIXVLRQ SDU:DQ )HOO

)LJ D 
F 
eFKDQWLOORQGHJUDQXORPpWULHVFRQVLGpUpHVFRPPHLQVWDEOHV VXMHWWHVjODVXIIXVLRQ SDU:DQ )HOO

F 
YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ

YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ


__________________________________________________________________________
)LJ E 
57 
eFKDQWLOORQGHJUDQXORPpWULHVFRQVLGpUpHVFRPPHLQVWDEOHV VXMHWWHVjODVXIIXVLRQ SDU.HQQH\ 
)LJ E 
/DX  HW.HQQH\el al.  
eFKDQWLOORQGHJUDQXORPpWULHVFRQVLGpUpHVFRPPHLQVWDEOHV VXMHWWHVjODVXIIXVLRQ SDU.HQQH\ 

/DX  HW.HQQH\el al.  
YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ


YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ

134 
)LJ

eFKDQWLOORQGHJUDQXORPpWULHVFRQVLGpUpHVFRPPHLQVWDEOHV VXMHWWHVjODVXIIXVLRQ SDU.HQQH\ 
)LJ
/DX  HW.HQQH\el al  
eFKDQWLOORQGHJUDQXORPpWULHVFRQVLGpUpHVFRPPHLQVWDEOHV VXMHWWHVjODVXIIXVLRQ SDU.HQQH\ 




&KDUDFWHULVWLFVZKLFKPDNHLWPRUHOLNHO\WKDWVLOWVDQGJUDYHOVRLOVZLOOVHJUHJDWHRQSODFHPHQW
LQFOXGH

- $EURDGJUDGLQJSDUWLFXODUO\ZLWKPD[LPXPSDUWLFOHVL]H!PP
- $ORZSHUFHQWDJHRIVDQGDQGILQHJUDYHOVL]HV ILQHUWKDQPP 
- 3RRU FRQVWUXFWLRQ SUDFWLFHV HJ HQG GXPSLQJ IURP WUXFNV KLJK OLIW KHLJKWV DQG SRRU
FRQWURORIVWRFNSLOLQJRSHUDWLRQV
- 6RLOVSODFHGGU\UDWKHUWKDQPRLVWHQHGSULRUWRSODFHPHQW

7KHVH FULWHULD DUHEDVHGRQ 6KHUDUG DQG 'XQQLJDQ   DQG.HQQH\ DQG:HVWODQG  
0LOOLJDQ  UHSRUWVRQWKHHIIHFWRIZHWWLQJLQSUHYHQWLQJVHJUHJDWLRQEDVHGRQ6XWKHUODQG  
ZKRLQYHVWLJDWHGWKHPHFKDQLVPVRIVHJUHJDWLRQ

6RPHLQIRUPDWLRQRQVHJUHJDWLRQPD\EHDYDLODEOHIURPSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQVWDNHQGXULQJ
FRQVWUXFWLRQIURPSKRWRJUDSKVRISODFHPHQWGXULQJFRQVWUXFWLRQRUIURPVDPSOHVWDNHQIURPWHVWSLWV
LQWKHHPEDQNPHQW

6HJUHJDWLRQ FDQ EHFRPH FULWLFDO EHFDXVH LW PD\ UHVXOW LQ OD\HUV RI FRDUVHU VRLO ZKLFK DUH
LQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOHZKHUHDVWKHDYHUDJHJUDGDWLRQLVQRW$VHJUHJDWHGILOWHUFDQEHFRDUVHUWKDQZKDW
LV UHSRUWHG LQ IRU H[DPSOH WKH GDP UHFRUGV DQG VWUHDNV RU SRFNHWV RI JUDYHOFREEOHVL]HG PDWHULDOV
FDQH[LVW


 &5,7(5,$)25,1,7,$7,212)68))86,21


6.3.1 Maximum proportion of suffusive fines


)LJ DQG  VKRZ SDUWLFOH VL]H GLVWULEXWLRQV RI VRPH VRLOV ZKLFK KDYH EHHQ IRXQG WR EH
LQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOHLQODERUDWRU\WHVWV,WZLOOEHQRWHGWKDWWKHVHDUHJDSJUDGHGDQGEURDGO\JUDGHG
VRLOV7KH.HQQH\DQGFRDXWKRUV¶VRLOVDUHVDQG\JUDYHOVZKHUHDVWKH:DQDQG)HOOVRLOVDUHVLOW\
VDQG\JUDYHOV6RLOV$DQGKDGDQGNDROLQLQWKHPVRZHUHVOLJKWO\SODVWLF

$VSRLQWHGRXWE\.HQQH\DQG/DX  IRUDVRLOWREHLQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOHDQGVXEMHFW
WRVXIIXVLRQWKHSHUFHQWDJHRIILQHUIUDFWLRQ ILQHUWKDQWKHSRLQWRILQIOHFWLRQRIWKHSDUWLFOHVL]HSORW 
PXVWEHVPDOOHUWKDQWKHDYDLODEOHYRLGVSDFH7KH\VXJJHVWHGWKLVOD\EHWZHHQRIWKHWRWDOVRLO
IRUZHOOJUDGHGVRLOVDQGIRUQDUURZJUDGHGVRLOV:DQDQG)HOO F VKRZHGWKDWWKLV
FRXOG WKHRUHWLFDOO\ EH DV KLJK DV  EXW LQ WKHLU VDPSOH LW ZDV EHWZHHQ  DQG  IRU EURDGO\
JUDGHGVRLOVDQGDQGIRUWKHJDSJUDGHGVRLOV

)RUDJUHDWHUSURSRUWLRQRIILQHUVRLOWKHFRDUVHSDUWLFOHVDUHVXUURXQGHGE\WKHILQHUSDUWLFOHV
6XFKVRLOVDUHQRWVXEMHFWWRVXIIXVLRQEXWPD\EHVXEMHFWWRJOREDOEDFNZDUGHURVLRQ



)LJ D 
6RLOVDPSOHVWHVWHGDVEHLQJLQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOH VXIIXVLYH E\:DQDQG)HOO F 

6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ



)LJ E 
6RLOVDPSOHVWHVWHGDVEHLQJLQWHUQDOO\VWDEOH QRWVXIIXVLYH E\.HQQH\ /DX  
.HQQH\et al.  

6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ


55

135
)LJ E 
eFKDQWLOORQGHJUDQXORPpWULHVFRQVLGpUpHVFRPPHLQVWDEOHV VXMHWWHVjODVXIIXVLRQ SDU.HQQH\ 
/DX  HW.HQQH\el al.  

YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ



)LJ
eFKDQWLOORQGHJUDQXORPpWULHVFRQVLGpUpHVFRPPHLQVWDEOHV VXMHWWHVjODVXIIXVLRQ SDU.HQQH\ 
/DX  HW.HQQH\el al  

YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ


6.3.2. Méthodes basées sur les critères géométriques


'HQRPEUHXVHVPpWKRGHVVRQWGLVSRQLEOHVDILQGHGpWHUPLQHUVLRXLRXQRQOHVROHVWVXMHWjOD
VXIIXVLRQ/HVPpWKRGHVOHVSOXVXWLOLVpHVHWRXOHVSOXVUpFHQWHVVRQWSUpVHQWpHVFLGHVVRXV,OHVW
SUpFLVpTXHODRXOHVPpWKRGHVjXWLOLVHUVRQWFHOOHVTXLRQWpWpGpYHORSSpHVSRXUOHVROOHSOXVSURFKH
GHFHOXLTXHO¶RQpYDOXH3RXUOHVFKRL[ORXUGVGHFRQVpTXHQFHVHWpWDQWGRQQpO¶LQFHUWLWXGHGDQVOHV
PpWKRGHV DFWXHOOHV LO IDXW UpDOLVHU GHV HVVDLV VXU OHV VROV FRQVLGpUpV 0HVVHUNOLQJHU HW 6WUDXEKDDU
 SUpVHQWHQWXQHVpULHGHVHVVDLVUpDOLVpVVXUGHVPDWpULDX[SRWHQWLHOVSRXUOHILOWUHGXEDUUDJH
*RHVFKHQHUDOSHQ6XLVVH


Méthode de Kenney et Lau


/DPpWKRGHGH.HQQH\HW/DX  WUDFHOHVYDOHXUVGH)ODIUDFWLRQPDVVLTXHGHVRO
GH GLDPqWUHV GH JUDLQ LQIpULHXUV j GLYHUVHV YDOHXUV GH ' GX VRO PHVXUp VXU OD FRXUEH
JUDQXORPpWULTXH HQIRQFWLRQGH+ODIUDFWLRQPDVVLTXHGHSDUWLFXOHVFRPSULVHVGDQVO¶LQWHUYDOOH'HW
' 3RXU pURGHU OHV SDUWLFXOHV LO IDXW XQH ODFXQH GH SDUWLFXOHV GH OD IUDFWLRQ + /HV )LJ  HW 
UHSUpVHQWHQWODPpWKRGH

6L+)F¶HVWjGLUHTXHOHVROVHWURXYHjGURLWHGHODIURQWLqUHGHOD)LJLOHVWSUREDEOHTX¶LO
VRLWLQVWDEOHVL)HVWLQIpULHXURXpJDOjSRXUOHVVROVjJUDQXORPpWULHpWHQGXHHW)HVWLQIpULHXURX
pJDOjSRXUOHVVROVjJUDQXORPpWULHVHUUpH

/D PpWKRGH D pWp GpYHORSSpH SRXU OHV ILOWUHV HW OHV ]RQHV GH WUDQVLWLRQV SRVVpGDQW PRLQV GH
GHILQHVSDVVDQWOHWDPLVPP


__________________________________________________________________________
58



)LJ
&DUDFWpULVDWLRQGHO¶LQVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXH .HQQH\HW/DX 


136





)LJ 

6RLOVDPSOHVWHVWHGDVEHLQJLQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOH VXIIXVLYH E\.HQQH\ /DX  

DQG.HQQH\et al.  
)LJ 

6RLOVDPSOHVWHVWHGDVEHLQJLQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOH VXIIXVLYH E\.HQQH\ /DX  
6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ
DQG.HQQH\et al.  
 

6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ
6.3.2.  Methods based on geometric criteria

6.3.2.  Methods based on geometric criteria
7KHUH
 DUH D QXPEHU RI PHWKRGV DYDLODEOH WR GHWHUPLQH ZKHWKHU D VRLO LV VXEMHFW WR VXIIXVLRQ
7KH IROORZLQJ
 DUH VRPH RI WKH PRUH ZLGHO\ XVHG DQG  RU ODWHU PHWKRGV ,W LV VXJJHVWHG WKDW WKH
PHWKRG RU PHWKRGV
7KHUH XVHG DUH
DUH D QXPEHU WKRVH ZKLFK
RI PHWKRGV ZHUH WR
DYDLODEOH GHYHORSHG
GHWHUPLQHIRUZKHWKHU
VRLOV PRVW FORVHO\
D VRLO PDWFKLQJ
LV VXEMHFW WKH VRLO
WR VXIIXVLRQ
EHLQJ DVVHVVHG
7KH IROORZLQJ DUH)RU LPSRUWDQW
VRPH RI WKHGHFLVLRQV LW PD\
PRUH ZLGHO\ EHDQG
XVHG QHFHVVDU\ WR PHWKRGV
 RU ODWHU FDUU\ RXW WHVWV RQ WKH VRLOV
,W LV VXJJHVWHG XQGHU
WKDW WKH
FRQVLGHUDWLRQJLYHQWKHXQFHUWDLQW\LQWKHPHWKRGVFXUUHQWO\DYDLODEOH0HVVHUNOLQJHUDQG6WUDXEKDDU
PHWKRG RU PHWKRGV XVHG DUH WKRVH ZKLFK ZHUH GHYHORSHG IRU VRLOV PRVW FORVHO\ PDWFKLQJ WKH VRLO
 UHSRUWRQDVHULHVRIVXFKWHVWVFDUULHGRXWRQSRWHQWLDOILOWHUPDWHULDOVIRU*RHVFKHQHUDOSGDP
EHLQJ DVVHVVHG )RU LPSRUWDQW GHFLVLRQV LW PD\ EH QHFHVVDU\ WR FDUU\ RXW WHVWV RQ WKH VRLOV XQGHU
LQ6ZLW]HUODQG
FRQVLGHUDWLRQJLYHQWKHXQFHUWDLQW\LQWKHPHWKRGVFXUUHQWO\DYDLODEOH0HVVHUNOLQJHUDQG6WUDXEKDDU

 UHSRUWRQDVHULHVRIVXFKWHVWVFDUULHGRXWRQSRWHQWLDOILOWHUPDWHULDOVIRU*RHVFKHQHUDOSGDP

LQ6ZLW]HUODQG
Kenney  and Lau method

Kenney  and Lau method
7KH
 .HQQH\ DQG /DX    PHWKRG SORWV YDOXHV RI ) WKH PDVV IUDFWLRQV VPDOOHU WKDQ
VHOHFWHGJUDLQVL]HV' WDNHQIURPDFRQYHQWLRQDOSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQSORW IRUWKHVRLODJDLQVW+

WKHPDVVIUDFWLRQVRISDUWLFOHVLQWKHUDQJH'WR')RUSDUWLFOHVWRPRYHWKHUHPXVWEHDGHILFLHQF\LQ
7KH .HQQH\ DQG /DX    PHWKRG SORWV YDOXHV RI ) WKH PDVV IUDFWLRQV VPDOOHU WKDQ
WKHPDVVIUDFWLRQV+)LJDQGVKRZWKHPHWKRG
VHOHFWHGJUDLQVL]HV' WDNHQIURPDFRQYHQWLRQDOSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQSORW IRUWKHVRLODJDLQVW+

WKHPDVVIUDFWLRQVRISDUWLFOHVLQWKHUDQJH'WR')RUSDUWLFOHVWRPRYHWKHUHPXVWEHDGHILFLHQF\LQ
,IWKHVRLOSORWVWRWKHULJKWRIWKHERXQGDU\RI)LJ +) LWLVOLNHO\WREHLQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOH
WKHPDVVIUDFWLRQV+)LJDQGVKRZWKHPHWKRG
SURYLGHGWKDWLWVDWLVILHVWKHUXOHVRQOLPLWLQJILQHUIUDFWLRQWKDWLV)IRUZLGHO\JUDGHGVRLOVDQG)

IRUQDUURZJUDGHGVRLOV
,IWKHVRLOSORWVWRWKHULJKWRIWKHERXQGDU\RI)LJ +) LWLVOLNHO\WREHLQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOH

SURYLGHGWKDWLWVDWLVILHVWKHUXOHVRQOLPLWLQJILQHUIUDFWLRQWKDWLV)IRUZLGHO\JUDGHGVRLOVDQG)
7KH PHWKRG ZDV GHYHORSHG IRU ILOWHU DQG WUDQVLWLRQ ]RQHV ZLWK OHVV WKDQ  ILQHV SDVVLQJ
IRUQDUURZJUDGHGVRLOV
PP


7KH PHWKRG ZDV GHYHORSHG IRU ILOWHU DQG WUDQVLWLRQ ]RQHV ZLWK OHVV WKDQ  ILQHV SDVVLQJ
PP




)LJ

0HWKRGRIFKDUDFWHUL]LQJWKHVKDSHRIDJUDGLQJFXUYH .HQQH\DQG/DX 


)LJ
0HWKRGRIFKDUDFWHUL]LQJWKHVKDSHRIDJUDGLQJFXUYH .HQQH\DQG/DX 


56

56 137


)LJ
&DUDFWpULVDWLRQGHO¶LQVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXH .HQQH\HW/DX 




)LJ
0pWKRGHG¶pYDOXDWLRQGHO¶LQVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXHGH.HQQH\HW/DX  G¶DSUqVOHXUFULWqUH
UpYLVp  

/pJHQGH
:*VROVjJUDQXORPpWULHpWHQGXH &X! GDQVO¶LQWHUYDOOH) 
1*VROjJUDQXORPpWULHVHUUpH &X GDQVO¶LQWHUYDOOH) j


Méthode de Witt


/D PpWKRGH GH :LWW   GpILQLW OH FRHIILFLHQW G¶DXWRILOWUDWLRQ ,6) HQWUH OD IUDFWLRQ JURVVLqUH
''PD[ HWODIUDFWLRQILQH ' HQO¶pFULYDQW,6) ' ' ''PD[ ' ' jQ¶LPSRUWHTXHOGLDPqWUH'
HW FRQVLGqUH TX¶LO \ D LQVWDELOLWp JUDQXODLUH VL ,6) ' ! /D PpWKRGH HVW DSSOLTXpH HQ FRPSDUDQW OD
SHQWH GH OD FRXUEH JUDQXORPpWULTXH DYHF FHOOH GH OD OLPLWH G¶LQVWDELOLWp TXL HVW GDQV OH GLDJUDPPH
VHPLORJDULWKPLTXH  P ORJ  /HV VROV  TXL RQW XQH SHQWH SOXV IDLEOH TXH  VRQW
LQVWDEOHV )LJ  )LJ
 0pWKRGHG¶pYDOXDWLRQGHO¶LQVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXHGH:LWW  
)LJ
 
0pWKRGHG¶pYDOXDWLRQGHO¶LQVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXHGH:LWW  
YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ )LJ


0pWKRGHG¶pYDOXDWLRQGHO¶LQVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXHGH:LWW  
YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ
 
__________________________________________________________________________

YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ
59
Adaptation  de Wan et Fell à partir de la méthode de Burenkova

Adaptation de Wan et Fell à partir de la méthode de Burenkova
 
:DQHW)HOO F RQWWURXYpTXHODPpWKRGHGH%XUHQNRYD  GRQQDLWXQHERQQH
Adaptation de Wan et Fell à partir de la méthode de Burenkova
pYDOXDWLRQ  GH O¶LQVWDELOLWp JUDQXORPpWULTXH GHV VROV TX¶LOV RQW WHVWpV &HSHQGDQW VXU O¶HQVHPEOH GHV
:DQHW)HOO F RQWWURXYpTXHODPpWKRGHGH%XUHQNRYD  GRQQDLWXQHERQQH
GRQQpHV
pYDOXDWLRQ ODGHPpWKRGH QH JUDQXORPpWULTXH
O¶LQVWDELOLWp GRQQH SDV XQH GHV
OLPLWH IUDQFKH
VROV TX¶LOV HQWUH OHV VROV
RQW WHVWpV LQVWDEOHV
&HSHQGDQW VXUHWO¶HQVHPEOH
VWDEOHV 8QH
GHV
UpJUHVVLRQ
GRQQpHV :DQHW)HOO F RQWWURXYpTXHODPpWKRGHGH%XUHQNRYD  GRQQDLWXQHERQQH
VWDWLVWLTXH
OD PpWKRGHpWp QHXWLOLVpH SDU :DQ
GRQQH SDV HW )HOO
XQH OLPLWH F
IUDQFKH  
HQWUH OHVSRXU
VROVGpILQLU OHVHW
LQVWDEOHV OLJQHV G¶pJDOH
VWDEOHV 8QH
pYDOXDWLRQG¶LQVWDELOLWp
SUREDELOLWp
UpJUHVVLRQ GH O¶LQVWDELOLWp
VWDWLVWLTXH pWpJUDQXORPpWULTXH
JUDQXORPpWULTXH
XWLOLVpH SDU :DQGHV
/HV VROV
HW )HOOTX¶LOV
LVRYDOHXUV RQWIUpTXHQFH
GH
F WHVWpV &HSHQGDQW
  SRXUGHGpILQLUVXU
OHVO¶HQVHPEOH
GpSDVVHPHQW SRXU
OLJQHV GHV
OHV
G¶pJDOH
GRQQpHV ODG¶LQVWDELOLWp
SUREDELOLWp PpWKRGH QH GRQQH SDV XQH
JUDQXORPpWULTXH OLPLWH
/HV IUDQFKHGH
LVRYDOHXUV HQWUH OHV VROVGH
IUpTXHQFH LQVWDEOHV
PpODQJHVGHJUDYHVDEOHHWVLOWHWGHJUDYHVDEOHVLOWHWDUJLOHVRQWUHSUpVHQWpVGDQVOD)LJHW HW VWDEOHV
GpSDVVHPHQW SRXU8QH
OHV
UpJUHVVLRQ VWDWLVWLTXH pWp XWLOLVpH SDU :DQ HW )HOO F   SRXU GpILQLU OHV OLJQHV G¶pJDOH
FHOOHVGHVPpODQJHVGHJUDYHHWGHVDEOHVRQWUHSUpVHQWpVGDQVOD)LJ
PpODQJHVGHJUDYHVDEOHHWVLOWHWGHJUDYHVDEOHVLOWHWDUJLOHVRQWUHSUpVHQWpVGDQVOD)LJHW
SUREDELOLWp
 G¶LQVWDELOLWp JUDQXORPpWULTXH /HV LVRYDOHXUV GH IUpTXHQFH GH GpSDVVHPHQW SRXU OHV
FHOOHVGHVPpODQJHVGHJUDYHHWGHVDEOHVRQWUHSUpVHQWpVGDQVOD)LJ
PpODQJHVGHJUDYHVDEOHHWVLOWHWGHJUDYHVDEOHVLOWHWDUJLOHVRQWUHSUpVHQWpVGDQVOD)LJHW

FHOOHVGHVPpODQJHVGHJUDYHHWGHVDEOHVRQWUHSUpVHQWpVGDQVOD)LJ
 
 )LJ


,VRYDOHXUVGHODSUREDELOLWpG¶LQVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXH VROSRWHQWLHOOHPHQWVXMHWjODVXIIXVLRQ SRXU
)LJ
OHVPpODQJHVGHJUDYHVDEOHVLOWHWJUDYHVDEOHVLOWDUJLOHDYHFGHVLQGLFHVGHSODVWLFLWpLQIpULHXUVj

,VRYDOHXUVGHODSUREDELOLWpG¶LQVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXH VROSRWHQWLHOOHPHQWVXMHWjODVXIIXVLRQ SRXU
HWSRXUGHVSURSRUWLRQVG¶DUJLOHLQIpULHXUHVj SDVVDQWPP 
)LJ
OHVPpODQJHVGHJUDYHVDEOHVLOWHWJUDYHVDEOHVLOWDUJLOHDYHFGHVLQGLFHVGHSODVWLFLWpLQIpULHXUVj
:DQDQG)HOOF 
,VRYDOHXUVGHODSUREDELOLWpG¶LQVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXH VROSRWHQWLHOOHPHQWVXMHWjODVXIIXVLRQ SRXU
HWSRXUGHVSURSRUWLRQVG¶DUJLOHLQIpULHXUHVj SDVVDQWPP 

OHVPpODQJHVGHJUDYHVDEOHVLOWHWJUDYHVDEOHVLOWDUJLOHDYHFGHVLQGLFHVGHSODVWLFLWpLQIpULHXUVj
:DQDQG)HOOF 
HWSRXUGHVSURSRUWLRQVG¶DUJLOHLQIpULHXUHVj SDVVDQWPP 
YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ


YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ :DQDQG)HOOF 

YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ 
138 
)LJ

,VRYDOHXUGHODSUREDELOLWpG¶LQVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXH SRWHQWLHOOHPHQWVXMHWjODVXIIXVLRQ SRXUOHV
)LJ

VROVJUDYHVDEOHDYHFPRLQVGHGHILQHVQRQSODVWLTXHVSDVVDQWPP
,VRYDOHXUGHODSUREDELOLWpG¶LQVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXH SRWHQWLHOOHPHQWVXMHWjODVXIIXVLRQ SRXUOHV
)LJ
:DQHW)HOOF 
VROVJUDYHVDEOHDYHFPRLQVGHGHILQHVQRQSODVWLTXHVSDVVDQWPP





 

)LJ 
)LJ
0HWKRGRIDVVHVVLQJLQWHUQDOLQVWDELOLW\E\.HQQH\DQG/DX  ZLWKWKHUHYLVHGFULWHULDIURP

0HWKRGRIDVVHVVLQJLQWHUQDOLQVWDELOLW\E\.HQQH\DQG/DX  ZLWKWKHUHYLVHGFULWHULDIURP
.HQQH\DQG/DX  
)LJ
.HQQH\DQG/DX  

0HWKRGRIDVVHVVLQJLQWHUQDOLQVWDELOLW\E\.HQQH\DQG/DX  ZLWKWKHUHYLVHGFULWHULDIURP
/pJHQG 
.HQQH\DQG/DX  
/pJHQG
:*VRLOVZLGHO\JUDGHG &X! LQWKHUDQJH) 

:*VRLOVZLGHO\JUDGHG &X! LQWKHUDQJH)
1*VRLOVQDUURZO\JUDGHG &X LQWKHUDQJH)
/pJHQG 
j
1*VRLOVQDUURZO\JUDGHG &X LQWKHUDQJH)

:*VRLOVZLGHO\JUDGHG &X! LQWKHUDQJH) j


1*VRLOVQDUURZO\JUDGHG &X LQWKHUDQJH) j
Witt method 
Witt method 
Witt method 
7KH 6DOHKL 6DGDJKLDQL DQG :LWW   PHWKRG GHILQHV WKH FRHIILFLHQW RI VHOIILOWUDWLRQ ,6) 6)

EHWZHHQ 7KH 6DOHKL
WKH 6DGDJKLDQL
FRDUVH DQG
IUDFWLRQ '' PD[:LWW
PD[  
 DQG PHWKRG
WKH ILQH GHILQHV
IUDFWLRQ WKH
'  DV 6)FRHIILFLHQW
,6)  '   ' RI VHOIILOWUDWLRQ
 '' PD[ '
PD[ 6)
 ' ,IRU
EHWZHHQ
GLDPHWHU7KH WKH FRDUVH
'6DOHKL IUDFWLRQ
GHWHUPLQHG E\ ''
6DGDJKLDQL WKH
DQG  DQG
PHDQ
PD[:LWW WKHWZR
SOXV
 ILQH IUDFWLRQ
VWDQGDUG
PHWKRG '  DV ,6)FRHIILFLHQW
GHYLDWLRQV
GHILQHV WKH  '   '3')
RI WKH '' 'SUREDELOLW\
WKH  ' ,IRU
RI VHOIILOWUDWLRQ
PD[ 6)
GLDPHWHU ' GHWHUPLQHG E\ ''
FRDUVH IUDFWLRQ WKH PD[
PHDQ SOXV
 DQG WKHWZR
ILQH VWDQGDUG GHYLDWLRQV
IUDFWLRQ '  RI WKH
DV ,6) '   '3')
GLVWULEXWLRQIXQFWLRQGHULYHGIURPWKHSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQRIWKHILQHIUDFWLRQRUWKHPHDQPLQXV
EHWZHHQ WKH ''PD[WKH
'SUREDELOLW\
 '  IRU
WZRVWDQGDUGGHYLDWLRQVRIWKH3')RIWKHFRDUVHIUDFWLRQDQGFRQVLGHUVWKDWWKHUHLVLQVWDELOLW\LI,
GLVWULEXWLRQIXQFWLRQGHULYHGIURPWKHSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQRIWKHILQHIUDFWLRQRUWKHPHDQPLQXV
WZRVWDQGDUGGHYLDWLRQVRIWKH3')RIWKHFRDUVHIUDFWLRQDQGFRQVLGHUVWKDWWKHUHLVLQVWDELOLW\LI,
GLDPHWHU ' GHWHUPLQHG E\ WKH PHDQ SOXV WZR VWDQGDUG GHYLDWLRQV RI WKH 3') WKH SUREDELOLW\ 6)
6)
WZRVWDQGDUGGHYLDWLRQVRIWKH3')RIWKHFRDUVHIUDFWLRQDQGFRQVLGHUVWKDWWKHUHLVLQVWDELOLW\LI,
' ! )LJ 7KHPHWKRGLVVLPSO\DSSOLHGE\FRPSDULQJWKHVORSHRIWKHJUDGLQJFXUYHZLWKWKDW
GLVWULEXWLRQIXQFWLRQGHULYHGIURPWKHSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQRIWKHILQHIUDFWLRQRUWKHPHDQPLQXV 6)
' ! )LJ 7KHPHWKRGLVVLPSO\DSSOLHGE\FRPSDULQJWKHVORSHRIWKHJUDGLQJFXUYHZLWKWKDW
RIWKHERXQGDU\RILQVWDELOLW\ZKLFKLQWKHVHPLORJDULWKPLFSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQSORWLVP
WZRVWDQGDUGGHYLDWLRQVRIWKH3')RIWKHFRDUVHIUDFWLRQDQGFRQVLGHUVWKDWWKHUHLVLQVWDELOLW\LI, 6)
RIWKHERXQGDU\RILQVWDELOLW\ZKLFKLQWKHVHPLORJDULWKPLFSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQSORWLVP
ORJ  :KHUHPWKHVORSHLVOHVVWKDQWKHVRLOVDUHXQVWDEOH )LJ 
' ! )LJ 7KHPHWKRGLVVLPSO\DSSOLHGE\FRPSDULQJWKHVORSHRIWKHJUDGLQJFXUYHZLWKWKDW
 
ORJ   :KHUHPWKHVORSHLVOHVVWKDQWKHVRLOVDUHXQVWDEOH )LJ 


RIWKHERXQGDU\RILQVWDELOLW\ZKLFKLQWKHVHPLORJDULWKPLFSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQSORWLVP 

ORJ :KHUHPWKHVORSHLVOHVVWKDQWKHVRLOVDUHXQVWDEOH )LJ 


)LJ 
)LJ 
)LJ 
0HWKRGRIDVVHVVLQJLQWHUQDOLQVWDELOLW\ &RXUWHV\RI3URI:LWW 
0HWKRGRIDVVHVVLQJLQWHUQDOLQVWDELOLW\ &RXUWHV\RI3URI:LWW 


0HWKRGRIDVVHVVLQJLQWHUQDOLQVWDELOLW\ &RXUWHV\RI3URI:LWW 
)LJ 
6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ
6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ 
0HWKRGRIDVVHVVLQJLQWHUQDOLQVWDELOLW\ &RXUWHV\RI3URI:LWW 

6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ


6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ
Wan and  Fell adaptation of the Burenkova method
Wan and  Fell adaptation of the Burenkova method
Wan and  Fell adaptation of the Burenkova method
:DQ
:DQ
 DQG
DQG )HOO
)HOO F
F 
 IRXQG
IRXQG WKDW
WKDW WKH
WKH %XUHQNRYD
%XUHQNRYD  
  PHWKRG
PHWKRG JDYHJDYH UHDVRQDEOH
UHDVRQDEOH
DVVHVVPHQWV
DVVHVVPHQWV :DQ
 RI ZKHWKHU
DQG
RI ZKHWKHU D VRLO
)HOO F
D VRLO ZDV LQWHUQDOO\

ZDV LQWHUQDOO\
IRXQG WKDW XQVWDEOH
XQVWDEOH ZKHQ XVHG
WKH %XUHQNRYD
ZKHQ XVHG IRU WKH
 
IRU WKH VRLOV JDYH
PHWKRG
VRLOV WKH\ KDG
WKH\ KDG WHVWHG
UHDVRQDEOH
WHVWHG
DVVHVVPHQWV RI ZKHWKHU D VRLO ZDV LQWHUQDOO\ XQVWDEOH ZKHQ XVHG
+RZHYHUWKHPHWKRGGRHVQRWJLYHDFOHDUFXWERXQGDU\EHWZHHQLQWHUQDOO\VWDEOHDQGXQVWDEOHVRLOV
+RZHYHUWKHPHWKRGGRHVQRWJLYHDFOHDUFXWERXQGDU\EHWZHHQLQWHUQDOO\VWDEOHDQGXQVWDEOHVRLOV
:DQ DQG )HOO F  IRXQG WKDW WKH %XUHQNRYD IRU WKH
  VRLOV JDYH
PHWKRG WKH\ KDG WHVWHG
UHDVRQDEOH
LQWKHGDWDVHW7RPRGHOWKLVORJLVWLFUHJUHVVLRQZDVXVHGE\:DQDQG)HOO F WRGHILQH
+RZHYHUWKHPHWKRGGRHVQRWJLYHDFOHDUFXWERXQGDU\EHWZHHQLQWHUQDOO\VWDEOHDQGXQVWDEOHVRLOV
LQWKHGDWDVHW7RPRGHOWKLVORJLVWLFUHJUHVVLRQZDVXVHGE\:DQDQG)HOO F WRGHILQH
DVVHVVPHQWV RI ZKHWKHU D VRLO ZDV LQWHUQDOO\ XQVWDEOH ZKHQ XVHG IRU WKH VRLOV WKH\ KDG WHVWHG

LQWKHGDWDVHW7RPRGHOWKLVORJLVWLFUHJUHVVLRQZDVXVHGE\:DQDQG)HOO F WRGHILQH
FRQWRXUVRIHTXDOSUREDELOLW\RILQWHUQDOLQVWDELOLW\7KHFRQWRXUVDQGWKHORJLVWLFHTXDWLRQVIRUVLOWVDQG
FRQWRXUVRIHTXDOSUREDELOLW\RILQWHUQDOLQVWDELOLW\7KHFRQWRXUVDQGWKHORJLVWLFHTXDWLRQVIRUVLOWVDQG
+RZHYHUWKHPHWKRGGRHVQRWJLYHDFOHDUFXWERXQGDU\EHWZHHQLQWHUQDOO\VWDEOHDQGXQVWDEOHVRLOV
FRQWRXUVRIHTXDOSUREDELOLW\RILQWHUQDOLQVWDELOLW\7KHFRQWRXUVDQGWKHORJLVWLFHTXDWLRQVIRUVLOWVDQG
JUDYHO
JUDYHO DQG FOD\VLOWVDQGJUDYHO
DQG FOD\VLOWVDQGJUDYHO PL[WXUHV
PL[WXUHV DUH
DUH VKRZQ
VKRZQ RQRQ )LJ
)LJ DQG
DQG WKRVH
WKRVH IRU
LQWKHGDWDVHW7RPRGHOWKLVORJLVWLFUHJUHVVLRQZDVXVHGE\:DQDQG)HOO F WRGHILQH IRU VDQGJUDYHO
VDQGJUDYHO VRLOV
VRLOV DUH
DUH
VKRZQRQ)LJ
JUDYHO
VKRZQRQ)LJDQG FOD\VLOWVDQGJUDYHO PL[WXUHV DUH VKRZQ RQ )LJ DQG WKRVH IRU VDQGJUDYHO VRLOV DUH
FRQWRXUVRIHTXDOSUREDELOLW\RILQWHUQDOLQVWDELOLW\7KHFRQWRXUVDQGWKHORJLVWLFHTXDWLRQVIRUVLOWVDQG
VKRZQRQ)LJ
JUDYHO DQG FOD\VLOWVDQGJUDYHO PL[WXUHV DUH VKRZQ RQ )LJ DQG WKRVH IRU VDQGJUDYHO VRLOV DUH

VKRZQRQ)LJ  )LJ 
&RQWRXUVRIWKHSUREDELOLW\RILQWHUQDOLQVWDELOLW\ SRWHQWLDOO\VXIIXVLYH IRUVLOWVDQGJUDYHODQGFOD\VLOW
 
 VDQGJUDYHOPL[WXUHVZLWKDSODVWLFLW\LQGH[OHVVWKDQDQGOHVVWKDQFOD\VL]HIUDFWLRQ

SDVVLQJPP  :DQDQG)HOOF 

57
6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ
57
57

57

 139
)LJ 
&RQWRXUVRIWKHSUREDELOLW\RILQWHUQDOLQVWDELOLW\ SRWHQWLDOO\VXIIXVLYH IRUVDQGJUDYHOVRLOVZLWKOHVV
WKDQQRQSODVWLFILQHVSDVVLQJPP :DQDQG)HOOF 

OHVPpODQJHVGHJUDYHVDEOHVLOWHWJUDYHVDEOHVLOWDUJLOHDYHFGHVLQGLFHVGHSODVWLFLWpLQIpULHXUVj
HWSRXUGHVSURSRUWLRQVG¶DUJLOHLQIpULHXUHVj SDVVDQWPP 
:DQDQG)HOOF 

YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ



)LJ
,VRYDOHXUGHODSUREDELOLWpG¶LQVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXH SRWHQWLHOOHPHQWVXMHWjODVXIIXVLRQ SRXUOHV
VROVJUDYHVDEOHDYHFPRLQVGHGHILQHVQRQSODVWLTXHVSDVVDQWPP
:DQHW)HOOF 

YRLUOHVILJXUHVHQFRXOHXUHQILQGHEXOOHWLQ


Plus grosse particule érodable par suffusion


:DQ  HW:DQHW)HOO F GpFULYHQWXQHPpWKRGHSHUPHWWDQWGHGpWHUPLQHUODIUDFWLRQ
GXVROpURGDEOH)HOOet al  RQWWURXYpTX¶HQSUDWLTXHRQSHXWVXSSRVHUTXHGHODIUDFWLRQ
ILQHGpILQLHSDUOHSRLQWG¶LQIOH[LRQGHODFRXUEHJUDQXORPpWULTXHGLVFRQWLQXHHVWpURGpHGRQQDQWDLQVL
ODFRXUEHJUDQXORPpWULTXHDSUqVpURVLRQ

,OVVXJJqUHQWHQFDVGHFKRL[ORXUGVGHFRQVpTXHQFHVGHUpDOLVHUGHVHVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUHVXU
OHVROSRVVpGDQWXQHLQVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXH

6DOHKL 6DGDJKLDQL HW :LWW   HW 6DOHKL 6DGDJKLDQL et al   RQW XWLOLVp XQH DSSURFKH
VWDWLVWLTXH SRXU VpSDUHU OHV JUDLQV PRELOHV GX VTXHOHWWH VXSSRUW SUHQDQW HQ FRPSWH OD ILOWUDWLRQ
JpRPpWULTXHGHVGHX[VROVFRQVWLWXDQWODJUDQXORPpWULHWUqVGLVFRQWLQXH,OVO¶RQWXWLOLVpSRXUpYDOXHU
GH QRXYHDX O¶LQVWDELOLWp JUDQXORPpWULTXH GHV  FRXUEHV JUDQXORPpWULTXHV GH VRO SURYHQDQW GH OD
OLWWpUDWXUH SRXU DUULYHU DX[ PrPHV FRQFOXVLRQV TXH FHOOHV GH :DQ HW )HOO   H[FHSWp SRXU GHX[
FDV


Quelques commentaires généraux

:DQ HW )HOO F   RQW UHPDUTXp TXH GHV JUDYHV VDEORDUJLOHXVHV GH OD )LJ 
FDUDFWpULVpHV FRPPHVWDEOHV SDU OHXUVWHVWV pWDLHQW LGHQWLILpHVFRPPH LQVWDEOHV SDU OD PpWKRGH GH
__________________________________________________________________________
.HQQH\HW/DX  &RPSWHWHQXGHFHODLOHVWpYLGHQWTXHODPpWKRGHGH.HQQH\HW/DX
60
 HVWWURSVpFXULWDLUHSRXUOHVVROVGHJUDYHVVDEORDUJLOHXVHV,OHVWGRQFUHFRPPDQGpGH
O¶XWLOLVHU XQLTXHPHQW SRXU OHV JUDYHV VDEOHXVHV SRXU OHVTXHOOHV HOOH D pWp GpYHORSSpH :DQ HW )HOO
F   RQW pJDOHPHQW WURXYp TXH OHV PpWKRGHV G¶,VWRPLQD   6KHUDUG   HW 6XQ
 pWDLHQWVpFXULWDLUHVSRXUOHVVROVFRPSRVpVGHJUDYHVVDEOHVHWVLOWV

5|QQTYLVW  DDSSOLTXpODPpWKRGHGH.HQQH\HW/DX  DX[
JUDQXORPpWULHVFRQWU{OpHVSHQGDQWODFRQVWUXFWLRQG¶XQJUDQGQRPEUHGHEDUUDJHVGRQWOHQR\DXHVW
HQ PRUDLQH WLOO JODFLDLUH  SRXU HQ pYDOXHU OD VWDELOLWp JUDQXODLUH GHV ILOWUHV HW QR\DX[ &HUWDLQV RQW
SUpVHQWpGHVVLJQHVG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHG¶DXWUHVQRQPDLVTXHOTXHVRLWOHXUFRPSRUWHPHQWjO¶pURVLRQ
LQWHUQH OD PDMRULWp G¶HQWUH HX[ DYDLW XQH FRQGLWLRQ GH ILOWUDWLRQ FODVVpH GDQV OD FDWpJRULH © pURVLRQ
OLPLWpHªRX©pURVLRQVLJQLILFDWLYHªGH)RVWHUHW)HOO  0DOJUpXQIXVHDXGHILOWUHVJOREDOHPHQW
VLPLODLUHV XQH FRUUpODWLRQ HQWUH OHV EDUUDJHV SRVVpGDQW GHV VLJQHV G¶pURVLRQ LQWHUQH HW O¶LQVWDELOLWp
JUDQXORPpWULTXH GX ILOWUH HW GX QR\DX SHXW rWUH PLVH HQ pYLGHQFH 0DLV G¶DXWUHV YDULDEOHV VHPEOHQW
LQIOXHUVXUFHWWHUHODWLRQFRPPHOHVFRQGLWLRQVK\GUDXOLTXHVPDOFHUQpHVODUpVLVWDQFHjO¶pURVLRQGX
QR\DXOHVVLJQHVG¶pURVLRQQRQHQFRUHGpFRXYHUWVRXVLPSOHPHQWOHVpURVLRQVDUUrWpHVDYDQWG¶DYRLU
pWpGpFRXYHUWHV


6.3.3. Critère hydraulique basé sur le gradient critique


6NHPSWRQ HW %URJDQ   RQW PRQWUp TXH O¶pURVLRQ TX¶LOV RQW QRPPp ©pURVLRQ SDU
VpJUpJDWLRQª VH SURGXLUD GDQV OHV VROV JUDQXODLUHV LQVWDEOHV SRXU GHV JUDGLHQWV K\GUDXOLTXHV
LQIpULHXUV DX JUDGLHQW FULWLTXH GH 7HU]DJKL TXL YDXW HQYLURQ XQ YDULDEOH DYHF OD GHQVLWp GX VRO HW
JpQpUDQW XQH FRQWUDLQWH HIIHFWLYH QXOOH TXDQG OD SUHVVLRQ LQWHUVWLWLHOOH GDQV XQ VRO SHUPpDEOH DX
GHVVRXV GH O¶LQWHUIDFH pJDOLVH OD SUHVVLRQ WRWDOH DSSOLTXpH SDU OH VRO LPSHUPpDEOH VXVMDFHQW RQ
REVHUYHDORUVXQ©VRXOqYHPHQWªRX©FODTXDJHªK\GUDXOLTXH 

:DQ HW )HOO F   RQW WURXYp TXH OHV VROV j LQVWDELOLWp JUDQXORPpWULTXH VRQW pURGpV
ORUVTX¶LOV VRQW VRXPLV j XQ JUDGLHQW DVFHQGDQW LQIpULHXU RX pJDO j  HW FHUWDLQV ORUVTX¶LOV VRQW
VRXPLV j GHV JUDGLHQWV LQIpULHXUV j  /D WHQGDQFH JpQpUDOH PRQWUH TXH OHV VROV j SRURVLWp SOXV
IRUWHFRPPHQFHQWjrWUHpURGpVVRXVGHVJUDGLHQWVK\GUDXOLTXHVSOXVIDLEOHV/kFKHVOHVVROVjIRUWH
140
SRURVLWp FRPPHQFHQW j rWUH pURGpV j GHV JUDGLHQWV LQIpULHXUV j  /HV VROV DYHF GHV ILQHV
SODVWLTXHV QpFHVVLWHQW GHV JUDGLHQWV SOXV pOHYpV SRXU rWUH pURGpV /HV VROV j JUDQXORPpWULH
GLVFRQWLQXH RQW WHQGDQFH j rWUH pURGpV j GHV JUDGLHQWV SOXV IDLEOHV TXH OHV VROV j JUDQXORPpWULH
FRQWLQXHSRVVpGDQWODPrPHSURSRUWLRQGHILQHV
&RQWRXUVRIWKHSUREDELOLW\RILQWHUQDOLQVWDELOLW\ SRWHQWLDOO\VXIIXVLYH IRUVLOWVDQGJUDYHODQGFOD\VLOW
VDQGJUDYHOPL[WXUHVZLWKDSODVWLFLW\LQGH[OHVVWKDQDQGOHVVWKDQFOD\VL]HIUDFWLRQ
SDVVLQJPP  :DQDQG)HOOF 

6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ



)LJ 
&RQWRXUVRIWKHSUREDELOLW\RILQWHUQDOLQVWDELOLW\ SRWHQWLDOO\VXIIXVLYH IRUVDQGJUDYHOVRLOVZLWKOHVV
WKDQQRQSODVWLFILQHVSDVVLQJPP :DQDQG)HOOF 

6HHWKHFRORUHGILJXUHVDWWKHHQGRIWKHEXOOHWLQ


Largest erodible particles


:DQ  DQG:DQDQG)HOO F JLYHGHWDLOVRIDPHWKRGWRGHWHUPLQHZKDWIUDFWLRQRIWKH
VRLOZLOOEHHURGHG)HOOHWDO  KDYHIRXQGWKDWLQSUDFWLFDOWHUPVLWFDQEHDVVXPHGWKDWRI
WKHILQHUIUDFWLRQDVGHILQHGE\WKHSRLQWRILQIOHFWLRQRIEURDGO\JUDGHGVRLOVDQGWKHILQHOLPLWRIWKH
JDSLQJDSJUDGHGVRLOVLVHURGHGDQGWKHSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQUHSORWWHG

7KH\VXJJHVWWKDWLIWKLVEHFRPHVFULWLFDOODERUDWRU\WHVWVVKRXOGEHFDUULHGRXWRQWKHLQWHUQDOO\
XQVWDEOHVRLO

7KHVWDWLVWLFDODSSURDFKXVHGE\6DOHKL6DGDJKLDQLDQG:LWW  LGHQWLILHVPRELOHJUDLQVDQG
WKHVXSSRUWLQJVNHOHWRQIRUFRQVLGHULQJWKHJHRPHWULFDOILOWUDWLRQUHVSRQVHRIZLGHO\JDSJUDGHGVRLOV
7KH\ XVHG WKH PHWKRG WR UHDVVHVV WKH LQWHUQDO VWDELOLW\ RI  JUDLQ VL]H GLVWULEXWLRQV IURP WKH
OLWHUDWXUH DJUHHLQJZLWK WKH ILQGLQJV RI :DQ DQG )HOO   LQ DOO EXW WZR FDVHV ZKHUHFRKHVLRQ LV
VXVSHFWHGLQILQHPDWUL[


Some general comments


:DQDQG)HOO F IRXQGWKDWIRUWKHVLOW\VDQG\JUDYHOVRLOVWKH\WHVWHGWKH.HQQH\
DQG/DX  PHWKRGZDVWRRFRQVHUYDWLYHLGHQWLI\LQJWKHVRLOVVKRZQLQ)LJDVLQWHUQDOO\
XQVWDEOH ZKHQ WKH\ WHVWHG DV VWDEOH ,Q YLHZ RI WKLV LW LV DSSDUHQW WKDW WKH .HQQH\ DQG /DX 
 PHWKRGLVWRRFRQVHUYDWLYHIRUVLOW\VDQGJUDYHOVRLOVDQGLWLVVXJJHVWHGLWRQO\EHDSSOLHGWRWKH
VDQGJUDYHOVRLOVIRUZKLFKLWZDVGHYHORSHG:DQDQG)HOO F DOVRIRXQGWKDWWKH,VWRPLQD
 6KHUDUG  DQG6XQ  PHWKRGVZHUHFRQVHUYDWLYHIRUWKHVHVLOWVDQGJUDYHOVRLOV

5|QQTYLVW  DQG5RQQTYLVWHWDO  DSSOLHG.HQQH\DQG/DX 
  WR JUDLQ VL]H FXUYHV IURP FRQVWUXFWLRQ GDWD RI D ODUJH QXPEHU RI H[LVWLQJ PRUDLQH JODFLDO WLOO 
FRUHGDPVWRDVVHVVWKHSRWHQWLDOLQWHUQDOVWDELOLW\RIWKHILOWHUVDQGFRUHV$QXPEHURIWKHGDPVKDG
H[KLELWHG VLJQV RI LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ DQG RWKHUV KDG QRW EXW DOO WKH GDPV ZLWK D KLVWRU\ RI LQWHUQDO
HURVLRQ KDG ILOWHUV FRDUVHU WKDQ WKH )RVWHU DQG )HOO   ³QRHURVLRQ´ OLPLW PRVW LQ WKH ³VRPH
HURVLRQ´ DQG ³H[FHVVLYH HURVLRQ´ UDQJH DQG WZR ZLWK ILOWHUV LQ WKH ³FRQWLQXLQJ HURVLRQ´ UDQJH 7KH
ILOWHUV LQ DOO H[FHSW RQH RI WKH GDPV ZLWK D KLVWRU\ RI LQWHUQDO HURVLRQ ZHUH DOVR LQWHUQDOO\ XQVWDEOH
6RPHRWKHUGDPVLQWKHVDPSOHDOVRKDYHFRDUVHDQGXQVWDEOHILOWHUVEXWKDYHQRWGLVSOD\HGDQ\VLJQ
RILQWHUQDOHURVLRQ7KLVDSSDUHQWO\JRRGSHUIRUPDQFHPD\EHH[SODLQHGE\RWKHUIDFWRUVVXFKDVQRW
\HW EHLQJ VXEMHFW WR FULWLFDO K\GUDXOLF IRUFHV WKH HURGLELOLW\ RI WKH FRUH VRLO QRW \HW YLVLEOH VLJQV RI
LQWHUQDOHURVLRQRUVLPSO\WKDWWKHHURVLRQZDVDUUHVWHGZLWKRXWEHLQJQRWLFHG


6.3.3. The hydraulic criterion based on critical gradient


6NHPSWRQ DQG %URJDQ   VKRZHG WKDW HURVLRQ ZKLFK WKH\ GHVFULEHG DV µVHJUHJDWLRQ
SLSLQJ¶ ZLOO EHJLQ LQ LQWHUQDOO\ XQVWDEOH FRKHVLRQOHVV VRLOV DW VHHSDJH JUDGLHQWV ORZHU WKDQ WKH
7HU]DJKL FULWLFDO JUDGLHQW ZKLFK LV DSSUR[LPDWHO\ 58RQH GHSHQGLQJ RQ VRLO GHQVLW\ RU ]HUR HIIHFWLYH
VWUHVV ZKHQ WKH SRUH SUHVVXUH LQ D SHUPHDEOH VRLO EHORZ WKH LQWHUIDFH HTXDOV WKH WRWDO SUHVVXUH
DSSOLHGE\DQLPSHUPHDEOHVRLODERYHDQGµKHDYH¶RUµXSOLIW¶RFFXUV 

:DQDQG)HOO F IRXQGWKDWLQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOHVRLOVHURGHGZLWKXSZDUGJUDGLHQWVRI
RUOHVVZLWKVHYHUDOOHVVWKDQ7KHUHLVDJHQHUDOWUHQGWKDWVRLOVZLWKDKLJKHUSRURVLW\EHJLQWR
HURGHDWORZHUK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWV/RRVHKLJKHUSRURVLW\VRLOVEHJDQWRHURGHDWJUDGLHQWVOHVVWKDQ
 6RLOV ZLWK SODVWLF ILQHV UHTXLUHG KLJKHU JUDGLHQWV WR EHJLQ WR HURGH *DSJUDGHG VRLOV WHQGHG WR
EHJLQWRHURGHDWORZHUJUDGLHQWVWKDQQRQJDSJUDGHGVRLOVZLWKWKHVDPHILQHVFRQWHQW

*ROW] HW DO   DUH GHYHORSLQJ K\GUDXOLF FULWHULD EDVHG RQ FRQVWULFWLRQ RSHQLQJ VL]H 7ULDOV
XVLQJWKHVHFULWHULDKDYHVRIDUEHHQFDUULHGRXWRQOLPLWHGWHVWGDWD 141

0RQQHW   FRUUHODWHG WKH K\GUDXOLF JUDGLHQW LQLWLDWLQJ IDLOXUH PHDVXUHG E\ 6NHPSWRQ DQG
%URJDQ  WRWKHPHDVXUHGSHUPHDELOLW\VKRZLQJWKDWWKHK\GUDXOLFFULWHULRQJRYHUQVWKHYDOXHRI
6NHPSWRQ HW %URJDQ   RQW PRQWUp TXH O¶pURVLRQ TX¶LOV RQW QRPPp ©pURVLRQ SDU
VpJUpJDWLRQª VH SURGXLUD GDQV OHV VROV JUDQXODLUHV LQVWDEOHV SRXU GHV JUDGLHQWV K\GUDXOLTXHV
LQIpULHXUV DX JUDGLHQW FULWLTXH GH 7HU]DJKL TXL YDXW HQYLURQ XQ YDULDEOH DYHF OD GHQVLWp GX VRO HW
JpQpUDQW XQH FRQWUDLQWH HIIHFWLYH QXOOH TXDQG OD SUHVVLRQ LQWHUVWLWLHOOH GDQV XQ VRO SHUPpDEOH DX
GHVVRXV GH O¶LQWHUIDFH pJDOLVH OD SUHVVLRQ WRWDOH DSSOLTXpH SDU OH VRO LPSHUPpDEOH VXVMDFHQW RQ
REVHUYHDORUVXQ©VRXOqYHPHQWªRX©FODTXDJHªK\GUDXOLTXH 

:DQ HW )HOO F   RQW WURXYp TXH OHV VROV j LQVWDELOLWp JUDQXORPpWULTXH VRQW pURGpV
ORUVTX¶LOV VRQW VRXPLV j XQ JUDGLHQW DVFHQGDQW LQIpULHXU RX pJDO j  HW FHUWDLQV ORUVTX¶LOV VRQW
VRXPLV j GHV JUDGLHQWV LQIpULHXUV j  /D WHQGDQFH JpQpUDOH PRQWUH TXH OHV VROV j SRURVLWp SOXV
IRUWHFRPPHQFHQWjrWUHpURGpVVRXVGHVJUDGLHQWVK\GUDXOLTXHVSOXVIDLEOHV/kFKHVOHVVROVjIRUWH
SRURVLWp FRPPHQFHQW j rWUH pURGpV j GHV JUDGLHQWV LQIpULHXUV j  /HV VROV DYHF GHV ILQHV
SODVWLTXHV QpFHVVLWHQW GHV JUDGLHQWV SOXV pOHYpV SRXU rWUH pURGpV /HV VROV j JUDQXORPpWULH
GLVFRQWLQXH RQW WHQGDQFH j rWUH pURGpV j GHV JUDGLHQWV SOXV IDLEOHV TXH OHV VROV j JUDQXORPpWULH
FRQWLQXHSRVVpGDQWODPrPHSURSRUWLRQGHILQHV

*ROW]et al  RQWGpYHORSSpXQFULWqUHK\GUDXOLTXHEDVpVXUODWDLOOHGHVFRQVWULFWLRQVGHV
HVVDLV XWLOLVDQW FH FULWqUH RQW MXVTX
j SUpVHQW pWp VHXOHPHQW PHQpHV VXU XQH VpULH H[SpULPHQWDOH
OLPLWpH

0RQQHW   D UHOLp OH JUDGLHQW K\GUDXOLTXH FULWLTXH SURYRTXDQW OD UXSWXUH FRQVWDWpH SDU
6NHPSWRQHW%URJDQ  DYHFODSHUPpDELOLWpHWDPRQWUpTXHFHWWHGHUQLqUHLQIOXHQFHVDYDOHXU

/L HW )DQQLQ   RQW SURSRVp XQ FULWqUH K\GURPpFDQLTXH SURYHQDQW G¶HVVDLV VXU GHV
PDWpULDX[jJUDQXORPpWULHVLQVWDEOHV(QSDUWDQWGXIDLWTXHODUXSWXUHVHSURGXLWGDQVOHVVROVVWDEOHV
VRXV OH JUDGLHQW K\GUDXOLTXH FULWLTXH GH 7HU]DJKL L&7 )DQQLQ HW /L RQW GpILQL OH JUDGLHQW FULWLTXH L&
SRXUQ¶LPSRUWHTXHOVROjJUDQXORPpWULHLQVWDEOHjSDUWLUGHODSURSRUWLRQDGHODFRQWUDLQWHHIIHFWLYH
VXSSRUWpHSDUOHVILQHV

ߛԢ
݅௖  ൌ  ߙǤ ݅௖௧ ൌ ߙ 
ߛ‫ݓ‬

DYHF ߛ‫ ݓ‬HW ߛ
 OH SRLGV VSpFLILTXH GH O
HDX HW GX VRO GpMDXJp HW ߙ OH IDFWHXU GH UpGXFWLRQ GH OD
FRQWUDLQWH YHUWLFDOH HIIHFWLYH ߪԢ௩ VXSSRUWp SDU OHV SDUWLFXOHV ILQHV GDQV OH VRO LQVWDEOH FRPPH O¶RQW
SURSRVp 6NHPSWRQ HW %URJDQ   /HV JUDLQV OHV SOXV ILQV VXSSRUWHQW XQH SRUWLRQ UpGXLWH GH OD
FRQWUDLQWHHIIHFWLYHߪԢ௙ 

__________________________________________________________________________
ߪ ᇱ ൌ61ߙǤ ߪԢ௩ 

/H IDFWHXU UpGXFWHXU GH OD FRQWUDLQWH D HVW OLp j ODPRELOLWp GHVSDUWLFXOHV OHV SOXV ILQHV LO HVW
IRQFWLRQGXFULWqUHJpRPpWULTXHGH.RYDFV  G
2RG
HVWOHGGHODIUDFWLRQILQHGXVROHW
2 HVW OH GLDPqWUH PR\HQ GHV FRQVWULFWLRQV GH OD IUDFWLRQ JURVVLqUH D HVW GpILQL SDU O¶pTXDWLRQ
VXLYDQWH /L 

ߙ  G
2 ±

/L  SURSRVHO¶H[SUHVVLRQVXLYDQWHpWDEOLHjSDUWLUGH.RYDFV  SRXUHVWLPHUODYDOHXU
GH2

2  QF QF 'FKĮ' 

&HWWH PpWKRGH QpFHVVLWH SOXV GH YDOHXUV G¶HVVDLV HW GHV HVVDLV WULD[LDX[ VXU OHV VROV j
LQVWDELOLWp JUDQXORPpWULTXH DILQ GH YDOLGHU O¶DSSOLFDWLRQ GH FH FULWqUH VXU VLWH /¶REMHW HVW G¶pYDOXHU
O¶LPSDFWSRVVLEOHGXFROPDWDJHVXUODYDOHXUGXJUDGLHQWFULWLTXHHQSDUWDQWGHGLIIpUHQWVSRXUFHQWDJHV
GHILQHVVXIIXVLYHVHWG¶pWDWVGHFRQWUDLQWH

0RIIDW HW )DQQLQ   RQW GpYHORSSp FHV FRQFHSWV SRXU GHV VROV TXL QH VRQW SDV OHV VROV
JUDQXODLUHV LQVWDEOHV GpILQLV GDQV FH %XOOHWLQ GDQV OHVTXHOV LO HVW VXSSRVp TX
DXFXQH FRQWUDLQWH HVW
VXSSRUWpHSDUOHVSDUWLFXOHVILQHV D  &HODSHXWFHSHQGDQWrWUHXWLOHSRXUXQH[DPHQSUpDODEOH

3RXU G
2 !   Į HVW pJDO j  OHV SDUWLFXOHV JURVVLqUHV HW OHV ILQHV UHSUHQQHQW GH
PDQLqUHpJDOHOHVFRQWUDLQWHVHWOHVROHVWVWDEOH QRQVXMHWjODVXIIXVLRQ HQWRXWHVFLUFRQVWDQFHV

3RXU!G
2!ĮGLPLQXHGHYHUVOHVILQHVUHSUHQQHQWGHPRLQVHQPRLQVGH
FRQWUDLQWH HW OH VRO GHYLHQW SURJUHVVLYHPHQW GH PRLQV HQ PRLQV VWDEOH GRQF SOXV VXVFHSWLEOH j OD
VXIIXVLRQ/HJUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXHSURYRTXDQWODVXIIXVLRQSHXWrWUHFDOFXOpjSDUWLUGHVUHODWLRQVFL
GHVVXV,OHVWHQYLURQpJDOjDODYDOHXUH[DFWHGpSHQGGHODGHQVLWpGXVRO6LFHJUDGLHQWGpSDVVHOH
JUDGLHQWGHO¶pFRXOHPHQWjWUDYHUVOHEDUUDJHODVXIIXVLRQV¶LQLWLHUD

3RXUG
2”ĮHVWpJDOjOHVILQHVQHUHSUHQQHQWDXFXQHFRQWUDLQWHHWVRQWIDFLOHPHQW
142
WUDQVSRUWDEOHV j WUDYHUV OHV YLGHV GH OD PDWULFH GHV SDUWLFXOHV JURVVLqUHV OH VRO HVW FRQVLGpUp
ILGqOHPHQWDX[GpILQLWLRQVGDQVFH%XOOHWLQFRPPHLQVWDEOHHWVXMHWjODVXIIXVLRQ

6KLUHHWDO  RQWWURXYpSDU0RGpOLVDWLRQDX[(OpPHQWV'LVFUHWVGHVSKqUHVTXHGHVVROV

6NHPSWRQ DQG %URJDQ   VKRZHG WKDW HURVLRQ ZKLFK WKH\ GHVFULEHG DV µVHJUHJDWLRQ
SLSLQJ¶ ZLOO EHJLQ LQ LQWHUQDOO\ XQVWDEOH FRKHVLRQOHVV VRLOV DW VHHSDJH JUDGLHQWV ORZHU WKDQ WKH
7HU]DJKL FULWLFDO JUDGLHQW ZKLFK LV DSSUR[LPDWHO\ RQH GHSHQGLQJ RQ VRLO GHQVLW\ RU ]HUR HIIHFWLYH
VWUHVV ZKHQ WKH SRUH SUHVVXUH LQ D SHUPHDEOH VRLO EHORZ WKH LQWHUIDFH HTXDOV WKH WRWDO SUHVVXUH
DSSOLHGE\DQLPSHUPHDEOHVRLODERYHDQGµKHDYH¶RUµXSOLIW¶RFFXUV 

:DQDQG)HOO F IRXQGWKDWLQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOHVRLOVHURGHGZLWKXSZDUGJUDGLHQWVRI
RUOHVVZLWKVHYHUDOOHVVWKDQ7KHUHLVDJHQHUDOWUHQGWKDWVRLOVZLWKDKLJKHUSRURVLW\EHJLQWR
HURGHDWORZHUK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWV/RRVHKLJKHUSRURVLW\VRLOVEHJDQWRHURGHDWJUDGLHQWVOHVVWKDQ
 6RLOV ZLWK SODVWLF ILQHV UHTXLUHG KLJKHU JUDGLHQWV WR EHJLQ WR HURGH *DSJUDGHG VRLOV WHQGHG WR
EHJLQWRHURGHDWORZHUJUDGLHQWVWKDQQRQJDSJUDGHGVRLOVZLWKWKHVDPHILQHVFRQWHQW

*ROW] HW DO   DUH GHYHORSLQJ K\GUDXOLF FULWHULD EDVHG RQ FRQVWULFWLRQ RSHQLQJ VL]H 7ULDOV
XVLQJWKHVHFULWHULDKDYHVRIDUEHHQFDUULHGRXWRQOLPLWHGWHVWGDWD

0RQQHW   FRUUHODWHG WKH K\GUDXOLF JUDGLHQW LQLWLDWLQJ IDLOXUH PHDVXUHG E\ 6NHPSWRQ DQG
%URJDQ  WRWKHPHDVXUHGSHUPHDELOLW\VKRZLQJWKDWWKHK\GUDXOLFFULWHULRQJRYHUQVWKHYDOXHRI
K\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWPRYLQJILQHUSDUWLFOHV

/L DQG )DQQLQ   SURSRVHG D K\GURPHFKDQLFDO FULWHULRQ GHGXFHG IURP WHVWV RQ XQVWDEOH
PDWHULDOV6WDUWLQJIURPWKHIDFWWKDWVHHSDJHIDLOXUHRFFXUVLQVWDEOHVRLOVXQGHUWKH7HU]DJKLFULWLFDO
K\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWL&7)DQQLQDQG/LGHGXFHGWKHFULWLFDOJUDGLHQWL&IRUDQ\XQVWDEOHVRLOIURPWKH
SURSRUWLRQRIWKHHIIHFWLYHVWUHVVߙVXVWDLQHGE\WKHILQHV

ߛԢ
݅௖  ൌ  ߙǤ ݅௖௧ ൌ ߙ 
ߛ‫ݓ‬

ZKHUH ߛ‫ ݓ‬DQG ߛ
 DUH WKH ZDWHU DQG EXR\DQW VRLO VSHFLILF ZHLJKW DQG ߙ LV WKH UHGXFWLRQ IDFWRU RI WKH
YHUWLFDO HIIHFWLYH VWUHVV ߪԢ௩  FDUULHG E\ WKH ILQHU SDUWLFOHV LQ WKH LQWHUQDOO\ XQVWDEOH VRLO DV ZDV ILUVW
SURSRVHG E\ 6NHPSWRQ  %URJDQ   7KH ILQHU JUDLQV FDUU\ D UHGXFHG SRUWLRQ RI WKH HIIHFWLYH
VWUHVVߪԢ௙ 

ߪ ᇱ ൌ ߙǤ ߪԢ௩ 

7KHUHGXFWLRQVWUHVVIDFWRUߙLVUHODWHGWRWKHPRELOLW\RIWKHILQHUSDUWLFOHVDQGLVGHSHQGHQWRQ
WKH.RYDFV  JHRPHWULFFULWHULRQG
2ZKHUHG
LVWKHGRIWKHILQHUIUDFWLRQRIVRLODQG2
LVWKHHIIHFWLYHFRQVWULFWLRQVL]HRIWKHFRDUVHIUDFWLRQDVIROORZV /L 

ߙ   G
2 ±

/L  DOVRJLYHVDQH[SUHVVLRQIURP.RYDFV  IRUHVWLPDWLQJ2

2  QF QF 'FKĮ' 

7KLVPHWKRGQHHGVPRUHWHVWGDWDDQGPRUHWULD[LDOWHVWVRQLQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOHVRLOVZKLFKDUH
VXEMHFWWRVXIIXVLRQVRWKHYDULDEOHVFDQEHYDOLGDWHGDWILHOGVFDOH7KLVLVWR H[DPLQHWKHSRWHQWLDO
LPSDFWRIFORJJLQJRQWKHFULWLFDOJUDGLHQWUHVXOWLQJIURPVXEVWDQWLDODPRXQWVRIHURGHGVXIIXVLYHILQHV
DQGVWUHVVVWDWHV

0RIIDW DQG )DQQLQ  KDYH IXUWKHUGHYHORSHG WKHVHFRQFHSWV EXW WKH WHVW GDWD LV IRUVRLOV
ZKLFK DUH QRW LQWHUQDOO\ XQVWDEOH DV GHILQHG LQ WKLV %XOOHWLQ LQ ZKLFK LW LV DVVXPHG WKDW QR VWUHVV LV
FDUULHGE\WKHILQHSDUWLFOHV LHߙ   ,WPD\EHXVHIXOIRUSUHOLPLQDU\VFUHHQLQJKRZHYHU

)RUG
2! RUPRUH ߙ LVWKHFRDUVHSDUWLFOHVDQGWKHILQHVFDUU\VWUHVVHTXDOO\DQG

WKHVRLOLVVWDEOH QRQVXIIXVLYH LQDOOFLUFXPVWDQFHV

)RUG
2! ߙ UHGXFHVIURPRQHWR]HURWKHILQHVFDUU\SURJUHVVLYHO\OHVVRIWKH
VWUHVVHV DQG WKH VRLO EHFRPHV SURJUHVVLYHO\ OHVV VWDEOH PRUH VXVFHSWLEOH WR HURVLRQ E\ VXIIXVLRQ
7KHK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWDWZKLFKVXIIXVLRQZLOOLQLWLDWHFDQEHFDOFXODWHGIURPWKHUHODWLRQVKLSVDERYH,W
LVDERXWHTXDOWRߙ WKHH[DFWYDOXHGHSHQGLQJRQWKHVRLOGHQVLW\,IWKLVJUDGLHQWH[FHHGVWKHJUDGLHQW
59
RIVHHSDJHWKURXJKWKHGDPVXIIXVLRQZLOOLQLWLDWH

$WG
2 RUOHVVߙ LV]HURWKHILQHVFDUU\QRVWUHVVDQGDUHHDVLO\ZDVKHGWKURXJKWKH
FRQVWULFWLRQVLQWKHPDWUL[RIFRDUVHSDUWLFOHVWUXO\VXIIXVLYHDQGLQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOHE\WKHGHILQLWLRQV
LQWKLV%XOOHWLQ

6KLUH HW DO   KDYH HVWLPDWHG E\ 'LVFUHWH (OHPHQW 0RGHOLQJ RI VSKHUHV WKDW VRLOV ZLWK D
ILQHV FRQWHQW RI  KDYH DQ ߙ  YDOXH RI DERXW  DQG DUH XQGHUILOOHG DQG VXIIXVLYH QRWLQWHUQDOO\
143
VWDEOH VRLOVZLWKDILQHVFRQWHQWRIRUPRUHKDYHDQĮYDOXHRIDQGDUHRYHUILOOHGDQGQRW
VXIIXVLYH LQWHUQDOO\ VWDEOH  6RLOV ZLWK ILQHV FRQWHQWV EHWZHHQ  DQG  DUH WUDQVLWLRQDO ZLWK
VWDELOLW\EHLQJGHSHQGHQWRQH[DFWGHQVLW\

3RXU!G
2!ĮGLPLQXHGHYHUVOHVILQHVUHSUHQQHQWGHPRLQVHQPRLQVGH
FRQWUDLQWH HW OH VRO GHYLHQW SURJUHVVLYHPHQW GH PRLQV HQ PRLQV VWDEOH GRQF SOXV VXVFHSWLEOH j OD
VXIIXVLRQ/HJUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXHSURYRTXDQWODVXIIXVLRQSHXWrWUHFDOFXOpjSDUWLUGHVUHODWLRQVFL
GHVVXV,OHVWHQYLURQpJDOjDODYDOHXUH[DFWHGpSHQGGHODGHQVLWpGXVRO6LFHJUDGLHQWGpSDVVHOH
JUDGLHQWGHO¶pFRXOHPHQWjWUDYHUVOHEDUUDJHODVXIIXVLRQV¶LQLWLHUD

3RXUG
2”ĮHVWpJDOjOHVILQHVQHUHSUHQQHQWDXFXQHFRQWUDLQWHHWVRQWIDFLOHPHQW
WUDQVSRUWDEOHV j WUDYHUV OHV YLGHV GH OD PDWULFH GHV SDUWLFXOHV JURVVLqUHV OH VRO HVW FRQVLGpUp
ILGqOHPHQWDX[GpILQLWLRQVGDQVFH%XOOHWLQFRPPHLQVWDEOHHWVXMHWjODVXIIXVLRQ

6KLUHHWDO  RQWWURXYpSDU0RGpOLVDWLRQDX[(OpPHQWV'LVFUHWVGHVSKqUHVTXHGHVVROV
FRQWHQDQW  GH ILQHV RQW XQH YDOHXU GH ߙ  SURFKH GH  Q¶pWDQW SDV VDWXUpV GH ILQHV LOV VRQW
VXIIXVLIV JUDQXORPpWULHLQVWDEOH DORUVTX¶DYHFRXSOXVOHXUVVROVRQWXQHYDOHXUGHĮGH
DYHFXQHPDWULFHILQHVXUDERQGDQWHLOVQHVRQWSDVVXIIXVLIV JUDQXORPpWULHVWDEOH /HVVROVDYHFXQ
SRXUFHQWDJHGHILQHVHQWUHDQGRQWXQFRPSRUWHPHQWLQWHUPpGLDLUHGRQWODVWDELOLWpGpSHQG
GHO¶pWDWGHGHQVLWp

$YHFXQHFHQWULIXJHXVH0DURWet al  RQWDQDO\VpO¶LQIOXHQFHGXJUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXHVXU
O¶LQLWLDWLRQHWOHGpYHORSSHPHQWGHODVXIIXVLRQ&RPPHSRXUO¶pURVLRQUpJUHVVLYHOHVFDUDFWpULVWLTXHV
GH OD VXIIXVLRQ GpSHQGHQW GH OD ORQJXHXU GX FKHPLQ G¶pFRXOHPHQW ORUVTXH O¶RQ XWLOLVH OH FRQFHSW GH
JUDGLHQWK\GUDXOLTXH/DGLIIpUHQFHGDQVOHVUpVXOWDWVVHWURXYHGDQVO¶RUGUHGHJUDQGHXUGHVJUDGLHQWV
K\GUDXOLTXHVFULWLTXHVHWGDQVO¶RUGUHGHJUDQGHXUGHODYLWHVVHG¶pURVLRQ(QDXJPHQWDQWODORQJXHXU
GH O
pFKDQWLOORQ SDU  OD YDOHXU GX JUDGLHQW K\GUDXOLTXH FULWLTXH SHXW rWUH PXOWLSOLpH SDU XQ IDFWHXU
HWODYLWHVVHGHO¶pURVLRQSHXWGRXEOHU/¶LQIOXHQFHGHODORQJXHXUGXFKHPLQG¶LQILOWUDWLRQSHXWrWUH
GX j OD SUREDELOLWp TX¶XQH SDUWLFXOH DUUDFKpH VRLW ILOWUpH RX QRQ &HWWH ILOWUDWLRQ SHXW SURYRTXHU
O¶REWXUDWLRQ HW DLQVL PRGLILHU O¶pFRXOHPHQW 8QH DQDO\VH pQHUJpWLTXH GX IOXLGH LQWHUVWLWLHOOH D pWp
GpYHORSSpH &HWWH DQDO\VH D FRQGXLW j IDLUH XQH FRUUpODWLRQ OLQpDLUH HQWUH OD SXLVVDQFH GLVVLSpH GH
O¶pFRXOHPHQW HW OD YLWHVVH GH O¶pURVLRQ (Q LQWpJUDQW SDU UDSSRUW DX WHPSV OD PDVVH pURGpH HVW
OLQpDLUHPHQW UHOLpH j O¶pQHUJLH GH GLVVLSDWLRQ /RUVTXH O¶RQ XWLOLVH O¶DQDO\VH pQHUJpWLTXH OD
FDUDFWpULVDWLRQGHODVXIIXVLRQQHGpSHQGSDVGHODORQJXHXUGHO¶pFKDQWLOORQ

&KDQJet al  RQWREVHUYpjO¶HVVDLWULD[LDOTX¶XQHDXJPHQWDWLRQGHODFRQWUDLQWHGpYLDWRLUH
__________________________________________________________________________
GLPLQXDLWOHJUDGLHQWLQLWLDWHXUGHODVXIIXVLRQHWTXHO¶RQREVHUYDLWXQHGpIRUPDWLRQGXVTXHOHWWHSDU
62
UDSSRUWDX[HVVDLVHQFRQGLWLRQVRHGRPpWULTXHV


Précautions concernant la valeur du gradient critique


eWDQWGRQQpO¶DEVHQFHG¶XQHPpWKRGHJpQpUDOHSRXUSUpGLUHDYHFSUpFLVLRQOHJUDGLHQWFULWLTXH
GHVHVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUHUHSUpVHQWDQWILGqOHPHQWOHVFRQGLWLRQVLQVLWXGRLYHQWrWUHUpDOLVpV/RUVTXH
O¶RQ FKRLVLW OD FRXUEH JUDQXORPpWULTXH GX VRO LO IDXW IDLUH DWWHQWLRQ j SUHQGUH HQ FRPSWH OHV HIIHWV
SRVVLEOHV GH OD VpJUpJDWLRQ ORUV GH OD FRQVWUXFWLRQ ,O SHXW rWUH DORUV QpFHVVDLUH GH FRQFHYRLU GHV
pTXLSHPHQWV VSpFLILTXHV DX[ PDWpULDX[ JUDYHOHX[ /D YDOHXU GX JUDGLHQW SRXU ODTXHOOH XQH TXDQWLWp
LPSRUWDQWHGHILQHVVXIIXVLYHVFDXVHXQFROPDWDJHGRLWrWUHGpWHUPLQpH
 

144
)RUG
2! ߙ UHGXFHVIURPRQHWR]HURWKHILQHVFDUU\SURJUHVVLYHO\OHVVRIWKH
VWUHVVHV DQG WKH VRLO EHFRPHV SURJUHVVLYHO\ OHVV VWDEOH PRUH VXVFHSWLEOH WR HURVLRQ E\ VXIIXVLRQ
7KHK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWDWZKLFKVXIIXVLRQZLOOLQLWLDWHFDQEHFDOFXODWHGIURPWKHUHODWLRQVKLSVDERYH,W
LVDERXWHTXDOWRߙ WKHH[DFWYDOXHGHSHQGLQJRQWKHVRLOGHQVLW\,IWKLVJUDGLHQWH[FHHGVWKHJUDGLHQW
RIVHHSDJHWKURXJKWKHGDPVXIIXVLRQZLOOLQLWLDWH

$WG
2 RUOHVVߙ LV]HURWKHILQHVFDUU\QRVWUHVVDQGDUHHDVLO\ZDVKHGWKURXJKWKH
FRQVWULFWLRQVLQWKHPDWUL[RIFRDUVHSDUWLFOHVWUXO\VXIIXVLYHDQGLQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOHE\WKHGHILQLWLRQV
LQWKLV%XOOHWLQ

6KLUH HW DO   KDYH HVWLPDWHG E\ 'LVFUHWH (OHPHQW 0RGHOLQJ RI VSKHUHV WKDW VRLOV ZLWK D
ILQHV FRQWHQW RI  KDYH DQ ߙ  YDOXH RI DERXW  DQG DUH XQGHUILOOHG DQG VXIIXVLYH QRWLQWHUQDOO\
VWDEOH VRLOVZLWKDILQHVFRQWHQWRIRUPRUHKDYHDQĮYDOXHRIDQGDUHRYHUILOOHGDQGQRW
VXIIXVLYH LQWHUQDOO\ VWDEOH  6RLOV ZLWK ILQHV FRQWHQWV EHWZHHQ  DQG  DUH WUDQVLWLRQDO ZLWK
VWDELOLW\EHLQJGHSHQGHQWRQH[DFWGHQVLW\

8VLQJ FHQWULIXJH WHVWLQJ 0DURW HW DO   DQDO\]HG WKH LQIOXHQFH RI K\GUDXOLF JUDGLHQW RQ
LQLWLDWLRQDQGGHYHORSPHQWRIVXIIXVLRQ$VIRUWKHEDFNZDUGHURVLRQSURFHVVWKHFKDUDFWHUL]DWLRQRI
VXIIXVLRQ GHSHQGV RQ WKH OHQJWK RI WKH VHHSDJH SDWK E\ XVLQJ WKH K\GUDXOLF JUDGLHQW FRQFHSW 7KH
GLIIHUHQFHLQWKHUHVXOWVLVLQWKHPDJQLWXGHRIFULWLFDOK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWDQGPDJQLWXGHRIHURVLRQUDWH
)RUDQLQFUHDVHRIWHVWHGVSHFLPHQOHQJWKE\DIDFWRUWKHYDOXHRIFULWLFDOK\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQWFDQEH
PXOWLSOLHGE\DIDFWRURIDQGUDWHRIHURVLRQFDQGRXEOH7KLVLQIOXHQFHRIVHHSDJHSDWKOHQJWKPD\
EHGXHWRWKHSUREDELOLW\IRUDGHWDFKHGSDUWLFOHWREHILOWUDWHGRUQRW7KLVILOWUDWLRQFDQLQGXFHFORJJLQJ
DQG WKXV D PRGLILFDWLRQ RI WKH VHHSDJH $Q HQHUJ\ DQDO\VLV RI LQWHUVWLWLDO IOXLG KDV EHHQ GHYHORSHG
7KLVDQDO\VLVOHDGVWRDOLQHDUFRUUHODWLRQEHWZHHQH[SHQGHGSRZHUE\IOXLGIORZDQGUDWHRIHURVLRQ
%\ LQWHJUDWLQJ RYHU WKH WLPH WKH HURGHG PDVV LV OLQHDUO\ FRUUHODWHG WR WKH HQHUJ\ GLVVLSDWLRQ 7KH
VXIIXVLRQFKDUDFWHUL]DWLRQGRHVQRWGHSHQGRQVSHFLPHQOHQJWKE\XVLQJWKHHQHUJ\DQDO\VLV

&KDQJHWDO  IRXQGLQWULD[LDOWHVWVWKDWLQFUHDVHVLQGHYLDWRULFVWUHVVORZHUHGWKHJUDGLHQW
DW ZKLFK VXIIXVLRQ LQLWLDWHG DQG VNHOHWRQ GHIRUPDWLRQ RFFXUUHG ZKHQ FRPSDUHG WR RQH GLPHQVLRQDO
VHHSDJHWHVWV


A note of caution about determination of critical gradient


$V WKHUH DUH QR JHQHUDOL]HG PHWKRGV IRU DFFXUDWHO\ SUHGLFWLQJ WKH FULWLFDO VHHSDJH JUDGLHQW
ODERUDWRU\WHVWVVKRXOGEHFDUULHGRXWZKLFKFDUHIXOO\VLPXODWHWKHILHOGFRQGLWLRQV:KHQVHOHFWLQJWKH
SDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQRIWKHVRLOVWREHWHVWHGDOORZDQFHVKRXOGEHPDGHIRUWKHSRWHQWLDOHIIHFWVRI
VHJUHJDWLRQRIWKHPDWHULDOVGXULQJSODFHPHQWLQWKHGDP,WPD\EHQHFHVVDU\WRFRQVWUXFWVSHFLILF
WHVW HTXLSPHQW EHFDXVH RI WKH ODUJH SDUWLFOHV LQYROYHG 7KH YDOXH RI K\GUDXOLF JUDGLHQW ZKHUH
VXEVWDQWLDODPRXQWVRIHURGHGVXIIXVLYHILQHVFDXVHVFORJJLQJDWILHOGVFDOHVKDOODOVREHH[DPLQHG
 

60

145

 &217,18$7,2128,17(55837,21'(/¶e526,213$5),/75$7,21



 '(6&5,37,21*e1e5$/('80e&$1,60(


$SUqVO¶LQLWLDWLRQGXSURFHVVXVG¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHSDUO¶XQGHVTXDWUHPpFDQLVPHVGpFULWVGDQVOH
FKDSLWUHSUpFpGHQWO¶pURVLRQSHXWFRQWLQXHUHWGHYHQLUDLQVLXQHPHQDFHSRXUOHEDUUDJH

/¶pURVLRQ SHXW rWUH LQWHUURPSXH SDU OD ILOWUDWLRQ H[HUFpH SDU XQ PDWpULDX GX UHPEODL RX GH VD
IRQGDWLRQjO¶DYDOGXSRLQWRHOOHV¶HVWLQLWLpH/DILOWUDWLRQVHSURGXLWTXDQGODWDLOOHGHVFRQVWULFWLRQV
GX VRO WUDYHUVp SDU O¶pFRXOHPHQW WUDQVSRUWDQW OHV SDUWLFXOHV pURGpHV UHWLHQW OHV SDUWLFXOHV pURGpHV
DUUrWDQW DLQVL OD FRQWLQXDWLRQ GH O¶pURVLRQ /HV ILOWUHV VRQW SOXV SHUPpDEOHV HW QRUPDOHPHQW SOXV
JURVVLHUV TXH OH VRO ILOWUp DSSHOpH ©VRO GH EDVHª /¶pFRXOHPHQW QH FRQWHQDQW SOXV GH SDUWLFXOHV
pURGpHVHVWGUDLQpjO¶DYDO

/H]RQDJHGXEDUUDJHHVWXQIDFWHXULPSRUWDQWSRXUHPSrFKHURXODLVVHUO¶pURVLRQGHFRQWLQXHU
OHV GLIIpUHQWHV VLWXDWLRQV VRQW SUpVHQWpHV FLGHVVRXV 'DQV OD SOXSDUW GHV EDUUDJHV ]RQpV H[LVWDQWV
GHV ILOWUHV VRQW SUpVHQWV j O¶DYDO GX QR\DX HQ WDSLV ILOWUDQWV VXU OD IRQGDWLRQ R j O¶DYDO GHV DXWUHV
]RQHVYXOQpUDEOHV'¶DXWUHVQHSRVVqGHQWSDVGHILOWUHVPDLVOH]RQDJHSHXWFRPSUHQGUHGHV]RQHV
GH WUDQVLWLRQV TXL SHXYHQW VHUYLU FRPPH ILOWUH GHV ]RQHV YXOQpUDEOHV 6L O¶pURVLRQ V¶LQLWLH GDQV XQ
EDUUDJH KRPRJqQH O¶pFRXOHPHQW FRQWHQDQW OHV SDUWLFXOHV pURGpHV QH UHQFRQWUHUD DXFXQH ]RQH
ILOWUDQWHO¶pURVLRQFRQWLQXHUDGRQF PrPHVLHOOHSHXWQHSDVSURJUHVVHUFRPPHQRXVOHYHUURQVGDQV
OHFKDSLWUHVXLYDQW 

/HVILOWUHVHWOHVWUDQVLWLRQVGHVYLHX[EDUUDJHVSHXYHQWQHSDVDYRLUpWpFRQoXVVXLYDQWOµpWDWGH
O¶DUW DFWXHO /HXU FDSDFLWp j DJLU FRPPH GHV ILOWUHV SHXW rWUH pYDOXpH HQ XWLOLVDQW OHV PpWKRGHV
DFWXHOOHV GH FRQFHSWLRQ GHV ILOWUHV &HV PpWKRGHV GpFULWHVFLGHVVRXV FRQGXLVHQW j GHV ILOWUHV WUqV
V€UVFHTXLHVWDSSURSULppWDQWGRQQpOHU{OHYLWDOGHVILOWUHVGDQVODSURWHFWLRQGHVEDUUDJHVFRQWUH
O
pURVLRQ LQWHUQH &HSHQGDQW OHV VROV SOXV JURVVLHUVRX SOXV SHUPpDEOHV TXH OHV ILOWUHV FRQoXV DYHF
OHVFULWqUHVDFWXHOVRQWVRXYHQWXQHTXDOLWpGHILOWUDWLRQLPSRUWDQWH/DPDQLqUHG¶pYDOXHUFHWWHTXDOLWp
GHILOWUDWLRQHVWGpFULWHFLGHVVRXV


 6,78$7,216(73+e120Ê1(6


7.2.1. L’érosion interne dans les remblais


'HQRPEUHXVHVVLWXDWLRQVSHXYHQWVHSURGXLUHHQIRQFWLRQGX]RQDJHGXEDUUDJHHWGXPRGH
GHUXSWXUHFRQVLGpUp4XHOTXHVXQVVRQWUHSUpVHQWpVGDQVOD)LJ

x 6LWXDWLRQ%DUUDJHKRPRJqQHVDQVILOWUHFRQWLQX
x 6LWXDWLRQ  5HFKDUJH DYDO FRQWHQDQW GHV PDWpULDX[ JUDQXODLUHV ILQV HW FRKpVLIV
FDSDEOH GH PDLQWHQLU XQH ILVVXUH  XQ FRQGXLW RXYHUW /HV VROV FDSDEOHV GH PDLQWHQLU
XQHILVVXUHRXXQFRQGXLWRXYHUWVRQWSUpVHQWVGDQV
- /HV UHFKDUJHV ELHQ FRPSDFWpHV UHPEODL  FRQWHQDQW SOXV GH   GH ILQHV
SODVWLTXHV
- /HV UHFKDUJHV SHX FRPSDFWpHV UHPEODL  FRQWHQDQW SOXV GH   GH ILQHV
SODVWLTXHV
- /HVUHFKDUJHVELHQFRPSDFWpHVFRQWHQDQWSOXVGHGHILQHVQRQSODVWLTXHV
- /HVUHFKDUJHVSHXFRPSDFWpHVDYHFSOXVGHGHILQHVQRQSODVWLTXHV
x 6LWXDWLRQ  )LOWUH RX ]RQH GH WUDQVLWLRQ SUpVHQW j O¶DYDO GX QR\DX RX OD ]RQH GH
UHFKDUJH DYDO HVW LQFDSDEOH GH PDLQWHQLU RXYHUW XQ FRQGXLW RX XQH ILVVXUH &HFL
FRPSUHQGOHVEDUUDJHVHQWHUUHVDYHFXQILOWUHFKHPLQpH
x 6LWXDWLRQ  eURVLRQ GDQV XQH ILVVXUH RX XQ MRLQW RXYHUW LH MRLQW RXYHUW RX ILVVXUH
G
XQHFRQGXLWHRXG
XQHVWUXFWXUHEpWRQDWWHQDQWH 
x 6LWXDWLRQeURVLRQjO¶LQWpULHXUG¶XQGUDLQGHSLHGRXVRXVXQGUDLQ
__________________________________________________________________________

64
/DPDQLqUHG¶pYDOXHUOHULVTXHGHFRQWLQXDWLRQG¶XQHpURVLRQLQLWLpHGDQVXQHGHFHVVLWXDWLRQV
HVWGLIIpUHQWH
146 
6LWXDWLRQ$XFXQHSRVVLELOLWpGHILOWUDWLRQ©O¶pURVLRQFRQWLQXHªHVWFHUWDLQHVDQVILOWUH

6LWXDWLRQ  /D SUREOpPDWLTXH SRXU FHWWH VLWXDWLRQ HVW GH VDYRLU VL OD ILVVXUH RX OD ]RQH WUqV



 &217,18$7,2125,17(55837,212)(526,21%<),/7(5$&7,21



 &217,18$7,217+(29(5$//352&(66


$IWHUWKHLQWHUQDOHURVLRQSURFHVVKDVEHHQLQLWLDWHGE\RQHRIWKHIRXUPHFKDQLVPVGHVFULEHG
LQWKHSUHYLRXVFKDSWHUVLWPXVWFRQWLQXHLILWLVWREHFRPHDWKUHDWWRWKHGDP

(URVLRQ PD\ EH LQWHUUXSWHG RU VWRSSHG E\ ILOWHU DFWLRQ LQ WKH VRLOV LQ WKH ILOO DQG IRXQGDWLRQ
PDWHULDOVGRZQVWUHDPRIWKHSRLQWZKHUHLWLQLWLDWHG)LOWHULQJRFFXUVZKHQWKHVL]HVRISRUHVSDFHVLQ
WKHVRLOWKURXJKZKLFKVHHSLQJZDWHUFRQWDLQLQJHURGHGSDUWLFOHVLVSDVVLQJDUHVXFKWKDWWKHHURGHG
SDUWLFOHVDUHWUDSSHGWKHUHE\VWRSSLQJWKHHURVLRQIURPFRQWLQXLQJ)LOWHUVDUHQRUPDOO\FRDUVHUDQG
PRUH SHUPHDEOH WKDQ WKH ILOWHUHG VRLO FDOOHG WKH µEDVH VRLO¶  DQG WKH VHHSLQJ ZDWHU QR ORQJHU
FRQWDLQLQJHURGHGSDUWLFOHVGUDLQVDZD\GRZQVWUHDP

7KH ]RQLQJ RI GDPV LV LPSRUWDQW LQ SUHYHQWLQJ RU DOORZLQJ HURVLRQ WR FRQWLQXH DQG YDULRXV
VFHQDULRV DUH GLVFXVVHG EHORZ ,Q PDQ\ H[LVWLQJ GDPV ILOWHU ]RQHV DUH LQFOXGHG GRZQVWUHDP RI WKH
FRUH]RQHDVILOWHUEODQNHWVRQIRXQGDWLRQVDQGLQRWKHUYXOQHUDEOHORFDWLRQV,QRWKHUVWKHUHPD\EH
QRIRUPDOILOWHU]RQHVEXWWKH]RQLQJPD\LQFOXGHPDWHULDOVVXFKDVWUDQVLWLRQ]RQHVWKDWPD\DFWDV
ILOWHUV WR YXOQHUDEOH ]RQHV ,I HURVLRQ KDV LQLWLDWHG LQ KRPRJHQHRXV GDPV WKH VHHSDJH FRQWDLQLQJ
HURGHGSDUWLFOHVZLOOQRWSDVVWKURXJKDQ\ILOWHU]RQHDQGHURVLRQZLOOWKHUHIRUHFRQWLQXH DOWKRXJKLW
PD\QRWSURJUHVVDVGLVFXVVHGLQWKHIROORZLQJFKDSWHU 

)RUPDO ILOWHUV LQ ROG GDPV PD\ QRW KDYH EHHQ GHVLJQHG WR PRGHUQ PHWKRGV DQG RWKHU
SRWHQWLDOO\ ILOWHULQJ ]RQHV ZLOO QRW KDYH EHHQ GHVLJQHG DV ILOWHUV 7KHLU DELOLW\ WR DFW DV ILOWHUV FDQ EH
DVVHVVHG XVLQJ PRGHUQ ILOWHU GHVLJQ PHWKRGV EXW PRGHUQ PHWKRGV GHVFULEHG EHORZ  OHDG WR YHU\
VDIHILOWHUVDVLVDSSURSULDWHJLYHQWKHYLWDOUROHRIILOWHUVLQSURWHFWLQJGDPVDJDLQVWLQWHUQDOHURVLRQ
+RZHYHU VRLOV ZKLFK DUH FRDUVHU RU PRUH SHUPHDEOH WKDQ ILOWHUV GHVLJQHG WR PRGHUQ FULWHULD RIWHQ
SURYLGHDVXEVWDQWLDOILOWHULQJFDSDELOLW\7KHPHDQVRIDVVHVVLQJVXFKILOWHULQJSRWHQWLDOLVGHVFULEHG
EHORZ


 &217,18$7,216&(1$5,26


7.2.1. Internal erosion in the embankment


7KHUHDUHDQXPEHURIVFHQDULRVZKLFKPD\EHDSSOLFDEOHGHSHQGLQJRQWKH]RQLQJRIWKHGDP
DQGWKHIDLOXUHPRGHXQGHUFRQVLGHUDWLRQ([DPSOHVNHWFKHVDUHVKRZQLQ)LJ

x 6FpQDULR+RPRJHQHRXV]RQLQJZLWKQRIXOO\LQWHUFHSWLQJILOWHU
x 6FpQDULR'RZQVWUHDPVKRXOGHURIILQHJUDLQHGFRKHVLYHPDWHULDOZKLFKLVFDSDEOHRI
KROGLQJDFUDFNSLSH6RLOVZKLFKDUHFDSDEOHRIKROGLQJDFUDFNRUSLSHDUH
- ZHOOFRPSDFWHGVKRXOGHU VKHOO FRQWDLQLQJ!SODVWLFILQHVRU
- SRRUO\FRPSDFWHGVKRXOGHU VKHOO FRQWDLQLQJ!SODVWLFILQHV
- ZHOOFRPSDFWHGVKRXOGHUFRQWDLQLQJ!QRQSODVWLFILQHV
- SRRUO\FRPSDFWHGVKRXOGHU!QRQSODVWLF
x 6FpQDULR)LOWHURUWUDQVLWLRQ]RQHLVSUHVHQWGRZQVWUHDPRIWKHFRUHRUDGRZQVWUHDP
VKRXOGHU]RQHZKLFKLVQRWFDSDEOHRIKROGLQJDFUDFNSLSH7KLVLQFOXGHVHDUWKILOOGDPV
ZLWKDFKLPQH\ILOWHU
x 6FpQDULR(URVLRQLQWRDFUDFNRURSHQMRLQW HJRSHQMRLQWRUFUDFNLQDFRQGXLWRU
DGMRLQLQJFRQFUHWHVWUXFWXUH 
x 6FpQDULR(URVLRQLQWRDWRHGUDLQDQGXQGHUGUDLQV


61

147


7KHPDQQHULQZKLFKWKHOLNHOLKRRGRIFRQWLQXDWLRQRIHURVLRQIRUWKHVHVFHQDULRVLVFRQVLGHUHG
GLIIHUHQWO\

6FHQDULR7KHUHLVQRSRWHQWLDOIRUILOWHULQJ&RQWLQXLQJHURVLRQLVFHUWDLQ

6FHQDULR  7KH LVVXH IRU WKLV VFHQDULR LV ZKHWKHU WKH FUDFNKLJK SHUPHDELOLW\ IHDWXUH WKDW LV
SUHVHQW WKURXJK WKH FRUH LV FRQWLQXRXV WKURXJK WKH GRZQVWUHDP VKRXOGHU RU LI QRW ZKHWKHU LW
FDQILQGDQH[LW7KLVGHSHQGVRQWKHIROORZLQJIDFWRUV
- 7KH PHFKDQLVP FDXVLQJ WKH FRQFHQWUDWHG OHDN LQ SDUWLFXODU ZKHWKHU LW DOVR
FDXVHVFUDFNLQJLQWKHVKRXOGHU
- 7KHPDWHULDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVDQGZLGWKRIWKHGRZQVWUHDPVKRXOGHU]RQH

6FHQDULR  $VVHVV WKH OLNHOLKRRG RI WKH ILOWHU RU WUDQVLWLRQ ]RQH EHLQJ HIIHFWLYH XVLQJ ILOWHU
GHVLJQFULWHULDDVGHWDLOHGLQ6HFWLRQ)RUH[LVWLQJGDPVZKHUHPDQ\ILOWHUVGRQRWVDWLVI\
PRGHUQ QRHURVLRQ GHVLJQ FULWHULD LW LV VXJJHVWHG WKDW D IRXU ZD\ VSOLW IRU ILOWHULQJ EHKDYLRU LV
FRQVLGHUHG VHH6HFWLRQ 
- Seals with No Erosion±WKHILOWHULQJPDWHULDOVWRSVHURVLRQZLWKQRRUYHU\OLWWOH
HURVLRQRIWKHPDWHULDOLWLVSURWHFWLQJ7KHLQFUHDVHLQOHDNDJHIORZVLVVRVPDOO
WKDWLWLVXQOLNHO\WREHGHWHFWDEOH
- Seals with Some Erosion±WKHILOWHULQJPDWHULDOLQLWLDOO\DOORZHURVLRQIURPWKHVRLO
LWLVSURWHFWLQJEXWLWHYHQWXDOO\VHDOVXSDQGVWRSVHURVLRQ/HDNDJHIORZVGXHWR
SLSLQJFDQEHXSWROVEXWDUHVHOIKHDOLQJ
- Seals with Excessive Erosion ± WKH ILOWHULQJ PDWHULDO DOORZV HURVLRQ IURP WKH
PDWHULDO LW LV SURWHFWLQJ DQG LQ WKH SURFHVV SHUPLWV ODUJH LQFUHDVHV LQ OHDNDJH
IORZ XS WR  OV  EXW WKH IORZV DUH VHOI KHDOLQJ 7KH H[WHQW RI HURVLRQ LV
VXIILFLHQWWRFDXVHVLQNKROHVRQWKHFUHVWDQGHURVLRQWXQQHOVWKURXJKWKHFRUH
- Continuing Erosion ± WKH ILOWHULQJ PDWHULDO LV WRR FRDUVH WR VWRS HURVLRQ RI WKH
PDWHULDOLWLVSURWHFWLQJDQGFRQWLQXLQJHURVLRQLVSHUPLWWHG8QOLPLWHGHURVLRQDQG
OHDNDJHIORZVDUHOLNHO\

7KLVDSSURDFKRIWHQVKRZVWKDWILOWHUVZKLFKGRQRWVDWLVI\PRGHUQILOWHUGHVLJQFULWHULDZLOODIWHU
VRPH HURVLRQ RI WKH VRLO EHLQJ ILOWHUHG HYHQWXDOO\ VHDO ZLWK PHGLXP VL]H SDUWLFOHV HURGHG IURP WKH
SURWHFWHGVRLO3URYLGHGWKHHPEDQNPHQWFDQDFFRPPRGDWHWKHOHDNDJHWKDWRFFXUVXSWRWKHWLPHWKH
ILOWHUVVHDOWKHGDPZLOOQRWIDLO,QVRPHFDVHVHURVLRQZLOOLQLWLDWHDJDLQDGMDFHQWWRWKHRULJLQDODUHD
GXHWRFKDQJHGOHDNDJHSDWKZD\VFDXVLQJDVHFRQGLQFLGHQW
 

63

148
The manner in which the likelihood of continuation of erosion for these scenarios is considered
differently:

Scenario 1: There is no potential for filtering. Continuing erosion is certain.

Scenario 2: The issue for this scenario is whether the crack/high permeability feature that is
present through the core is continuous through the downstream shoulder, or if not, whether it
can find an exit. This depends on the following factors:
- The mechanism causing the concentrated leak, in particular whether it also
causes cracking in the shoulder.
- The material characteristics and width of the downstream shoulder zone.

Scenario 3: Assess the likelihood of the filter or transition zone being effective using filter
design criteria as detailed in Section 7.3.1. For existing dams where many filters do not satisfy
modern no-erosion design criteria it is suggested that a four way split for filtering behavior is
considered (see Section 7.3.4):
- Seals with No Erosion – the filtering material stops erosion with no or very little
erosion of the material it is protecting. The increase in leakage flows is so small
that it is unlikely to be detectable.
- Seals with Some Erosion – the filtering material initially allow erosion from the soil
it is protecting, but it eventually seals up and stops erosion. Leakage flows due to
piping can be up to 100 l/s, but are self healing.
- Seals with Excessive Erosion – the filtering material allows erosion from the
material it is protecting, and in the process permits large increases in leakage
flow (up to 1000 l/s), but the flows are self healing. The extent of erosion is
sufficient to cause sinkholes on the crest and erosion tunnels through the core.
- Continuing Erosion – the filtering material is too coarse to stop erosion of the
material it is protecting and continuing erosion is permitted. Unlimited erosion and
leakage flows are likely.

This approach often shows that filters which do not satisfy modern filter design criteria will after
some erosion of the soil being filtered eventually seal with medium size particles eroded from the
protected soil. Provided the embankment can accommodate the leakage that occurs up to the time the
filters seal, the dam will not fail. In some cases erosion will initiate again adjacent to the original area
due to changed leakage pathways, causing a second incident.

63

149

6FHQDULRV ([HPSOHV
6LWXDWLRQ

6FHQDULRV
%DUUDJHKRPRJqQHVDQVILOWUH ([HPSOHV
 
FRQWLQX 6LWXDWLRQ
+202*(1(286($57+),// ($57+),//:,7+72('5$,1
 %DUUDJHKRPRJqQHVDQVILOWUH  
,17(51$/(526,21$%29(72('5$,1
FRQWLQX 
+202*(1(286($57+),// ($57+),//:,7+72('5$,1
  ,17(51$/(526,21$%29(72('5$,1

 
 
,17(51$/(526,21$%29(&25($1'),/7(56


6LWXDWLRQ ,17(51$/(526,21$%29(&25($1'),/7(56
$  $ 
$ 
5HFKDUJHDYDOFRQWHQDQWGHV
6LWXDWLRQ
$

PDWpULDX[JUDQXODLUHVILQVHW $  $
$ 
5HFKDUJHDYDOFRQWHQDQWGHV
FRKpVLIVFDSDEOHVGHPDLQWHQLU $

PDWpULDX[JUDQXODLUHVILQVHW =21('($57+),//:,7+&2+(6,9(6+(//6 ,17(51$/(526,21$%29(),/7(5=21(
RXYHUWXQHILVVXUHXQFRQGXLW &2+(6,9('2:1675($06+(//
FRKpVLIVFDSDEOHVGHPDLQWHQLU
=21('($57+),//:,7+&2+(6,9(6+(//6 ,17(51$/(526,21$%29(),/7(5=21(
RXYHUWXQHILVVXUHXQFRQGXLW &2+(6,9('2:1675($06+(//
6LWXDWLRQ  

6LWXDWLRQ
)LOWUH]RQHGHWUDQVLWLRQSUpVHQWj     
 
O¶DYDOGXQR\DXRX]RQHGH
)LOWUH]RQHGHWUDQVLWLRQSUpVHQWj   
UHFKDUJHDYDOQHSHUPHWWDQWSDV
O¶DYDOGXQR\DXRX]RQHGH ($57+),//:,7+&+,01(<),/7(5

=21('($57+),//:,7+&+,01(<),/7(5
GHPDLQWHQLURXYHUWXQHILVVXUH
UHFKDUJHDYDOQHSHUPHWWDQWSDV ($57+),//:,7+&+,01(<),/7(5
XQFRQGXLW
GHPDLQWHQLURXYHUWXQHILVVXUH =21('($57+),//:,7+&+,01(<),/7(5

XQFRQGXLW  
  

=21('($57+),//:,7+*5$18/$56+(//6
=21('($57+),//:,7+*5$18/$56+(//6 

6LWXDWLRQ
6LWXDWLRQ
eURVLRQGDQVXQGUDLQGHSLHG 

eURVLRQGDQVXQGUDLQGHSLHG  

,17(51$/(526,217+528*+7+( ,17(51$/(526,217+528*+7+(
,17(51$/(526,217+528*+7+( ,17(51$/(526,217+528*+7+(
(0%$1.0(17,172$72('5$,1
(0%$1.0(17,172$72('5$,1
)281'$7,21,172$72('5$,1
)281'$7,21,172$72('5$,1

6LWXDWLRQ OH ORQJ


6LWXDWLRQ G¶XQH
OH ORQJ G¶XQH
VWUXFWXUH WUDYHUVDQWH
VWUXFWXUH eURVLRQ
WUDYHUVDQWH j j
eURVLRQ
WUDYHUVXQMRLQWRXYHUW
WUDYHUVXQMRLQWRXYHUW
 


6LWXDWLRQ
6LWXDWLRQ GX UHPEODL
GX UHPEODL j ODj OD
IRQGDWLRQ eURVLRQ GDQV XQ MRLQW
IRQGDWLRQ eURVLRQ GDQV XQ MRLQW
RXYHUWRXXQHFDYLWpGXURFKHU
RXYHUWRXXQHFDYLWpGXURFKHU





)LJ
)LJ
6FpQDULRVGHFRQWLQXDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHGDQVOHUHPEODLGXUHPEODLjODIRQGDWLRQjXQH
6FpQDULRVGHFRQWLQXDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHGDQVOHUHPEODLGXUHPEODLjODIRQGDWLRQjXQH
VWUXFWXUHWUDYHUVDQWHRXDXGUDLQGHSLHG )HOOet al 
VWUXFWXUHWUDYHUVDQWHRXDXGUDLQGHSLHG )HOOet
 al 
6LWXDWLRQ3RXUTXHO¶pURVLRQjWUDYHUVXQMRLQWRXYHUWRXXQHILVVXUHGDQVXQHFRQGXLWHRXDX

UDFFRUGHPHQWDYHFODVWUXFWXUHSRUWHXVHHQEpWRQFRQWLQXHjWUDYHUVXQGpIDXWRXYHUWOHGpIDXW
6LWXDWLRQ3RXUTXHO¶pURVLRQjWUDYHUVXQMRLQWRXYHUWRXXQHILVVXUHGDQVXQHFRQGXLWHRXDX
GRLWrWUHVXIILVDPPHQWLPSRUWDQWSRXUSHUPHWWUHDX[SDUWLFXOHVGHVROHQYLURQQDQWGHSDVVHUj
UDFFRUGHPHQWDYHFODVWUXFWXUHSRUWHXVHHQEpWRQFRQWLQXHjWUDYHUVXQGpIDXWRXYHUWOHGpIDXW
WUDYHUV FHOXLFL /D SURFpGXUH SURSRVpH SRXU H[DPLQHU FHWWH FRQGLWLRQ HVW GRQQpH GDQV OD
GRLWrWUHVXIILVDPPHQWLPSRUWDQWSRXUSHUPHWWUHDX[SDUWLFXOHVGHVROHQYLURQQDQWGHSDVVHUj
VHFWLRQ
WUDYHUV FHOXLFL /D SURFpGXUH SURSRVpH SRXU H[DPLQHU FHWWH FRQGLWLRQ HVW GRQQpH GDQV OD

VHFWLRQ

6LWXDWLRQ&HODHVWSRVVLEOHVLOHFKHPLQpWXGLpDERXWLWGDQVXQGUDLQHWSHXWFRQGXLUHjXQH
pURVLRQFRQWLQXHGHVPDWpULDX[GXUHPEODLRXGHODIRQGDWLRQ/¶pYDOXDWLRQSUHQGHQFRPSWHOHV
__________________________________________________________________________
GpWDLOVGHFRQFHSWLRQHWGHFRQVWUXFWLRQGXGUDLQGHSLHGOHUHVSHFWGHVFULWqUHVGHILOWUHHWO¶pWDW
66
GXGUDLQGHSLHG jSDUWLUGHYLGpRRXG¶LQVSHFWLRQVH[WHUQHV 
__________________________________________________________________________
 66

7.2.2. L’érosion interne du remblai vers et dans la fondation


150 D  Érosion à travers des ouvertures de la fondation Situation 4 de la Fig. 32/DSUREDELOLWp
GH FRQWLQXDWLRQ GpSHQG GH OD WDLOOH GHV RXYHUWXUHV HW GH OHXUV FRQWLQXLWpV SHUPHWWDQW
O¶pURVLRQGHVPDWpULDX[GXQR\DX
E  Érosion à travers le sol granulaire grossier des fondations /D SUREDELOLWp GH
FRQWLQXDWLRQ GpSHQG GH OD WDLOOH GHV VROV JUDQXODLUHV JURVVLHUV HW GH OHXUV FRQWLQXLWpV



6FHQDULRV ([HPSOHV
6FHQDULR
 Scenarios Exemples

+RPRJHQHRXV]RQLQJZLWKQRIXOO\ 
Scenario 1:
LQWHUFHSWLQJILOWHU
+202*(1(286($57+),// ($57+),//:,7+72('5$,1
1
Homogeneous zoning with no fully 1 ,17(51$/(526,21$%29(72('5$,1

intercepting filter 
HOMOGENEOUS EARTHFILL EARTHFILL WITH TOE DRAIN,
INTERNAL EROSION ABOVE TOE DRAIN

2
3
,17(51$/(526,21$%29(&25($1'),/7(56
3
1 
6FHQDULR 
$ $
 INTERNAL EROSION ABOVE CORE AND $ 
$ FILTERS
'RZQVWUHDPVKRXOGHURIILQH 
JUDLQHGFRKHVLYHPDWHULDOZKLFKLV
Scenario 2:
FDSDEOHRIKROGLQJDFUDFNSLSH 1A 1 1A
=21('($57+),//:,7+&2+(6,9(6+(//6 ,17(51$/(526,21$%29(),/7(5=21(
1A
&2+(6,9('2:1675($06+(//
1A 2
Downstream shoulder of fine 1
grained cohesive material
6FHQDULR  which is  
capable
 of holding a crack/pipe. ZONED EARTHFILL WITH COHESIVE SHELLS INTERNAL EROSION
 ABOVE FILTER ZONE,
 
)LOWHUWUDQVLWLRQ]RQHLVSUHVHQW COHESIVE DOWNSTREAM SHELL

GRZQVWUHDPRIWKHFRUHRUD
Scenario 3:
GRZQVWUHDPVKRXOGHU]RQHZKLFK 2
($57+),//:,7+&+,01(<),/7(5 =21('($57+),//:,7+&+,01(<),/7(5
2
LVQRWFDSDEOHRIKROGLQJD 1
1 3 3
FUDFNSLSH zone is present
Filter/transition 1
 
downstream of the core or a 
downstream shoulder zone which EARTHFILL WITH CHIMNEY FILTER ZONED EARTHFILL WITH CHIMNEY FILTER
is not capable of holding a =21('($57+),//:,7+*5$18/$56+(//6

crack/pipe.
6FHQDULR 3 3
62,/
 1
62,/
3LSLQJLQWRDQRSHQGHIHFWMRLQWRU
FUDFN &21'8,7 ZONED EARTHFILL WITH GRANULAR SHELLS

Scenario 4: SOIL
23(1-2,17('52&.
SOIL
Piping into an open defect, joint or (526,21,172$123(1&5$&. (526,21,17223(1-2,176,1
25-2,17,1$&21'8,725:$// 52&.)281'$7,21
crack. CONDUIT 
6FHQDULR
  OPEN JOINTED
 ROCK
(URVLRQLQWRDWRHGUDLQ
EROSION INTO AN OPEN CRACK EROSION INTO OPEN JOINTS IN
OR JOINT IN A CONDUIT OR WALL ROCK FOUNDATION
,17(51$/(526,217+528*+7+( ,17(51$/(526,217+528*+7+(
(0%$1.0(17,172$72('5$,1 )281'$7,21,172$72('5$,1
Scenario 5:
1
)LJ
1
Erosion into6FHQDULRVIRUFRQWLQXDWLRQRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQLQHPEDQNPHQWVIURPHPEDQNPHQWVLQWRIRXQGDWLRQV
a toe drain
DGMRLQLQJVWUXFWXUHVDQGLQWRWRHGUDLQV )HOOHWDO 
INTERNAL EROSION THROUGH THE INTERNAL EROSION THROUGH THE
 EMBANKMENT INTO A TOE DRAIN FOUNDATION INTO A TOE DRAIN
6FpQDULR)RUHURVLRQWRFRQWLQXHWKURXJKDQRSHQGHIHFWWKHGHIHFWQHHGVWREHVXIILFLHQWO\
RSHQWRDOORZWKHVRLOSDUWLFOHVVXUURXQGLQJWKHGHIHFWWRSDVVWKURXJKLW7KHVXJJHVWHGSURFHGXUHIRU
Fig. 32
H[DPLQLQJWKLVLVJLYHQLQ6HFWLRQ
Scenarios for continuation of internal erosion in embankments, from embankments into foundations,

adjoining structures and into toe drains (Fell et al, 2008)
6FpQDULR  7KLV VFHQDULR LV DSSOLFDEOH LI WKH IDLOXUH SDWK XQGHU FRQVLGHUDWLRQ LQYROYHV D
VHHSDJHSDWKWKDWH[LWVLQWRDWRHGUDLQZKLFKFRXOGOHDGWRFRQWLQXLQJHURVLRQRIWKHHPEDQNPHQWRU
IRXQGDWLRQPDWHULDOV7KHDVVHVVPHQWFRQVLGHUVWKHGHVLJQDQGFRQVWUXFWLRQGHWDLOVRIWKHWRHGUDLQ
Scénario
ZKHWKHU ILOWHU4: For erosion
FULWHULD toDQG
DUH PHW continue through FRQGLWLRQ
WKH REVHUYHG an open RI
defect, theGUDLQ
WKH WRH defect needs
IURP to be
YLGHR sufficiently
RU H[WHUQDO
open to allow the soil particles surrounding the defect to pass through it. The suggested
LQVSHFWLRQV 
procedure
 for examining this is given in Section 7.3.5.

Scénario
7.2.2. Internal5:erosion
This scenario is applicable
of the embankment if into
at or the the
failure path under consideration involves a
foundation
seepage path that exits into a toe drain which could lead to continuing erosion of the
embankment or foundation materials. The assessment considers the design and construction
details of the toe drain, whether filter criteria are met, and the observed condition of the toe
drain (from video or external inspections). 63

64
151
6LWXDWLRQ&HODHVWSRVVLEOHVLOHFKHPLQpWXGLpDERXWLWGDQVXQGUDLQHWSHXWFRQGXLUHjXQH
pURVLRQFRQWLQXHGHVPDWpULDX[GXUHPEODLRXGHODIRQGDWLRQ/¶pYDOXDWLRQSUHQGHQFRPSWHOHV
GpWDLOVGHFRQFHSWLRQHWGHFRQVWUXFWLRQGXGUDLQGHSLHGOHUHVSHFWGHVFULWqUHVGHILOWUHHWO¶pWDW
GXGUDLQGHSLHG jSDUWLUGHYLGpRRXG¶LQVSHFWLRQVH[WHUQHV 


7.2.2. L’érosion interne du remblai vers et dans la fondation


D  Érosion à travers des ouvertures de la fondation Situation 4 de la Fig. 32/DSUREDELOLWp
GH FRQWLQXDWLRQ GpSHQG GH OD WDLOOH GHV RXYHUWXUHV HW GH OHXUV FRQWLQXLWpV SHUPHWWDQW
O¶pURVLRQGHVPDWpULDX[GXQR\DX
E  Érosion à travers le sol granulaire grossier des fondations /D SUREDELOLWp GH
FRQWLQXDWLRQ GpSHQG GH OD WDLOOH GHV VROV JUDQXODLUHV JURVVLHUV HW GH OHXUV FRQWLQXLWpV
SHUPHWWDQWO¶pURVLRQGHVPDWpULDX[GXQR\DX

&HVpYDOXDWLRQVVRQWVRXYHQWGpOLFDWHVjUpDOLVHUpWDQWGRQQpODTXDQWLWpOLPLWpHG¶LQIRUPDWLRQV
GLVSRQLEOHVVXUOHVIRQGDWLRQV/RUVTX¶XQHFRXFKHGHVROUHFRXYUHOHVVRUWLHVGHVIDLOOHVRXYHUWHVRX
GHVVROVJUDQXODLUHVJURVVLHUVFHOOHFLSHXWDJLUSDUIRLVFRPPHXQILOWUHFRQWUHO¶pURVLRQ

/¶pYDOXDWLRQGHODILOWUDWLRQSHXWrWUHUpDOLVpHFRPPHLQGLTXpGDQVODVHFWLRQHW


7.2.3. L’érosion interne en fondation


/HULVTXHGHFRQWLQXDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQGRLWrWUHHVWLPpSDUO¶pYDOXDWLRQGXULVTXHG¶DEVHQFHGH
ILOWUDWLRQjODVRUWLHGXFKHPLQG¶LQILOWUDWLRQ

D  6LODVRUWLHQ¶HVWSDVILOWUpHO¶pURVLRQVHUDMXJpHFRQWLQXH
E  6LODVRUWLHHVWILOWUpHO¶pYDOXDWLRQGXULVTXHG¶eURVLRQ&RQWLQXHHVWUpDOLVpHHQXWLOLVDQW
ODPpWKRGHGpFULWHGDQVOD6HFWLRQ/HULVTXHGHFRQWLQXDWLRQVHUDpYDOXpSDUOD
FRPELQDLVRQ  GH O¶pYDOXDWLRQ GX ULVTXH G¶DEVHQFH GH ILOWUDWLRQ j OD VRUWLH HW GH
O¶pYDOXDWLRQGHVILOWUHVFRQVLGpUpV

,OGRLWrWUHUHFRQQXTXHOHVFRXFKHVGHIDLEOHSHUPpDELOLWpVRXVOHVGUDLQVKRUL]RQWDX[SHXYHQW
HPSrFKHU OHV GUDLQV G¶DJLU FRUUHFWHPHQW OD )LJ  PRQWUH XQH IRQGDWLRQ DOOXYLDOH R OD FRXFKH GH
IDLEOH SHUPpDELOLWp $ HW (  HPSrFKH O¶pFRXOHPHQW GDQV OD FRXFKH GH VDEOH JUDYHOHXVH SOXV
SHUPpDEOH %HW' HWGRQFDWWHLQGUHODVRUWLHILOWUpHSDUOHGUDLQKRUL]RQWDO




)LJ
([HPSOHVFKpPDWLTXHG¶XQEDUUDJHHQUHPEODLVXUXQVRODOOXYLRQQDLUHVWUDWLILpRXQHJUDQGHSDUWLH
GHVLQILOWUDWLRQVQ¶HVWSDVILOWUpHHQVRUWLH )HOOet al 


 &5,7Ê5(6


__________________________________________________________________________
67

152
6FpQDULR  7KLV VFHQDULR LV DSSOLFDEOH LI WKH IDLOXUH SDWK XQGHU FRQVLGHUDWLRQ LQYROYHV D
VHHSDJHSDWKWKDWH[LWVLQWRDWRHGUDLQZKLFKFRXOGOHDGWRFRQWLQXLQJHURVLRQRIWKHHPEDQNPHQWRU
IRXQGDWLRQPDWHULDOV7KHDVVHVVPHQWFRQVLGHUVWKHGHVLJQDQGFRQVWUXFWLRQGHWDLOVRIWKHWRHGUDLQ
ZKHWKHU ILOWHU FULWHULD DUH PHW DQG WKH REVHUYHG FRQGLWLRQ RI WKH WRH GUDLQ IURP YLGHR RU H[WHUQDO
LQVSHFWLRQV 


7.2.2. Internal erosion of the embankment at or into the foundation


D  Erosion into open joints in the foundation (Scenario 4 in Fig. 32). 7KH OLNHOLKRRG RI
FRQWLQXDWLRQ GHSHQGV RQ WKH MRLQW RSHQLQJV
63 EHLQJ VXIILFLHQWO\ RSHQ DQG FRQWLQXRXV WR
DOORZHURVLRQRIWKHFRUHPDWHULDOV
E  Erosion into coarse grained soil foundation7KHOLNHOLKRRGRIFRQWLQXDWLRQGHSHQGVRQ
WKHFRDUVHJUDLQHGVRLOVEHLQJVXIILFLHQWO\FRDUVHDQGFRQWLQXRXVWRDOORZHURVLRQRIWKH
FRUHPDWHULDOV

7KHVH DVVHVVPHQWV DUH RIWHQ GLIILFXOW WR PDNH EHFDXVH WKH DPRXQW RI LQIRUPDWLRQ RQ WKH
IRXQGDWLRQV LV RIWHQ OLPLWHG ,I WKHUH DUH VRLOV RYHUO\LQJ WKH H[LWV WR WKH RSHQ MRLQWV RU WKH FRDUVH
JUDLQHGVRLOVWKHVHPD\DFWDVILOWHUVWRWKHHURVLRQ

7KHDVVHVVPHQWRIILOWHULQJVKRXOGEHFDUULHGRXWDVGHWDLOHGLQ6HFWLRQVDQG


7.2.3. Internal erosion in the foundation


7KH OLNHOLKRRG RI FRQWLQXDWLRQ RI HURVLRQ VKRXOG EH HVWLPDWHG E\ DVVHVVLQJ WKH OLNHOLKRRG WKDW
WKHH[LWZLOOEHDILOWHUHGRUXQILOWHUHGH[LW
 
D  *LYHQWKHH[LWLVXQILOWHUHGWKHOLNHOLKRRGRIFRQWLQXLQJHURVLRQZLOOEH
E  *LYHQ WKH H[LW LV ILOWHUHG HVWLPDWH WKH OLNHOLKRRG IRU &RQWLQXLQJ (URVLRQ XVLQJ WKH
PHWKRGGHVFULEHGLQ6HFWLRQ7KHSUREDELOLW\RIFRQWLQXDWLRQZLOOEHWKHSURGXFWRI
WKHOLNHOLKRRGRIDILOWHUHGH[LWDQGWKHOLNHOLKRRGDVVHVVHGFRQVLGHULQJWKHILOWHUV

,W QHHGV WR EH UHFRJQL]HG WKDW ORZ SHUPHDELOLW\ VWUDWD EHQHDWK KRUL]RQWDO GUDLQV PD\ SUHYHQW
WKHP ZRUNLQJ HIIHFWLYHO\ )LJ  VKRZV DQ DOOXYLDO IRXQGDWLRQ ZKHUH WKH ORZHU SHUPHDELOLW\ VWUDWD
$DQG (  ZLOO SUHYHQW WKH VHHSDJH LQ WKH PRVW SHUPHDEOH VDQG DQG JUDYHO VWUDWD % DQG '  IURP
IORZLQJLQWRDILOWHUHGH[LWLQWKHKRUL]RQWDOGUDLQ



)LJ
6FKHPDWLFH[DPSOHRIDQHPEDQNPHQWIRXQGHGRQDVWUDWLILHGDOOXYLDOVRLOZKHUHPXFKRIWKHVHHSDJH
IORZZLOOEHWRDQXQILOWHUHGH[LW )HOOet al 


 &5,7(5,$)25&217,18$7,21


7.3.1. Assessment of continuation or interruption of erosion through the embankment


7KHIROORZLQJVWHSVVKRXOGEHIROORZHGZKHQDVVHVVLQJWKHOLNHOLKRRGRIFRQWLQXDWLRQRIHURVLRQ
WKURXJKHPEDQNPHQWV

x *DWKHUWKHDYDLODEOHLQIRUPDWLRQRQSDUWLFOHVL]HVRIWKHFRUHRUIRXQGDWLRQDQGWKHSRWHQWLDO
ILOWHU PDWHULDOV WKH GRZQVWUHDP ILOO DQG DQ\ ILOWHU RU WUDQVLWLRQ PDWHULDOV 7KLV PD\ LQFOXGH

64
153


)LJ
([HPSOHVFKpPDWLTXHG¶XQEDUUDJHHQUHPEODLVXUXQVRODOOXYLRQQDLUHVWUDWLILpRXQHJUDQGHSDUWLH
GHVLQILOWUDWLRQVQ¶HVWSDVILOWUpHHQVRUWLH )HOOet al 


 &5,7Ê5(6


7.3.1. Méthodologie pour l’évaluation de la continuation ou l’interruption de l’érosion dans le
__________________________________________________________________________
remblai
 67

/HV pWDSHV VXLYDQWHV GRLYHQW rWUH UHVSHFWpHV SRXU pYDOXHU OD SRVVLELOLWp GH FRQWLQXDWLRQGH
O¶pURVLRQGDQVOHUHPEODL

x &ROOHFWHU OHV LQIRUPDWLRQV GLVSRQLEOHV VXU OD WDLOOH GHV SDUWLFXOHV TXL FRPSRVHQW OH
QR\DXODIRQGDWLRQHWOHVPDWpULDX[FKDUJpVGHILOWUHUILOWUHRX]RQHGHWUDQVLWLRQRXj
GpIDXW UHPEODL DYDO (OOHV SHXYHQW SURYHQLU G¶HVVDLV GH FRQWU{OH HQ SKDVH GH
FRQVWUXFWLRQG¶HVVDLVVXUOHVpFKDQWLOORQVSURYHQDQWGXEDUUDJHHWVDIRQGDWLRQRXGH
FDPSDJQHVGHUHFRQQDLVVDQFHVXUOHV]RQHVG¶HPSUXQWVGHVPDWpULDX[SRXUOHQR\DX
RXOHILOWUH
x 7UDFHUOHVFRXUEHVJUDQXORPpWULTXHVGXPDWpULDXGXQR\DXGHVILOWUHVRXWUDQVLWLRQVRX
GXUHPEODLFKDUJpVGHSURWpJHUOHQR\DX6LODWDLOOHPD[LPDOHGHVSDUWLFXOHVGXQR\DX
HVW!PPFRXSHUODJUDQXORPpWULHGXQR\DXSRXUTXHODWDLOOHPD[LPDOHVRLWpJDOH
jPP6LOHVROGHEDVHDXQHJUDQXORPpWULHGLVFRQWLQXHQHJDUGHUTXHODIUDFWLRQ
ILQH GX VRO GH EDVH  F
HVW j GLUH FRXSHU VRXV OH SRLQW G
LQIOH[LRQ GH OD FRXUEH
JUDQXORPpWULTXH 
x 9pULILHU VL OHV PDWpULDX[ FKDUJpV GH ILOWUHU UHPEODL DYDO ILOWUH RX ]RQHV GH WUDQVLWLRQ
SHXYHQW PDLQWHQLU RXYHUWH XQH ILVVXUH /HV UqJOHV GH FRQFHSWLRQ DFWXHOOHV GHV ILOWUHV
H[LJHQWPRLQVGHGHILQHVQRQSODVWLTXHVHWLQFDSDEOHVGHPDLQWHQLURXYHUWHXQH
ILVVXUH )HOOHW DO  VXJJqUHQW G¶XWLOLVHU OH 7DEOHDX FRPPH DLGH j O¶pYDOXDWLRQ
GHODSUREDELOLWpGHPDLQWLHQGHILVVXUHRXYHUWHEDVpHVXUOHVLQIRUPDWLRQVSXEOLpHVHW
OHVSHUIRUPDQFHVLQVLWX/H7DEOHDXDpWpGpYHORSSpjSDUWLUG¶HVVDLVHQODERUDWRLUH
HIIHFWXpVSDU3DUN  HWGHVpWXGHVGHFDVGH)RVWHU )RVWHUHW)HOO E 

7DEOHDX
3UREDELOLWpGHPDLQWLHQGHILVVXUHRXYHUWHSRXUOHVILOWUHVFRQWHQDQWXQH[FqVGHILQHV
3UREDELOLWpGHPDLQWLHQG¶XQHILVVXUHRXYHUWH
&RQWHQXGHILQHV
3ODVWLFLWpGHVILQHV
3DVVDQWPP
&RPSDFWp 1RQFRPSDFWp

  


1RQSODVWLTXHV   
HWQRQFLPHQWDEOHV    
   
!  
  
3ODVWLTXHV   
RXVXMHWWHVjODFLPHQWDWLRQ    
•  
1RWH/HVILQHVSRXUILOWUHVVXVFHSWLEOHVjODFLPHQWDWLRQSRVVqGHQWXQHPDWULFHSUpGRPLQDQWHGHJUDLQVGHVDEOH SDUH[HPSOH
OHVILOWUHVGHFDOFDLUHFRQFDVVp 


x eYDOXHU pJDOHPHQW VL OHV PDWpULDX[ SULV FRPPH ILOWUHV SHXYHQW rWUH VXMHWV j OD
FLPHQWDWLRQSDUH[HPSOHGDQVOHFDVRLOVVRQWHQFDOFDLUHRXHQGRORPLH)HOOet al
  6FKDHIHU et al   HW 86%5   DERUGHQW FHWWH SUREOpPDWLTXH DLQVL TXH
OHVPpFDQLVPHVGHFLPHQWDWLRQHWGHPDLQWLHQGHILVVXUH
x eYDOXHUVLOHVPDWpULDX[FKDUJpVGHILOWUHUVRQWVHQVLEOHVjODVpJUpJDWLRQHQSUHQDQWHQ
FRPSWHODFRXUEHJUDQXORPpWULTXHPHVXUpHRXjGpIDXWVSpFLILpHODPpWKRGHGHPLVH
HQ °XYUH HW OD WDLOOH GX ILOWUH]RQH GH WUDQVLWLRQ $MXVWHU OD JUDQXORPpWULH j OD
VpJUpJDWLRQ GDQV OH FDV R HOOH HVW SUREDEOH /HV PpWKRGHV GH O¶86'$ 6&6  
.HQQH\ HW :HVWODQG   HW 6KHUDUG HW 'XQQLJDQ   SHXYHQW rWUH XWLOLVpHV
FRPPH DLGH GDQV FHWWH pYDOXDWLRQ 0LOOLJDQ   GRQQH G¶LPSRUWDQWHV REVHUYDWLRQV
VXUO¶RFFXUUHQFHHWODSUpYHQWLRQGHODVpJUpJDWLRQGDQVOHVILOWUHVHWOHVUHPEODLV
x eYDOXHUVLOHVPDWpULDX[FKDUJpVGHILOWUHUSRVVqGHQWXQHLQVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXHVL
F¶HVWOHFDVDMXVWHUODJUDQXORPpWULHSRXUODSUHQGUHHQFRPSWHHQXWLOLVDQWODSURFpGXUH
GpFULWHGDQVOHFKDSLWUH

__________________________________________________________________________
154 67

)LJ
6FKHPDWLFH[DPSOHRIDQHPEDQNPHQWIRXQGHGRQDVWUDWLILHGDOOXYLDOVRLOZKHUHPXFKRIWKHVHHSDJH
IORZZLOOEHWRDQXQILOWHUHGH[LW )HOOet al 


 &5,7(5,$)25&217,18$7,21


7.3.1. Assessment of continuation or interruption of erosion through the embankment


7KHIROORZLQJVWHSVVKRXOGEHIROORZHGZKHQDVVHVVLQJWKHOLNHOLKRRGRIFRQWLQXDWLRQRIHURVLRQ
WKURXJKHPEDQNPHQWV

x *DWKHUWKHDYDLODEOHLQIRUPDWLRQRQSDUWLFOHVL]HVRIWKHFRUHRUIRXQGDWLRQDQGWKHSRWHQWLDO
ILOWHU PDWHULDOV WKH GRZQVWUHDP ILOO DQG DQ\ ILOWHU RU WUDQVLWLRQ PDWHULDOV 7KLV PD\ LQFOXGH
GDWD IURP FRQVWUXFWLRQ FRQWURO WHVWLQJ WHVWLQJ RQ VDPSOHV WDNHQ IURP WKH GDP DQG LWV
IRXQGDWLRQGDWDIURPLQYHVWLJDWLRQVRIERUURZDUHDVXVHGIRUFRUHILOODQGILOWHUPDWHULDOV
x 3ORWWKHSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQVIRUWKHFRUHPDWHULDODQGWKHILOOVILOWHUVRUWUDQVLWLRQV
64
ZKLFKPD\EHSURWHFWLQJWKHFRUH,IWKHPD[LPXPSDUWLFOHVL]H RIWKHFRUHPDWHULDOLV
!PPWKHQUHJUDGHWKHFRUHJUDGLQJVXFKWKDWWKHPD[LPXP VL]HLVPP,I
WKHEDVHVRLOLVJDSJUDGHGWKHQUHJUDGHWKHEDVHVRLOJUDGLQJRQWKHSDUWLFOHVL]HWKDW
LVPLVVLQJ LHDWWKHSRLQWRILQIOHFWLRQRIWKHJUDGLQJFXUYH 
x &KHFNLIWKHSRWHQWLDOILOWHUVWKHGRZQVWUHDPILOORUDQ\ILOWHUVRUWUDQVLWLRQVZLOOKROGDQ
RSHQ FUDFN 0RGHUQ ILOWHU GHVLJQ UXOHV UHTXLUH OHVV WKDQ  QRQSODVWLF ILQHV FRQWHQW
DQG WKHVH ZLOO QRW KROG D FUDFN )HOO HW DO   VXJJHVWHG 7DEOH  WR DVVLVW LQ
DVVHVVLQJ WKH OLNHOLKRRG RI KROGLQJ D FUDFN EDVHG RQ SXEOLVKHG LQIRUPDWLRQ DQG ILHOG
SHUIRUPDQFH 7DEOH  ZDV GHYHORSHG EDVHG RQ ODERUDWRU\ WHVWV FDUULHG RXW E\ 3DUN
 DQGFDVHGDWDIURP)RVWHU  )RVWHUDQG)HOO E 

7DEOH
/LNHOLKRRGIRU)LOWHUVZLWK([FHVVLYH)LQHV+ROGLQJD&UDFN )HOOet al 

)LQHV&RQWHQW 3UREDELOLW\RIKROGLQJDFUDFN
)LQHV3ODVWLFLW\
3DVVLQJPP
&RPSDFWHG 1RWFRPSDFWHG

  


1RQSODVWLF   
DQGQRFHPHQWLQJSUHVHQW    
  
!  
  
3ODVWLF
  
RUILQHVVXVFHSWLEOHWR
  
FHPHQWLQJ 
•  
1RWH)LQHVVXVFHSWLEOHWRFHPHQWLQJIRUILOWHUVKDYLQJDPDWUL[SUHGRPLQDWHO\RIVDQGVL]HGSDUWLFOHV HJILOWHUVGHULYHGIURP
FUXVKHGOLPHVWRQH 


x $VVHVV DOVR LI WKH PDWHULDOV XVHG LQ WKH SRWHQWLDO ILOWHUV PD\ EH VXEMHFW WR FHPHQWLQJ
HJ WKH\ DUH FRQVWUXFWHG RI OLPHVWRQH RU GRORPLWH )HOO HW DO   6FKDHIHU HW DO
 DQG86%5  GLVFXVVWKLVDQGRWKHUSRWHQWLDOPHFKDQLVPVIRUFHPHQWDWLRQ
DQGFUDFNKROGLQJ
x $VVHVV LI WKH SRWHQWLDO ILOWHU PDWHULDOV DUH OLNHO\ WR EH VXEMHFW WR VHJUHJDWLRQ WDNLQJ
DFFRXQW RI WKH VSHFLILHG DQGRU PHDVXUHG SDUWLFOH VL]H GLVWULEXWLRQ WKH PHWKRG RI
SODFHPHQW DQG WKH ZLGWK RI WKH ILOO ILOWHU DQG WUDQVLWLRQ ]RQHV $GMXVW WKH SDUWLFOH VL]H
GLVWULEXWLRQVWRDOORZIRUVHJUHJDWLRQLILWLVOLNHO\WRRFFXU7KHPHWKRGVRI86'$6&6
 .HQQH\DQG:HVWODQG  DQG6KHUDUGDQG'XQQLJDQ  PD\EHXVHG
WR DVVLVW LQ WKLV DVVHVVPHQW 0LOOLJDQ   PDNHV LPSRUWDQW REVHUYDWLRQV RQ WKH
RFFXUUHQFHDQGSUHYHQWLRQRIVHJUHJDWLRQLQILOWHUVDQGILOOV
x $VVHVVLIWKHSRWHQWLDOILOWHUPDWHULDOVDUHLQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOHDQGLIVRDGMXVWWKHSDUWLFOH
VL]HGLVWULEXWLRQVWRDFFRXQWIRUWKLVXVLQJWKHSURFHGXUHVRXWOLQHGLQ&KDSWHU
x 8VH PRGHUQ ILOWHU GHVLJQ FULWHULD WR DVVHVV ZKHWKHU WKH SRWHQWLDO ILOWHUV ZLOO SUHYHQW
FRQWLQXDWLRQ7KHUHDUHDQXPEHURIILOWHUGHVLJQFULWHULDZKLFKPD\EHXVHG7KHVHDUH
RXWOLQHGLQ6HFWLRQ:KLFKPHWKRGLVXVHGZLOOEHDPDWWHURISHUVRQDOFKRLFH)RU
ILOWHUV RU WUDQVLWLRQV ZKLFK DUH FRDUVHU WKDQ UHTXLUHG E\ WKH ILOWHU GHVLJQ FULWHULD WKH
)RVWHU DQG )HOO D   PHWKRG DV GHVFULEHG EHORZ PD\ EH XVHG EHFDXVH LW
DOORZVDVVHVVPHQWRIILOWHUVZKLFKDUHWRRFRDUVHWRVDWLVI\PRGHUQQRHURVLRQGHVLJQ
FULWHULD )U\    SURSRVHG D K\GUDXOLF DSSURDFK RI WKH FRQFHQWUDWHG OHDN
GHYHORSPHQWWKURXJKWKHFRUHVKRXOGHUVV\VWHP
x &KHFNIRUD³EORZRXW´FRQGLWLRQ,QFDVHVZKHUHWKHUHLVOLPLWHGGHSWKRIFRYHURYHUWKH
SRWHQWLDOILOWHU]RQHDVVHVVWKHSRWHQWLDOIRUEORZRXWE\FRPSDULQJWKHVHHSDJHKHDGDW 155
WKHSRLQWVRIFRQFHUQWRWKHZHLJKWRIVRLOFRYHUDERYHLW
x &KHFN ZKHWKHU WKH ILOWHU RU WUDQVLWLRQ DQG ILOO ]RQHV GRZQVWUHDP ZLOO EH VXIILFLHQWO\
SHUPHDEOHWRSHUIRUPWKHLUUHTXLUHGGUDLQDJHIXQFWLRQ7KLVLVUHODWHGWRWKHSDUWLFOHVL]H
GLVWULEXWLRQWKHILQHVFRQWHQWDQGWKHSODVWLFLW\EXWPRUHLPSRUWDQWO\WRZKHWKHUWKHUH
x 8WLOLVHUOHVFULWqUHVDFWXHOVGHFRQFHSWLRQGHILOWUHSRXUpYDOXHUVLOHPDWpULDXFKDUJpGH
ILOWUHUHPSrFKHUDODFRQWLQXDWLRQ'HQRPEUHX[FULWqUHVGHFRQFHSWLRQGHILOWUHSHXYHQW
rWUH XWLOLVpV ,OV VRQW GpFULWV GDQV OD VHFWLRQ  /D PpWKRGH XWLOLVpH VHUD XQ FKRL[
SHUVRQQHO3RXUOHVILOWUHVRXOHV]RQHVGHWUDQVLWLRQWURSJURVVLHUVVHORQOHFULWqUHGH
ILOWUH GH )RVWHU HW )HOO D   OD PpWKRGH GpFULWH FLGHVVRXV SHXW rWUH XWLOLVpH
FDUHOOHSHUPHWG¶pYDOXHUOHVILOWUHVWURSJURVVLHUVSRXUVDWLVIDLUHOHVFULWqUHVPRGHUQHV
GH QRQ pURVLRQ )U\    D SURSRVp XQH DSSURFKH K\GUDXOLTXH SRXU OH
GpYHORSSHPHQWGHO¶pURVLRQGHFRQGXLWjWUDYHUVOHV\VWqPHQR\DXUHFKDUJHV
x 9pULILHUODFRQGLWLRQGHFODTXDJHK\GUDXOLTXH'DQVOHFDVROD]RQHFKDUJpHGHILOWUHU
HVW UHFRXYHUWH SDU XQH FRXYHUWXUH SHX pSDLVVH pYDOXHU OH SRWHQWLHO GH FODTXDJH HQ
FRPSDUDQWODFKDUJHK\GUDXOLTXHDX[HQGURLWVFULWLTXHVDYHFOHSRLGVGXVROUHFRXYUDQW
OHQR\DX
x 9pULILHU VL OH ILOWUH OD WUDQVLWLRQ RX OHV ]RQHV GH UHPEODL j O¶DYDO VRQW VXIILVDPPHQW
SHUPpDEOHV SRXU UHPSOLU OHXU IRQFWLRQ GH GUDLQDJH &HOOHFL HVW HQ UHODWLRQ DYHF OD
FRXUEH JUDQXORPpWULTXH GX ILOWUH OH SRXUFHQWDJH GH ILQHV HW OD SODVWLFLWp HW SOXV
IRQGDPHQWDOHPHQWDYHFODFDSDFLWpGHOD]RQHFKDUJpHGHILOWUHURXXQHDXWUH]RQHj
O¶DYDOG¶DJLUFRPPHXQGUDLQ


7.3.2. Les fonctions d’un filtre


/HVFLQTIRQFWLRQVTXLUpJLVVHQWODFDSDFLWpGXILOWUHjDUUrWHUO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQHVRQW

 RétentionOHILOWUHVWRSSHOHWUDQVSRUW O¶pURVLRQ GHVSDUWLFXOHVGXVROGHEDVHSURWpJp
 Auto filtration ou stabilité OH ILOWUH SRVVqGH XQHVWDELOLWp LQWHUQHHW VHVSDUWLFXOHV ILQHV
QH VRQW SDV VXMHWWHV j O¶pURVLRQ j O¶LQWpULHXU GX ILOWUH LO QH GHYUD SDV PDLQWHQLU XQH
ILVVXUHRXYHUWHSDUOHSURFHVVXVGHFLPHQWDWLRQRXSDUODSUpVHQFHGHILQHVSODVWLTXHV
 Non cohésionOHILOWUHHVWSXOYpUXOHQWHWFRPEOHWRXWHILVVXUH
 Drainage OH ILOWUH HVW VXIILVDPPHQW SHUPpDEOH SRXU WUDQVSRUWHU O¶HDX V¶pFRXODQW j
WUDYHUVOHVROGHEDVHYHUVOHVFRXFKHVGUDLQDQWHVRXOHSLHGGXEDUUDJH
 RésistanceOHILOWUHWUDQVIqUHOHVFRQWUDLQWHVjO¶LQWpULHXUGXEDUUDJHVDQVrWUHpFUDVpHW
GRQFVDQVGHYHQLUSOXVILQ


Rétention du filtre


/H FRQFHSW GH EDVH FRQFHUQDQW OD IRQFWLRQ GH UpWHQWLRQ G¶XQ ILOWUH HVW TXH OHV YLGHV GX ILOWUH
VRLHQWVXIILVDPPHQWSHWLWVSRXUHPSrFKHUO¶pURVLRQGXVROGHEDVH

8Q DXWUH FRQFHSW GH EDVH LQWULQVqTXH j OD FRQFHSWLRQ GX ILOWUH HW H[SOLTXp SDU 6KHUDUG et al
  HVW TXH OH VRO GH EDVH FRQVWLWXH SURJUHVVLYHPHQW XQ ILOWUH QDWXUHO DX FRQWDFW GX ILOWUH $LQVL
GDQVOD)LJ D GDQVOHVROGHEDVHSRVVpGDQWXQHERQQHJUDQXORPpWULHO¶pURVLRQGHVSDUWLFXOHV
JURVVLqUHVGXVROGHEDVHjO¶LQWpULHXUGXILOWUHHVWHPSrFKpHFHTXLHPSrFKHOHVSDUWLFXOHVGHWDLOOH
PR\HQQH SXLV OHV SDUWLFXOHV ILQHV G¶rWUH pURGpHV 6L OH VRO GH EDVH SRVVqGH XQH JUDQXORPpWULH
GLVFRQWLQXH RX FRQFDYH YHUV OH KDXW LO \ D GpILFLHQFH GHV SDUWLFXOHV GH WDLOOH PR\HQQH FRPPH
UHSUpVHQWpGDQVOD)LJ E $LQVLFHSURFHVVXVGHILOWUDWLRQQHVHSURGXLWSDVHWOHVSDUWLFXOHVILQHV
GX VRO GH EDVH VHURQW pURGpHV j WUDYHUV OHV SDUWLFXOHV JURVVLqUHV 'DQV FHV VLWXDWLRQV SRXU TXH OH
ILOWUHVRLWHIILFDFHHWVWRSSHO¶pURVLRQLOGRLWrWUHFDSDEOHG¶DUUrWHUFHVSDUWLFXOHVILQHV


__________________________________________________________________________
69

156
GLVWULEXWLRQVWRDOORZIRUVHJUHJDWLRQLILWLVOLNHO\WRRFFXU7KHPHWKRGVRI86'$6&6
 .HQQH\DQG:HVWODQG  DQG6KHUDUGDQG'XQQLJDQ  PD\EHXVHG
WR DVVLVW LQ WKLV DVVHVVPHQW 0LOOLJDQ   PDNHV LPSRUWDQW REVHUYDWLRQV RQ WKH
RFFXUUHQFHDQGSUHYHQWLRQRIVHJUHJDWLRQLQILOWHUVDQGILOOV
x $VVHVVLIWKHSRWHQWLDOILOWHUPDWHULDOVDUHLQWHUQDOO\XQVWDEOHDQGLIVRDGMXVWWKHSDUWLFOH
VL]HGLVWULEXWLRQVWRDFFRXQWIRUWKLVXVLQJWKHSURFHGXUHVRXWOLQHGLQ&KDSWHU
x 8VH PRGHUQ ILOWHU GHVLJQ FULWHULD WR DVVHVV ZKHWKHU WKH SRWHQWLDO ILOWHUV ZLOO SUHYHQW
FRQWLQXDWLRQ7KHUHDUHDQXPEHURIILOWHUGHVLJQFULWHULDZKLFKPD\EHXVHG7KHVHDUH
RXWOLQHGLQ6HFWLRQ:KLFKPHWKRGLVXVHGZLOOEHDPDWWHURISHUVRQDOFKRLFH)RU
ILOWHUV RU WUDQVLWLRQV ZKLFK DUH FRDUVHU WKDQ UHTXLUHG E\ WKH ILOWHU GHVLJQ FULWHULD WKH
)RVWHU DQG )HOO D   PHWKRG DV GHVFULEHG EHORZ PD\ EH XVHG EHFDXVH LW
DOORZVDVVHVVPHQWRIILOWHUVZKLFKDUHWRRFRDUVHWRVDWLVI\PRGHUQQRHURVLRQGHVLJQ
FULWHULD )U\    SURSRVHG D K\GUDXOLF DSSURDFK RI WKH FRQFHQWUDWHG OHDN
GHYHORSPHQWWKURXJKWKHFRUHVKRXOGHUVV\VWHP
x &KHFNIRUD³EORZRXW´FRQGLWLRQ,QFDVHVZKHUHWKHUHLVOLPLWHGGHSWKRIFRYHURYHUWKH
SRWHQWLDOILOWHU]RQHDVVHVVWKHSRWHQWLDOIRUEORZRXWE\FRPSDULQJWKHVHHSDJHKHDGDW
WKHSRLQWVRIFRQFHUQWRWKHZHLJKWRIVRLOFRYHUDERYHLW
x &KHFN ZKHWKHU WKH ILOWHU RU WUDQVLWLRQ DQG ILOO ]RQHV GRZQVWUHDP ZLOO EH VXIILFLHQWO\
SHUPHDEOHWRSHUIRUPWKHLUUHTXLUHGGUDLQDJHIXQFWLRQ7KLVLVUHODWHGWRWKHSDUWLFOHVL]H
GLVWULEXWLRQWKHILQHVFRQWHQWDQGWKHSODVWLFLW\EXWPRUHLPSRUWDQWO\WRZKHWKHUWKHUH
WKHSRWHQWLDOILOWHU]RQHRUDQRWKHUGRZQVWUHDP]RQHZLOODFWDVDGUDLQ



65
7.3.2. Filter functions


)LYHILOWHUIXQFWLRQVJRYHUQWKHFDSDELOLW\RISURYLGLQJFRQWUROIRULQWHUQDOHURVLRQ

 Retention 7KH ILOWHU OLPLWV WKH WUDQVSRUW HURVLRQ  RI SDUWLFOHV RI WKH EDVH VRLO LW LV
SURWHFWLQJ
 Self-Filtration or stability7KHILOWHULVLQWHUQDOO\VWDEOHDQGQRWVXEMHFWWRILQHUSDUWLFOHV
HURGLQJ IURP ZLWKLQ WKH ILOWHU DQG ZLOO QRW KROG D FUDFN GXH WR FHPHQWDWLRQ RU WKH
SUHVHQFHRISODVWLFILQHV
 No cohesionVRWKHILOWHUZLOOQRWKROGDFUDFN
 Drainage7KHILOWHULVVXIILFLHQWO\SHUPHDEOHWRWUDQVSRUWWKHZDWHUIORZLQJWKURXJKWKH
EDVHVRLOLQWRGUDLQDJHOD\HUVRUWRWKHWRHRIWKHGDP
 Strength. 7KH ILOWHU WUDQVIHUV WKH VWUHVVHV ZLWKLQ WKH GDP ZLWKRXW EHLQJ FUXVKHG DQG
WKHUHIRUHEHFRPLQJILQHU


Filter Retention


7KHEDVLFFRQFHSWRIILOWHUUHWHQWLRQGHVLJQLVWRGHVLJQWKHILOWHUVRWKDWWKHYRLGVLQWKHILOWHUDUH
VXIILFLHQWO\VPDOOWRSUHYHQWHURVLRQRIWKHEDVHVRLO

$IXUWKHUEDVLFFRQFHSWLQKHUHQWLQILOWHUGHVLJQDQGH[SODLQHGE\6KHUDUGHWDO  LVWKDW
WKHEDVHVRLOZLOOSURYLGHDGHJUHHRIµVHOIILOWHULQJ¶+HQFHLQ)LJ D LQDZHOOJUDGHGEDVHVRLOWKH
FRDUVHUSDUWLFOHVLQWKHEDVHVRLODUHSUHYHQWHGIURPHURGLQJLQWRWKHILOWHUDQGWKH\LQWXUQSUHYHQWWKH
PHGLXPVL]HGSDUWLFOHVLQWKHEDVHVRLOIURPHURGLQJDQGWKHPHGLXPVL]HGSDUWLFOHVLQWKHEDVHVRLO
SUHYHQW WKH ILQH SDUWLFOHV LQ WKH EDVH VRLO IURP HURGLQJ ,I WKH EDVH VRLO LV JDSJUDGHG RU JUDGHG
FRQFDYHXSZDUGVWKHUHLVDGHILFLHQF\RIPHGLXPVL]HGSDUWLFOHVDVVKRZQLQ)LJ E 7KHQVHOI
ILOWHULQJGRHVQRWRFFXUDQGWKHILQHSDUWLFOHVLQWKHEDVHVRLOZLOOHURGHWKURXJKWKHFRDUVHSDUWLFOHV,Q
WKHVH VLWXDWLRQV IRU WKH ILOWHU WR EH VXFFHVVIXO LQ FRQWUROOLQJ HURVLRQ LW PXVW EH DEOH WR FRQWURO WKH
HURVLRQRIWKHVHILQHUSDUWLFOHV


157


)LJ
&RQFHSWVGHILOWUDWLRQHWGHILOWUHGpYHORSSpGDQVOHVROGHEDVH
D VROGHEDVHSRVVpGDQWXQHERQQHJUDQXORPpWULH
E JUDQXORPpWULHGLVFRQWLQXHRXFRQFDYHGpILFLHQFHGHSDUWLFXOHVGHWDLOOHPR\HQQH )HOOet al 


3RXUOHVVROVGLVSHUVLIVOHVSDUWLFXOHVG¶DUJLOHVQHIORFXOHQWSDVHWQHIRUPHQWSDVGHVDJUpJDWV
G
DUJLOH GRQF GHV ILOWUHV SOXV ILQV VRQW QpFHVVDLUHV SRXU OHVVROV QRQGLVSHUVLIV SRVVpGDQW OD PrPH
JUDQXORPpWULHTXHGHVVROVQRQGLVSHUVLIV

3RXUOHVILOWUHVHWOHVWUDQVLWLRQVVXMHWVjODVXIIXVLRQODIUDFWLRQILQHGXILOWUHSHXWrWUHpURGpHFH
TXLUHQGUDLWOHILOWUHSOXVJURVVLHUHWGRQFPRLQVHIILFDFHSRXUDUUrWHUODFRQWLQXDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQ

4XDWUHPpWKRGHVVRQWXWLOLVpHVSRXUJDUDQWLUODIRQFWLRQGHUpWHQWLRQ

x &ULWqUHJpRPpWULTXH
 0pWKRGHVEDVpHVVXUODJUDQXORPpWULH(OOHVRQWpWpGpYHORSSpHVSRXUODSUHPLqUHIRLV
SDU7HU]DJKLHWRQWpWpDIILQpHVSDUODVXLWHFRPPHSDUH[HPSOHOHVPpWKRGHVGH6KHUDUG
'XQQLJD  3RXUOHGLPHQVLRQQHPHQWOH')HVWOHSOXVJpQpUDOHPHQWXWLOLVpSRXU
FDUDFWpULVHUODWDLOOHGHVYLGHVGXILOWUHHW'%SRXUFDUDFWpULVHUODWDLOOHUHSUpVHQWDWLYHGX
VROGHEDVH(OOHHVWGpWHUPLQpHVXUODIUDFWLRQGXVROSDVVDQWOHWDPLVPP
 0pWKRGHV EDVpHV VXU OH GLDPqWUH GH FRQWU{OH GHV FRQVWULFWLRQV RX OH GLDPqWUH
pTXLYDOHQW GHV YLGHV SDU H[HPSOH %UDXQV HW :LWW   6FKXOHU HW %UDXQV 
  /DIOHXU et al   *LURXG   ,QGUDUDWQD HW 5DXW   ,QGUDUDWQD et al
  HW 5DXW HW ,QGUDUDWQD   *LURXG   HW OHV PpWKRGHV GX JURXSH GH
UHFKHUFKH GH ,QGUDUDWQD SUHQQHQW HQ FRPSWH OHV HIIHWV GH OD GHQVLWp UHODWLYH VXU OD
FRQFHSWLRQ GX ILOWUH *pQpUDOHPHQW FHV PpWKRGHV PHWWHQW HQ UHODWLRQ OH GLDPqWUH GH
FRQWU{OHGHVFRQVWULFWLRQVDYHFOHGHILQHVSDVVDQWOHVGLIIpUHQWVWDPLV

x &ULWqUH+\GUDXOLTXH
 0pWKRGHV LQFOXDQW OHV pOpPHQWV G¶K\GURG\QDPLTXH FRPPH FHOOH GHV QRUPHV 5XVVHV
YRLUHW3DYFKLFK,&2/' 
 0pWKRGHV EDVpHV VXU OD SHUPpDELOLWp TXL HVW PLVH HQ UHODWLRQ DYHF OH GLDPqWUH GHV
FRQVWULFWLRQV  SDU H[HPSOH 9DXJKDQ  6RDUHV   9DXJKDQ DQG %ULGOH  
'HOJDGRet al  

/DPpWKRGHjXWLOLVHUHVWXQHTXHVWLRQGHSUpIpUHQFHSHUVRQQHOOHHWG¶H[SpULHQFH/HVPpWKRGHV
FLGHVVXV VRQW JpQpUDOHPHQW XWLOLVpHV SRXU FRQFHYRLU GHV ILOWUHV VDQVpURVLRQ GDQV OHV VLWXDWLRQV ©GH
ILOWUHFULWLTXHªRLOHVWHVVHQWLHOG¶HPSrFKHUO¶LQLWLDWLRQHWODFRQWLQXDWLRQGHO¶pURVLRQLQWHUQH


__________________________________________________________________________
70

158
SUHYHQW WKH ILQH SDUWLFOHV LQ WKH EDVH VRLO IURP HURGLQJ ,I WKH EDVH VRLO LV JDSJUDGHG RU JUDGHG
FRQFDYHXSZDUGVWKHUHLVDGHILFLHQF\RIPHGLXPVL]HGSDUWLFOHVDVVKRZQLQ)LJ E 7KHQVHOI
ILOWHULQJGRHVQRWRFFXUDQGWKHILQHSDUWLFOHVLQWKHEDVHVRLOZLOOHURGHWKURXJKWKHFRDUVHSDUWLFOHV,Q
WKHVH VLWXDWLRQV IRU WKH ILOWHU WR EH VXFFHVVIXO LQ FRQWUROOLQJ HURVLRQ LW PXVW EH DEOH WR FRQWURO WKH
HURVLRQRIWKHVHILQHUSDUWLFOHV



)LJ
)LOWHULQJDQGVHOIILOWHULQJFRQFHSWV
D ZHOOJUDGHGEDVHVRLO
E JDSJUDGHGRUFRQFDYHJUDGHGVRLOGHILFLHQWLQPHGLXPVL]HGSDUWLFOHV )HOOet al 



)RUGLVSHUVLYHVRLOVWKHFOD\SDUWLFOHVGRQRWIORFFXODWHWRIRUPDJJUHJDWHGSDUWLFOHVRIFOD\VR
ILQHUILOWHUVDUHUHTXLUHGWKDQIRUQRQGLVSHUVLYHVRLOVRIWKHVDPHSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQ
 66
)RU ILOWHUV DQG WUDQVLWLRQV ZKLFK DUH VXEMHFW WR VXIIXVLRQ WKH ILQHU IUDFWLRQ PD\ HURGH IURP WKH
ILOWHUDQGUHVXOWLQDFRDUVHUILOWHUOHVVDEOHWRSUHYHQWFRQWLQXDWLRQRIHURVLRQ

)RXUPHWKRGVDUHXVHGWRDFKLHYHWKHUHWHQWLRQIXQFWLRQ

x *HRPHWULF&ULWHULRQ
 0HWKRGVEDVHGRQSDUWLFOHVL]HGLVWULEXWLRQ7KHVHZHUHILUVWGHYHORSHGE\7HU]DJKLDQG
ODWHUUHILQHGHJPHWKRGVEDVHGRQ6KHUDUG 'XQQLJDQ  )RUGHVLJQSXUSRVHV
WKH')LVPRVWFRPPRQO\XVHGWRGHILQHWKLVYRLGVL]HDQG'%WKHUHSUHVHQWDWLYHVL]H
RIWKHEDVHVRLO7KLVLVGHWHUPLQHGRQWKHIUDFWLRQRIWKHVRLOSDVVLQJDPPVLHYH
 0HWKRGV EDVHG RQ WKH FRQWUROOLQJ FRQVWULFWLRQ VL]H RU HTXLYDOHQW RSHQLQJ VL]H HJ
%UDXQVDQG:LWW  6FKXOHUDQG%UDXQV  /DIOHXUHWDO  *LURXG
DQG7HU]DJKL/HFWXUH ,QGUDUDWQDDQG5DXW  ,QGUDUDWQDHWDO  
DQG 5DXW DQG ,QGUDUDWQD   *LURXG¶V  DQG ,QGUDUDWQD¶V UHVHDUFK WHDP¶V PHWKRGV
DOORZ IRU WKH HIIHFWV RI UHODWLYH GHQVLW\ RQ WKH ILOWHU GHVLJQ *HQHUDOO\ WKHVH PHWKRGV
UHODWHWKHFRQWUROOLQJFRQVWULFWLRQVL]HWRDRIILQHSDVVLQJVL]HV

x +\GUDXOLF&ULWHULRQ
 0HWKRGV WKDW LQFOXGH DQ HOHPHQW RI K\GURG\QDPLFV VXFK DV WKH 5XVVLDQ VWDQGDUGV
VHHDQG3DYFKLFK,&2/' 
 0HWKRGVEDVHGRQSHUPHDELOLW\ZKLFKLVUHJDUGHGDVEHLQJFRUUHODWHGWRWKHFRQVWULFWLRQ
VL]HHJ9DXJKDQ 6RDUHV  9DXJKDQDQG%ULGOH  'HOJDGRet al  

:KLFK LV XVHG LV D PDWWHU RI SHUVRQDO SUHIHUHQFH DQG H[SHULHQFH 7KH PHWKRGV DERYH DUH
PDLQO\ XVHG WR GHVLJQ QRHURVLRQ ILOWHUV LQ µFULWLFDO ILOWHU¶ VLWXDWLRQV ZKHUH LW LV HVVHQWLDO WR SUHYHQW
LQLWLDWLRQRUFRQWLQXDWLRQRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQ

,QVRPHDSSOLFDWLRQVVXFKDVLQORQJGLNHVLWPD\EHYHU\FRVWO\WRXVHVXFKILOWHUVDQGILOWHUV
ZKLFKDOORZVRPHHURVLRQ RU³RSHQILOWHUV´ PD\EHXVHG7KHVHFDQEHGHVLJQHGXVLQJWKHPHWKRGV
RI%DNNHU  'HQ$GHOHWDO  DQG9HUKHLMHWDO  +RZHYHUJUHDWFDUHVKRXOGEHWDNHQ
LQDSSO\LQJWKLVDSSURDFKSDUWLFXODUO\WRVLWXDWLRQVZKHUHLIWKHILOWHUIDLOVDQGHURVLRQRFFXUVLWLVQRW
SUDFWLFDOWRUHSDLUWKHGDPDJH


No cohesion (filter will not hold a crack)
 159

7KLV IXQFWLRQ LV WR FRQILUP WKDW WKH ILOWHU ZLOO FROODSVH DW ORFDWLRQV ZKHUH DQ HURVLRQ SLSH RU D
FUDFNKDVLQLWLDWHG7KHDELOLW\QRWWRKROGDFUDFNLVFRPPRQO\DFKLHYHGE\OLPLWLQJWKHILQHVFRQWHQW
SDVVLQJPP DQGUHTXLULQJWKDWWKHILQHVDUHQRQSODVWLF
'DQVFHUWDLQHVDSSOLFDWLRQVFRPPHOHVORQJXHVGLJXHVLOSHXW rWUHWUqVFRXWHX[G¶XWLOLVHUFHV
ILOWUHV RQ SHXW GRQF XWLOLVHU OHV ILOWUHV TXL SHUPHWWHQW XQH pURVLRQ OLPLWpH RX ©ILOWUHV RXYHUWVª  ,OV
SHXYHQWrWUHFRQoXVHQXWLOLVDQWOHVPpWKRGHVGH%DNNHU  'HQ$GHOet al  HW9HUKHLMet al
  &HSHQGDQW XQH DWWHQWLRQ SDUWLFXOLqUH GRLW rWUH SULVH ORUVTXH O¶RQ XWLOLVH FHWWH DSSURFKH
SDUWLFXOLqUHPHQWGDQVOHVVLWXDWLRQVRVLOHILOWUHURPSWHWTXHO¶pURVLRQVHSURGXLWLOHVWLPSRVVLEOHGH
UpSDUHUOHVGRPPDJHV


Absence de cohésion (le filtre ne maintient pas une fissure ouverte)


&HWWH FDUDFWpULVWLTXH SHUPHW GH JDUDQWLU TXH OH ILOWUH V¶HIIRQGUD GDQV OHV ]RQHV R O¶pURVLRQ SDU
FRQGXLWRXXQHILVVXUHV¶HVWLQLWLpH/¶LQFDSDFLWpjPDLQWHQLUXQHILVVXUHRXYHUWHHVWJpQpUDOHPHQWDWWHLQWH
HQOLPLWDQWODSURSRUWLRQGHILQHV SDVVDQWPP HWH[LJHTXHFHVILQHVVRLHQWQRQSODVWLTXHV

,O VHPEOHUDLW TXH PrPH DYHF FHV SUpFDXWLRQV OHV ILOWUHV GHQVHV WUqV FRPSDFWpV SHXYHQW
PDLQWHQLUXQHILVVXUHRXYHUWH 5HGOLQJHUet al 

,O GRLW rWUH UHFRQQX TXH OD FLPHQWDWLRQ GHV ILOWUHV SHXW VH SURGXLUH VL OH ILOWUH HVW FRPSRVp GH
SDUWLFXOHVGHURFKHFDUERQDWpHWHOOHTXHOHFDOFDLUHRXODGRORPLWHSDUWLFXOLqUHPHQWGDQVODIUDFWLRQGH
VDEOH )HOO et al   HW TXH PrPH GH SHWLWHV TXDQWLWpV GH VLOW GDQV OHV JUDYHV j JUDQXORPpWULH
pWHQGXHFRQWHQDQWGXVDEOHHWGXVLOWSHXWSHUPHWWUHDXILOWUHGHPDLQWHQLUXQHILVVXUHRXYHUWH&HWWH
TXHVWLRQHVWDERUGpHGDQVOD6HFWLRQHWGDQVOH7DEOHDX


Auto-filtration ou stabilité granulométrique


/¶DXWRILOWUDWLRQHWODVWDELOLWpVRQWREWHQXHVHQpYLWDQWO¶LQVWDELOLWpJUDQXORPpWULTXHFRPPHGpFULW
GDQVOD6HFWLRQ


Drainage


&HWWH IRQFWLRQ HVW REWHQXH HQ OLPLWDQW OD SURSRUWLRQ GH ILQHV  SDVVDQW PP  HW GDQV
FHUWDLQV PDQXHOV GH FRQFHSWLRQ OD UHODWLRQ ')  '% HVW XWLOLVpH DILQ GH V¶DVVXUHU TXH OH ILOWUH HVW
VXIILVDPPHQWSOXVSHUPpDEOHTXHOHVROGHEDVHUHPSOLVVDQWDLQVLVDIRQFWLRQGHGUDLQDJH&HFLHVW
pJDOHPHQWOLpDX]RQDJHGXEDUUDJHHWHQSDUWLFXOLHUVLO¶RQDODSUpVHQFHGH]RQHVGHILOWUHGUDLQRX
GHUHFKDUJHHQHQURFKHPHQW


Résistance


&HFLHVWREWHQXHQVSpFLILDQWGHVYDOHXUVGHGXUDELOLWpHWGHUpVLVWDQFHDX[FKRFVGHVDJUpJDWV

'HV GpWDLOV FRPSOpPHQWDLUHV VXU OHV ILOWUHV VRQW GLVSRQLEOHV GDQV OD 6HFWLRQ  3OXV
G¶LQIRUPDWLRQV VRQW pJDOHPHQW GLVSRQLEOHV GDQV OH %XOOHWLQ &,*% FRQFHUQDQW OHV )LOWUHV HW 'UDLQV
JUDQXODLUHVSRXUOHV%DUUDJHVHQ5HPEODL &,*% 


7.3.3. Critère de rétention totale des filtres granulaires


Critère basé sur la granulométrie – Sherard et Dunnigan (1989)


6KHUDUGHW'XQQLJDQ  RQWUHFRPPDQGpOHVpWDSHVVXLYDQWHV


__________________________________________________________________________
71

160
 0HWKRGVEDVHGRQSHUPHDELOLW\ZKLFKLVUHJDUGHGDVEHLQJFRUUHODWHGWRWKHFRQVWULFWLRQ
VL]HHJ9DXJKDQ 6RDUHV  9DXJKDQDQG%ULGOH  'HOJDGRet al  

:KLFK LV XVHG LV D PDWWHU RI SHUVRQDO SUHIHUHQFH DQG H[SHULHQFH 7KH PHWKRGV DERYH DUH
PDLQO\ XVHG WR GHVLJQ QRHURVLRQ ILOWHUV LQ µFULWLFDO ILOWHU¶ VLWXDWLRQV ZKHUH LW LV HVVHQWLDO WR SUHYHQW
LQLWLDWLRQRUFRQWLQXDWLRQRILQWHUQDOHURVLRQ

,QVRPHDSSOLFDWLRQVVXFKDVLQORQJGLNHVLWPD\EHYHU\FRVWO\WRXVHVXFKILOWHUVDQGILOWHUV
ZKLFKDOORZVRPHHURVLRQ RU³RSHQILOWHUV´ PD\EHXVHG7KHVHFDQEHGHVLJQHGXVLQJWKHPHWKRGV
RI%DNNHU  'HQ$GHOHWDO  DQG9HUKHLMHWDO  +RZHYHUJUHDWFDUHVKRXOGEHWDNHQ
LQDSSO\LQJWKLVDSSURDFKSDUWLFXODUO\WRVLWXDWLRQVZKHUHLIWKHILOWHUIDLOVDQGHURVLRQRFFXUVLWLVQRW
SUDFWLFDOWRUHSDLUWKHGDPDJH


No cohesion (filter will not hold a crack)


7KLV IXQFWLRQ LV WR FRQILUP WKDW WKH ILOWHU ZLOO FROODSVH DW ORFDWLRQV ZKHUH DQ HURVLRQ SLSH RU D
FUDFNKDVLQLWLDWHG7KHDELOLW\QRWWRKROGDFUDFNLVFRPPRQO\DFKLHYHGE\OLPLWLQJWKHILQHVFRQWHQW
SDVVLQJPP DQGUHTXLULQJWKDWWKHILQHVDUHQRQSODVWLF

7KHUH LV VRPH HYLGHQFH WKDW HYHQ ZLWK WKHVH SUHFDXWLRQV YHU\ GHQVH FRPSDFWHG ILOWHUV PD\
KROGDFUDFN 5HGOLQJHUHWDO 

,WVKRXOGEHUHFRJQL]HGWKDWFHPHQWLQJRIILOWHUVPD\RFFXULIWKHILOWHULVFRPSRVHGRIFDUERQDWH
URFNSDUWLFOHVVXFKDVOLPHVWRQHRUGRORPLWHSDUWLFXODUO\IRUWKHVDQGIUDFWLRQ )HOOHWDO DQGWKDW
HYHQ VPDOO DPRXQWV RI VLOW LQ EURDGO\ JUDGHG VLOW\ VDQG\ JUDYHO PD\ UHVXOW LQ WKH ILOWHU EHLQJ DEOH WR
FUDFN7KLVLVGLVFXVVHGIXUWKHULQ6HFWLRQDQGLQ7DEOH


Self-filtration or stability


6HOIILOWUDWLRQ DQG VWDELOLW\ DUH DFKLHYHG E\ FKHFNLQJ DJDLQVW LQWHUQDO LQVWDELOLW\ DV GHVFULEHG LQ
6HFWLRQ



Drainage


67
7KLV LV DFKLHYHG E\ OLPLWLQJ WKH ILQHV FRQWHQW  SDVVLQJ PP  DQG LQ VRPH GHVLJQ
PDQXDOVUHO\LQJRQUHODWLRQVKLSVEHWZHHQ')'%WRHQVXUHWKHILOWHULVVXIILFLHQWO\PRUHSHUPHDEOH
WKDQWKHEDVHVRLOWRSHUIRUPWKHGUDLQDJHIXQFWLRQ7KLVLVDOVRUHODWHGWRWKH]RQLQJRIWKHGDPDQG
LQSDUWLFXODUZKHWKHUGUDLQDJHILOWHU]RQHVRUURFNILOO]RQHVDUHSURYLGHG


Strength


7KLVLVDFKLHYHGE\VSHFLI\LQJGXUDELOLW\DQGFUXVKLQJVWUHQJWKVRIWKHDJJUHJDWHV

6RPHPRUHGHWDLOVRQILOWHUVDUHSURYLGHGLQ6HFWLRQ0RUHLQIRUPDWLRQLVDOVRDYDLODEOHLQ
WKH,&2/'%XOOHWLQRQ(PEDQNPHQW'DP*UDQXODU)LOWHUVDQG'UDLQV ,&2/' 


7.3.3. Criteria for no-erosion filters


Particle Size Based Criteria-Sherard and Dunnigan (1989)


6KHUDUGDQG'XQQLJDQ  UHFRPPHQGHGWKHIROORZLQJVWHSV

)RUDOOVRLOVZLWKDJUDYHOFRPSRQHQW H[FHSW*URXSEHORZ WKHILOWHUVVKRXOGEHGHVLJQHGRQ
WKH JUDGLQJ RI WKDW SDUW RI WKH VRLO ILQHU WKDQ  PP 7KLV LV DQ LPSRUWDQW VWHS DQG GHVLJQHG WR
RYHUFRPH SUREOHPV ZLWK YHU\ EURDGO\ JUDGHG VRLOV ZKLFK ZLOO QRW VHOIILOWHU %DVH VRLO JUDGDWLRQV DUH
GHWHUPLQHG E\ VLHYH WHVWV DQG K\GURPHWHU WHVWV XVLQJ GHIORFFXODQW VXFK DV VRGLXP
KH[DPHWDSKRVSKDWH

Impervious Soil Group 1 ILQHVLOWVDQGFOD\V )RUILQHVLOWVDQGFOD\VWKDWKDYHPRUHWKDQ
E\ZHLJKW RIWKHSRUWLRQILQHUWKDQWKHPPVLHYH ILQHUWKDQWKHPPVLHYHWKHDOORZDEOH
ILOWHUIRUGHVLJQVKRXOGKDYH')'%

161
Impervious Soil Group 2 VDQG\ VLOWV DQG FOD\V DQG VLOW\ DQG FOD\H\ VDQGV  )RU VDQG\ DQG
JUDYHOO\ LPSHUYLRXVVRLOVZLWKWRE\ZHLJKW RIWKHSRUWLRQILQHUWKDQWKHPPVLHYH ILQHU
WKDQWKHPPVLHYHWKHDOORZDEOHILOWHUIRUGHVLJQVKRXOGKDYH')”PP
&HFLHVWREWHQXHQVSpFLILDQWGHVYDOHXUVGHGXUDELOLWpHWGHUpVLVWDQFHDX[FKRFVGHVDJUpJDWV

'HV GpWDLOV FRPSOpPHQWDLUHV VXU OHV ILOWUHV VRQW GLVSRQLEOHV GDQV OD 6HFWLRQ  3OXV
G¶LQIRUPDWLRQV VRQW pJDOHPHQW GLVSRQLEOHV GDQV OH %XOOHWLQ &,*% FRQFHUQDQW OHV )LOWUHV HW 'UDLQV
JUDQXODLUHVSRXUOHV%DUUDJHVHQ5HPEODL &,*% 


7.3.3. Critère de rétention totale des filtres granulaires


Critère basé sur la granulométrie – Sherard et Dunnigan (1989)


6KHUDUGHW'XQQLJDQ  RQWUHFRPPDQGpOHVpWDSHVVXLYDQWHV
3RXU
 WRXV OHV VROV FRQWHQDQW GHV JUDYHV H[FHSWp FHX[ GX *URXSH  FLGHVVRXV  OHV ILOWUHV
GRLYHQW rWUHWRXV
3RXU FRQoXV
OHV DYHF XQH JUDQXORPpWULH
VROV FRQWHQDQW GX H[FHSWp
GHV JUDYHV VRO GH EDVH SOXV
FHX[ GXILQH TXH 
*URXSH  PP ,O V¶DJLW
FLGHVVRXV  OHV G¶XQH
ILOWUHV
PHVXUH rWUH
GRLYHQW LPSRUWDQWH
FRQoXVTXL SHUPHW
DYHF G¶pYLWHU OHV SUREOqPHV
XQH JUDQXORPpWULH GH VROV
GX VRO GH EDVH SRVVpGDQW
SOXV XQH PP
ILQH TXH  JUDQXORPpWULH WUqV
,O V¶DJLW G¶XQH
pWHQGXHTXLQHVRQWSDVDXWRILOWUDQW/DJUDQXORPpWULHGXVROGHEDVHHVWGpWHUPLQpHSDUWDPLVDJHHW
PHVXUH LPSRUWDQWH TXL SHUPHW G¶pYLWHU OHV SUREOqPHV GH VROV SRVVpGDQW XQH JUDQXORPpWULH WUqV
__________________________________________________________________________
SDUVpGLPHQWDWLRQHQXWLOLVDQWXQGpIORFFXODQWFRPPHOHVRGLXPKH[DPHWDSKRVSKDWHSDUH[HPSOH
71
pWHQGXHTXLQHVRQWSDVDXWRILOWUDQW/DJUDQXORPpWULHGXVROGHEDVHHVWGpWHUPLQpHSDUWDPLVDJHHW

SDUVpGLPHQWDWLRQHQXWLOLVDQWXQGpIORFFXODQWFRPPHOHVRGLXPKH[DPHWDSKRVSKDWHSDUH[HPSOH
Sol Imperméable du Groupe 1 DUJLOHV HW VLOWV ILQV  3RXU OHV DUJLOHV HW VLOWV ILQV GRQW SOXV GH
GHOHXUSRLGV GHODIUDFWLRQSOXVILQHTXHOHWDPLVPP HVWFRPSRVpGHSDUWLFXOHVSOXVILQHV
Sol Imperméable du Groupe 1 DUJLOHV HW VLOWV ILQV  3RXU OHV DUJLOHV HW VLOWV ILQV GRQW SOXV GH
TXHOHWDPLVPPOHILOWUHDGPLVVLEOHGRLWDYRLUXQ')'%
GHOHXUSRLGV GHODIUDFWLRQSOXVILQHTXHOHWDPLVPP HVWFRPSRVpGHSDUWLFXOHVSOXVILQHV

TXHOHWDPLVPPOHILOWUHDGPLVVLEOHGRLWDYRLUXQ' )'%
Sol
 Imperméable du Groupe 2 VLOWV DUJLOHX[ DUJLOHV VLOWV HW VDEOHV DUJLOHX[  3RXU OHV VROV
LPSHUPpDEOHVVDEOHX[ HWJUDYHOHX[ GRQWjGHOHXUSRLGV VXUODIUDFWLRQSOXVILQHTXHOH
Sol Imperméable du Groupe 2 VLOWV DUJLOHX[ DUJLOHV VLOWV HW VDEOHV DUJLOHX[  3RXU OHV VROV
WDPLVPP HVWFRPSRVpGHSDUWLFXOHVSOXVILQHVTXHOHWDPLVPPOHILOWUHDGPLVVLEOHGRLW
LPSHUPpDEOHVVDEOHX[ HWJUDYHOHX[ GRQWjGHOHXUSRLGV VXUODIUDFWLRQSOXVILQHTXHOH
DYRLUXQ')”PP
WDPLVPP HVWFRPSRVpGHSDUWLFXOHVSOXVILQHVTXHOHWDPLVPPOHILOWUHDGPLVVLEOHGRLW

DYRLUXQ')”PP
Sol
 Imperméable du Groupe 3 VDEOHVJUDYHVVDEOHXVHVDYHFXQIDLEOHSRXUFHQWDJHGHILQHV 
3RXUOHVJUDYHVHWVDEOHVDUJLOHX[HWVLOWHX[GRQWRXPRLQVGHOHXUSRLGV VXUODIUDFWLRQSOXVILQH
Sol Imperméable du Groupe 3 VDEOHVJUDYHVVDEOHXVHVDYHFXQIDLEOHSRXUFHQWDJHGHILQHV 
TXHOHWDPLVPP HVWFRPSRVpGHSDUWLFXOHVSOXVILQHVTXHOHWDPLVPPOHILOWUHDGPLVVLEOH
3RXUOHVJUDYHVHWVDEOHVDUJLOHX[HWVLOWHX[GRQWRXPRLQVGHOHXUSRLGV VXUODIUDFWLRQSOXVILQH
GRLWDYRLUXQ' )'%DYHF'%UHSUpVHQWDQWGHVSDUWLFXOHVSOXVILQHVGXPDWpULDXHQWLHU
TXHOHWDPLVPP HVWFRPSRVpGHSDUWLFXOHVSOXVILQHVTXHOHWDPLVPPOHILOWUHDGPLVVLEOH
LQFOXDQWOHVJUDYHV
GRLWDYRLUXQ' )'%DYHF'%UHSUpVHQWDQWGHVSDUWLFXOHVSOXVILQHVGXPDWpULDXHQWLHU

LQFOXDQWOHVJUDYHV
Sol
 Imperméable du Groupe 4  3RXU OHV VROV JURVVLHUV LPSHUPpDEOHV FRPSULV HQWUH OH
*URXSHHWFLGHVVXVDYHFjGXSDVVDQWDXWDPLVPPOHILOWUHDGPLVVLEOHHVWGLW
Sol Imperméable du Groupe 4  3RXU OHV VROV JURVVLHUV LPSHUPpDEOHV FRPSULV HQWUH OH
LQWHUPpGLDLUHLQYHUVHPHQWSURSRUWLRQQHODXSRXUFHQWDJHGHILQHVHWSHXWrWUHFDOFXOpSDULQWHUSRODWLRQ
*URXSHHWFLGHVVXVDYHFjGXSDVVDQWDXWDPLVPPOHILOWUHDGPLVVLEOHHVWGLW
OLQpDLUH&RPPHGDQVO¶H[HPSOH )LJ SRXUXQVROVDEOHX[LPSHUPpDEOHDYHFGHILQHVVLOWHX[
LQWHUPpGLDLUHLQYHUVHPHQWSURSRUWLRQQHODXSRXUFHQWDJHGHILQHVHWSHXWrWUHFDOFXOpSDULQWHUSRODWLRQ
RX DUJLOHX[ HW XQ '%   PP OH ILOWUH DGPLVVLEOH GRLW rWUH HQWUH ')   PP SRXU OHV VROV GX
OLQpDLUH&RPPHGDQVO¶H[HPSOH )LJ SRXUXQVROVDEOHX[LPSHUPpDEOHDYHFGHILQHVVLOWHX[
*URXSH HW'
RX XQ '[  
DUJLOHX[ HW ) PP SRXUOHVVROVGX*URXSH LOHVWFDOFXOpGHODPDQLqUHVXLYDQWH