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E x x E x E

x E x / E

E = {1 , 2} x 2 3x + 2 = 0 R

E = {n N|(k N)(n = 2k)}

E = {3, 7, 9, 11}

( ∃ k ∈ N )( n = 2 k ) } E = { 3

E = {1 ,

3 ,

5 ,

7 ,

}

E = {1 , 10 , 100 , 1000 ,

}

 

]0 , 1]

f : R −→ R

y f : R −→ R

A B

  ]0 , 1] f : R −→ R y f : R −→ R A

  ]0 , 1] f : R −→ R y f : R −→ R A

E ⊂ F E ⊂ F X x ∈ E x ∈ F ∀x, x
E ⊂ F
E ⊂ F
X x ∈ E x ∈ F
∀x,
x ∈ E =⇒ x ∈ F

R ∗ A = R + ; B = {x ∈ R|x 2 0} ;
R ∗ A = R + ; B = {x ∈ R|x 2 0} ;
R
A = R + ; B = {x ∈ R|x 2 0} ; C = {x ∈ R||x| > 1} ; D = ]−∞ ,
−1[ ; E = {x ∈ R|∀ > 0 , |x| < }

A ⊂ A A ⊂ B B ⊂ A =⇒ A = B A ⊂
A ⊂ A
A ⊂ B B ⊂ A =⇒ A = B
A ⊂ B ⇐⇒ B ⊂ A

A ⊂ A A ⊂ B B ⊂ A =⇒ A = B A ⊂ B

E = F ⇐⇒ (E F )

(F E) ⇐⇒ ∀x,

(x E ⇐⇒ x F )

1 1 A = n |n ∈ N ∗ B = n + 1 |n
1
1
A = n |n ∈ N ∗ B = n + 1 |n ∈ N
A = B

R (E); x 2 + 2x − 3 = 0
R (E); x 2 + 2x − 3 = 0

P ( E ) A ∈ P ( E ) ⇐⇒ A ⊂ E

P ( E ) A ∈ P ( E ) ⇐⇒ A ⊂ E
P ( E ) A ∈ P ( E ) ⇐⇒ A ⊂ E

P(E) A ∈ P(E) ⇐⇒ A E

P ( E ) A ∈ P ( E ) ⇐⇒ A ⊂ E

E = { x, y, z } P ( E ) = {∅ , {
E = { x, y, z } P ( E ) = {∅ , {

E = {x, y, z} P(E) = {∅, {x}, {y}, {z}, {x, y}, {x, z}, {y, z}, E}

A ⊂ B ⇐⇒ P(A) ⊂ P(B)
A ⊂ B ⇐⇒ P(A) ⊂ P(B)

A ⊂ B ⇐⇒ P(A) ⊂ P(B) A ∪ B x x ∈ E A ∪

A B x x E

A B = {x E|(x E)

(x B)}

A B x x E

A B = {x E|(x E)

(x B)}

x B

x B

 

A B x x E

x B

A B = {x E|(x E)

(x B)}

A B x x E

x B

A B = {x E|(x E)

(x B)}

A ∩ B = ∅

A B =

 

E = R ; A = {−1 ,

1} ; B = {x R||x| > 1} ; C = ]1 ,

1[ D = [1 ,

1]

 

A \ B x x ∈ A x ∈ B A \ B = {x

A \ B x x ∈ A x ∈ B A \ B = {x
A \ B x x ∈ A x
B
A \ B = {x ∈ E|(x ∈ A)
(x
∈ B)}
A B
A B = (A \ B) ∪ (B \ A)
E \ A A A c
{x ∈ E|(x ∈ A) (x ∈ B)} A B A B = (A \ B)

A c = {x E|(x E)

(x

A)}

P ( E )

P(E)

A, B, C ∈ P(E)

A, B, C ∈ P ( E ) A ∩ B = B ∩ A A

A B = B A

A B = B A

P ( E ) A ∩ B = B ∩ A A ∪ B = B

(A B) C = A (B C)

(A B) C = A (B C)

A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

A B = A B

B = A B

A

  A ∩ ∅ =

 

A ∪ ∅ = A

A B = ∅ ⇐⇒ A B

  A E = A

A E = E

 

A B = E ⇐⇒ B A

  A = B ⇐⇒ (A ⊂ B) (B ⊂ A)   
 A = B ⇐⇒ (A ⊂ B)
(B ⊂ A)
 
A ⊂ B ⇐⇒ B ⊂ A
(A ∪ B) ⊂ C ⇐⇒ (A ⊂ C)
(B ⊂ C)
 
A ⊂ (B ∩ C) ⇐⇒ (A ⊂ B)
(A ⊂ C)

  A A = ∅      A E = A
 A A = ∅
 
 
 A E = A
 
A ∅ = A
A B = B A
 
 
 A (B C) = A (B) C
 
A ∩ (B C) = (A ∩ B) (A ∩ C)

∅ = A  A B = B A      A (B

f f x y f = (x E)(!y F )f (x) = y f : E −→ F

x −→

f(x)

f

f

f

x E f (x) x f

y F x y = f (x) x y f

f

f

f : R −→ R

 
 

x −→

x 2

f

f

f

f

f : E −→ F

g : E −→

F

f g (x E) f (x) = g(x) f = g

 

f : E −→

F

f Γ = {(x ,

f (x))/x E} = {(x ,

y)/x E, y F }

f : E −→ F f Γ = { ( x , f ( x ))

f : E −→ F f Γ = { ( x , f ( x ))

f : E −→ F f ( A ) = { y ∈ F |∃
f : E −→ F f ( A ) = { y ∈ F |∃

f : E −→ F f (A) = {y F |∃x A y = f (x)} = {f (x)|x E}

|∃ x ∈ A y = f ( x ) } = { f ( x

f : E −→ F f − 1 ( B ) = { x ∈
f : E −→ F f − 1 ( B ) = { x ∈

f : E −→ F f 1 (B) = {x E|f(x) B}

 

f : E −→

F

 

f |A : A −→ F

 

x −→

f(x)

f : E −→

F

 

g : A −→

F

g |A = f

 

1

x , x

= 0

R R g(x) =

f : R −→ R

R

0

 

1

x −→

x

 

 

f : E −→

F

a, b E,

f (a) = f (b) =a = b

a, b E,

a

=

= b =f (a)

f (b)

a, b ∈ E, a = = b = ⇒ f ( a ) f (

f : E −→

F

(y F )(x E),

y = f (x)

( ∀ y ∈ F )( ∃ x ∈ E ) , y = f (

f : E −→

F

(y F )(!x E),

y = f (x)

f : E −→ F f 1 : F −→

E

∈ F )( ∃ ! x ∈ E ) , y = f ( x )