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WEATHER CONVERSIONS SPREADSHEET

by Jan Null, CCM


Golden Gate Weather Services
updated September 20, 2000

Temperature Comfort Indices


Celsius to Fahrenheit Windchill
Fahrenheit to Celsius Heat Index

Speed Distance
Knots to MPH & Meters/pec Miles to Kilometers & Nautical
Meters/Sec to Knots & MPH Kilometers to Miles & Nautical
MPH to Knots & Meters/Sec Nautical Miles to Miles & Kilo

Atmospheric Pressure Miscellaneous


Inches Hg to Millibars Standard Atmosphere
Millibars to Inches Hg Beaufort Scale
Fujita Scale
Moisture
Relative Humidity

Saffir-Simpson Scale

Send comments or suggestions to: Sunrise/Sunset Calculations


jnull@ggweather.com
rt Indices
Windchill
Heat Index

Miles to Kilometers & Nautical Miles


Kilometers to Miles & Nautical Miles
Nautical Miles to Miles & Kilometers

Standard Atmosphere
Beaufort Scale
Fujita Scale

Saffir-Simpson Scale

Sunrise/Sunset Calculations
Celsius to Fahrenheit Conversion
C F C F C F C F Enter Temp -Deg C
50 122.0 25 77.0 0 32.0 -25 -13.0
49 120.2 24 75.2 -1 30.2 -26 -14.8
48 118.4 23 73.4 -2 28.4 -27 -16.6
47 116.6 22 71.6 -3 26.6 -28 -18.4 RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
46 114.8 21 69.8 -4 24.8 -29 -20.2
45 113.0 20 68.0 -5 23.0 -30 -22.0
44 111.2 19 66.2 -6 21.2 -31 -23.8
43 109.4 18 64.4 -7 19.4 -32 -25.6
42 107.6 17 62.6 -8 17.6 -33 -27.4
41 105.8 16 60.8 -9 15.8 -34 -29.2
40 104.0 15 59.0 -10 14.0 -35 -31.0
39 102.2 14 57.2 -11 12.2 -36 -32.8
38 100.4 13 55.4 -12 10.4 -37 -34.6
37 98.6 12 53.6 -13 8.6 -38 -36.4
36 96.8 11 51.8 -14 6.8 -39 -38.2
35 95.0 10 50.0 -15 5.0 -40 -40.0
34 93.2 9 48.2 -16 3.2 -41 -41.8
33 91.4 8 46.4 -17 1.4 -42 -43.6
32 89.6 7 44.6 -18 -0.4 -43 -45.4
31 87.8 6 42.8 -19 -2.2 -44 -47.2
30 86.0 5 41.0 -20 -4.0 -45 -49.0
29 84.2 4 39.2 -21 -5.8 -46 -50.8
28 82.4 3 37.4 -22 -7.6 -47 -52.6
27 80.6 2 35.6 -23 -9.4 -48 -54.4
26 78.8 1 33.8 -24 -11.2 -49 -56.2
0 C=
32.0 F

BLE OF CONTENTS
Fahrenheit to Celsius Conversion
F C F C F C F C
125 51.7 75 23.9 25 -3.9 -25 -31.7
124 51.1 74 23.3 24 -4.4 -26 -32.2
123 50.6 73 22.8 23 -5.0 -27 -32.8
122 50.0 72 22.2 22 -5.6 -28 -33.3
121 49.4 71 21.7 21 -6.1 -29 -33.9
120 48.9 70 21.1 20 -6.7 -30 -34.4
119 48.3 69 20.6 19 -7.2 -31 -35.0
118 47.8 68 20.0 18 -7.8 -32 -35.6
117 47.2 67 19.4 17 -8.3 -33 -36.1
116 46.7 66 18.9 16 -8.9 -34 -36.7
115 46.1 65 18.3 15 -9.4 -35 -37.2
114 45.6 64 17.8 14 -10.0 -36 -37.8
113 45.0 63 17.2 13 -10.6 -37 -38.3
112 44.4 62 16.7 12 -11.1 -38 -38.9
111 43.9 61 16.1 11 -11.7 -39 -39.4
110 43.3 60 15.6 10 -12.2 -40 -40.0
109 42.8 59 15.0 9 -12.8 -41 -40.6
108 42.2 58 14.4 8 -13.3 -42 -41.1
107 41.7 57 13.9 7 -13.9 -43 -41.7
106 41.1 56 13.3 6 -14.4 -44 -42.2
105 40.6 55 12.8 5 -15.0 -45 -42.8
104 40.0 54 12.2 4 -15.6 -46 -43.3
103 39.4 53 11.7 3 -16.1 -47 -43.9
102 38.9 52 11.1 2 -16.7 -48 -44.4
101 38.3 51 10.6 1 -17.2 -49 -45.0
100 37.8 50 10.0 0 -17.8 -50 -45.6
99 37.2 49 9.4 -1 -18.3 -51 -46.1
98 36.7 48 8.9 -2 -18.9 -52 -46.7
97 36.1 47 8.3 -3 -19.4 -53 -47.2
96 35.6 46 7.8 -4 -20.0 -54 -47.8
95 35.0 45 7.2 -5 -20.6 -55 -48.3
94 34.4 44 6.7 -6 -21.1 -56 -48.9
93 33.9 43 6.1 -7 -21.7 -57 -49.4
92 33.3 42 5.6 -8 -22.2 -58 -50.0
91 32.8 41 5.0 -9 -22.8 -59 -50.6
90 32.2 40 4.4 -10 -23.3 -60 -51.1
89 31.7 39 3.9 -11 -23.9 -61 -51.7
88 31.1 38 3.3 -12 -24.4 -62 -52.2
87 30.6 37 2.8 -13 -25.0 -63 -52.8
86 30.0 36 2.2 -14 -25.6 -64 -53.3
85 29.4 35 1.7 -15 -26.1 -65 -53.9
84 28.9 34 1.1 -16 -26.7 -66 -54.4
83 28.3 33 0.6 -17 -27.2 -67 -55.0
82 27.8 32 0.0 -18 -27.8 -68 -55.6
81 27.2 31 -0.6 -19 -28.3 -69 -56.1
80 26.7 30 -1.1 -20 -28.9 -70 -56.7
79 26.1 29 -1.7 -21 -29.4 -71 -57.2
78 25.6 28 -2.2 -22 -30.0 -72 -57.8
77 25.0 27 -2.8 -23 -30.6 -73 -58.3
76 24.4 26 -3.3 -24 -31.1 -74 -58.9
Knots to MPH or Meters/Sec Conversion
Knots MPH m/sec Knots MPH m/sec Knots MPH m/sec Knots MPH m/sec
1 1.2 0.515 21 24.2 10.8 41 47.2 21.1 61 70.2 31.4
2 2.3 1.0 22 25.3 11.3 42 48.3 21.6 62 71.3 31.9
3 3.5 1.5 23 26.5 11.8 43 49.5 22.1 63 72.5 32.4
4 4.6 2.1 24 27.6 12.4 44 50.6 22.7 64 73.7 32.9
5 5.8 2.6 25 28.8 12.9 45 51.8 23.2 65 74.8 33.5
6 6.9 3.1 26 29.9 13.4 46 52.9 23.7 66 76.0 34.0
7 8.1 3.6 27 31.1 13.9 47 54.1 24.2 67 77.1 34.5
8 9.2 4.1 28 32.2 14.4 48 55.2 24.7 68 78.3 35.0
9 10.4 4.6 29 33.4 14.9 49 56.4 25.2 69 79.4 35.5
10 11.5 5.1 30 34.5 15.4 50 57.5 25.7 70 80.6 36.0
11 12.7 5.7 31 35.7 16.0 51 58.7 26.3 71 81.7 36.6
12 13.8 6.2 32 36.8 16.5 52 59.8 26.8 72 82.9 37.1
13 15.0 6.7 33 38.0 17.0 53 61.0 27.3 73 84.0 37.6
14 16.1 7.2 34 39.1 17.5 54 62.1 27.8 74 85.2 38.1
15 17.3 7.7 35 40.3 18.0 55 63.3 28.3 75 86.3 38.6
16 18.4 8.2 36 41.4 18.5 56 64.4 28.8 76 87.5 39.1
17 19.6 8.8 37 42.6 19.0 57 65.6 29.3 77 88.6 39.6
18 20.7 9.3 38 43.7 19.6 58 66.7 29.9 78 89.8 40.2
19 21.9 9.8 39 44.9 20.1 59 67.9 30.4 79 90.9 40.7
20 23.0 10.3 40 46.0 20.6 60 69.0 30.9 80 92.1 41.2
Knots MPH m/sec Enter Wind -Kts 100 Kts =
81 93.2 41.7 115.1 MPH
82 94.4 42.2 51.48 m/sec
83 95.5 42.7
84 96.7 43.2
85 97.8 43.8 RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
86 99.0 44.3
87 100.1 44.8
88 101.3 45.3
89 102.4 45.8
90 103.6 46.3
91 104.7 46.8
92 105.9 47.4
93 107.0 47.9
94 108.2 48.4
95 109.3 48.9
96 110.5 49.4
97 111.6 49.9
98 112.8 50.4
99 113.9 51.0
100 115.1 51.5
Meters/Sec to Knots or MPH Conversion
m/secknotsmph m/secknotsmph m/secknots mph m/secknots mph m/sec
1 1.9 2.2 21 40.8 47.0 41 79.6 91.7 61 118.5 136.5 81
2 3.9 4.5 22 42.7 49.2 42 81.6 94.0 62 120.4 138.7 82
3 5.8 6.7 23 44.7 51.4 43 83.5 96.2 63 122.4 140.9 83
4 7.8 8.9 24 46.6 53.7 44 85.5 98.4 64 124.3 143.2 84
5 9.7 11.2 25 48.6 55.9 45 87.4 100.7 65 126.3 145.4 85
6 11.7 13.4 26 50.5 58.2 46 89.4 102.9 66 128.2 147.6 86
7 13.6 15.7 27 52.4 60.4 47 91.3 105.1 67 130.2 149.9 87
8 15.5 17.9 28 54.4 62.6 48 93.2 107.4 68 132.1 152.1 88
9 17.5 20.1 29 56.3 64.9 49 95.2 109.6 69 134.0 154.3 89
10 19.4 22.4 30 58.3 67.1 50 97.1 111.8 70 136.0 156.6 90
11 21.4 24.6 31 60.2 69.3 51 99.1 114.1 71 137.9 158.8 91
12 23.3 26.8 32 62.2 71.6 52 101.0 116.3 72 139.9 161.1 92
13 25.3 29.1 33 64.1 73.8 53 103.0 118.6 73 141.8 163.3 93
14 27.2 31.3 34 66.0 76.1 54 104.9 120.8 74 143.7 165.5 94
15 29.1 33.6 35 68.0 78.3 55 106.8 123.0 75 145.7 167.8 95
16 31.1 35.8 36 69.9 80.5 56 108.8 125.3 76 147.6 170.0 96
17 33.0 38.0 37 71.9 82.8 57 110.7 127.5 77 149.6 172.2 97
18 35.0 40.3 38 73.8 85.0 58 112.7 129.7 78 151.5 174.5 98
19 36.9 42.5 39 75.8 87.2 59 114.6 132.0 79 153.5 176.7 99
20 38.9 44.7 40 77.7 89.5 60 116.6 134.2 80 155.4 179.0 100
knots mph Enter Wind -Kts 100 m/sec
157.3 181.2 223.7 mph
159.3 183.4 194.3 knots
161.2 185.7
163.2 187.9 RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
165.1 190.1
167.1 192.4
169.0 194.6
170.9 196.9
172.9 199.1
174.8 201.3
176.8 203.6
178.7 205.8
180.7 208.0
182.6 210.3
184.5 212.5
186.5 214.7
188.4 217.0
190.4 219.2
192.3 221.5
194.3 223.7
MPH to Knots or Meters/Sec Conversion
MPH Knots m/sec MPH Knots m/sec MPH Knots m/sec MPH Knots m/sec
1 0.9 0.4 21 18.2 9.4 41 35.6 18.3 61 53.0 27.3
2 1.7 0.9 22 19.1 9.8 42 36.5 18.8 62 53.9 27.7
3 2.6 1.3 23 20.0 10.3 43 37.4 19.2 63 54.7 28.2
4 3.5 1.8 24 20.9 10.7 44 38.2 19.7 64 55.6 28.6
5 4.3 2.2 25 21.7 11.2 45 39.1 20.1 65 56.5 29.1
6 5.2 2.7 26 22.6 11.6 46 40.0 20.6 66 57.4 29.5
7 6.1 3.1 27 23.5 12.1 47 40.8 21.0 67 58.2 30.0
8 7.0 3.6 28 24.3 12.5 48 41.7 21.5 68 59.1 30.4
9 7.8 4.0 29 25.2 13.0 49 42.6 21.9 69 60.0 30.8
10 8.7 4.5 30 26.1 13.4 50 43.4 22.4 70 60.8 31.3
11 9.6 4.9 31 26.9 13.9 51 44.3 22.8 71 61.7 31.7
12 10.4 5.4 32 27.8 14.3 52 45.2 23.2 72 62.6 32.2
13 11.3 5.8 33 28.7 14.8 53 46.1 23.7 73 63.4 32.6
14 12.2 6.3 34 29.5 15.2 54 46.9 24.1 74 64.3 33.1
15 13.0 6.7 35 30.4 15.6 55 47.8 24.6 75 65.2 33.5
16 13.9 7.2 36 31.3 16.1 56 48.7 25.0 76 66.0 34.0
17 14.8 7.6 37 32.2 16.5 57 49.5 25.5 77 66.9 34.4
18 15.6 8.0 38 33.0 17.0 58 50.4 25.9 78 67.8 34.9
19 16.5 8.5 39 33.9 17.4 59 51.3 26.4 79 68.6 35.3
20 17.4 8.9 40 34.8 17.9 60 52.1 26.8 80 69.5 35.8
MPH Knots m/sec Enter Wind -MPH 4 MPH =
81 70.4 36.2 3.5 Kts
82 71.3 36.7 1.79 M/sec
83 72.1 37.1
84 73.0 37.6 RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
85 73.9 38.0
86 74.7 38.4
87 75.6 38.9
88 76.5 39.3
89 77.3 39.8
90 78.2 40.2
91 79.1 40.7
92 79.9 41.1
93 80.8 41.6
94 81.7 42.0
95 82.6 42.5
96 83.4 42.9
97 84.3 43.4
98 85.2 43.8
99 86.0 44.3
100 86.9 44.7
Inches Hg to Millibars Conversion
In Hg Mb In Hg Mb In Hg Mb In Hg Mb Enter Pres -In Hg
29.00 982.06 29.50 998.99 30.00 1015.92 30.50 1032.85
29.01 982.39 29.51 999.33 30.01 1016.26 30.51 1033.19
29.02 982.73 29.52 999.67 30.02 1016.60 30.52 1033.53
29.03 983.07 29.53 1000.00 30.03 1016.94 30.53 1033.87
29.04 983.41 29.54 1000.34 30.04 1017.27 30.54 1034.21
29.05 983.75 29.55 1000.68 30.05 1017.61 30.55 1034.55
29.06 984.09 29.56 1001.02 30.06 1017.95 30.56 1034.88
29.07 984.43 29.57 1001.36 30.07 1018.29 30.57 1035.22
29.08 984.77 29.58 1001.70 30.08 1018.63 30.58 1035.56
29.09 985.10 29.59 1002.04 30.09 1018.97 30.59 1035.90
29.10 985.44 29.60 1002.37 30.10 1019.31 30.60 1036.24
29.11 985.78 29.61 1002.71 30.11 1019.65 30.61 1036.58
29.12 986.12 29.62 1003.05 30.12 1019.98 30.62 1036.92
29.13 986.46 29.63 1003.39 30.13 1020.32 30.63 1037.25
29.14 986.80 29.64 1003.73 30.14 1020.66 30.64 1037.59
29.15 987.14 29.65 1004.07 30.15 1021.00 30.65 1037.93
29.16 987.47 29.66 1004.41 30.16 1021.34 30.66 1038.27
29.17 987.81 29.67 1004.74 30.17 1021.68 30.67 1038.61
29.18 988.15 29.68 1005.08 30.18 1022.02 30.68 1038.95
29.19 988.49 29.69 1005.42 30.19 1022.35 30.69 1039.29
29.20 988.83 29.70 1005.76 30.20 1022.69 30.70 1039.62
29.21 989.17 29.71 1006.10 30.21 1023.03 30.71 1039.96
29.22 989.51 29.72 1006.44 30.22 1023.37 30.72 1040.30
29.23 989.84 29.73 1006.78 30.23 1023.71 30.73 1040.64
29.24 990.18 29.74 1007.12 30.24 1024.05 30.74 1040.98
29.25 990.52 29.75 1007.45 30.25 1024.39 30.75 1041.32
29.26 990.86 29.76 1007.79 30.26 1024.72 30.76 1041.66
29.27 991.20 29.77 1008.13 30.27 1025.06 30.77 1042.00
29.28 991.54 29.78 1008.47 30.28 1025.40 30.78 1042.33
29.29 991.88 29.79 1008.81 30.29 1025.74 30.79 1042.67
29.30 992.22 29.80 1009.15 30.30 1026.08 30.80 1043.01
29.31 992.55 29.81 1009.49 30.31 1026.42 30.81 1043.35
29.32 992.89 29.82 1009.82 30.32 1026.76 30.82 1043.69
29.33 993.23 29.83 1010.16 30.33 1027.10 30.83 1044.03
29.34 993.57 29.84 1010.50 30.34 1027.43 30.84 1044.37
29.35 993.91 29.85 1010.84 30.35 1027.77 30.85 1044.70
29.36 994.25 29.86 1011.18 30.36 1028.11 30.86 1045.04
29.37 994.59 29.87 1011.52 30.37 1028.45 30.87 1045.38
29.38 994.92 29.88 1011.86 30.38 1028.79 30.88 1045.72
29.39 995.26 29.89 1012.19 30.39 1029.13 30.89 1046.06
29.40 995.60 29.90 1012.53 30.40 1029.47 30.90 1046.40
29.41 995.94 29.91 1012.87 30.41 1029.80 30.91 1046.74
29.42 996.28 29.92 1013.21 30.42 1030.14 30.92 1047.07
29.43 996.62 29.93 1013.55 30.43 1030.48 30.93 1047.41
29.44 996.96 29.94 1013.89 30.44 1030.82 30.94 1047.75
29.45 997.29 29.95 1014.23 30.45 1031.16 30.95 1048.09
29.46 997.63 29.96 1014.57 30.46 1031.50 30.96 1048.43
29.47 997.97 29.97 1014.90 30.47 1031.84 30.97 1048.77
29.48 998.31 29.98 1015.24 30.48 1032.17 30.98 1049.11
29.49 998.65 29.99 1015.58 30.49 1032.51 30.99 1049.45
Enter Pres -In Hg 30.50 in Hg =
1032.85 Mb

RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS


Millibars to Inches Hg Conversion
Mb In Hg Mb In Hg Mb In Hg Mb In Hg Enter Pres -Mb
980.00 28.94 1000.00 29.53 1020.00 30.12 1040.00 30.71
980.33 28.95 1000.33 29.54 1020.33 30.13 1040.33 30.72
980.67 28.96 1000.67 29.55 1020.67 30.14 1040.67 30.73
981.00 28.97 1001.00 29.56 1021.00 30.15 1041.00 30.74
981.33 28.98 1001.33 29.57 1021.33 30.16 1041.33 30.75
981.67 28.99 1001.67 29.58 1021.67 30.17 1041.67 30.76
982.00 29.00 1002.00 29.59 1022.00 30.18 1042.00 30.77
982.33 29.01 1002.33 29.60 1022.33 30.19 1042.33 30.78
982.67 29.02 1002.67 29.61 1022.67 30.20 1042.67 30.79
983.00 29.03 1003.00 29.62 1023.00 30.21 1043.00 30.80
983.33 29.04 1003.33 29.63 1023.33 30.22 1043.33 30.81
983.67 29.05 1003.67 29.64 1023.67 30.23 1043.67 30.82
984.00 29.06 1004.00 29.65 1024.00 30.24 1044.00 30.83
984.33 29.07 1004.33 29.66 1024.33 30.25 1044.33 30.84
984.67 29.08 1004.67 29.67 1024.67 30.26 1044.67 30.85
985.00 29.09 1005.00 29.68 1025.00 30.27 1045.00 30.86
985.33 29.10 1005.33 29.69 1025.33 30.28 1045.33 30.87
985.67 29.11 1005.67 29.70 1025.67 30.29 1045.67 30.88
986.00 29.12 1006.00 29.71 1026.00 30.30 1046.00 30.89
986.33 29.13 1006.33 29.72 1026.33 30.31 1046.33 30.90
986.67 29.14 1006.67 29.73 1026.67 30.32 1046.67 30.91
987.00 29.15 1007.00 29.74 1027.00 30.33 1047.00 30.92
987.33 29.16 1007.33 29.75 1027.33 30.34 1047.33 30.93
987.67 29.17 1007.67 29.76 1027.67 30.35 1047.67 30.94
988.00 29.18 1008.00 29.77 1028.00 30.36 1048.00 30.95
988.33 29.19 1008.33 29.78 1028.33 30.37 1048.33 30.96
988.67 29.20 1008.67 29.79 1028.67 30.38 1048.67 30.97
989.00 29.21 1009.00 29.80 1029.00 30.39 1049.00 30.98
989.33 29.21 1009.33 29.81 1029.33 30.40 1049.33 30.99
989.67 29.22 1009.67 29.82 1029.67 30.41 1049.67 31.00
990.00 29.23 1010.00 29.83 1030.00 30.42 1050.00 31.01
990.33 29.24 1010.33 29.84 1030.33 30.43 1050.33 31.02
990.67 29.25 1010.67 29.84 1030.67 30.44 1050.67 31.03
991.00 29.26 1011.00 29.85 1031.00 30.45 1051.00 31.04
991.33 29.27 1011.33 29.86 1031.33 30.46 1051.33 31.05
991.67 29.28 1011.67 29.87 1031.67 30.46 1051.67 31.06
992.00 29.29 1012.00 29.88 1032.00 30.47 1052.00 31.07
992.33 29.30 1012.33 29.89 1032.33 30.48 1052.33 31.08
992.67 29.31 1012.67 29.90 1032.67 30.49 1052.67 31.09
993.00 29.32 1013.00 29.91 1033.00 30.50 1053.00 31.09
993.33 29.33 1013.33 29.92 1033.33 30.51 1053.33 31.10
993.67 29.34 1013.67 29.93 1033.67 30.52 1053.67 31.11
994.00 29.35 1014.00 29.94 1034.00 30.53 1054.00 31.12
994.33 29.36 1014.33 29.95 1034.33 30.54 1054.33 31.13
994.67 29.37 1014.67 29.96 1034.67 30.55 1054.67 31.14
995.00 29.38 1015.00 29.97 1035.00 30.56 1055.00 31.15
995.33 29.39 1015.33 29.98 1035.33 30.57 1055.33 31.16
995.67 29.40 1015.67 29.99 1035.67 30.58 1055.67 31.17
996.00 29.41 1016.00 30.00 1036.00 30.59 1056.00 31.18
996.33 29.42 1016.33 30.01 1036.33 30.60 1056.33 31.19
996.67 29.43 1016.67 30.02 1036.67 30.61 1056.67 31.20
997.00 29.44 1017.00 30.03 1037.00 30.62 1057.00 31.21
997.33 29.45 1017.33 30.04 1037.33 30.63 1057.33 31.22
997.67 29.46 1017.67 30.05 1037.67 30.64 1057.67 31.23
998.00 29.47 1018.00 30.06 1038.00 30.65 1058.00 31.24
998.33 29.48 1018.33 30.07 1038.33 30.66 1058.33 31.25
998.67 29.49 1018.67 30.08 1038.67 30.67 1058.67 31.26
999.00 29.50 1019.00 30.09 1039.00 30.68 1059.00 31.27
999.33 29.51 1019.33 30.10 1039.33 30.69 1059.33 31.28
999.67 29.52 1019.67 30.11 1039.67 30.70 1059.67 31.29
Enter Pres -Mb 1040.00 Mb =
30.71 in Hg

RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS


"New" Wind-Chill Chart
Temperature (F)
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15
5 36 31 25 19 13 7 1 -5 -11 -16 -22 -28
10 34 27 21 15 9 3 -4 -10 -16 -22 -28 -35
15 32 25 19 13 6 0 -7 -13 -19 -26 -32 -39
Wind 20 30 24 17 11 4 -2 -9 -15 -22 -29 -35 -42
Speed 25 29 23 16 9 3 -4 -11 -17 -24 -31 -37 -44
(MPH) 30 28 22 15 8 1 -5 -12 -19 -26 -33 -39 -46
35 28 21 14 7 0 -7 -14 -21 -27 -34 -41 -48
40 27 20 13 6 -1 -8 -15 -22 -29 -36 -43 -50
45 26 19 12 5 -2 -9 -16 -23 -30 -37 -44 -51
50 26 19 12 4 -3 -10 -17 -24 -31 -38 -45 -52
55 25 18 11 4 -3 -11 -18 -25 -32 -39 -46 -54
60 25 17 10 3 -4 -11 -19 -26 -33 -40 -48 -55

"New" Wind-Chill Formula: T(wc) = 35.74 + 0.6215T - 35.75(V 0.16) + 0.4275T(V0.16)

"Old" Wind-Chill Chart


Temperature (F)
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15
5 37 32 27 22 16 11 6 1 -5 -10 -15 -20
10 28 22 16 10 4 -2 -9 -15 -21 -27 -33 -39
15 22 16 9 2 -4 -11 -18 -25 -31 -38 -45 -51
Wind 20 18 11 4 -3 -10 -17 -24 -31 -39 -46 -53 -60
Speed 25 15 8 1 -7 -14 -22 -29 -36 -44 -51 -59 -66
(MPH) 30 13 6 -2 -10 -17 -25 -32 -40 -48 -55 -63 -71
35 12 4 -4 -12 -19 -27 -35 -43 -51 -58 -66 -74
40 10 3 -5 -13 -21 -29 -37 -45 -53 -60 -68 -76
45 10 2 -6 -14 -22 -30 -38 -46 -54 -62 -70 -78

"Old" Wind-Chill Formula: T(wc) = 0.0817(3.71V**0.5 + 5.81 -0.25V)(T-91.4) + 91.4


-20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 Enter Wind -MPH 30 MPH
-34 -40 -46 -52 -57 -63 5 Enter Temp -Deg F 0 F=
-41 -47 -53 -59 -66 -72 10 -26 Wind Chill
-45 -51 -58 -64 -71 -77 15
-48 -55 -61 -68 -74 -81 20 Wind RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
-51 -58 -64 -71 -78 -84 25 Speed
-53 -60 -67 -73 -80 -87 30 (MPH)
-55 -62 -69 -76 -82 -89 35
-57 -64 -71 -78 -84 -91 40
-58 -65 -72 -79 -86 -93 45
-60 -67 -74 -81 -88 -95 50
-61 -68 -75 -82 -89 -97 55
-62 -69 -76 -84 -91 -98 60

0.4275T(V0.16)

-20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45


-26 -31 -36 -41 -47 -52 5
-46 -52 -58 -64 -70 -76 10
-58 -65 -72 -78 -85 -92 15
-67 -74 -81 -88 -95 -103 20 Wind
-73 -81 -88 -96 -103 -110 25 Speed
-78 -86 -93 -101 -109 -116 30 (MPH)
-82 -89 -97 -105 -113 -120 35
-84 -92 -100 -108 -116 -123 40
-86 -94 -101 -109 -117 -125 45

V)(T-91.4) + 91.4
Wind Chill
Heat Index
Relative Humidity (%)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
140 121
135 118 127
Temp 130 115 122 131
(F) 125 112 117 124 132 141
120 108 112 118 124 131 139 148
115 104 107 111 116 122 128 135 143 151
110 100 102 105 109 113 118 124 130 136 143 151
105 95 97 99 102 105 109 113 118 123 128 134 140
100 91 92 94 96 98 101 104 107 111 115 119 124
95 86 87 89 90 92 94 96 98 100 103 106 109
90 82 83 84 85 86 87 89 90 92 94 96 98
85 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88
80 72 74 75 76 77 78 79 79 80 80 81 82
75 67 69 71 72 74 75 75 76 77 77 77 77
70 63 65 68 69 71 72 73 74 75 75 76 76

>130 Extremely Hot


105-130 Very Hot
90-105 Hot
80-90 Very Warm
60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

Enter Relative Humidty -% 60 % RH


Enter Temp -Deg F 99 F
125 Heat Index

RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

147
129 134 140
113 117 121 126 130
100 102 105 108 111 115 119
90 91 93 94 96 98 101 103 106
82 83 84 84 85 86 88 89 90
78 78 78 78 78 79 79 80 80
76 76 76 76 76 76 75 75 75
Standard Atmosphere (<36,000')
Elev Deg C P mb Deg C Elev P mb P mb Elev Deg C
0 15.0 1013 15 0 1013 1010 89 15 RETURN TO TABLE O
500 14.0 995 14 505 995 1000 364 14
1,000 13.0 977 13 1,009 977 990 640 14
1,500 12.0 959 12 1,514 959 980 920 13
2,000 11.0 942 11 2,018 941 970 1,201 13
2,500 10.0 925 10 2,523 924 960 1,485 12
3,000 9.1 908 9 3,028 907 950 1,771 11
3,500 8.1 891 8 3,532 890 940 2,060 11
4,000 7.1 875 7 4,037 874 930 2,351 10
4,500 6.1 859 6 4,542 858 920 2,645 10
5,000 5.1 843 5 5,046 841 910 2,941 9
5,500 4.1 827 4 5,551 826 900 3,241 9
6,000 3.1 812 3 6,055 810 890 3,542 8
6,500 2.1 797 2 6,560 795 880 3,847 7
7,000 1.1 782 1 7,065 780 870 4,154 7
7,500 0.1 767 0 7,569 765 860 4,464 6
8,000 -0.9 752 -1 8,074 750 850 4,777 6
8,500 -1.8 738 -2 8,578 736 840 5,093 5
9,000 -2.8 724 -3 9,083 722 830 5,413 4
9,500 -3.8 710 -4 9,588 708 820 5,735 4
10,000 -4.8 697 -5 10,092 694 810 6,060 3
10,500 -5.8 683 -6 10,597 681 800 6,389 2
11,000 -6.8 670 -7 11,102 667 790 6,721 2
11,500 -7.8 657 -8 11,606 654 780 7,057 1
12,000 -8.8 644 -9 12,111 641 770 7,396 0
12,500 -9.8 632 -10 12,615 629 760 7,739 0
13,000 -10.8 619 -11 13,120 616 750 8,085 -1
13,500 -11.8 607 -12 13,625 604 740 8,435 -2
14,000 -12.7 595 -13 14,129 592 730 8,789 -2
14,500 -13.7 583 -14 14,634 580 720 9,147 -3
15,000 -14.7 572 -15 15,138 568 710 9,509 -4
15,500 -15.7 560 -16 15,643 557 700 9,875 -5
16,000 -16.7 549 -17 16,148 546 690 10,245 -5
16,500 -17.7 538 -18 16,652 534 680 10,620 -6
17,000 -18.7 527 -19 17,157 524 670 10,999 -7
17,500 -19.7 516 -20 17,662 513 660 11,383 -8
18,000 -20.7 506 -21 18,166 502 650 11,771 -8
18,500 -21.7 495 -22 18,671 492 640 12,164 -9
19,000 -22.7 485 -23 19,175 482 630 12,563 -10
19,500 -23.6 475 -24 19,680 472 620 12,966 -11
20,000 -24.6 465 -25 20,185 462 610 13,375 -12
20,500 -25.6 456 -26 20,689 452 600 13,790 -12
21,000 -26.6 446 -27 21,194 442 590 14,210 -13
21,500 -27.6 437 -28 21,698 433 580 14,635 -14
22,000 -28.6 428 -29 22,203 424 570 15,067 -15
22,500 -29.6 419 -30 22,708 415 560 15,505 -16
23,000 -30.6 410 -31 23,212 406 550 15,949 -17
23,500 -31.6 401 -32 23,717 397 540 16,400 -18
24,000 -32.6 392 -33 24,222 389 530 16,858 -18
24,500 -33.6 384 -34 24,726 380 520 17,323 -19
25,000 -34.5 376 -35 25,231 372 510 17,795 -20
25,500 -35.5 368 -36 25,735 364 500 18,274 -21
26,000 -36.5 360 -37 26,240 356 490 18,762 -22
26,500 -37.5 352 -38 26,745 348 480 19,257 -23
27,000 -38.5 344 -39 27,249 340 470 19,761 -24
27,500 -39.5 336 -40 27,754 333 460 20,274 -25
28,000 -40.5 329 -41 28,258 325 450 20,796 -26
28,500 -41.5 322 -42 28,763 318 440 21,327 -27
29,000 -42.5 315 -43 29,268 311 430 21,868 -28
29,500 -43.5 307 -44 29,772 304 420 22,420 -29
30,000 -44.5 301 -45 30,277 297 410 22,982 -31
30,500 -45.4 294 -46 30,782 290 400 23,555 -32
31,000 -46.4 287 -47 31,286 283 390 24,141 -33
31,500 -47.4 281 -48 31,791 277 380 24,738 -34
32,000 -48.4 274 -49 32,295 270 370 25,348 -35
32,500 -49.4 268 -50 32,800 264 360 25,972 -36
33,000 -50.4 262 -51 33,305 258 350 26,610 -38
33,500 -51.4 256 -52 33,809 252 340 27,263 -39
34,000 -52.4 250 -53 34,314 246 330 27,932 -40
34,500 -53.4 244 -54 34,818 240 320 28,617 -42
35,000 -54.4 238 -55 35,323 234 310 29,320 -43
35,500 -55.4 232 -56 35,828 229 300 30,042 -45

121.92 14.8 1009


RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
Relative Humidity
Dew Point (F)
60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74
60 100
61 97 100
62 93 97 100 Enter Dry Bulb
63 90 93 97 100 Enter Dew Pt
64 87 90 93 97 100
Dry 65 84 87 90 93 97 100
Bulb 66 81 84 87 90 93 97 100 RETURN TO TABL
(F) 67 78 81 84 87 90 93 97 100
68 76 78 81 84 87 90 93 97 100
69 73 76 78 81 84 87 90 93 97 100
70 71 73 76 78 81 84 87 90 93 97 100
71 68 71 73 76 79 81 84 87 90 93 97 100
72 66 68 71 73 76 79 81 84 87 90 93 97 100
73 64 66 68 71 73 76 79 81 84 87 90 93 97 100
74 62 64 66 69 71 74 76 79 82 84 87 90 93 97 100
75 60 62 64 66 69 71 74 76 79 82 84 87 90 94 97
76 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 74 76 79 82 85 87 90 94
77 56 58 60 62 64 67 69 71 74 76 79 82 85 88 90
78 54 56 58 60 62 64 67 69 71 74 76 79 82 85 88
79 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 67 69 72 74 77 79 82 85
80 51 52 54 56 58 60 62 65 67 69 72 74 77 79 82
81 49 51 53 54 56 58 60 63 65 67 69 72 74 77 79
82 47 49 51 53 55 56 58 61 63 65 67 69 72 74 77
83 46 48 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 70 72 74
84 44 46 48 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 70 72
85 43 45 46 48 50 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 70
86 42 43 45 46 48 50 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 68
87 40 42 43 45 46 48 50 52 53 55 57 59 61 63 65
88 39 41 42 43 45 47 48 50 52 54 55 57 59 61 63
89 38 39 41 42 44 45 47 48 50 52 54 56 57 59 61
90 37 38 39 41 42 44 45 47 49 50 52 54 56 58 60
91 36 37 38 40 41 42 44 45 47 49 50 52 54 56 58
92 34 36 37 38 40 41 43 44 46 47 49 51 52 54 56
93 33 35 36 37 39 40 41 43 44 46 47 49 51 52 54
94 32 34 35 36 37 39 40 41 43 44 46 48 49 51 53
95 31 33 34 35 36 37 39 40 42 43 45 46 48 49 51
96 30 32 33 34 35 36 38 39 40 42 43 45 46 48 49
97 30 31 32 33 34 35 37 38 39 40 42 43 45 46 48
98 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 37 38 39 41 42 43 45 47
99 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 36 37 38 39 41 42 44 45
100 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 35 36 37 38 40 41 42 44
101 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 35 36 37 38 40 41 42
102 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 33 34 35 36 37 39 40 41
103 25 26 26 27 28 29 30 32 33 34 35 36 37 39 40
104 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 38 39
105 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 38
75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93

Enter Dry Bulb 90 F


Enter Dew Pt 89 F
97 % RH

RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

100
97 100
94 97 100
91 94 97 100
88 91 94 97 100
85 88 91 94 97 100
82 85 88 91 94 97 100
79 82 85 88 91 94 97 100
77 80 82 85 88 91 94 97 100
74 77 80 82 85 88 91 94 97 100
72 75 77 80 82 85 88 91 94 97 100
70 72 75 77 80 82 85 88 91 94 97 100
68 70 72 75 77 80 82 85 88 91 94 97 100
66 68 70 72 75 77 80 83 85 88 91 94 97 100
64 66 68 70 73 75 77 80 83 85 88 91 94 97 100
62 64 66 68 70 73 75 77 80 83 85 88 91 94 97 100
60 62 64 66 68 70 73 75 78 80 83 85 88 91 94 97 100
58 60 62 64 66 68 70 73 75 78 80 83 85 88 91 94 97 100
56 58 60 62 64 66 68 71 73 75 78 80 83 86 88 91 94 97 100
54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 71 73 75 78 80 83 86 88 91 94 97
53 55 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 78 80 83 86 88 91 94
51 53 55 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 76 78 80 83 86 88 91
50 51 53 55 57 58 60 62 64 67 69 71 73 76 78 81 83 86 88
48 50 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 76 78 81 83 86
47 48 50 52 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 76 78 81 83
45 47 48 50 52 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 74 76 78 81
44 45 47 49 50 52 54 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 74 76 78
43 44 46 47 49 50 52 54 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 74 76
41 43 44 46 47 49 50 52 54 56 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 72 74
40 42 43 44 46 47 49 51 52 54 56 58 59 61 63 65 67 69 72
39 40 42 43 45 46 48 49 51 52 54 56 58 60 61 63 65 67 70
94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105

100
97 100
94 97 100
91 94 97 100
88 91 94 97 100
86 89 91 94 97 100
83 86 89 91 94 97 100
81 83 86 89 91 94 97 100
78 81 83 86 89 91 94 97 100
76 79 81 83 86 89 91 94 97 100
74 76 79 81 84 86 89 91 94 97 100
72 74 76 79 81 84 86 89 91 94 97 100
Miles to Kilometers or Naut.Miles
miles km n.mi miles km n.mi miles km n.mi miles km n.mi miles
1 1.6 0.9 21 33.8 18.2 41 66.0 35.6 61 98.2 53.0 81
2 3.2 1.7 22 35.4 19.1 42 67.6 36.5 62 99.8 53.8 82
3 4.8 2.6 23 37.0 20.0 43 69.2 37.3 63 101.4 54.7 83
4 6.4 3.5 24 38.6 20.8 44 70.8 38.2 64 103.0 55.6 84
5 8.0 4.3 25 40.2 21.7 45 72.4 39.1 65 104.6 56.4 85
6 9.7 5.2 26 41.8 22.6 46 74.0 39.9 66 106.2 57.3 86
7 11.3 6.1 27 43.5 23.4 47 75.6 40.8 67 107.8 58.2 87
8 12.9 6.9 28 45.1 24.3 48 77.2 41.7 68 109.4 59.1 88
9 14.5 7.8 29 46.7 25.2 49 78.9 42.6 69 111.0 59.9 89
10 16.1 8.7 30 48.3 26.1 50 80.5 43.4 70 112.7 60.8 90
11 17.7 9.6 31 49.9 26.9 51 82.1 44.3 71 114.3 61.7 91
12 19.3 10.4 32 51.5 27.8 52 83.7 45.2 72 115.9 62.5 92
13 20.9 11.3 33 53.1 28.7 53 85.3 46.0 73 117.5 63.4 93
14 22.5 12.2 34 54.7 29.5 54 86.9 46.9 74 119.1 64.3 94
15 24.1 13.0 35 56.3 30.4 55 88.5 47.8 75 120.7 65.1 95
16 25.7 13.9 36 57.9 31.3 56 90.1 48.6 76 122.3 66.0 96
17 27.4 14.8 37 59.5 32.1 57 91.7 49.5 77 123.9 66.9 97
18 29.0 15.6 38 61.2 33.0 58 93.3 50.4 78 125.5 67.7 98
19 30.6 16.5 39 62.8 33.9 59 95.0 51.2 79 127.1 68.6 99
20 32.2 17.4 40 64.4 34.7 60 96.6 52.1 80 128.7 69.5 100
km n.mi Enter Distance 100 miles
130.4 70.3 ### km
132.0 71.2 87 n.mi
133.6 72.1
135.2 72.9 RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
136.8 73.8
138.4 74.7
140.0 75.6
141.6 76.4
143.2 77.3
144.8 78.2
146.5 79.0
148.1 79.9
149.7 80.8
151.3 81.6
152.9 82.5
154.5 83.4
156.1 84.2
157.7 85.1
159.3 86.0
160.9 86.8
Kilometers to Miles or Nautical Miles
km mi n.mi km mi n.mi km mi n.mi km mi n.mi km mi n.mi
1 0.6 0.5 21 13.0 11.3 41 25.5 22.1 61 37.9 32.9 81 50.3 43.7
2 1.2 1.1 22 13.7 11.9 42 26.1 22.7 62 38.5 33.5 82 51.0 44.2
3 1.9 1.6 23 14.3 12.4 43 26.7 23.2 63 39.1 34.0 83 51.6 44.8
4 2.5 2.2 24 14.9 13.0 44 27.3 23.7 64 39.8 34.5 84 52.2 45.3
5 3.1 2.7 25 15.5 13.5 45 28.0 24.3 65 40.4 35.1 85 52.8 45.9
6 3.7 3.2 26 16.2 14.0 46 28.6 24.8 66 41.0 35.6 86 53.4 46.4
7 4.3 3.8 27 16.8 14.6 47 29.2 25.4 67 41.6 36.2 87 54.1 46.9
8 5.0 4.3 28 17.4 15.1 48 29.8 25.9 68 42.3 36.7 88 54.7 47.5
9 5.6 4.9 29 18.0 15.6 49 30.4 26.4 69 42.9 37.2 89 55.3 48.0
10 6.2 5.4 30 18.6 16.2 50 31.1 27.0 70 43.5 37.8 90 55.9 48.6
11 6.8 5.9 31 19.3 16.7 51 31.7 27.5 71 44.1 38.3 91 56.5 49.1
12 7.5 6.5 32 19.9 17.3 52 32.3 28.1 72 44.7 38.9 92 57.2 49.6
13 8.1 7.0 33 20.5 17.8 53 32.9 28.6 73 45.4 39.4 93 57.8 50.2
14 8.7 7.6 34 21.1 18.3 54 33.6 29.1 74 46.0 39.9 94 58.4 50.7
15 9.3 8.1 35 21.7 18.9 55 34.2 29.7 75 46.6 40.5 95 59.0 51.3
16 9.9 8.6 36 22.4 19.4 56 34.8 30.2 76 47.2 41.0 96 59.7 51.8
17 10.6 9.2 37 23.0 20.0 57 35.4 30.8 77 47.8 41.5 97 60.3 52.3
18 11.2 9.7 38 23.6 20.5 58 36.0 31.3 78 48.5 42.1 98 60.9 52.9
19 11.8 10.3 39 24.2 21.0 59 36.7 31.8 79 49.1 42.6 99 61.5 53.4
20 12.4 10.8 40 24.9 21.6 60 37.3 32.4 80 49.7 43.2 100 62.1 54.0
Enter Distance 100 km
62.1 miles
54 n.mi

RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS


Kilometers to Miles or Nautical Miles
n.mi mi km n.mi mi km n.mi mi km n.mi mi km n.mi mi
1 1.2 1.9 21 24.2 38.9 41 47.2 76.0 61 70.2 113.0 81 93.3
2 2.3 3.7 22 25.3 40.8 42 48.4 77.8 62 71.4 114.9 82 94.4
3 3.5 5.6 23 26.5 42.6 43 49.5 79.7 63 72.5 116.8 83 95.6
4 4.6 7.4 24 27.6 44.5 44 50.7 81.5 64 73.7 118.6 84 96.7
5 5.8 9.3 25 28.8 46.3 45 51.8 83.4 65 74.9 120.5 85 97.9
6 6.9 11.1 26 29.9 48.2 46 53.0 85.2 66 76.0 122.3 86 99.0
7 8.1 13.0 27 31.1 50.0 47 54.1 87.1 67 77.2 124.2 87 100.2
8 9.2 14.8 28 32.2 51.9 48 55.3 89.0 68 78.3 126.0 88 101.3
9 10.4 16.7 29 33.4 53.7 49 56.4 90.8 69 79.5 127.9 89 102.5
10 11.5 18.5 30 34.5 55.6 50 57.6 92.7 70 80.6 129.7 90 103.6
11 12.7 20.4 31 35.7 57.5 51 58.7 94.5 71 81.8 131.6 91 104.8
12 13.8 22.2 32 36.8 59.3 52 59.9 96.4 72 82.9 133.4 92 105.9
13 15.0 24.1 33 38.0 61.2 53 61.0 98.2 73 84.1 135.3 93 107.1
14 16.1 25.9 34 39.2 63.0 54 62.2 100.1 74 85.2 137.1 94 108.2
15 17.3 27.8 35 40.3 64.9 55 63.3 101.9 75 86.4 139.0 95 109.4
16 18.4 29.7 36 41.5 66.7 56 64.5 103.8 76 87.5 140.8 96 110.5
17 19.6 31.5 37 42.6 68.6 57 65.6 105.6 77 88.7 142.7 97 111.7
18 20.7 33.4 38 43.8 70.4 58 66.8 107.5 78 89.8 144.6 98 112.9
19 21.9 35.2 39 44.9 72.3 59 67.9 109.3 79 91.0 146.4 99 114.0
20 23.0 37.1 40 46.1 74.1 60 69.1 111.2 80 92.1 148.3 100 115.2
km Enter Distance 100 n.mi
150.1 115.2 mi
152.0 185.32 km
153.8
155.7 RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
157.5
159.4
161.2
163.1
164.9
166.8
168.6
170.5
172.4
174.2
176.1
177.9
179.8
181.6
183.5
185.3
Beaufort Wind Scale
Beaufort Speed
Force Description knots km/h mph
0 Calm Less than 1 Less than 1 Less than 1

1 Very Light 1-3 1-5 1-3

2 Light breeze 4-6 6-11 4-7

3 Gentle breeze 7-10 12-19 8-12

4 Moderate 11-16 20 - 29 13 - 18
breeze
5 Fresh breeze 17 - 21 30 - 39 19 - 24

6 Strong breeze 22 - 27 40 - 50 25 - 31

7 Near gale 28 - 33 51 - 61 32 - 38

8 Gale 34 - 40 62 - 74 39 - 46

9 Strong gale 41 - 47 75 - 87 47 - 54

10 Storm 48 - 55 88 - 101 55 - 63
11 Violent storm 56 - 63 102 - 117 64 - 73

12 Hurricane >64 >119 >74

RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS


Sea State Specification on land
Sea like a mirror Smoke rises vertically.

Ripples with appearance of Direction of wind shown by smoke drift but


scales, no form crests not by wind vanes.
Wavelets, small but pronounced. Wind felt on face , leaves rustle, ordinaryt
Crests with glassy appearance, wind vane moved by wind.
but do not break.
Large wavelets, crests begin to Leaves and small twigs in constant motion,
break. Glassy looking foam, wind extends white flag.
occasional white horses.
Small waves becoming longer, Wind raises dust and loose paper, small
frequent white horses. branches move.
Moderate waves of pronounced Small trees in leaf start to sway, crested
long form. Many whit horses, wavelets on inland waters.
some spray.
Some large waves, extensive Large branches in motion, whistling in
white foam crests, some spray. telegraph wires, umberellas used with
difficulty.
Sea heaped up, white foam from Whole trees in motion, inconvient to walk
breaking waves blowing in against wind.
streaks with the wind.
Moderately high and long waves. Twigs break from trees, difficult to walk.
Crests break into spin drift,
blowing foam in well marked
streaks.
High waves, dense foam streaks Slight structural damage occuers, chimney
in wind, wave crests topple, pots and slates removed.
tumble and roll over. Spray
reduces visability.
Very high waves with long Trees uprooted, considerable structural
overhanging crests. Dence damage occurs.
blowing foam, sea surface
appears white. Heavy tumbling of
sea, shock-like, poor visability.
Exceptionally high waves, Widespread damage.
sometimes concealing small and
medium sized ships. Sea
comletely covered with long
white patches of foam. Edges of
wave crests blown into froth .
Poor visability.

Air filled with foam and spray, Widespread damage.


sea white with driving spray,
visability.
Enhanced Fujita Tornado Scale
F-Scale Wind Speed
Number
F0 40-72 mph
F1 73-112 mph
F2 113-157 mph
F3 158-206 mph
F4 207-260 mph
F5 261-318 mph
F6 319-379 mph

Original Fujita Tornado Scale


F-Scale Intensity Phrase Wind Speed
Number

F0 Gale tornado 40-72 mph

F1 Moderate tornado 73-112 mph

F2 Significant tornado 113-157 mph

F3 Severe tornado 158-206 mph

F4 Devastating tornado 207-260 mph

F5 Incredible tornado 261-318 mph

F6 Inconceivable tornado 319-379 mph

RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS


Type of Damage Done

Some damage to chimneys; breaks branches off trees; pushes over shallow-rooted trees; damages
sign boards.
The lower limit is the beginning of hurricane wind speed; peels surface off roofs; mobile homes
pushed off foundations or overturned; moving autos pushed off the roads; attached garages may be
destroyed.
Considerable damage. Roofs torn off frame houses; mobile homes demolished; boxcars pushed over;
large trees snapped or uprooted; light object missiles generated.
Roof and some walls torn off well constructed houses; trains overturned; most trees in forest
uprooted
Well-constructed houses leveled; structures with weak foundations blown off some distance; cars
thrown and large missiles generated.
Strong frame houses lifted off foundations and carried considerable distances to disintegrate;
automobile sized missiles fly through the air in excess of 100 meters; trees debarked; steel re-
inforced concrete structures badly damaged.

These winds are very unlikely. The small area of damage they might produce would probably not be
recognizable along with the mess produced by F4 and F5 wind that would surround the F6 winds.
Missiles, such as cars and refrigerators would do serious secondary damage that could not be directly
identified as F6 damage. If this level is ever achieved, evidence for it might only be found in some
manner of ground swirl pattern, for it may never be identifiable through engineering studies
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
Category Wind Speeds Storm Surge

1 74-95 mph 4-5 ft above normal

2 96-110 mph 6-8 ft above normal

3 111-129 mph 9-12 ft above normal

4 131-156 mph 13-18 ft above normal

5 ≥157 mph > 18 above normal

RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS


Damage
No real damage to building structures. Damage primarily to unanchored mobile homes,
shrubbery, and trees. Some damage to poorly constructed signs. Also, some coastal road
flooding and minor pier damage.

Some roofing material, door, and window damage of buildings. Considerable damage to
shrubbery and trees with some trees blown down. Considerable damage to mobile homes,
poorly constructed signs, and piers. Coastal and low-lying escape routes flood 2-4 hours before
arrival of the hurricane center. Small craft in unprotected anchorages break moorings.

Some structural damage to small residences and utility buildings with a minor amount of
curtainwall failures. Damage to shrubbery and trees with foliage blown off trees and large tress
blown down. Mobile homes and poorly constructed signs are destroyed. Low-lying escape routes
are cut by rising water 3-5 hours before arrival of the hurricane center. Flooding near the coast
destroys smaller structures with larger structures damaged by battering of floating debris. Terrain
continuously lower than 5 ft above mean sea level may be flooded inland 8 miles or more.
Evacuation of low-lying residences with several blocks of the shoreline may be required.

More extensive curtainwall failures with some complete roof structure failures on small
residences. Shrubs, trees, and all signs are blown down. Complete destruction of mobile homes.
Extensive damage to doors and windows. Low-lying escape routes may be cut by rising water 3-
5 hours before arrival of the hurricane center. Major damage to lower floors of structures near
the shore. Terrain lower than 10 ft above sea level may be flooded requiring massive evacuation
of residential areas as far inland as 6 miles.

Complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings. Some complete building
failures with small utility buildings blown over or away. All shrubs, trees, and signs blown down.
Complete destructon of mobile homes. Severe and extensive window and door damage. Low-
lying escape routes are cut by rising water 3-5 hours before arrival of the hurricane center. Major
damage to lower floors of all structures located less than 15 ft above sea level and within 500
yards of the shoreline. Massive evacuation of residential areas on low ground within 5-10 miles
of the shoreline may be required.
Sunrise/Sunset Calculations *
User Inputs Calculations
Latitude Deg 37.00 degrees Sunrise 5:59 AM
Latitude Min 42.88 minutes Sunset 4:53 PM
Longitude Deg** 100.00 degrees Length of Day 10:53
Longitude Min** 33.00 minutes Azimuth of Sunrise 104.320
Date 23-Oct-19 Azimuth of Sunset 255.680
Alt of Sun at Noon 41.002
Declination of Sun -11.283
Equation of Time 15.544

* Adapted from: http://www.j-walk.com/ss/excel/files/suncalcs.htm


** Enter East Longitude as Negative
***add One Hour for Daylight Savings Time

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j 57.29577951
lo 105
lat_dec 37.71466667
long_dec 100.55
pd 5.095405071
tt1 5.408313477

60 Atlantic
75 Eastern
90 Central
105 Mountain
120 Pacific
135 Yukon
150 Alaska-Hawaii
165 Bering
Mountain S.T.***
Mountain S.T.***
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