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Lab Report #1: Tensile Testing Name: John Smith

Date Submitted: 12/07/08 Section #40: M 10-12


Instructor: Ms. Jane Doe

Group Members:

1. XXXX XXXXXXXX
2. XXXX XXXXXXXX
3. XXXX XXXXXXXX

Title: Tensile Testing of 1018 Cold Rolled Steel

Equipment: Tinius Olsen Electomatic 120 kips Universal Tester


Tinius Olsen Extensometer LS-20%-2B

Specimen: Plain Carbon 1018 Cold Rolled Steel

Abstract

Tensile test was performed on a standard 0.5” round specimen of 1018 cold
rolled steel. Extensometer was taken off when strain reached ~5.1%.
Experimental results show an elastic modulus of 29.6 Msi that is 1% lower
than the handbook value. The 0.2% offset yield strength, tensile strength,
%elongation to failure, and %reduction in area values are 76.3 ksi, 84.2 ksi,
22% and 31% respectively. Each of these values exceeds the minimum
specified for this grade of steel, and is thus acceptable. The fracture surface
shows cup and cone ductile failure as expected. Overall, the experiment was
a success yielding expected results.
Tensile Testing Data Sheet Name: ___John Smith__________

Group Members:
Date: 11/06/08__________
1. xxx xxxxx_______

Instructor: v gupta___________ 2. xxx xxxxxx___________

3. xxx xxxxx_________

Equipment: Tinius Olsen Electomatic 120 Kips


Tinius Olsen Extensometer, LS-20%-2B

Specimen: Standard, Round, Threaded

1018 cold rolled steel________

Initial Dimensions: L0 = 2.010”________________

D0 = 0.509”__________________

Extensometer taken OFF at: P = 12725 lb__________

ε = 5.1%___________

Maximum Load: Pmax = 17123 lb__________

Final Dimensions: Lf = 2.449”____________

Df = 0.424”_______________

Data Filename: vg_steel_110608_________

Sketch of Fractured Surfaces: see photo on last page


A B C D E F G H I J K
1 Material = 1018 Cold Rolled Steel
2
3 L0 D0 Df Lf A0 Af Pmax Em
4 Length Diameter Diameter Length Area Area Max Load Modulus
5 2.010 0.509 0.424 2.449 0.203 0.141 17123 2.959E+07
6 in in in in in2 in2 lb psi
7 Toughness
8 Modulus
9 1.770E+04
10 Corrected Data Engg. Stress-Strain True Stress-Strain 0.2% Offset Prop. Limit Area under the Curve
11 % lb in/in psi in/in psi psi psi in/in psi psi
12 Strain Load E Strain E Stress T Strain T Stress Stress Stress Width Height Area
13 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0 0.00E+00 0 0
14 4.69E-04 3.01E+01 4.69E-06 148 4.69E-06 148 139 4.69E-06 74 3.48E-04
15 5.65E-04 4.04E+01 5.65E-06 199 5.65E-06 199 167 9.59E-07 173 1.66E-04
613 1.98E-01 1.17E+04 1.98E-03 57716 1.98E-03 57830 58567 1.10E-05 57642 6.35E-01
614 1.98E-01 1.18E+04 1.98E-03 57853 1.98E-03 57967 58598 1.03E-06 57784 5.95E-02
615 1.99E-01 1.18E+04 1.99E-03 57986 1.99E-03 58101 58912 1.06E-05 57919 6.16E-01
616 2.00E-01 1.18E+04 2.00E-03 58166 2.00E-03 58283 43 59223 1.05E-05 58076 6.10E-01
617 2.00E-01 1.19E+04 2.00E-03 58284 2.00E-03 58401 61 59241 6.04E-07 58225 3.52E-02
618 2.00E-01 1.19E+04 2.00E-03 58419 2.00E-03 58536 61 59241 7.00E-09 58352 4.08E-04
619 2.01E-01 1.19E+04 2.01E-03 58558 2.01E-03 58676 291 59471 7.79E-06 58489 4.55E-01
620 2.02E-01 1.20E+04 2.02E-03 58759 2.02E-03 58877 548 59728 8.69E-06 58659 5.09E-01
660 2.32E-01 1.31E+04 2.32E-03 64205 2.32E-03 64354 9408 68588 7.80E-06 64128 5.00E-01
661 2.33E-01 1.31E+04 2.33E-03 64363 2.32E-03 64513 9670 68850 8.87E-06 64284 5.70E-01
662 2.34E-01 1.31E+04 2.34E-03 64475 2.33E-03 64626 9930 69110 8.77E-06 64419 5.65E-01
663 2.35E-01 1.31E+04 2.35E-03 64616 2.34E-03 64768 10215 69395 9.64E-06 64546 6.22E-01
664 2.35E-01 1.32E+04 2.35E-03 64779 2.35E-03 64932 10498 69678 9.56E-06 64698 6.19E-01
665 2.37E-01 1.32E+04 2.37E-03 64847 2.37E-03 65000 10938 1.48E-05 64813 9.62E-01
666 2.38E-01 1.32E+04 2.38E-03 65017 2.37E-03 65171 11176 8.05E-06 64932 5.23E-01
784 4.58E-01 1.54E+04 4.58E-03 75660 4.57E-03 76007 76344 2.45E-05 75601 1.85E+00
785 4.61E-01 1.54E+04 4.61E-03 75687 4.60E-03 76036 77281 3.17E-05 75674 2.40E+00
786 4.63E-01 1.54E+04 4.63E-03 75734 4.62E-03 76085 77836 1.88E-05 75710 1.42E+00
787 4.66E-01 1.54E+04 4.66E-03 75792 4.65E-03 76145 78617 2.64E-05 75763 2.00E+00
788 4.68E-01 1.54E+04 4.68E-03 75835 4.67E-03 76190 2.33E-05 75814 1.77E+00
789 4.70E-01 1.54E+04 4.70E-03 75902 4.69E-03 76259 2.41E-05 75868 1.83E+00
790 4.73E-01 1.55E+04 4.73E-03 75988 4.72E-03 76347 2.99E-05 75945 2.27E+00
1716 4.00E+00 1.68E+04 4.00E-02 82332 3.92E-02 85625 4.19E-05 82315 3.45E+00
1717 4.00E+00 1.67E+04 4.00E-02 82285 3.92E-02 85579 3.89E-05 82309 3.20E+00
1718 4.01E+00 1.68E+04 4.01E-02 82329 3.93E-02 85628 4.06E-05 82307 3.34E+00
1719 4.01E+00 1.67E+04 4.01E-02 82311 3.93E-02 85612 3.94E-05 82320 3.24E+00
1720 4.01E+00 1.68E+04 4.01E-02 82361 3.94E-02 85667 4.05E-05 82336 3.34E+00
1721 4.02E+00 1.68E+04 4.02E-02 82323 3.87E-05 82342 3.18E+00
1722 4.02E+00 1.68E+04 4.02E-02 82322 3.90E-05 82323 3.21E+00
1723 4.03E+00 1.68E+04 4.03E-02 82322 4.12E-05 82322 3.39E+00
1724 4.03E+00 1.67E+04 4.03E-02 82316 4.55E-05 82319 3.75E+00
2013 5.22E+00 1.66E+04 5.22E-02 81802 4.02E-05 81804 3.29E+00
2014 5.23E+00 1.67E+04 5.23E-02 81846 4.47E-05 81824 3.66E+00
2015 5.23E+00 1.66E+04 5.23E-02 81807 3.81E-05 81827 3.12E+00
2016 5.24E+00 1.67E+04 5.24E-02 81848 4.65E-05 81828 3.80E+00
2017 5.24E+00 1.66E+04 5.24E-02 81824 4.15E-05 81836 3.40E+00
2018 5.24E+00 1.66E+04 5.24E-02 81785 4.18E-05 81805 3.42E+00
2019 5.25E+00 1.66E+04 5.25E-02 81775 4.28E-05 81780 3.50E+00
2020 5.25E+00 1.66E+04 5.25E-02 81775 3.99E-05 81775 3.27E+00
2021 0.218 81775 1.66E-01 81775 1.36E+04
Stress-strain Curves

90000

80000

70000

60000

50000
Stress (psi)

E Stress
T Stress

40000

30000

20000

10000

0
0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
Strain (in/in)
Elastic Portion

70000

y = 2.959E+07x
2
60000 R = 9.996E-01

50000

40000
Engg Stress (psi)

30000

20000

10000

0
0.0000 0.0005 0.0010 0.0015 0.0020 0.0025
Engg Strain (in/in)
Yield Strength

90000

80000
YS=76344

70000

60000
PL=52780

50000
Engg Stress (psi)

40000

30000

20000

10000

0
0.0000 0.0005 0.0010 0.0015 0.0020 0.0025 0.0030 0.0035 0.0040 0.0045 0.0050
Engg Strain (in/in)
Appearance of Fracture Surfaces
Comments and Conclusions

1. Correcting the raw data: The raw data was corrected for initial slack by discarding
the first fifty data points, and reinitializing the beginning Load and Strain values by
364 lb and 0.00721% respectively.

2. Converting % Engineering Strain into in/in units: The % engineering strain values
were divided by 100 to obtain in/in units.

3. Calculating Engineering Stress: Engineering stress was obtained by dividing the load
value by the initial cross-section area = 0.203 in2.

4. True Strain and Stress: True strain and stress was calculated only up to the point
when necking occurs (i.e., at maximum load value = 17122 lb).

5. Elastic Modulus: Elastic modulus was found to be 29.59 Msi by fitting a straight line
to the initial linear portion of the engineering stress- strain curve. It is lower than the
handbook value of 30 Msi by 1%. This is experimentally acceptable (within 3%).

6. 0.2% Offset Yield Strength: 0.2% Offset Yield Strength was obtained by drawing a
line at strain=0.002 with a slope of 29.6 Msi on the engineering stress-strain plot
and finding its intersection with the curve. The yield strength was found to be 76.3
ksi, and is higher than the minimum specified value of 71 ksi.

7. Tensile Strength: Tensile strength = 84.2 ksi is the engineering stress at maximum
load value, and exceeds the minimum specified value of 84 ksi.

8. Ductility: % elongation to failure is the engineering strain at failure and was found to
be 22% where the % reduction in area was found to be 31%. Both values exceed the
nominally specified values.

9. True versus Engineering Stress-Strain Curves: True versus engineering stress curves
look as expected. After plastic deformation begins, the true curve deviates
substantially from the engineering curve.

10. Failure Surface: The fracture surface was “textbook” style cup and cone surface as is
expected in failure of round ductile specimens.

11. Modulus of Toughness: The modulus of toughness was found to be 17830 psi.
Substantial contribution is from plastic deformation in comparison to the modulus of
resilience of only 98 psi.

12. Overall: Overall, the experiment was a success yielding expected results.