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Nippon Thompson Co., Ltd.

is a bearing
manufacturer that launched the technical
development of needle roller bearings for the
first time in Japan and is proud of the high
quality level and abundant varieties of its
products.
Needle roller bearings are bearings for
rotary motion that incorporate needle-
shaped thin rollers instead of ordinary
bearing balls or rollers. Compared with
other rolling bearings, they are small-sized
and lightweight but have a large load
capacity. They are widely used with high
reliability in the fields of automobiles,
industrial machinery, OA equipment, etc. as
resource-saving type bearings that make the
whole machine compact.

A1 A2
A
Characteristics
Characteristics
of Needle
of Needle
RollerRoller
Bearings
Bearings
Bearings can
Bearings
be classified
can be classified
into two main
into two
types,
main
namely
types,rolling
namelybearings
rolling and
bearings
sliding
and
bearings.
sliding bearings.
Rolling bearings
Rolling bearings
can be subdivided
can be subdivided
Needle Roller
further intofurther
NeedleBearings
Roller are
ball bearings
Bearings
into ball and
high-precision
bearings
roller and
are high-precision
bearings
rolling bearings
roller according
rolling with
bearings according
bearings
a lowwith
to the rolling
sectional
to the
a low height,
sectional
elements.
rolling elements.
incorporating
height, incorporating
needle needle
Classification
Classification
of bearings
of bearings B
rollers as rollers
the rolling
as the
element.
rollingThey
element.
haveThey
the following
have the features.
following features.

Deep grooveDeep
ball bearings
groove ball bearings C
MeritsMerits
of Rolling
of Rolling
Bearings
Bearings Merits Merits
of Needle
of Needle
Roller Bearings
Roller Bearings Radial ball
Angular contact
Radial ball
Angular
ball contact
bearingsball bearings
bearingsbearings Self-aligningSelf-aligning
ball bearingsball bearings
ComparedCompared
with sliding
withbearings,
sliding bearings,
rolling bearings
rolling bearings
ComparedCompared
with otherwith
rolling
other
bearings,
rolling bearings,
Needle Needle
D

Ball bearings

Ball bearings
have the following
have the merits:
following merits: Roller Bearings
Roller have
Bearings
the following
have the advantages:
following advantages: Others Others

Thrust ball bearings


Thrust ball
with
bearings
flat backwith
faceflat back face
Static and
Static
kinetic
andfriction
kinetic is
friction
low. is low.
With a low
With
withstand
sectional
a low sectional
withstand
height, they
heavy loads.
height,
heavy loads.
canthey can
Thrust ball bearings
Thrust ball
with
bearings
aligningwith
seataligning
washerseat washer
E
Thrust ball
Thrust ball
Since theSince difference
the difference
between between
static friction
static and Since they
friction and Since
havethey
a low
havesectional
a low sectional
height compared
height compared bearingsbearings Double-direction
Double-direction
angular contact
angular
thrust
contact
ball bearings
thrust ball bearings
kinetic friction
kinetic
is small
frictionand
is small
the frictional
and the coefficient
frictional coefficient
is with
is otherwith
rolling
other
bearings
rolling bearings
and yet can
and withstand
yet can withstand

F
also small, also
drive
small,
unitsdrive
or machines
units or machines
can be made can be made heavy loads,
heavy
machines
loads, machines
can be madecan be
more
madecompact
more compact

Rolling bearings

Rolling bearings
Others Others
more compactmoreandcompact
lightweight,
and lightweight,
saving machine
savingcosts
machine costsand lightweight,
and lightweight,
thus savingthus
costs.
saving costs.

Bearings

Bearings
and powerand consumption.
power consumption.
Needle rollerNeedle
bearings
roller bearings

Stable accuracy
Stable accuracy
for longfor
periods.
can be maintained
long periods.
can be maintained RotatingRotating
torque istorque
mechanical
mechanical
small,isimproving
efficiency.
small, improving
efficiency.
Cylindrical roller
Cylindrical
bearings
roller bearings G
Radial roller
Radial roller
Tapered roller
Tapered
bearings
roller bearings
bearingsbearings
Owing toOwing
less wear,
to lessstable
wear, accuracy can be can Since
stable accuracy be the Since
rotating
theradius
rotating
is small,
radiusthe
is small,
rotating
thetorque
rotating torque

Roller bearings

Roller bearings
maintained
maintained
for long periods.
for long periods. is also small
is also
under
smalltheunder
samethefrictional
same conditions,
frictional conditions, Self-aligningSelf-aligning
roller bearings
roller bearings
thus improving
thus improving
mechanical mechanical
efficiency.efficiency.
Others Others H
MachineMachine
reliability
reliability
is improved.
is improved. Inertia isInertia
minimized.
is minimized. Thrust needle
Thrust
rollerneedle
bearings
roller bearings

Since theSince
bearingthelife
bearing
can be lifeestimated
can be estimated
based onbased Since
on the Since
bearingthevolume
bearingand volume
weightandareweight
small,are
thesmall, the Thrust roller
Thrust cylindrical
Thrust roller
Thrustroller
cylindrical
bearings
roller bearings I
rolling fatigue,
rolling
machine
fatigue,reliability
machine is reliability
improved.is improved. moment ofmoment
inertia of
of the
inertia
bearing
of theisbearing
minimized
is minimized
when it when it bearingsbearings Thrust tapered
is put in motion.
is put in motion. Thrust
roller
tapered
bearings
roller bearings

J
Others Others

Sliding bearings

Sliding bearings
Lubrication
Lubrication
is simplified.
is simplified. Most suited
Mosttosuited
oscillating
to oscillating
motions.motions.

Since grease
Sincelubrication
grease lubrication
is sufficient
is sufficient
in most cases,
in most cases,
Many rolling
Manyelements
rolling elements
are arranged
are arranged
at a small at a small
lubricationlubrication
can be simplified
can be simplified
for easy maintenance.
for easy maintenance.spacing pitch,
spacing
andpitch,
this configuration
oscillatingoscillating
and this configuration
motions. motions.
is most suited
is most
to suited to
Metals, bushings,
Metals, others
bushings, others
K

A3 A4
TypesTypes
and Features
and Features
of Bearings
of Bearings A
Bearings can
Bearings
be roughly
can beclassified
roughly into
classified
radial into
bearings
radialand
bearings
thrust and
bearings
thrustaccording
bearings according
to applicable
to applicable
load direction.
load direction. Crossed Roller
Crossed
Bearings
Roller are
Bearings
special are
shape
special
bearings
shape that
bearings
can simultaneously
that can simultaneously
receive loads
receive
in allloads
directions
in all directions
with a with a
Radial Bearings
Radial are
Bearings
grouped
areinto
grouped
Shell into
TypeShell
NeedleTypeRoller
Needle
Bearings,
Roller Bearings,
Machined Machined
Type Needle Type
Roller
Needle
Bearings,
Roller Bearings,
and and single bearing.
single bearing.
various other
various
types.
Follower Bearings
other
Thrust
Follower that
types.
Bearings
Bearings
are used
Thrustare
that for
Bearings
arecam
groupedareinto
usedmechanisms
grouped
Thrustinto
for cam mechanisms
Needle
Thrust
and linear and
Roller
motion
Needle
linear
Bearings
Rollerand
aremotion
grouped
Bearings
Thrustand
areinto
grouped
Roller
Thrust
Bearings.
Cam Followers
Roller Bearings.
into Cam Followers
and Rollerand Roller
Bearings other
Bearings
axial loadsaxial
thanother
andloads
rolling
PILLOBALLs
than
bearings,
rolling bearings,
and PILLOBALLs
such as self-aligning
and L-Ballsand
that
such as self-aligning
L-Balls
are used
that for
Spherical Spherical
arelink
used
Bushings Bushings
mechanisms,
that can support
for link mechanisms,
that canradial
are also available.
support
are also available.
loadsradial
andloads and
B
Followers.Followers.

Classification
Classification
of ofBearings
Bearings C
TA、TAM TA、TAM
TLA、TLAM
TLA、TLAM

D
BA、BAMBA、BAM
Shell Type Shell Type BHA、BHAM
BHA、BHAM
Needle Roller
Needle
Bearings
Roller Bearings
YT YT
YTL YTL
YB
YBH
YB
YBH
E
KT、KT…N
KT、KT…N
Needle RollerNeedle
Cages for
Roller
General
CagesUsage
for General Usage

F
KTW KTW
Needle Roller
Needle
Cages
Roller Cages
Radial Bearings

Radial Bearings

KT…EG KT…EG
Needle RollerNeedle
Cages for
Roller
Engine
Cages
Connecting
for EngineRods
Connecting Rods
KTV…EG KTV…EG

NA、RNANA、RNA
TAFI、TAF
TAFI、TAF
G
TRI、TR TRI、TR
BRI、BR BRI、BR

H
Machined Type
Machined Type
Needle Roller
Needle
Bearings
Roller Bearings GTRI、GTR
GTRI、GTR
High Rigidity Type
High Crossed
Rigidity Type
RollerCrossed
Bearings
Roller CRBH(V) CRBH(V)
(V) Bearings (V)
C-Lube Machined
C-Lube
TypeMachined
Needle Roller
Type Needle
Bearings TAF… /SGTAF… /SG
Roller Bearings
NAF、RNAF
NAF、RNAF
Needle RollerNeedle
Bearings
Roller
with Bearings
Separablewith
CageSeparable Cage
NAFW、RNAFW
NAFW、RNAFW
I
NAU NAU Mounting Holed
Mounting
Type High
Holed
Rigidity
Type High Rigidity
Crossed RollerCrossed
Bearings
Roller
(V) Bearings (V) CRBF(V) CRBF(V)
NAG NAG
Roller Bearings
Roller Bearings

J
TRU TRU
Roller Bearings
Roller
for Sheaves
Bearings for Sheaves NAS NAS

Thrust Needle
Thrust
Roller
Needle
Bearings
Roller Bearings NTB NTB
Bearings

Bearings
Thrust

Thrust

Thrust Roller
Thrust
Bearings
Roller Bearings AZK、AZ AZK、AZ K
with Thrust Ball
withBearing
Thrust Ball Bearing NAXI、NAX
NAXI、NAX
Combined Type

Combined Type

L
Bearings

Bearings

Combined Type
Combined Type with Thrust Roller
with Bearing
Thrust Roller Bearing NBXI、NBX
NBXI、NBX
Needle Roller
Needle
Bearings
Roller Bearings with Angular Contact
with Angular
Ball Bearing
Contact Ball Bearing NATA NATA
with Three-point
withContact
Three-point
Ball Bearing
Contact Ball Bearing NATB NATB

A5 A6
A

Shell Type
Shell
Needle
Type Needle
Roller Bearings
Roller Bearings Machined
Machined
Type Needle
Type Needle
Roller Bearings
Roller Bearings B
Shell Type Shell
NeedleTypeRoller
NeedleBearings
Rollerare
Bearings
lightweight
are lightweight
with with Machined Type
Machined
NeedleTypeRoller
Needle
Bearings
Roller have
Bearings
an outer
have an outer
the lowest sectional
the lowestheight
sectional
among height
needle
amongroller
needle
bearings
roller bearings ring made ring
by machining,
made by machining,
heat treatment,
heat treatment,
and grinding.
and grinding.
with outer ring,
with outer
because ring,they
because
employ they
a shell
employtypea outer
shell type outer The outer ring
The has
outerstable
ring has
highstable
rigidityhigh
andrigidity
can beand
easily
can be easily
ring madering frommade
accurately drawn,
accurately
a thinfrom
carburized
special-steel
a thin special-steel
drawn, carburized
and quenched.
plate which
and quenched.
plate
is which is used even for
used
These bearings
light
even
These are
alloy
forhousings.
light alloy housings.
bearings
available
are inavailable
various intypes
various
and types and C
Since these Since
bearings
theseare bearings
press-fitted
are press-fitted
into the housing,
into the housing, optimally selectable
optimally selectable
for different for conditions
different conditions
such as such as
no axial positioning
no axial positioning
fixtures arefixtures
required.
areThey
required.
are ideal
They are ideal heavy loads,
heavy
high-speed
loads, high-speed
rotation androtation
low-speed
and rotation.
low-speed rotation.
for use in mass-produced
for use in mass-produced
articles thatarticles
requirethat
economy.
require economy. They are most
Theysuitable
are mostfor suitable
general-purpose
for general-purpose
applications.
applications.
D
Radial Bearings
Radial Bearings
Page B1 Page B1 Radial Bearing
Radial Bearing
Page D1 Page D1

E
Needle Needle
Roller Cages
Roller for
Cages
General
for General
Usage Usage Needle Needle
Roller Bearings
Roller Bearings
with Separable
with Separable
Cage Cage
Needle Roller
NeedleCagesRoller
for Cages
GeneralforUsage
General
areUsage
bearings
are bearings In Needle In Roller
NeedleBearings
Roller with
Bearings
Separable
with Separable
Cage, the Cage, the F
that display
thatexcellent
display rotational
excellent performance.
rotational performance.
Their Their inner ring,inner
outerring,
ring outer
and Needle
ring andRoller
NeedleCage Roller
are Cage are
specially shaped
speciallycages
shapedwithcages
high rigidity
with high
andrigidity
accuracy,
and accuracy, combined, combined,
and they can andbethey
separated
can be easily.
separated
Thiseasily.
type This type
precisely guide
precisely
the needle
guide the
rollers.
needle rollers. has a simplehasstructure
a simplewith
structure
high accuracy.
with high accuracy.
In addition,In addition,
Since needle
Sincerollers
needle
variations variations
withrollers
in diameterin are
extremely
diameter
with small
extremely
incorporated
dimensional
are incorporated
small dimensional
and retained,
and retained,
the radial clearance
an assembly
the radial can
clearance
ancombination.
be freely
assembly combination.
canselected
be freelybyselected
choosingby choosing
G
Needle Roller
NeedleCagesRoller
for Cages
GeneralforUsage
General
are Usage
useful are
in useful in These bearings
Thesehave
bearings
excellent
haverotational
excellent performance,
rotational performance,
small spaces
smallwhen
spaces
combined
when with
combined
shaftswith
and shafts
housing
and housing because Needle
because
Roller
Needle
CagesRoller
are used.
Cages are used.
bores that bores
are heatthat treated
are heatandtreated
accurately
and accurately
ground as ground as
raceway surfaces.
raceway surfaces.
H
Radial Bearing
Radial Bearing
Page C1 Page C1 Radial Bearing
Radial Bearing
Page D79 Page D79

I
Needle Needle
Roller Cages
Roller for
Cages
Engine
for Engine
Connecting
Connecting
Rods Rods Roller Bearings
Roller Bearings

J
Needle Roller
Needle
GagesRoller
for Gages
Engine for
Connecting
Engine Connecting
Rods are Rods are Roller Bearings,
Roller Bearings,
in which rollers
in whichare rollers
incorporated
are incorporated
in in
used for motor
used cycles,
for motorsmall
cycles,
motorsmall
vehicles,
motoroutboard
vehicles, outboard double rows,double
are non-separable
rows, are non-separable
heavy-dutyheavy-duty
bearings. bearings.
marines, snow
marines,
mobiles,
snowgeneral-purpose
mobiles, general-purpose
engines, high-
engines, high- They can withstand
They can notwithstand
only radial
not only
loadsradial
but axial
loadsloads
but axial loads
speed compressors,
speed compressors,
etc. that are
etc. operated
that are under
operated under as well, which
as well,
are supported
which are at
supported
the contacts
at the
between
contactsthebetween the
extremely severe
extremely
andsevere
complexandoperating
complexconditions
operating such
conditions such shoulders ofshoulders
inner andof outer
inner rings
and outer
and the
ringsend
andfaces
the of
end faces of
as heavy shock
as heavy
and stringent
loads,
shock
andlubrication.
highloads,
speeds,
stringent lubrication.
high
high
speeds,
temperatures,
high temperatures, rollers. Therefore,
rollers. Therefore,
fixing side of
fixing
they are most
a shaft.
theysuitable
side of a shaft.
are most forsuitable
use at the
for use at the
K
Needle Roller
Needle
CagesRoller
for Cages
Engine for
Connecting
Engine Connecting
Rods are Rods are
lightweight lightweight
and have high
and load
have ratings
high load
andratings
high rigidity
and high rigidity
as well as superior
as well as
wear
superior
resistance.
wear resistance.

Radial Bearing
Radial Bearing
Page C17 Page C17 Radial Bearing
Radial Bearing
Page E1 Page E1
L

A7 A8
A

Thrust Thrust
Bearings
Bearings Cam Followers
Cam Followers B
Thrust Bearings
Thrust consist
Bearingsofconsist
a precisely
of a made
precisely
cage
made
and cage and Cam Followers
Cam Followers
are bearings are with
bearings
a studwithincorporating
a stud incorporating
rollers, and
rollers,
can receive
and canaxial
receive
loads.
axialThey
loads.
haveThey
highhave high needle rollers
needle
in arollers
thick walled
in a thick
outer
walled
ring.outer ring.
rigidity and
rigidity
high and
load high
capacities
load capacities
and can be andused
can in
be used in They are designed
They are designed
for outer ring
for outer
rotation,
ringandrotation,
the outer
and the outer
small spaces.
small spaces.
Thrust Needle
ThrustRoller
Needle
Bearings
Roller use
Bearings
needle use
rollers,
needlewhile
rollers, while
rings run directly
rings run
Various types
Various
ondirectly
of Cam
matingon cam
typesFollowers
mating
guidecam
of Cam Followers
surfaces.
guide surfaces.
are available.
are available.
They are They are C
Thrust Roller
Thrust
Bearings
Roller use
Bearings
cylindrical
use cylindrical
rollers. rollers. widely usedwidely
as follower
used asbearings
follower for
bearings
cam mechanisms
for cam mechanisms
and for linear
andmotions.
for linear motions.

D
Thrust Bearing
Thrust Bearing
Page F1 Page F1 Follower Follower
Bearing Bearing
Page I1 Page I1

E
Combined
Combined
Type Needle
Type Needle
Roller Bearings
Roller Bearings Roller Followers
Roller Followers
Combined Combined
Type NeedleType Needle
Roller Bearings
Roller Bearings
are are Roller Followers
Roller Followers
are bearingsare inbearings
which needle
in which
rollers
needlearerollers are F
combinations
combinations
of a radialofbearing
a radialand
bearing
a thrust
and bearing.
a thrust bearing. incorporated
incorporated
in a thick walled
in a thick
outer
walled
ring.outer ring.
Caged Needle
Caged Roller
NeedleBearings
Roller Bearings
are usedareas used
radial as radial These bearings
These arebearings
designed
are for
designed
outer ring
for outer
rotation,
ringand
rotation, and
bearings bearings
and ThrustandBallThrust
Bearings
Ball Bearings
or Thrust orRoller
Thrust Roller the outer rings
the outer
run directly
rings run
ondirectly
mating on
cammating
guidecam
surfaces.
guide surfaces.
Bearings are
Bearings
They can They
used as
arethrust
be subjected
usedbearings.
as thrust bearings.
can be subjected
to radial loads
to radial
andloads
axial and
loadsaxial loads
They are used
They as
and for linear
arefollower
andmotions.
used asbearings
followerfor
for linear motions.
bearings
cam mechanisms
for cam mechanisms
G
simultaneously.
simultaneously.

H
Combined
Combined
Type Bearing
Type Bearing
Page G1 Page G1 Follower Follower
Bearing Bearing
Page I77 Page I77

I
Inner Rings
Inner Rings Crossed
Crossed
Roller Bearings
Roller Bearings

J
Inner Rings
Inner
are Rings
heat-treated
are heat-treated
and finished
andbyfinished
grinding
bytogrinding to Crossed Roller
Crossed Bearings
Roller Bearings
are high-rigidity
are high-rigidity
and compact and compact
a high degree
a highofdegree
accuracy
of accuracy
and are used
and arefor used
Needlefor Needle bearings with
bearings
their with
cylindrical
their cylindrical
rollers alternately
rollers alternately
crossed crossed
Roller Bearings.
Roller Bearings. at right angles
at right
to angles
each other
to each
between
other inner
betweenand inner
outerand outer
In the case
In the
of Needle
case ofRoller
Needle Bearings,
Roller Bearings,
normally normally
the the rings. A single
rings. Crossed
A single Roller
CrossedBearing
Rollercan
Bearing
take loads
can take loads
shafts areshafts
heat-treated
are heat-treated
and finished
and byfinished
grinding
by and
grinding and from any from
directions
any directions
at the sameat thetimesame
suchtime
as radial,
such as radial,

K
used as used
racewayas raceway
surfaces. surfaces.
However, However,
when it whenis it is thrust, andthrust,
momentandloads.
moment loads.
impossibleimpossible
to make to shaft
makesurfaces
shaft surfaces
accordingaccording
to the to the These bearings
These are
bearings
widelyareused
widely
in the used
rotating
in theparts
rotating
of parts of
specified surface
specifiedhardness
surface hardness
or surfaceorroughness,
surface roughness,
Inner Inner industrial robots,
industrial
machine
robots, tools,
machine
medical
tools,equipment,
medical equipment,
etc. etc.
Rings are Rings
used. are used. which require
which compactness,
require compactness,
high rigidityhigh and
rigidity
highand high
rotational accuracy.
rotational accuracy.

Component
Component
part part
Page H1 Page H1 Crossed Roller
CrossedBearing
Roller Bearing
Page J1 Page J1
L

A9 A10
A

Spherical
Spherical
Bushings
Bushings Seals for
Seals
Needle
for Needle
Roller Bearings
Roller Bearings B
Spherical Spherical
Bushings Bushings
are self-aligning
are self-aligning
spherical spherical
plain plain Seals for Seals
NeedleforRoller
NeedleBearings
Roller Bearings
have a low have
sectional
a low sectional
bushings, bushings,
which have whichinner
have andinner
outerandrings outerwithrings with height and height
consist
andofconsist
a sheet of metal
a sheet
ringmetal
and ring
special
and special
spherical sliding
spherical surfaces.
sliding surfaces.
They can They
take acan large
takeradial
a large radial synthetic rubber.
synthetic rubber.
load and aload
They areThey
bi-directional
and a bi-directional
divided
are into
axial load axial
divided
at theload
steel-on-steel
same at time.
into steel-on-steel
the same time.
types thattypes are that are
As these seals
As these
height as height
are seals
manufactured
NeedleasRoller
Needle
are manufactured
Bearings,
to the same
Roller Bearings,
to the
sectional
grease leakage
same sectional
greaseand
leakage and C
suitable forsuitable
applications
for applications
where therewhere
are there
alternate
are loads
alternate loads the penetration
the penetration
of foreignofparticles
foreign can
particles
be effectively
can be effectively
or shock orloads,shockandloads,
maintenance-free
and maintenance-free
types which types which preventedprevented
by fitting bythem
fitting
directly
them todirectly
the sides
to theof sides of
require norequire
lubrication.
no lubrication. combinable combinable
bearings. bearings.
D
SphericalSpherical
Sliding Bearing
Sliding Bearing
Page K1 Page K1 Component
Component
Part Part
Page L1 Page L1

E
PILLOBALLs
PILLOBALLs Cir-clips
Cir-clips
for Needle
for Needle
Roller Bearings
Roller Bearings
PILLOBALLsPILLOBALLs
are compact are self-aligning
compact self-aligning
spherical spherical
plain plain Cir-clips for
Cir-clips
Needlefor Roller
Needle
Bearings
Roller have
Bearings
beenhave
specially
been specially F
bushings which
bushings canwhich
supportcana support
large radial
a large
loadradial
and aloadbi- and a bi- designed designed
for needleforroller
needle
bearings
roller on
bearings
which,on in which,
many in many
directionaldirectional
axial load axial
at theload
same at the
time.same time. cases, generally
cases, generally
available available
Cir-clips cannot
Cir-clipsbecannot
used. be used.
PILLOBALL PILLOBALL
Rod EndsRod haveEnds
eitherhave
a female
eitherthread
a femalein the
thread in the They haveTheya lowhave
sectional
a low height
sectional
andheight
are very
andrigid.
are very rigid.
body or a body
male or
assembledassembled
thread
a male
onto machines.
on thread
the body,
onto machines.
on so
thethey
body,can
sobethey
easily
can be easily There are There
Cir-clips
used for positioning
arefor
Cir-clips
shafts for
used for positioning
andshafts
for bores,
to preventtobearing
and for
andbores,
preventmovement
they are
and they are
bearing movement
in the in the G
PILLOBALLs PILLOBALLs
are used in are
control
used and
in control
link mechanisms
and link mechanisms
in in axial direction.
axial direction.
machine tools,
machine textile
tools,
machines,
textile machines,
packagingpackaging
machines,machines,
etc. etc.

H
SphericalSpherical
Sliding Bearing
Sliding Bearing
Page K29Page K29 Component
Component
Part Part L17Page L17
Page

I
L-BallsL-Balls NeedleNeedle
RollersRollers

J
L-Balls areL-Balls
self-aligning
are self-aligning
rod-ends consisting
rod-ends consisting
of a special of a special Needle Rollers
Needleare Rollers
used are
for needle
used for
roller
needle
bearings
roller and
bearings and
zinc die-cast
zincalloy
die-cast
bodyalloy
and body
a studded
and aball
studded
whichball
haswhich
its has its are rigid and
arehighly
rigid and
accurate.
highly accurate.
axis at right-angles
axis at right-angles
to the body. to the body. These needle
These rollers
needle
arerollers
widelyare
used
widely
as rolling
used elements
as rolling elements
They can They
performcantilting
perform
movement
tilting movement
and rotation
andwith
rotation
low with low for bearings,
for and
bearings,
also as
andpins
also
and
asshafts.
pins and shafts.
torque, andtorque,
transmit
andpower
transmitsmoothly
power due
smoothly
to thedue
uniform
to the uniform

K
clearance clearance
between the between
slidingthesurfaces.
sliding surfaces.
They are Theyused are
in link
usedmechanisms
in link mechanisms
in automobiles,
in automobiles,
construction
construction
machinery,machinery,
farm and farm packaging
and packaging
machines,machines,
etc. etc.

SphericalSpherical
Sliding Bearing
Sliding Bearing
Page K45Page K45 Component
Component
Part Part L23Page L23
Page
L

A11 A12
A
Features
Features
of of
Bearings
Bearings
Bearing series
Bearing series Direction of
AppearanceAppearance Direction
Load direction
of LoadAllowable
direction Allowable
Friction Sectional Sectional
Friction Reference Reference Bearing series
Bearing series Direction of
AppearanceAppearance Direction
Load direction
of LoadAllowable
direction Allowable
Friction Sectional Sectional
Friction Reference Reference

B
motion and
motion
capacity and
rotational
capacityspeedrotational speed height height
page page motion and
motion
capacity and
rotational
capacityspeedrotational speed height height
page page

Needle rollerNeedle roller


Caged type Caged type bearings bearings
Shell Type Shell Type

C
Thrust Thrust
Needle Roller
Needle Roller B1∼ B1∼ Bearings Bearings F1∼ F1∼
Bearings Bearings
Full Full
complementcomplement Roller Roller
type type bearings bearings

With With
D
For For
general usage
general usage C1∼ C1∼ thrust thrust
ball bearing ball bearing
Needle Needle
Roller Cages
Roller Cages
For engine For engine With With
E
connecting connecting C17∼ C17∼ thrust thrust
rods rods roller bearingroller bearing
Combined Type
Combined Type
Needle Roller
Needle Roller G1∼ G1∼

Caged type Caged type


Bearings Bearings
With
angular
With
angular
F
contact contact
ball bearing ball bearing
Machined Type
Machined Type
Needle Roller
Needle Roller D1∼ D1∼

G
Bearings Bearings
With With
Full Full three-point three-point
complementcomplement contact contact
type type ball bearing ball bearing

Needle Roller
Needle Roller
Bearings with
BearingsCaged
Separable Cage
with type Caged type
Separable Cage
D79∼ D79∼ Caged type Caged type H
Cam Followers
Cam Followers I1∼ I1∼

Caged type Caged type


Full Full
complementcomplement
type type
I

J
Full Full
Roller Bearings
Roller Bearings Separable Separable
complementcomplement E1∼ E1∼ caged type caged type
type type

K
Non-separable
Non-separable
For sheavesFor sheaves Roller Followers
Roller Followers
caged type caged type I77∼ I77∼

Oscillating Oscillating
Radial Radial
Axial Light
Axial Medium
Light Medium
Heavy Especially
Heavy Especially Non-separable
Non-separable
Symbol Symbol
Rotation Rotation Excellent Excellent
Normal Normal

L
motion motion
load load
load loadload load
load load
load excellent
load excellent full full
complementcomplement
type type

A13 A14
A
Features
Features
of of
Bearings
Bearings Outline
Outline
of Bearing
of Bearing
Selection
Selection
Bearings are Bearings
availableare inavailable
many types
in many
and types
sizes.andTo sizes.
obtain To
satisfactory
obtain satisfactory
bearing performance
bearing performance
in machinesin machines
and and
Direction of Direction
Load direction
of LoadAllowable
direction Allowable Sectional Sectional
Reference Reference
Bearing series
Bearing series AppearanceAppearance Friction Friction equipment,equipment,
it is essential
it istoessential
select the
to select
most suitable
the mostbearing
suitablebybearing
carefullybystudying
carefullythe
studying
requirements
the requirements
for the application.
for the application.
B
motion and
motion
capacity and
rotational
capacityspeedrotational speed height height
page page
Although there
Althoughis nothere
particular
is no procedure
particular procedure
or rule for or
bearing
rule for
selection,
bearing an
selection,
example anofexample
a commonly
of a commonly
adopted procedure
adopted procedure
is shown inisthe
shownfigure
in below.
the figure below.
Caged type,Caged type,
Separator type
Separator type
An example
An example
of procedure
of procedure
for bearing
for bearing
selection
selection

Confirmation
Confirmation
of of ● Identify the
● machine
Identify the
andmachine
place where
and place
the bearing
where is
thetobearing
be used.
is to be used.
C
1 1
Crossed Crossed Full Full ● Confirm ● theConfirm
requirements
the requirements
for bearingsforsuch
bearings
as required
such asbearing
required bearing
Roller Bearings
complementcomplement
Roller Bearings J1∼ J1∼ requirements
requirements
and and performance, performance,
and also confirm
and also
the confirm
operating
theconditions
operating and
conditions
specialand special
type type
operating
operating
conditions
conditions environmentenvironment
conditions. conditions.

● Select the ● bearing


Select thetype bearing
suitabletype
for suitable
the operating
for the operating
D
Slim type Slim type
2 Selection
2 Selection
of bearing
of bearing
type
conditions by
type
conditions
considering
tude, rigidity,tude,
friction,
by considering
rigidity,
space, etc. space, etc.
allowable
load direction
friction,
rotational
load
allowable
and
speed,
direction
magni-and magni-
rotational
bearing
See page See page
speed, bearing
A5 A5

Steel-on-steel
Steel-on-steel
E
● Select the●bearing
Select dimensions
the bearing bydimensions
calculating
bybearing
calculating bearing

3 Selection
3 Selection
type type of of load, life, static
load,
safety
life, static
factor,safety
etc. factor, etc. See page See page
Spherical Spherical bearing bearing
dimensions
dimensions A17 A17
K1∼ K1∼

F
Bushings Bushings

Maintenance-free
Maintenance-free
type type ● Select the
●accuracy
Select the
asaccuracy
required as
by required
the machine
by the
or machine or

4 Selection
4 Selection
accuracy
of
accuracy
of
class, etc.
class, etc.
equipment. equipment. See page See page
A30 A30

Insert type, Insert type,


Lubrication type
Lubrication type
G
● Select the
● Select
radial the
clearance
radial considering
clearance considering
the fit, the fit,

5 5 SelectionSelection
of
radial clearance
of
radial clearance
temperature,temperature,
rotational speed,
and fit and fitand outer rings,
and etc.
rotational
outer rings, etc.
inclination
speed, ofinclination
the innerof theSee
inner
page See page
A37 A37

PILLOBALLs
Die-casting type,
PILLOBALLs
Die-casting type,
Lubrication type
Lubrication type K29∼ K29∼ H
6 Determination
6 Determination
of bearing
of bearing
dimensions,
dimensions,
accuracy,
accuracy,
radial clearance
radial clearance
and fit and fit
Maintenance-free
type
Maintenance-free
type I
Selection
Selection
of of ● Select oil● or Select
greaseoillubrication.
or grease lubrication.

7 7 lubrication
lubrication
and and ● After selection
● After
select the oilselect
of selection
lubricant, of
application
the oilmethod.
in lubricant,
case of oilin lubrication,
application method.
case of oil lubrication,
See page See page

J
A49 A49
L-Balls L-BallsLubrication type
Lubrication type K45∼ K45∼
dust-proof
dust-proof
methodsmethods ● Select the●sealing
Selectmethod
the sealing
according
methodtoaccording
the lubricant.
to the lubricant.

● Design the● surrounding


Design the surrounding
part based on
part
howbased
to mount
on how to mount

Symbol Symbol
Rotation
Oscillating
Rotation
motion
Oscillating
Radial
motion
load
Radial
Axial
load
load
Light
Axial
loadload
Medium
Light
load
load
Medium
Heavy
load
load
Especially
Heavy
excellent
load
Especially
Excellent
excellent Excellent
Normal Normal 8 8 Design of
Design of
surrounding
surrounding
part part
or dismount or
anddismount
based on
and
mounting
based on
dimensions.
mounting dimensions. See page See page
A57 A57
K

9 Determination
9 Determination
of final specifications
of final specifications
of the bearing
of the bearing
and the and
surrounding
the surrounding
part part
L

A15 A16
Basic Dynamic Load Rating Basic rating life A
Roller bearings
and Life The basic rating life is defined as the total number of
Rotational speed min-1
n
10
15 20 30 40 60 80
100
150 200 300 400 600 800
1000
1500 2000 3000 4000 6000 8000
10000
15000 20000 30000 40000 60000
revolutions that 90% of a group of identical bearings fn
Velocity factor

B
1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.28 0.24 0.22 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.106
Life can be operated individually under the same condi- 1.44 1.0 0.20
tions free from any material damage caused by rolling 200 1000 10000 80000
h 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 2000 3000 4000 6000 8000 20000 40000 60000
Basic rating life represented by service hours
Rolling bearings will suffer damage due to various fatigue. Lh
fh
Life factor 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9
2.5 3.5 4.5
causes during service. Damage such as abnormal For rotation at a constant rotational speed, the basic 0.76 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.6
wear, seizure, and cracks is caused by improper use, rating life can be represented by the total service
including incorrect mounting, lack of oil, dust intrusion
and so on, and can be avoided by remedying these
hours. C
Ball bearings
causes. However, bearings will eventually be dam- Basic dynamic load rating 10 100 1000 10000
aged due to fatigue-flaking even if used properly.        Rotational speed min
n
-1 15 20 30 40 60 80 150 200 300 400 600 800 1500 2000 3000 4000 6000 8000 15000 20000 30000 40000 60000

D
fn
When a bearing rotates under load, the raceways and The basic dynamic load rating is defined as the con- Velocity factor 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.28 0.24 0.22 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.09 0.082
1.49 1.0 0.20 0.10
the rolling elements are subjected to repeated stress- stant radial load (in the case of radial bearings) or the 200 1000 10000 80000
h 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 2000 3000 4000 6000 8000 20000 30000 40000 60000
es concentrated on the part close to the surface. constant axial load acting along the bearing central Basic rating life represented by service hours Lh
axis (in the case of thrust bearings) that allows a fh
Fatigue, therefore, occurs in the surface layer, pro- Life factor
0.74
0.80 0.90
1.0
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0 5.4

E
ducing damage in the form of scaling. This is called basic rating life of 1,000,000 revolutions.
flaking (spalling). When this occurs, the bearing can Fig. 2 Scales for rating life calculation
no longer be used. Calculation of rating life

Bearing Life The relationship among the basic rating life, basic

Bearing life is defined as the total number of revolu-


dynamic load rating and dynamic equivalent load
(bearing load) of rolling bearings is as follows: Bearing life factors for various machines
F
(      )
tions (or total service hours at a constant rotational C p
L10 =     …………………………………… (1)
speed) before a sign of the first flaking appears on the         P The required life of the bearing must be determined

G
rolling surface of raceway or rolling elements.   where, L10 :Basic rating life, 106 rev. according to the machine in which the bearing is to be
However, even when bearings of the same size, C :Basic dynamic load rating, N used and the operating conditions.
structure, material and heat treatment are subjected P :Dynamic equivalent load, N Table 1 shows reference values of life factors for
to the same conditions, the bearing lives will show :E xponent, Roller bearing: 10/3
p selecting a bearing for each machine.
variation (See Fig. 1.). This results from the statistical
H
Ball bearing: 3
nature of the fatigue phenomenon.
Accordingly, when the rotational speed per minute is Table 1 Life factor of bearings f h for various machines
In selecting a bearing, it is incorrect to take an aver-
given, the basic rating life is represented as the total
age life for all bearings as the design standard. It is Machine and life factor f h
service hours according to the following equations: Operating conditions
more practical to consider a bearing life that is reliable 〜3 2〜4 3〜5 4〜7 6〜
106L10
I
p
fo r t h e gr e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f b e a r i n g s u s e d .    L h = 60n =  500 f h  ……………………(2) Occasional or short term usage ・Power tools ・Agricultural machines
   
Therefore, the basic rating life defined in the following
is used.    f   h = f   n C   …………………………………(3) Infrequent usage but requiring ・Construction machinery ・Conveyors
 P
reliable operation ・Elevators

(      …………………………………
        
n )
1/p
33.3
   f n = (4)
  where, L h :Basic rating life represented by
Intermittent operation but for ・Roll neck of rolling mills
comparatively long periods
・Small motors
・Deck cranes
・Factory motors
・Machine tools
・Crane sheaves
・Compressors
J
Basic rating life

・General cargo cranes ・General gear units ・Important gear units


service hours, h
Failure probability density (Frequency of failure)

・Passenger cars ・Printing machines


n :Rotational speed, min-1


f h :Life factor
f n :Velocity factor
Operated in excess of 8 hours
per day or continuously for an
・Escalators ・Centrifugal separators
・Blowers
・Paper making machines
K
Average life

extended time ・Wood working machines


In addition, the rating life can be calculated by obtain-
・Plastic extruding machines
ing f h and f n from the life calculation scales of Fig. 2.

L
Continuous use for 24 hours and ・Water supply equipment
accidental stops not allowed ・Power station equipment

Rolling fatigue life

Fig. 1 Variation of rolling fatigue life


M

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A17 1mm=0.03937inch
A18
Life of oscillating bearing bearing life adjustment factors a1, a2 and a3, respec-
tively.
Life adjustment factor for operating conditions a 3 Correction of basic dynamic load rating
for temperature and hardness
A
The life of an oscillating bearing can be obtained from This factor helps take into account the effects of oper-
L na =  a 1 a 2 a 3 L 10   …………………………… (6)
equation (5).     ating conditions, especially lubrication on the bearing. Temperature factor

B
90 C p   where, L na:Corrected rating life, 106  rev. The bearing life is limited by the phenomenon of
     θ P(    )
LOC =       ………………………………(5)
a 1 : Life adjustment factor for reliability fatigue which occurs, in general, beneath surfaces The operating temperature for each bearing is deter-
  where, L OC: B asic rating life of oscillating a 2 : Life adjustment factor for special subjected to repeated stresses. Under good lubrica- mined according to its material and structure. If spe-
bearing, 106 cycles tion conditions where the rolling element and raceway cial heat treatment is performed, bearings can be
bearing properties
surfaces are completely separated by an oil film and used at temperatures higher than +150°C. As the
2θ : Oscillating angle, deg. (See Fig.3)
P : Dynamic equivalent load, N
a 3 : Life adjustment factor for operat-
ing conditions
surface damage can be disregarded, a 3 is set to be 1.
However, when conditions of lubrication are not good,
allowable contact stress gradually decreases when
the bearing temperature exceeds 150°C, the basic
C
Therefore, when the oscillating frequency n 1min-1 is
namely, when the viscosity of the lubricating oil is low dynamic load rating is lowered and can be obtained
given, the basic rating life as represented by total Life adjustment factor for reliability a 1 or the peripheral speed of the rolling elements is by the following equation:
oscillating hours can be obtained by substituting n 1
for n in equation (2) on page A17.
When 2θ is small, an oil film cannot be formed easily
The reliability of rolling bearings is defined as the pro-
especially low, and so on, a 3< 1 is used.
On the other hand, when lubrication is especially    
C t = f t C     …………………………………… (7) D
portion of bearings having a life equal to or greater
good, a value of a 3 > 1 can be used. When lubrica-   where, C t : Basic dynamic load rating
between the contact surfaces of the raceway and the than a certain specified value when a group of identi-
tion is not good and a 3 < 1 is used, the life adjustment considering temperature rise,  N
rolling elements. This may cause fretting corrosion. cal bearings are operated under identical conditions.
factor a 2 cannot generally exceed 1.
In this case, please consult . With respect to individual bearings, it refers to the
probability of the life of a bearing being equal to or


f t : Temperature factor (See Fig. 4.)
C: Basic dynamic load rating,  N E
When selecting a bearing according to the basic
greater than a certain specified value. Temperature
dynamic load rating, it is recommended that a suitable
The corrected rating life for a reliability of (100-n )%
value for reliability factor a 1 is chosen for each appli- °C 150 200 250
F
can be obtained using equation (6). Table 2 shows
cation. The selection should be made using the
the values of the life adjustment factor a1 for various ft 1.0 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75
(C/P ) or f h values determined by machine type and
reliabilities.
based upon the actual conditions of lubrication, tem-
Fig. 4 Temperature factor
perature, mounting, etc., which have already been
Table 2 Life adjustment factor for reliability a1
G
2θ experienced and obser ved in the same type of Further, if the bearing is used at high temperature, i.e.
machines. 120° C or above, the amount of dimensional displace-
Reliability % Ln a1
ment gets larger. So special heat treatment is neces-
Fig. 3 Oscillating motion 90 L 10 1 Limiting conditions sary. If needed, please contact .
95 L5 0.62
96
97
L4
L3
0.53
0.44
These bearing life equations are applicable only when
the bearing is mounted and lubricated normally with-
Hardness factor H
Corrected rating life 98 L2 0.33 out intrusion of foreign materials and not used under When the shaft or housing is used as the raceway
99 L1 0.21 extreme operating conditions. surface instead of the inner or outer ring, the surface
When a rolling bearing is used in ordinary applica-
tions, the basic rating life can be calculated by equa-
Life adjustment factor for special bearing properties a 2
Unless these conditions are satisfied, the life may be
shortened. For example, it is necessary to separately
hardness of the part used as the raceway surface
should be 58 〜 64HRC. I
tions (1) and (2) mentioned previously. consider the effects of bearing mounting errors, If it is less than 58HRC, the basic dynamic load rating is
This basic rating life applies to bearings which require The bearing life is extended or shortened according to excessive deformation of housing and shaft, centrifu- lowered and can be obtained by the following equation:
a reliability of 90%, have ordinary bearing properties gal force acting on rolling elements at high-speed rev-
J
the quality of the material, the manufacturing technol- C H = f H C …………………………………… (8)
being made of materials of ordinary quality for rolling ogy of the bearing and its internal design. For these olution, excessive preload, especially large radial    
bearings, and are used under ordinary operating con- special bearing life properties, the life is corrected by internal clearance of radial bearings, etc.   where, C H : Basic dynamic load rating
ditions. the life adjustment factor for special bearing proper- When the dynamic equivalent load exceeds 1/2 of the considering hardness,  N
In some applications, however, it is necessary to ties a 2. basic dynamic load rating, the life equations may not f H : Hardness factor (See Fig. 5.)
obtain a rating life that applies to bearings which
require high reliability, have special bearing properties
The table of dimensions for Bearings shows the
values of the basic dynamic load rating which are
be applicable.
C : Basic dynamic load rating N K
or are used under special operating conditions. The determined taking into consideration the fact that Hardness of raceway surface
corrected rating life for these special cases can be bearing life has been extended by improved quality of HRC 60 50 40 30 20

L
obtained from the following equation by using the materials and advances in manufacturing technolo-
gies. Therefore, the bearing life is calculated using fH 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.1
equation (6) usually assuming a 2 = 1.
Fig. 5 Hardness factor

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A19 1mm=0.03937inch
A20
Basic Static Load Rating and Static safety factor Calculation of Bearing Loads Load factor A
Static Safety Factor The basic static load rating gives the theoretical allow-
The loads acting on bearings include the weight of the
Although radial loads and axial loads can be obtained
able limit of the static equivalent load. Normally, this by calculation, it is not unusual for the actual bearing
machine parts supported by the bearings, the weight
Basic static load rating
B
limit is corrected by considering the operating condi- loads to exceed the calculated loads, due to vibration
of the rotating body, loads produced when operating
tions and the requirements for the bearing. The cor- and shocks produced when operating the machine.
the machine, loads by belts or gears transmitting
When a bearing at rest sustains a heavy load or a rection factor, namely, the static safety factor f s is The actual bearing load is obtained from the following
power, and various other loads.
bearing rotating at a relatively low speed receives a defined as in the following equation and its general equation, by multiplying the calculated load by the
These loads can be divided into radial loads perpen-
heavy shock load, the contact stress may exceed a values are shown in Table 4. load factor:
C
dicular to the central axis of the bearings and axial
certain limiting value, producing a local permanent C0
f s =     ………………………………………(9) loads parallel to the central axis, and they act inde- F = f w Fc    ……………………………………(10)
deformation in the raceways or the rolling elements,     P0    
pendently or in combination with other loads. In addi-
and subsequently causing noise or vibration or lower-   where, C 0 : Basic static load rating, N tion, the magnitude of vibration or shocks on the bear-   where, F :Bearing load, N
ing the rotating performance. The basic static load P 0 : Static equivalent load,  N fw :Load factor (See Table 6.)
ings varies depending on the application of the
rating is, therefore, determined as a guideline for the
maximum allowable load for the bearing at rest, under Table 4 Static safety factor
machine. Thus, theoretically calculated loads may
not always be accurate and have to be corrected by
Fc :Theoretically calculated load,  N
D
which the permanent deformation will not exceed a
multiplying various empirical factors to obtain the Table 6 Load factor
certain limit value, and the lowering of the rotating Operating conditions of the bearing fs actual bearing loads.

E
performance will not occur. Its definition is given as Operating conditions Example fw
follows. When high rotational accuracy is required ≧3
The basic static load rating is the static load that gives For ordinary operation conditions ≧ 1.5 Smooth operation Electric motors, Air conditioning equipment,
the contact stress shown in Table 3 at the center of
Load distribution to bearings without shocks Measuring instruments, Machine tools
1 〜 1.2
For ordinary operation conditions not
the contact area of the rolling element and the race- requiring very smooth rotation ≧1 Reduction gearboxes, Vehicles, Textile
Table 5 shows examples of calculations where static
way receiving the maximum load. A radial load con-
stant in direction and magnitude is used in the case of
When there is almost no rotation loads are acting in radial direction.
Ordinary operation
machinery, Paper making machinery
1.2 〜 1.5
F
Operation subjected to Rolling mills, Rock crushers, Construc-
radial bearings, while an axial load constant in magni- 1.5 〜 3
In case of Shell Type Needle Roller Bearings of which vibration and shocks tion machinery
tude acting along the bearing central axis is used in

G
the case of thrust bearings. outer ring is drawn from a thin steel plate and then
carburized and quenched, it is necessary to use a sta-
Table 3 tic safety factor of 3 or more.

Type of bearing Contact stress MPa

Roller bearings 4 000


Table 5 Load distribution to bearings
H
Example Bearing load
Self-aligning ball bearings 4 600
Other ball bearings 4 200
a b

dK r 1 + bK r 2
I
F r 1=
f

Kr1 Kr2 cK r 1 + aK r 2
F r 2=
J
Fr1 Fr2
f
c d

a
d

b c
K
gK r 1 + bK r 2 − cK r 3
F r1=
f

Kr1
Fr1
Kr2
Fr2
Kr3
F r2=
aK r 2 + dK r 3 − eK r 1 L
f
e f

M
g

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A21 1mm=0.03937inch
A22
Bearing loads in case of belt or chain transmission H Mean equivalent load corresponding to fluctuating load A

   T =9550000    …………………………… (14)  N
n p 1 p
F m =   
                                                ……………………
F n  d N (19)
When power is transmitted by a belt or chain, the load T When the load applied to the bearing fluctuates, the
N 0
   K t =     …………………………………… (15)
acting on the pulley or sprocket wheel is obtained R bearing life is calculated by using the mean equivalent   where, F m:Mean equivalent load, N
load Fm, which is a constant load that will give the   N :Total number of revolutions, rev.
B
from the following equations:
   K s = K t tan  θ   ………………………………(16)
bearing a life equal to that produced under the fluctu-   F n:Fluctuating load, N
H
   T = 9550000    …………………………… (11) ating load. The mean equivalent load is obtained   p :Exponent, Roller bearing = 10/3
n    K c=  K t 2+K s2 = K t  sec θ …………………(17)
from the following equation: Ball bearing = 3
T
   K t =      ……………………………………(12)
R    where, T :Torque applied to gear, N-mm
 K t:Tangential force acting on gear, N
Table 9 shows examples of the calculation of mean
equivalent loads for various fluctuating loads.
C
  where,
T :Torque acting on pulley or sprocket
 K s:Radial force acting on gear, N
wheel,  N-mm
 K c:Resultant normal force on gear tooth surface, N
K t:Effective transmitting force of belt or chain, N
H :Transmitting power, kW


 H :Transmitting power, kW
 n :Rotational speed, min
-1
Table 9 Mean equivalent load for the fluctuation load
D
n :Rotational speed, min Mean equivalent load F m
-1
Type of fluctuating load
 R :Pitch circle radius of drive gear, mm
R :E f f e c t i v e r a d i u s o f p u l l e y o r
 θ:Pressure angle of gear, deg.
sprocket wheel, mm
E
F1
1 (F p  N + F    N
F m = 2 +…+ F n   N n)
p p p
F 1  1  2 
For belt transmission, the load K r acting on the pulley F2 Fm N p

shaft is obtained from the following equation, multiply- Kt Step load


where, N 1:Total number of revolutions under load F 1 rev.
ing the effective transmitting force K t by the belt factor Fn
    N 2:Total number of revolutions under load F 2 rev.
f b shown in Table 7. N1 N2
N
Nn
    N n:Total number of revolutions under load F n rev.
F
Ks R
  K r = f b K t   ………………………………………(13)

1
F m = ( 2F max + F min )
G
Fmax
Table 7 Belt factor F 3
Fm
Monotonously
Type of belt fb changing load where, F max:Maximum value of fluctuating load, N
Fmin
    F min :Minimum value of fluctuating load, N
V-belts 2   〜 2.5 Fig. 6 N

Timing belts 1.3 〜 2 H


Plain belts (with tension pulley) 2.5 〜 3 In this case, the resultant normal force on the tooth
Fmax
Plain belts 4   〜 5 surface acts as the radial force to the shaft and the F Fm
magnitude of vibration or shocks varies depending on  F m ≒ 0.65 F max
In the case of chain transmission, a value of 1.2 to 1.5
is taken as the chain factor corresponding to f b. The
t h e a c c u ra c y a n d s u r fa c e f i n i s h o f t h e g e a r.
Therefore, the radial load K r applied to the shaft is N
I
Sinusoidally
load acting on the sprocket wheel shaft is obtained obtained from the following equation, multiplying the
fluctuating load
from equation (13) in the same manner as the belt resultant normal force K c on gear tooth surface by the

J
F Fmax
transmission. gear factor f z shown in Table 8. Fm

 F m ≒ 0.75 F max
N
Bearing loads in case of gear transmission    K r = f z K c   ……………………………………(18)

K
When power is transmitted by gears, the force acting Table 8 Gear factor
on the gears varies according to the type of gear. FS FR
Type of gear fz F m = F S + F R −
Spur gears produce radial loads only, but helical Fs
FS + FR
Stationary load plus
gears, bevel gears and worm gears produce axial
Precision gears rotating load where, F S:Stationary load, N
loads in addition to radial loads. Taking the simplest 1.05 〜 1.1     F R:Rotating load, N
L
FR
(Pitch error and form error: Less than 0.02mm)
case of spur gears as an example, the bearing load is
obtained from the following equations: Ordinary machined gears
1.1 〜 1.3
(Pitch error and form error: 0.02 〜 0.1mm)

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A23 1mm=0.03937inch
A24
Equivalent load Static equivalent load
Boundary Dimensions and Needle Roller Cage
A
The loads applied to the bearing are divided into radi- When both radial load and axial load are applied to Identification Number  E w:Nominal roller set outside diameter
al loads that are applied perpendicular to the central the bearing simultaneously, the virtual load, acting on  F w:Nominal roller set bore diameter
Boundary dimensions
B
axis and axial loads that are applied in parallel to the the center of the bearing, that will produce a maxi-  B c :Nominal cage width
central axis. These loads act independently or in com- mum contact stress on the contact surface between
bination with other loads. the rolling element and the raceway equal to that Examples of symbols for quantities indicating the
given by the radial load and the axial load is defined boundary dimensions of Needle Roller Bearings Bc

Dynamic equivalent load as a static equivalent load. are shown below. For details, see the table of dimen-

When both radial load and axial load are applied to


In the case of needle roller bearings, radial bearings
receive only radial loads and thrust bearings receive
sions for each model. C
the bearing simultaneously, the virtual load, acting on only axial loads. Accordingly, radial loads are directly Machined Type Needle Roller Bearing
the center of the bearing, that will give a life equal to used for the radial bearings, while axial loads are

Fw
Ew
that under the radial load and the axial load is defined directly used for the thrust bearings.  d : Nominal bearing bore diameter
as a dynamic equivalent load.  D : Nominal bearing outside diameter
In the case of needle roller bearings, radial bearings [For radial bearings]  B : Nominal inner ring width
receive only radial loads and thrust bearings receive    P 0 r  = F r ………………………………………(22)  C : Nominal outer ring width
only axial loads. Accordingly, radial loads are directly
E
[For thrust bearings]  F w : Nominal roller set bore diameter
used in the life calculation of the radial bearings, while    P 0 a = Fa  ………………………………………(23)  r : Chamfer dimensions of inner and outer rings Fig. 9 Needle Roller Cage
axial loads are directly used for the thrust bearings.
 r s min : S m a l l e s t p e r m i s s i bl e s i n g l e c h a m fe r
  where, P 0r :Static equivalent radial load, N dimensions of inner and outer rings
[For radial bearings]       P 0a:Static equivalent axial load, N Thrust Roller Bearing
   P r = F r  ………………………………………(20)
[For thrust bearings]
      F r :Radial load, N
B
F
      F a :Axial load, N C  D c :Nominal cage outside diameter
   P a= F a ………………………………………(21)
r  d c :Nominal cage bore diameter
 D w:Nominal roller diameter
  where, P r:Dynamic equivalent radial load, N
G
r

      Pa:Dynamic equivalent axial load, N


      F r:Radial load, N

Fw
D
d
      F a:Axial load, N r Dw

r H
Fig. 7 Machined Type Needle Roller Bearing

Dc

dc
Shell Type Needle Roller Bearing

 D :Nominal bearing outside diameter


 F w:Nominal roller set bore diameter
 C :Nominal outer ring width  J
Fig. 10 Thrust Roller Bearing
C

Fw
D
L
Fig. 8 Shell Type Needle Roller Bearing

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A25 1mm=0.03937inch
A26
Identification Number 4 Cage symbol  8 Classification symbol A
The identification number of Bearings consists Symbol Descriptions
Symbol Descriptions
of a model number and supplemental codes. The
(None) JIS Class 0
B
descriptions of typical codes and their arrangements N Made of synthetic resin
are shown below. There are many codes other than P6 JIS Class 6
V No cage or full complement
those described. See the section of identification
P5 JIS Class 5
number of each bearing.
5 Seal or shield symbol P4 JIS Class 4
Table 10 Arrangement of identification number of bearing
Symbol Descriptions
C
Model code 1
Model number Table 11 Indication of boundary dimensions
Boundary dimensions Z With dust cover
2
Model number
Material symbol 3 ZZ
U
With shields on both sides

With a seal on one side


Bearing type
Model code Indication of boundary dimensions D
Cage symbol 4 TA,TLA,YT,YTL Roller set bore diameter + Outer ring width
Shield symbol UU With seals on both sides Shell Type Needle Roller Bearings
BA,BHA,YB,YBH Roller set bore diameter + Outer ring width (1)
Supplemental Seal symbol,
5
E
code 2RS With seals on both sides Needle Roller Cages for General Usage KT,KTW Roller set bore diameter + Roller set outside diameter + Cage width
Bearing ring shape symbol 6 Needle Roller Cages for Engine Connecting Rods KT…EG,KTV…EG Roller set bore diameter + Roller set outside diameter + Cage width
Clearance symbol 7 NA,RNA Dimension series + Bore diameter number
6 Bearing ring shape symbol TR,TAF,GTR Roller set bore diameter + Bearing outside diameter + Bearing width
Classification symbol 8
F
Machined Type Needle Roller Bearings TRI,TAFI,GTRI Bearing bore diameter + Bearing outside diameter + Outer ring width
Symbol Descriptions
BR Roller set bore diameter + Bearing outside diameter + Bearing width (1)
1 Model code NR With stop ring on outer surface of outer ring BRI Bearing bore diameter + Bearing outside diameter + Outer ring width (1)
The model code represents the bearing series. The RNAF,RNAFW Roller set bore diameter + Bearing outside diameter + Bearing width
features of each bearing series are shown on pages OH (1) With oil hole in bearing ring Needle Roller Bearings with Separable Cage

G
NAF,NAFW Bearing bore diameter + Bearing outside diameter + Bearing width
A5 to A15. J No oil hole
NAU,NAG,NAS Dimension series + Bore diameter number
Roller Bearings
Note(1) This differs depending on the type of bearing. See the TRU Bearing bore diameter + Bearing outside diameter + Bearing width
2 Boundary dimensions section of each bearing.
NTB,AS,WS,GS Bearing bore diameter + Bearing outside diameter
One of the following four kinds of presentation meth-

H
Thrust Bearings AZ Bearing bore diameter + Bearing outside diameter + Bearing height
ods is used for showing boundary dimensions in the
7 Clearance symbol AZK Bearing bore diameter + Bearing outside diameter + Roller diameter
identification number, which vary depending on the
bearing series. Table 11 shows the presentation NAX,NBX Roller set bore diameter + Assembled bearing width
Symbol Descriptions
methods of boundary dimensions for each model Combined Type Needle Roller Bearings NAXI,NBXI Innerring bore diameter + Assembled bearing width
Dimensional series + Bore diameter number
I
code. C2 NATA,NATB
C2 clearance
CF,NUCF,CFS Stud diameter
(None) CN clearance
 (a)Dimension series + Bore diameter number Cam Followers CFKR Bearing outside diameter
 (b)B ore diameter or roller set bore diameter + C3 C3 clearance CR,CRH Bearing outside diameter (1)
Outside diameter or roller set outside diameter + NAST,NART,NURT Bearing bore diameter
J
C4 C4 clearance Roller Followers
Width CRY Bearing outside diameter (1)
C5 C5 clearance
 (c)Bore diameter or roller set bore diameter + Width Crossed Roller Bearings CRBH(V),CRB,CRBS,CRBT Bearing bore diameter + Bearing width
 (d)Basic diameter T1 SB…A,GE Inner ring bore diameter
Special radial clearance Spherical Bushings
SBB Inner ring bore diameter (1)
K
C1 (Applicable to Crossed Roller Bearings)
3 Material symbol PILLOBALLs PB,PHS,POS,PHSB,POSB,PHSA Inner ring bore diameter
C2
L-Balls LHSA,LHS Screw size
Symbol Type of material
Seals for Needle Roller Bearings OS,DS Shaft diameter + Seal outside diameter + Seal width
WR Shaft diameter

L
F Stainless steel for bearing rings and rolling elements Cir-clips for Needle Roller Bearings
AR Bore diameter
Note(1) The nominal dimensions of inch series bearings are indicated in units of 1/16 inch.

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A27 1mm=0.03937inch
A28
Example of identification number Accuracy A
(a) Example of "Dimension series + Bore diameter number" (b) Example of "Bore diameter or roller set bore diameter + The accuracy of Needle Roller Bearings con-
Remarks
Outside diameter or roller set outside diameter + width" for ms to JIS B 1514-1~-3 (Rolling bearings -
Tolerances of bearings), and the dimensional accura-
cy and rotational accuracy are specified. The speci-
The meanings of the new symbols for quantities
used for accuracy of radial bearings are as
B
Supplemental Supplemental
fied items are shown in Fig. 11. follows:
Model number code Model number code
Needle Roller Bearings are classified into 4 classes of ① ∆ represents the deviation of a dimension from
NA 49 02 C2 P6 KT 5 8 8 N
Model code
accuracy. These classes are represented by the
numbers 0, 6, 5 and 4, written in order of increasing
the specified value.
② V represents the variation of a dimension. C
Model code
accuracy. ③ Suffixes s , m , and p represent a single (or
Dimension series Roller set bore diameter Table 12 shows the accuracy for the inner rings of actual) measurement, a mean measurement,

D
radial bearings, Table 13 shows the accuracy for the and a measurement in a single radial plane,
Bore diameter number Roller set outside diameter outer rings of radial bearings, Table 14 shows the tol- respectively.
erances for the smallest single roller set bore diame- [Example] Vdp means the difference between
Clearance symbol Cage width
ter of radial bearings, and Table 15 shows the permis- the largest and the smallest of the bore
Classification symbol sible limit values of chamfer dimensions of radial

E
Cage symbol diameters in a single radial plane (circularity).
bearings. For thrust bearings, see the section on
Vdmp means the difference between the largest
accuracy of Thrust Bearings. Note that the series of
and the smallest of the single plane mean bore
Shell Type Needle Roller Bearings, Roller Bearings,
(c) Example of "Bore diameter or roller set bore diameter + width" (d) Example of "Basic diameter" diameters (cylindricity).
Cam Followers, Roller Followers, Combined Type

F
Needle Roller Bearings, and Crossed Roller Bearings
Supplemental have special accuracy. For further details, see the
Supplemental
Model number code Model number code section on accuracy of each bearing series.

NAX 20 30 Z CF 10 V B UU
Model code Model code
Single bore diameter deviation  ∆ ds
G
Single plane mean bore diameter deviation   ∆ dmp
Roller set bore diameter Basic diameter (Stud diameter)
Single outside diameter deviation  ∆ Ds
Deviation of boundary

H
Assembled bearing width Cage symbol dimensions
Single plane mean outside diameter deviation  ∆ Dmp

Shield symbol Shape of stud head Deviation of a single inner ring width  ∆ Bs

Seal symbol Deviation of a single outer ring width  ∆ Cs

I
Accuracy of boundary
dimensions Bore diameter variation in a single radial plane  Vdsp

Mean bore diameter variation  Vdmp

Outside diameter variation in a single radial plane  VDsp

J
Variation of boundary
dimensions
Mean outside diameter variation  VDmp

Accuracy of Inner ring width variation  VBs


bearings
Outer ring width variation  VCs

Radial runout of assembled bearing inner ring  Kia


K
Assembled bearing inner ring face runout with raceway  Sia

Inner ring reference face runout with bore  Sd

L
Rotational
accuracy
Radial runout of assembled bearing outer ring  Kea

Assembled bearing outer ring face runout with raceway  Sea

Variation of outside surface generatrix inclination with outer ring reference face  SD

Fig. 11 Accuracy of bearings


M

A29 A30
Table 12 Tolerances for inner ring
d ∆ d mp ∆ ds Vd sp Vd mp K ia Sd S ia(3) ∆ Bs VBs
unit: μ m

d
A
Nominal bearing Single plane mean bore diameter deviation Single bore Bore diameter variation in a single radial plane Mean bore diameter Radial runout of Inner ring Assembled bearing Deviation of a single inner ring width Inner ring width variation Nominal bearing
bore diameter diameter variation assembled bearing reference face inner ring face bore diameter
deviation Diameter series 8, 9(1) Diameter series 0(2) inner ring runout with bore runout with raceway

mm Class 0 Class 6 Class 5 Class 4 Class 4


Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class
0 6 5 4 0 6 5 4 0 6 5 4
Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class
0 6 5 4 5 4 5 4
Class 0 Class 6
Class Class Class Class
Class 5
0 6
Class 4
5 4
mm B
Over Incl. High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. High Low High Low High Low High Low Max. Over Incl.
      2.5 10 0 - 8 0 - 7 0 - 5 0 - 4 0 - 4 10   9   5   4   8   7   4 3   6   5   3 2 10   6   4 2.5   7 3   7 3 0 - 120 0 - 120 0 - 40 0 - 40 15 15   5 2.5       2.5 10
    10 18 0 - 8 0 - 7 0 - 5 0 - 4 0 - 4 10   9   5   4   8   7   4 3   6   5   3 2 10   7   4 2.5   7 3   7 3 0 - 120 0 - 120 0 - 80 0 - 80 20 20   5 2.5     10 18
    18
    30
30
50
0

0
- 10
- 12
0

0
- 8
- 10
0

0
- 6
- 8
0

0
- 5
- 6
0

0
- 5 13
- 6 15
10
13
  6
  8
  5
  6
10
12
  8
10
  5
  6
4
5
  8
  9
  6
  8
  3
  4
2.5
3
13
15
  8
10
  4
  5
3
4
  8
  8
4
4
  8
  8
4
4
0

0
- 120
- 120
0

0
- 120

- 120
0

0
- 120

- 120
0

0
- 120

- 120
20
20
20
20
  5
  5
2.5     18
3     30 50
30
C
    50 80 0 - 15 0 - 12 0 - 9 0 - 7 0 - 7 19 15   9   7 19 15   7 5 11   9   5 3.5 20 10   5 4   8 5   8 5 0 - 150 0 - 150 0 - 150 0 - 150 25 25   6 4     50 80
    80 120 0 - 20 0 - 15 0 - 10 0 - 8 0 - 8 25 19 10   8 25 19   8 6 15 11   5 4 25 13   6 5   9 5   9 5 0 - 200 0 - 200 0 - 200 0 - 200 25 25   7 4     80 120
  120 180 0 - 25 0 - 18 0 - 13 0 - 10 0 - 10 31 23 13 10 31 23 10 8 19 14   7 5 30 18   8 6 10 6 10 7 0 - 250 0 - 250 0 - 250 0 - 250 30 30   8 5   120 180
  180
  250
250
315
0
0
- 30
- 35
0
0
- 22
- 25
0
0
- 15
- 18
0 - 12 0 - 12 38
44
28
31
15
18
12 38
44
28
31
12
14
9 23
26
17
19
  8
  9
6 40
50
20
25
10
13
8 11
13
7 13
15
8 0
0
- 300
- 350
0
0
- 300
- 350
0
0
- 300
- 350
0 - 300 30
35
30
35
10
13
6   180
  250
250
315 D
  315   400 0 - 40 0 - 30 0 - 23 50 38 23 50 38 18 30 23 12 60 30 15 15 20 0 - 400 0 - 400 0 - 400 40 40 15   315   400
  400   500 0 - 45 0 - 35 56 44 56 44 34 26 65 35 0 - 450 0 - 450 50 45   400   500
  500   630 0 - 50 0 - 40 63 50 63 50 38 30 70 40    0 - 500 0 - 500 60 50   500   630
  
  630
  800
1000
  800
1000
1250
0
0
0
- 75
- 100
- 125
80
90
100
0
0
0
- 750
- 1000
- 1250
70
80
100
  630
  800
1000
  800
1000
1250
E
1250 1600 0 - 160 120 0 - 1600 120 1250 1600
1600 2000 0 - 200 140 0 - 2000 140 1600 2000
Note(1) Applicable to all series except NAS series
(2) Applicable to NAS series F
(3) Applicable to NATA and NATB series

G
Table 13 Tolerances for outer ring unit: μ m

D ∆ Dmp ∆ Ds VD sp(1) V D mp Kea SD S ea(4) ∆ Cs VCs D


Nominal bearing Single plane mean outside diameter deviation Single out- Outside diameter variation in a single radial plane Mean outside Radial runout of Variation of outside Assembled Deviation of a single Outer ring width variation Nominal bearing
outside diameter side diam- diameter variation assembled bearing surface generatrix bearing outer outer ring width outside diameter
eter devia- outer ring inclination with outer ring face runout
Open bearing Bearing with seal or shield
tion ring reference face with raceway

H
Diameter series 8, 9(2) Diameter series 0(3) Diameter series 0(3)
mm Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class mm
Class 0 Class 6 Class 5 Class 4 Class 4 Class 6 Class 5 Class 4 Class 5 Class 4 Class 0, 6, 5, 4 Class 0 Class 6 Class 5 Class 4
0 6 5 4 0 6 5 4 0 6 5 4 0 6 5 4
Over Incl. High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. High Low Max. Over Incl.
      2.5 6 0 - 8 0 - 7 0 - 5 0 - 4 0 - 4 10   9   5   4   8   7   4   3   9   6   5   3 2 15   8   5   3   8   4   8   5   5 2.5       2.5 6

I
      6 18 0 - 8 0 - 7 0 - 5 0 - 4 0 - 4 10   9   5   4   8   7   4   3   9   6   5   3 2 15   8   5   3   8   4   8   5   5 2.5       6 18
    18 30 0 - 9 0 - 8 0 - 6 0 - 5 0 - 5 12 10   6   5   9   8   5   4 10   7   6   3 2.5 15   9   6   4   8   4   8   5   5 2.5     18 30
    30 50 0 - 11 0 - 9 0 - 7 0 - 6 0 - 6 14 11   7   6 11   9   5   5 13   8   7   4 3 20 10   7   5   8   4   8   5   5 2.5     30 50
    50 80 0 - 13 0 - 11 0 - 9 0 - 7 0 - 7 16 14   9   7 13 11   7   5 16 10   8   5 3.5 25 13   8   5   8   4 10   5   6 3     50 80
    80 120 0 - 15 0 - 13 0 - 10 0 - 8 0 - 8 19 16 10   8 19 16   8   6 20 11 10   5 4 35 18 10   6   9   5 11   6   8 4     80 120

J
  120 150 0 - 18 0 - 15 0 - 11 0 - 9 0 - 9 23 19 11   9 23 19   8   7 25 14 11   6 5 40 20 11   7 10   5 13   7   8 5   120 150
  150 180 0 - 25 0 - 18 0 - 13 0 - 10 0 - 10 31 23 13 10 31 23 10   8 30 19 14   7 5 45 23 13   8 10   5 14   8 Same as the Same as the   8 5   150 180
  180 250 0 - 30 0 - 20 0 - 15 0 - 11 0 - 11 38 25 15 11 38 25 11   8 23 15   8 6 50 25 15 10 11   7 15 10 tolerance tolerance 10 7   180 250
values of ∆ Bs values of VBs
  250   315 0 - 35 0 - 25 0 - 18 0 - 13 0 - 13 44 31 18 13 44 31 14 10 26 19   9 7 60 30 18 11 13   8 18 10 11 7   250   315
  315   400 0 - 40 0 - 28 0 - 20 0 - 15 0 - 15 50 35 20 15 50 35 15 11 30 21 10 8 70 35 20 13 13 10 20 13 for d of the for d of the 13 8   315   400
  400   500 0 - 45 0 - 33 0 - 23 56 41 23 56 41 17 34 25 12 80 40 23 15 23 same bearing same bearing 15   400   500
  500
  630
  630
800
0
0
- 50
- 75
0
0
- 38
- 45
0
0
- 28
- 35
63
94
48
56
28
35
63 48
94 56
21
26
38
55
29
34
14
18
100
120
50
60
25
30
18
20
25
30
18
20
  500
  630
  630
800
K
  800 1000 0 - 100 0 - 60 125 75 125 75 75 45 140 75   800 1000
1000 1250 0 - 125 160 1000 1250
1250 1600 0 - 160 190 1250 1600
1600
2000
2000
2500
0
0
- 200
- 250
220
250
1600
2000
2000
2500 L
Note(1) Classes 0 and 6 are applicable to outer rings without stop rings.
(2) Applicable to all series except NAS series
(3) Applicable to NAS series

M
(4) Applicable to NATA and NATB series

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A31 1mm=0.03937inch
A32
Table 14 Tolerances for smallest single roller set
bore diameter F ws min(1) unit: μm
Table 15 Permissible limit values for chamfer
dimensions of radial bearings unit: mm
Methods of Measurement A
Fw ∆ Fws min r s min d r s max Measurement of Needle Roller Bearings is
Nominal roller set bore diameter Deviation of smallest single roller set bore diameter Smallest Nominal bore diameter Largest permissible single chamfer dimension based on JIS B 1515-1, -2 (Rolling bearings-
mm
B
permissible single Tolerances). Tables 16 and 17 show some examples
Over Incl. High Low chamfer dimension Over Incl. Radial direction Axial direction of the methods.
    3     6    + 18 + 10 0.1 ─ ─ 0.55(2)   0.55(2) Special methods are used to measure Shell Type
    6   10   + 22 + 13 0.15 ─ ─   0.6   (2)   0.6   Needle Roller Bearings. Therefore, refer to the sec-
  10   18 + 27 + 16 0.2 ─ ─   0.7   (2)   0.8   tion on accuracy for these bearings on page B3.
  18
  30
  30
  50
+ 33
+ 41


20
25 0.3

  40
  40

  0.8   (2)
  0.8
  1
  1
C
  50   80 + 49 + 30 0.4(1) ─ ─   0.8   1.2 Table 16 Measurement methods of accuracy of boundary dimensions
  80 120 + 58 + 36 ─   40   1.1   (2)   2
120 180 + 68 + 43 0.6
─ Measurement methods Accuracy and definitions
D
  40   1.3   2
180 250 + 79 + 50 ─   50   1.5   3
250 315 + 88 + 56 1
  50 ─   1.9   3 Zero the gauge indicator to the appropri- Calculated mean value of the maximum and minimum
315 400 + 98 + 62 ─ 120   2   3.5 Single bore ate size using gauge blocks or a master d mp values of the single bore diameter within a radial plane.
400 500 + 108 + 68 1.1 ring.
120 ─   2.5   4 diameter In several angular directions and in a sin- Mean bore diameter d sp max + d sp min
d mp =

E
Note(1) This is the diameter of the cylinder used instead of the 120   2.3   4 gle radial plane, measure and record the in a single plane 2
inner ring, where the radial clearance becomes 0 at least 1.5 largest and the smallest single bore diam- d sp:Single bore diameter in a single plane
in one radial direction. 120 ─   3   5 eters, d sp max and d sp min, within the mea-
─   80   3   4.5 suring zone (excluding the zone 1.2 times ∆ d mp Deviation of mean bore diameter in a single plane and
2   80 220   3.5   5 the respective maximum allowable cham- Deviation of mean bore nominal bore diameter.
fer dimensions of the inner ring face).
220 ─   3.8   6 Repeat angular measurements and record- diameter in a single ∆ d mp = d mp − d
2.1

280
280

  4
  4.5
  6.5
  7
ings in several radial planes to determine
the largest and the smallest single bore
plane d :Nominal bearing bore diameter
F
─ 100   3.8   6 diameter, d s max and d s min. V d sp Deviation of the maximum and minimum values of the
Variation of bore diameter single bore diameter within a radial plane.
2.5(1) 100 280   4.5   6
in a single plane V d sp = d sp max − d sp min
280 ─   5   7

1.2rs max
3

280
280

  5
  5.5
  8
  8
V d mp
Deviation of the maximum and minimum values of mean bore
diameter in a single plane, for individual raceway rings with
G
Variation of mean
4 ─ ─   6.5   9 essentially cylindrical bore diameter surfaces.
bore diameter
5 ─ ─   8 10 V d mp = d mp max − d mp min
─ ─
H
6 10 13 Deviation of single bore diameter and nominal bore diameter.
∆ ds

1.2rs max
Note(1)  Not specified in JIS. ∆ ds = d s − d
Deviation of a single
(2)  The numeric value differs from JIS. d s:Single bore diameter (distance between two parallel straight lines touching
Remark  Although the exact shape of the chamfer is not specified, bore diameter the intersection of the single bore diameter surface and the radial plane)
its profile in the axial plane must not extend beyond the
imaginary circular arc of radius rs min which is tangential Zero the gauge indicator to the appropri- Calculated mean value of the maximum and minimum
Single D mp
I
to the inner ring side surface and bearing bore surface or ate size using gauge blocks or a master. values of the single outside diameter within a radial plane.
to the outer ring side surface and bearing outside sur- outside In several angular directions and in a sin- Mean outside
gle radial plane, measure and record the diameter in a single D D sp max + D sp min
face. (See Fig. 12.) diameter mp =
largest and the smallest single outside 2
diameters, Dsp max and Dsp min, within the plane
D sp:Single outside diameter in a single plane
measuring zone (excluding the zone 1.2
times the respective maximum allowable Deviation of mean outside diameter in a single plane and
chamfer dimensions of the outer ring
face).
∆ D mp
Deviation of mean outside ∆
nominal outside diameter.
D mp = D mp − D
J
Repeat and record measurements in sev- diameter in a single plane
eral radial planes to determine the largest D:Nominal bearing outside diameter
Side surface of

and the smallest single outside diameter,


inner ring or

V D sp Deviation of the maximum and minimum values of the


outer ring

Ds max and Ds min.

K
Variation of outside single outside diameter within a radial plane.
diameter in a single plane V D sp = D sp max − D sp min

1.2rs max
(Radial direction)

rs Deviation of the maximum and minimum values of mean


m V D mp
in
outside diameter in a single plane, for individual raceway
rs max

Variation of mean
rings with essentially cylindrical outside diameter surfaces.
rs min

L
outside diameter V D mp = D mp max − D mp min
Bearing bore or
bearing outside rs min Deviation of single outside diameter and nominal outside diameter.
surface ∆ Ds ∆ Ds = D s − D

1.2rs max
rs max
(Axial direction) Deviation of a single D s:Single outside diameter (distance between two
outside diameter parallel straight lines touching the intersection of the
Fig. 12 Permissible values for chamfer dimensions
single outside diameter surface and the radial plane)
M

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A33 1mm=0.03937inch
A34
Table 17 Measurement methods for rotational accuracy
A
Measurement methods Accuracy and definitions Accuracy Measurement methods

Fasten the master gauge to a surface plate.

B
Position the bearing on the master gauge and apply Sd Use a precision arbor having a taper of approximately 1 : 5 000 on diameter.
Single bore
the indicator in the radial direction near the middle of Perpendicularity
diameter of Mount the bearing assembly on the tapered arbor and place the arbor
the width on the ring outside surface. Fws In radial bearings without inner rings, the distance
rolling Measure the amount of movement of the outer ring in between two parallel straight lines touching the
of inner ring between two centres so that it can be accurately rotated.
Single bore
element the radial direction by applying sufficient load on the face with Position the indicator against the reference face of the inner ring at a radi-
diameter of roller intersection of the inscribed circle of roller complement
outer ring in the same radial direction as that of the al distance from the arbor axis of half the mean diameter of the face.
complement
C
indicator and in the opposite radial direction. complement and the radial plane. respect to the
Take indicator readings while rotating the inner ring one revolution.
Record indicator readings at the extreme radial posi- bore
tions of the outer ring. Rotate the bearing and repeat
the measurement in several different angular posi- Support the reference face of the outer ring on a surface plate leaving the
tions to determine the largest and the smallest read-
SD inner ring, if an assembled bearing, free. Locate the outer ring cylindrical

1.2rs max
ings, Fws max and Fws min. In radial bearings without inner rings, the minimum value

D
Perpendicularity outside surface against two supports set at 90° to each other to centre the
of the single bore diameter of roller complement.
Measuring Fws min outer ring.
load
of outer ring
Smallest single bore Position the indicator directly above one support. The indicator and the
Remark Diameter of a cylinder where the smallest outside surface
diameter of roller two supports are axially located at the extremes of the measurement zone
single bore diameter of roller complement with respect to (positions 1.2 times the respective maximum allowable chamfer dimen-

1.2rs max
complement

E
has zero radial clearance in at least one Stopper
the face sions of the outer ring face).
Master radial direction.
gauge
Take indicator readings while rotating the outer ring one revolution.

Zero the gauge indicator to the appropriate Use a precision arbor having a taper of approximately 1 : 5 000 on diameter.
height from the reference surface using gauge Deviation of single inner ring width and nominal inner
Inner ring ∆ Bs K ia Mount the bearing assembly on the tapered arbor and place the arbor
blocks or a master.

F
ring width.
width Support one face of the inner or outer ring on Deviation of a single between two centres so that it can be accurately rotated.
Radial runout
three equally spaced fixed supports of equal Position the indicator against the outside surface of the outer ring as close
inner ring width
height and provide two suitable radial supports ∆ Bs = B s − B of inner ring of
as possible to the middle of the outer ring raceway.
on the bore or outside surface set at 90° to each
assembled Hold the outer ring to prevent rotation but ensure its weight is supported
other to centre the inner or outer ring.
Position the indicator against the other face of Deviation of the maximum and minimum values of the bearing by the rolling elements. Take indicator readings while rotating the arbor
V Bs
G
the ring opposite one fixed support.
single inner ring width for individual inner rings. one revolution.
Rotate the inner or outer ring one revolution and
Variation of inner
measure and record the largest and the smallest
single inner (outer) ring width, B s max and B s min, ring width
V Bs = B s max − B s min Use a precision arbor having a taper of approximately 1 : 5 000 on diameter.
(C s max and C s min). K ea Mount the bearing assembly on the tapered arbor and place the arbor
Radial runout
H
between two centres so that it can be accurately rotated.
Deviation of single outer ring width and nominal outer
Outer ring ∆ Cs of outer ring of Position the indicator against the outside surface of the outer ring as close
ring width.
width Deviation of a single assembled as possible to the middle of the outer ring raceway.
outer ring width Hold the inner ring stationary. Take indicator readings while rotating the
∆ Cs = C s − C bearing
outer ring one revolution.

V Cs
Deviation of the maximum and minimum values of the
S ia Support the reference face of the outer ring on a surface plate with a pilot
I
single outer ring width for individual outer rings.
Variation of outer for centering the outside diameter of the ring. Apply a dynamically stable
Axial runout of Load on inner ring
ring width coaxial load to the reference face of the inner ring in order to ensure con-
V C s = C s max − C s min inner ring of

J
tact between rolling elements and raceways.
assembled Position the indicator against the reference face of the inner ring and take
Support the bearing on a surface plate. Zero the
bearing indicator readings while rotating the inner ring one revolution.
gauge indicator to an appropriate height from the sur-
Bearing
face plate using gauge blocks or a master.
height
Place a plate of known thickness on the bearing Deviation of actual bearing height and nominal bearing

K
assembly, apply a dynamically stable coaxial load, and height of the thrust bearing. S ea Support the reference face of the inner ring on a surface plate with a pilot
position the indicator over the centre of the plate.
∆ Ts for centering in the bore of the inner ring. Apply a dynamically stable
Rotate the housing washer several times, to be sure to Axial runout of Load on outer ring
∆ Ts = T s − T coaxial load to the reference face of the outer ring in order to ensure con-
reach the smallest height, and take indicator readings. Deviation of the outer ring of tact between rolling elements and raceways.
actual bearing height
Disk master assembled Position the indicator against the reference face of the outer ring and take
T s:Actual bearing height
T   :Nominal bearing height
bearing indicator readings while rotating the outer ring one revolution.
L

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A35 1mm=0.03937inch
A36
Clearance 1 Table 18 shows the radial internal clearances of
Needle Roller Bearings with Inner Ring based on JIS
Selection of clearance    ∆ C = ∆ F + ∆ E  ………………………………(24)
A
The clearances between the bearing rings and rolling B 1520 (Rolling bearings-Radial internal clearance). Radial clearances of needle roller bearings change   where, ∆ C :Amount of reduction of the radial
elements are known as bearing clearances. When The radial internal clearances are classified into C2, according to bearing fit, temperature difference clearance, mm
      ∆ F :Amount of expansion of the out-
B
either the inner or outer ring is fixed and a specified CN, C3, C4, and C5, with clearances increasing in between bearing rings and rolling elements, loads,
measuring load is applied to the free bearing ring this order. CN is used under normal operating condi- etc., and these factors greatly influence bearing life, side diameter of inner ring, mm
inward and outward alternately in the radial direction, tions. When a smaller range in radial internal clear- accuracy, noise, generation of heat, etc. If radial       ∆ E :Amount of shrinkage of the bore
the displacement of the free bearing is referred to as ance than the values shown in Table 18 is required, clearances are too large, noise and vibration will diameter of outer ring, mm
please consult . increase, and if they are too small, abnormally great
C
the radial internal clearance. The amount of measur-
ing load in this case is extremely small, and its values forces are exerted on the contact areas between 1 Amount of expansion of the outside diameter of inner ring
are specified in JIS B 1515-2 (Rolling bearings-Toler- 2 In the case of Shell Type Needle Roller Bearings, raceways and rolling elements, resulting in abnormal-
ances-Part2:Measuring and gauging principles and the correct dimensional accuracy is achieved only ly high heat generation and a decrease in bearing life. ・With solid shaft
methods). after the bearings are press-fitted into the specified Therefore, in the ideal case, the clearance provided
d
housing bore. Therefore, the clearances shown in
Table 18 are not applicable. See page B5.
before mounting should be such that it will become
zero or slightly larger when the bearing has reached
   ∆ F = ∆ de               ………………………………(25)
F D
steady-state operation and the temperature has ・With hollow shaft
3 For the radial internal clearances of Cam Followers, become constant (saturation temperature). However, d 1 − (d i /d ) 2
Roller Followers and Crossed Roller Bearings, see the it is difficult to achieve this ideal state for all bearings.    ∆ F = ∆ de                     ……(26)
relevant section for each bearing. Under general operating conditions, bearings with CN
F 1 − (d/F ) 2 (d i /d ) 2
  where, ∆ de :Effective interference of inner ring, mm
E
clearance are most widely used, and are manufac-
tured to provide satisfactory performance when fitted       d  :Bore diameter of inner ring, mm
according to Tables 21 and 22.       F  :Outside diameter of inner ring, mm
When radial internal clearances other than CN are
used, refer to Table 19.
      d i  :Bore diameter of hollow shaft, mm
F
2 Amount of shrinkage of the bore diameter of outer ring
Table 18 Radial internal clearances of Needle Roller Bearings unit: μm
・With steel housing(D 0 =∞)
d
Nominal bore diameter
Classification of clearances Table 19 Examples of selecting radial internal
clearances other than CN clearance
   ∆ E = ∆ De 
E
        ………………………………(27)
G
mm C2 CN C3 C4 C5 D
Over Incl. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Operating conditions Selection of clearance
・With steel housing(D 0 ≠∞)
─ 10 0 25 20 45 35 60 50 75 ─ ─
10 24 0 25 20 45 35 60 50 75 65 90
When heavy loads and shock loads are
applied, and amount of interference is great.    ∆ E = ∆ De  
E
       
1 − (D/D 0) 2
D 1 − (E/D ) 2 (D/D 0) 2
  ……(28) H
24 30 0 25 20 45 35 60 50 75 70 95
30 40 5 30 25 50 45 70 60 85 80 105 When directionally indeterminate loads are applied,
and a tight fit is required for both inner and outer rings.   where, ∆ D e :Effective interference of outer ring, mm
40 50 5 35 30 60 50 80 70 100 95 125 C3 or larger clearance       D :Outside diameter of outer ring, mm
50
65
65
80
10
10
40
45
40
40
70
75
60
65
90
100
80
90
110
125
110
130
140
165
When temperature of inner ring is much
higher than that of outer ring.
      E :Bore diameter of outer ring, mm
      D 0 :Outside diameter of housing, mm
I
80 100 15 50 50 85 75 110 105 140 155 190 When shaft deflection and/or mounting
100 120 15 55 50 90 85 125 125 165 180 220 error to the housing are great. Reduction of radial clearances due to
J
120 140 15 60 60 105 100 145 145 190 200 245
When less noise and vibration are required. temperature differences between inner
140 160 20 70 70 120 115 165 165 215 225 275
When a loose fit is required for both inner and outer rings. C2 or smaller clearance and outer rings
160 180 25 75 75 125 120 170 170 220 250 300
When preload is required.
180 200 35 90 90 145 140 195 195 250 275 330 Frictional heat generated by rotation is dissipated
200 225 45 105 105 165 160 220 220 280 305 365 through the shafts and housings as well as through oil
225
250
250
280
45
55
110
125
110
125
175
195
170
190
235
260
235
260
300
330
330
370
395
440
Reduction of radial clearances by fit and air. Under general operating conditions, heat dis- K
sipation is larger on the housing side compared with
280 315 55 130 130 205 200 275 275 350 410 485 When the inner or outer rings are interference fitted that on the shaft side, and the temperature of the
315 355 65 145 145 225 225 305 305 385 455 535 onto shafts and into housings, respectively, they outer ring is usually lower than that of the inner ring.
355
400
400
450
100
110
190
210
190
210
280
310
280
310
370
410
370
410
460
510
510
565
600
665
expand or shrink due to elastic deformation. As the
result, the radial clearances are reduced. These
During operation, the temperature of the rolling ele-
ments is the highest, followed by that of the inner ring
L
450 500 110 220 220 330 330 440 440 550 625 735 reduced radial clearances are called residual (inter- and that of the outer ring. The amount of thermal
Remark  For bearings with CN clearance, no symbol is attached to the identification number. In the case of bearings with C2, C3, C4 and C5 nal) clearances. expansion, therefore, varies, and the radial clearances
clearances, these symbols are attached to the identification number.

M
The amount of reduction is obtained by the following are reduced. This reduced radial clearance is called
     Example NA 4905 C2
equation, and it is generally 70 to 90% of the interfer- the effective (internal) clearance, and the amount of
ence amount. reduction is obtained by the following equation:

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A37 1mm=0.03937inch
A38
   ∆ δ= α∆ t E …………………………………(29)
Fit Conditions for determination of fit as ∆ T, the temperature difference between the inner
ring and the shaft can be estimated to be (0.1 〜 0.15)
A
  where, ∆ δ : Reduction of radial clearance, mm When determining a suitable fit for a bearing, it is nec- ∆ T. Accordingly, the amount of reduction of the inner
α : Coefficient of linear expansion for Purpose of fit essary to consider various conditions such as nature ring interference is obtained by the following equation.

B
bearing steel and magnitude of the load, temperature, required
To achieve the best performance of needle roller   ∆ dT = (0.1 〜 0.15) ∆ T α d ≒ 0.0015 ∆ T d ×10 -3 …(32)
              ≒ 12.5 × 10-6 1/ °C rotational accuracy, material/finish grade/thickness of
bearings, it is important that the bearing rings are cor-
∆ t : Temperature difference between the the shaft and housing, ease of mounting and dis-   where, ∆ dT : Reduction amount of inner ring
rectly fitted onto the shaft and into the housing.
outer ring and the inner ring plus rolling mounting, etc. interference due to temperature
The purpose of fit is to provide the appropriate
elements considered as one unit, °C
C
amount of interference required between the inner difference, mm
E : Bore diameter of outer ring, mm 1  Nature of load and fit
ring and the shaft or between the outer ring and the ∆ T : Temperature difference between
Basically, the appropriate fit depends on whether the
housing, to prevent harmful mutual slippage. the inside of the bearing and the
The temperature difference ∆ t is considered to be 5 load direction is rotational or stationary in relation to
If the interference is insufficient, it will cause a harmful outside of the housing, °C
〜 10°C under normal operating conditions and 15 〜 the inner and outer rings.
relative displacement, known as creep, between the α : Coefficient of linear expansion
20°C at high rotational speeds. Therefore, when the
temperature difference is great, a correspondingly
fitted surfaces in the circumferential direction. This
may lead to abnormal wear of fitted surfaces, intru-
The relationship between the nature of radial loads
and the fit is, in general, based on Table 20. for bearing steel D
larger radial internal clearance must be selected. ≒ 12.5×10-6 1/ °C
sion of wear particles into the bearing, generation of
2  Load amount and interference d : Bore diameter of inner ring, mm
abnormal heat, vibration, etc. Therefore, a suitable fit
The greater the load, the larger the interference must
must be selected.
be. 4  Shaft finish grade and interference
Since peaks of surface roughness of the fitted surface
E
When selecting an interference between the inner ring
Table 20 Nature of radial load and fit and the shaft, it is necessary to estimate the reduction are crushed down when fitting the bearing, the effec-
of interference due to the radial load. The amount of tive interference becomes smaller than the apparent
Fit
Nature of the load
Rotating conditions Inner ring Outer ring
reduction of interference is obtained by the following
equations.
interference obtained by measurements, and it is gen-
erally obtained by the following equations.
F
・For ground shaft
Inner ring : Rotating ・When F r ≦ 0.2C 0
d
Outer ring : Stationary
Load direction : Fixed    ∆ dF = 0.08 d F ×10 ………………(30)
      r
-3
    ∆ de =     ∆ df   …………………………(33)
d+2 G
B ・For machined shaft
Rotating load on inner ring Interference fit Clearance fit
Stationary load on outer ring ・When F r>0.2C 0
d
    ∆ de =     ∆ df   …………………………(34)
Inner ring : Stationary
Outer ring : Rotating
Fr
   ∆ dF = 0.02       × 10
B
-3     
……………………(31)
d+3
H
Load direction : Rotating with outer ring   where, ∆ de : Effective interference of inner ring,
  where, F r :Radial load applied to bearing, N mm
C0 :Basic static load rating, N d : Bore diameter of inner ring, mm
I

∆ dF :Amount of reduction of inner ∆ df : Apparent interference, mm


Inner ring : Stationary ring interference, mm
Outer ring : Rotating d :Bore diameter of inner ring, mm 5  Minimum interference and maximum interference
Load direction : Fixed
B :Width of inner ring, mm When the load direction is rotating in relation to the
Rotating load on outer ring
Stationary load on inner ring
Clearance fit Interference fit
inner ring, the inner ring is fitted with interference to
the shaft.
J
3  Temperature conditions and change of interference
The interference of fitted surfaces is also influenced For solid ground steel shafts, the minimum interfer-
Inner ring : Rotating
by the temperature difference between the bearing e n c e ( r e q u i r e d a p p a r e n t i n t e r fe r e n c e ) ∆ d f i s
Outer ring : Stationary
Load direction : Rotating with inner ring and the shaft and housing. For example, when steam
is flowing through a hollow shaft, or when the housing
expressed by the following equation which is deduced
from equations (30) or (31), (32) and (33). K
is made of light metal, it is necessary to take into con-
d+2
The load direction is not sideration the differences in temperature, the coeffi-   ∆ df ≧     (∆ dF + 0.0015 ∆ T d×10 -3 )  …(35)
d
L
fixed, including cases where Inner ring : Rotating or stationary cient of linear expansion and other such factors.
Directionally indeterminate load the load direction is fluctuat- Outer ring : Rotating or stationary Interference fit Interference fit Usually, the interference of the inner ring decreases It is desired that the maximum interference should be
ing or there is an unbal- Load direction : Not fixed as the bearing temperature increases during opera- less than 1/1000 of the shaft diameter. In the case of
anced load. tion. If the temperature difference between the inside the outer ring, the effective interference varies accord-
of the bearing and the outside of the housing is taken ing to the housing material, thickness, shape, etc., so
it is determined empirically. M

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A39 1mm=0.03937inch
A40
Selection of fit Table 22 Fit between needle roller bearings with inner ring and shafts
A
Shaft dia. mm Tolerance class Application examples
When selecting a suitable fit, in addition to the various Operating conditions
Over Incl. of shaft(1) (Reference)
conditions mentioned above, it is necessary to draw

B
on experience and practical results. Light load, normal load, low or
Tables 21 and 22 show the most general fit data. medium rotating speed
g6
Wheels on dead axles
When a thin housing or a hollow shaft is used, the Control lever gears
Stationary load
interference is made larger than an ordinary fit. Heavy load, medium rotating speed All shaft diameters h6
on inner ring Rope sheaves
The fit between needle roller bearings without inner
ring and shafts is based on Table 23.
For the fit between Shell Type Needle Roller Bearings
Especially smooth operation and
accuracy are required.
h5
Tension pulleys
C
and housing bores, see page B5. − 50 j5 Electric appliances, Precision machinery
For the fit between inner rings for Shell Type Needle Light load
  50 100 k5 Machine tools, Pumps
Roller Bearings and shafts, see Table 22.
Rotating load
on inner ring or
100
200
200

m6(2)
n6(3)
Blowers, Transportation vehicles D
Directionally
−  50 k5( ) 4
General bearing applications
indeterminate Normal load
  50 150 m5,m6(2)
Pumps, Transmission gearboxes,
Table 21 Fit between needle roller bearings and housing bores (Not applicable to Shell Type Needle Roller Bearings) 150 200 n6(3)
E
load Wood working machinery, Internal combustion engines
200 − p6(3)
Tolerance class of
Operating conditions Application examples (Reference)
housing bore(1) Heavy load − 150 n6(3) Industrial vehicles, Construction machinery
Shock load 150 − p6(3) Crushers
Heavy load on thin housing, large
P7(2) Flywheels Notes(1) This table applies to solid steel shafts.
shock load

Rotating load on
Heavy load, normal load N7(2) Wheel bosses, transmission gears
(2) It is necessary to examine the reduction of radial internal clearances caused by the expansion of inner rings after mounting.
(3) It is necessary to use bearings with radial internal clearances greater than CN clearance.
(4) For NATA and NATB, do not use a tighter fit than k5.
F
outer ring

Light load, fluctuating load M7 Pulleys, tension pulleys Table 23 Tolerance class of shafts assembled with needle roller bearings without inner ring

Large shock load Eccentric wheels, pumps


Fw
Nominal roller set bore diameter
Radial internal clearance
G
M7
mm Smaller than CN clearance CN clearance Larger than CN clearance
Directionally
indeterminate Heavy load, normal load K7 Compressors Tolerance class of shaft(1)
H
Over Incl.
load
 − 65 k5 h5 g6
Normal load, light load J7 Crankshafts, compressors
65 80 k5 h5 f6
80 160 k5 g5 f6

I
Shock load, heavy load J7 General bearing applications, gear shafts 160 180 k5 g5 e6
180 200 j5 g5 e6
Stationary load
Normal load, light load H7 General bearing applications 200 250 j5 f6 e6
on outer ring
250 315 h5 f6 e6
315 − g5 f6 d6
J
With heat conduction through shaft G7 Paper dryers
Note(1) When the housing bore fit is tighter than K7, the shaft diameter is made smaller by considering shrinkage of roller set bore diameter
Light load, normal load, requirements of high-precision after mounting.
K6 Main spindles of machine tools
rotation and high rigidity
Notes(1) This table applies to steel or cast iron housings. For lighter metal, a tighter fit should be selected.
For split housings, do not use a fit tighter than J7.
(2) Care should be taken so that the radial internal clearance is not too small.
Remark  Light load, normal load and heavy load represent P ≦ 0.06C, 0.06C<P ≦ 0.12C, and 0.12C<P, respectively, where P is the
K
dynamic equivalent radial load and C is the basic dynamic load rating of the bearing to be used.

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A41 1mm=0.03937inch
A42
Table 24 Fit values for radial bearings (JIS Class 0) (Fit with housing bore) unit: μm
Design of Shaft and Housing Inclination of shaft
A
D ∆ Dmp G7 H7 J7 K6 K7 M7 N7 P7
Nominal outside Single plane mean Shafts and outer rings may have some inclination
Accuracy and roughness of shaft and housing

Housing

Housing

Housing

Housing

Housing

Housing

Housing

Housing
diameter outside diameter between them due to deflection of the shaft, machin-

B
mm deviation ing accuracy of shafts and housings, errors in mount-
Bearing Bearing Bearing Bearing Bearing Bearing Bearing Bearing
Accuracy and roughness of fitting surface
ing, etc.
Over Incl. High Low
In this case, the use of two or more bearings in tan-
3 6 0 - 8 - 24 〜 - 4 - 20 〜 0 -14 〜 6 -10 〜 6 -11 〜 9 -  8 〜 12 -  4 〜 16 0 〜 20 Since the bearing rings of needle roller bearings are
dem arrangement on a single shaft should be avoid-
6 10 0 - 8 - 28 〜 - 5 - 23 〜 0 -16 〜 7 -10 〜 7 -13 〜 10 -  8 〜 15 -  4 〜 19 1 〜 24 thin, their performance is easily affected by poor
ed. Instead, a bearing with large load ratings should
10
18
18
30
0
0
- 8
- 9
- 32 〜
- 37 〜
- 6
- 7
- 26 〜 0
- 30 〜 0
-18 〜 8
-21 〜 9
-10 〜 9
-11 〜 11
-14 〜 12
-15 〜 15
-  8 〜 18
-  9 〜 21
-  3 〜 23
-  2 〜 28
3 〜 29
5 〜 35
accuracy of shafts or housings. Under general oper-
ating conditions, the fitting surfaces of shafts and
be used.
It is recommended that inclination of shafts be less
C
30 50 0 -11 - 45 〜 - 9 - 36 〜 0 -25 〜 11 -14 〜 13 -18 〜 18 -11 〜 25 -  3 〜 33 6 〜 42 housings can be finished by lathe turning. However,
than 1/1000.
50 80 0 -13 - 53 〜 -10 - 43 〜 0 -31 〜 12 -17 〜 15 -22 〜 21 -13 〜 30 -  4 〜 39 8 〜 51 when the load is great and high accuracy and low
- 62 〜 - 50 〜 0 -37 〜 13 -19 〜 18 -25 〜 25 -15 〜 35 -  5 〜 45 9 〜 59 noise are required, a grinding finish is required.
D
80 120 0 -15 -12 Table 27 Tolerance class IT values for basic
120 150 0 -18 - 72 〜 -14 - 58 〜 0 -44 〜 14 -22 〜 21 -30 〜 28 -18 〜 40 -  6 〜 52 10 〜 68 Table 26 shows the accuracy and roughness of fitting
dimensions
150 180 0 -25 - 79 〜 -14 - 65 〜 0 -51 〜 14 -29 〜 21 -37 〜 28 -25 〜 40 -13 〜 52 3 〜 68 surfaces for general use.
Basic dimension Tolerance class(1)
180 250 0 -30 - 91 〜 -15 - 76 〜 0 -60 〜 16 -35 〜 24 -43 〜 33 -30 〜 46 -16 〜 60 3 〜 79
mm IT5 IT6 IT7
250 315 0 -35 -104 〜 -17 - 87 〜 0 -71 〜 16 -40 〜 27 -51 〜 36 -35 〜 52 -21 〜 66 1 〜 88 Accuracy and roughness of raceway surface
315
400
400
500
0
0
-40
-45
-115 〜
-128 〜
-18
-20
- 97 〜 0
-108 〜 0
-79 〜 18
-88 〜 20
-47 〜 29
-53 〜 32
-57 〜 40
-63 〜 45
-40 〜 57
-45 〜 63
-24 〜 73
-28 〜 80
1 〜 98
0 〜 108 In case of needle roller bearings unlike other bear-
Over
 −
Incl.
3 4
Tolerance μm
6 10
E
Remark The negative value denotes a clearance and the positive value denotes an interference. ings, mating surfaces such as shaft and housing bore 3 6 5 8 12
surfaces can be used directly as the raceway sur- 6 10 6 9 15

F
faces. For such use, accuracy and roughness of the 10 18 8 11 18
Table 25 Fit values for radial bearings (JIS Class 0) (Fit with shaft)          unit: μm raceway surfaces are important because they will 18 30 9 13 21
d ∆ d mp g6 h5 h6 j5 k5 m5 m6 n6 p6 influence bearing life, noise and accuracy. 30 50 11 16 25
Nominal bore Single plane mean In general, accuracy and roughness of raceway sur- 50 80 13 19 30
Bearing

Bearing

Bearing

Bearing

Bearing

Bearing

Bearing

Bearing

Bearing
diameter bore diameter faces are based on Table 26. 80 120 15 22 35
mm deviation
Over Incl. High Low
Shaft Shaft Shaft Shaft Shaft Shaft Shaft Shaft Shaft
120
180
180
250
18
20
25
29
40
46
G
250 315 23 32 52
3 6 0 -  8 -12 〜 4 -  5 〜 8 -  8 〜 8 -  2 〜 11 1 〜 14 4 〜 17 4〜 20 8〜 24 12 〜 28
315 400 25 36 57
6 10 0 -  8 -14 〜 3 -  6 〜 8 -  9 〜 8 -  2 〜 12 1 〜 15 6 〜 20 6〜 23 10 〜 27 15 〜 32
10
18
18
30
0
0
-  8
-10
-17 〜
-20 〜
2
3
-  8 〜 8
-  9 〜 10
-11 〜 8
-13 〜 10
-  3 〜 13
-  4 〜 15
1 〜 17
2 〜 21
7 〜 23
8 〜 27
7〜
8〜
26
31
12 〜
15 〜
31
38
18 〜
22 〜
37
45
400
500
500
630
27
30
40
44
63
70 H
Note(1) Based on JIS B 0401.
30 50 0 -12 -25 〜 3 -11 〜 12 -16 〜 12 -  5 〜 18 2 〜 25 9 〜 32 9〜 37 17 〜 45 26 〜 54
50 80 0 -15 -29 〜 5 -13 〜 15 -19 〜 15 -  7 〜 21 2 〜 30 11 〜 39 11 〜 45 20 〜 54 32 〜 66
80
120
120
140
0 -20 -34 〜 8 -15 〜 20 -22 〜 20 -  9 〜 26 3 〜 38 13 〜 48 13 〜 55 23 〜 65 37 〜 79 Table 26 Specifications of shafts and housings for radial needle roller bearings
Shaft Housing bore
I
140 160 0 -25 -39 〜 11 -18 〜 25 -25 〜 25 -11 〜 32 3 〜 46 15 〜 58 15 〜 65 27 〜 77 43 〜 93 Item
160 180 Fitting surface Raceway surface Fitting surface Raceway surface

180 200 0.3 × IT6(1) 0.3 × IT6(1) 0.3 × IT7(1) 0.3 × IT7(1)
200
225
225
250
0 -30 -44 〜 15 -20 〜 30 -29 〜 30 -13 〜 37 4 〜 54 17 〜 67 17 〜 76 31 〜 90 50 〜 109 Circularity or
0.3 × IT5(1)
or
0.3 × IT5(1)
or
0.3 × IT6(1)
or
0.3 × IT6(1) J
250 280 0.5 × IT6(2) 0.3 × IT6(1) 0.5 × IT7(2) 0.3 × IT7(1)
0 -35 -49 〜 18 -23 〜 35 -32 〜 35 -16 〜 42 4 〜 62 20 〜 78 20 〜 87 34 〜 101 56 〜 123 Cylindricity or or or or
280 315
0.5 × IT5(2) 0.3 × IT5(1) 0.5 × IT6(2) 0.3 × IT6(1)
315
355
355
400
0 -40 -54 〜 22 -25 〜 40 -36 〜 40 -18 〜 47 4 〜 69 21 〜 86 21 〜 97 37 〜 113 62 〜 138
Surface roughness μ mRa 0.8 0.2(3) 1.6 0.2(3) K
400 450            (μ mRy) (3.2) (0.8) (6.3) (0.8)
0 -45 -60 〜 25 -27 〜 45 -40 〜 45 -20 〜 52 5 〜 77 23 〜 95 23 〜 108 40 〜 125 68 〜 153
450 500

L
Remark The negative value denotes a clearance and the positive value denotes an interference.
Hardness − 58 〜 64HRC(4) − 58 〜 64HRC(4)

Notes(1) 30% or less of the dimensional tolerance for shafts or housing bores is recommended.
(2) 50% or less of the dimensional tolerance for shafts or housing bores is recommended.
(3) When required accuracy is not critical, a surface roughness within 0.8 μmRa (3.2 μmRy ) is allowable.

M
(4) An appropriate thickness of the hardened layer is required.
Remark  For tolerance class IT, see Table 27.

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A43 1mm=0.03937inch
A44
Raceway materials and heat treatment Dimensions related to mounting of bearings Table 28 Largest permissible single corner radius
of shafts and housings  r as max
entry of harmful foreign substances, such as dirt, dust
and water. For this reason, sealing devices must
A
When using shafts and housings as raceways, the fol- The dimensions of shaft and housing related to unit: mm always work effectively to seal and prevent against
lowing materials are generally used. mounting of the needle roller bearings are shown in r s min r as max dust penetration under all operating conditions. Also,

B
 High-carbon chromium bearing steel the table of dimensions for each bearing. (See Fig. Smallest permissible Largest permissible single when selecting a suitable sealing method, it is neces-
single chamfer corner radius of shafts and
SUJ2 JIS G 4805 13.) sary to consider such factors as the type of lubricant,
dimension housings
 Carburizing steel SCM415 〜 421   JIS G 4053 The minimum value of the shaft shoulder diameter d a peripheral speed of the seal, operating temperature,
which receives the inner ring, and the maximum value 0.1 0.1 shaft eccentricity, seal friction, etc. as well as ease of
 Carburizing steel SNCM 220 JIS G 4053 rs min Housing
of the housing shoulder diameter D a which receives 0.15 0.15

rs min
 Carburizing steel assembly and disassembly.
C
SCr 420 JIS G 4053 ras max
the outer ring, represent the effective shoulder diame- 0.2 0.2 Sealing methods are of the non-contact and contact
 Carburizing steel SNC 415、815 JIS G 4053 0.3 0.3
ters (excluding the chamfered part) which make prop- types, and it is necessary to select the appropriate
 Carburizing steel S 15 CK JIS G 4051 0.4 0.4
er contact with the side faces of the inner and outer type depending on the application.
In addition, S50C and S55C (JIS G 4051) can be 0.6 0.6
rings respectively.
used after through hardening or induction hardening. 1 1
The hardened layer produced by tempering at +160
Also, the maximum value of the shaft shoulder (or
1.1 1 ras max Non-contact type sealing method D

rs min
inner ring retaining piece) diameter d a is the dimen- 1.5 1.5
rs min
〜 +180°C after hardening must have a fine uniform
sion related to the ease of mounting/dismounting of 2 2 Shaft There are many methods of non-contact type sealing,
martensite microstructure.
the shaft and inner ring to/from the housing and outer 2.1 2 including the use of oil grooves, flingers and
When hardening the raceway surface by case hard-
ring.
E
2.5 2 labyrinths, which utilize the centrifugal force and nar-
ening or induction hardening, a surface hardness of
The largest permissible single corner radius r as max of 3 2.5 row gaps.
58 〜 64HRC and an appropriate thickness of the
the shaft and housing must be smaller than the small- 4 3 Since they do not make direct contact with the shaft
hardened layer must be ensured. The minimum
est permissible single chamfer dimension r s min of the 5 4 or housing, it is unnecessary to consider friction and
effective thickness of the hardened layer after heat
bearing so that the side surface of the bearing can wear, and the non-contact sealing method is suitable

F
treatment and grinding is defined as the distance from
make proper contact with the shoulder. Table 28 Table 29 Fillet relief dimensions for ground shafts for high speed rotation and high operating tempera-
the surface to the depth where the hardness is
shows the related dimensions. and housings  unit: mm tures. However, because of gaps, this method is not
550HV, and it is obtained by the following equation.
For dimensions of the fillet relief when finishing the r s min always sufficient in preventing oil leakage and dust
   
Eht ≧ 0.8Dw(0.1 + 0.002D w) ……………(36) shaft or housing by grinding, the values shown in Smallest permissible Fillet relief dimensions entry when the machine is not in operation.

G
Table 29 are recommended. single chamfer
  where, E ht :M inimum effective thickness of For other dimensions related to mounting, see the dimension t r gs b 1  Oil groove
the hardened layer, mm related section for each bearing as required. 1 0.2 1.3   2 Oil grooves are provided on either the shaft or hous-

rgs
h
    D w:Roller diameter, mm

t
In addition, for ease in dismounting of bearings, it is 1.1 0.3 1.5   2.4 ing bore, or on both for more effective sealing (See
Generally, the required effective thickness of the convenient to make notches in the shoulder of the 1.5 0.4 2   3.2 Fig. 14.). The clearance between the shaft and the
hardened layer is at least 0.3 mm. shaft or housing to allow the insertion of dismounting
hooks.
2
2.1
0.5
0.5
2.5
2.5
  4
  4
rs min

b
housing bore should be as small as possible, and the
values shown in Table 30 are generally used, taking
H
3 0.5 3   4.7
into consideration errors in machining and assembly,
4 0.5 4   5.9
shaft deformation, etc. Three or more grooves are
5 0.6 5   7.4
6
7.5
0.6
0.6
6
7
  8.6
10
made with a width of 3 〜 5 mm and a depth of 4 〜 5
mm. If the grooves are filled with grease, it will be I
more effective for dust prevention.
As shown in Fig. 15, helical grooves are suitable for
Sealing horizontal shafts which have a fixed direction of rota-

To obtain the best performance of rolling bearings, it


tion. Right or left handed grooves are used according J
Da
da

to the direction of rotation, and they are used for oil


is necessary to prevent leakage of lubricant and the lubrication normally in conjunction with a suitable anti-
dust device.

K
Fig. 13 Dimensions related to mounting

M
(1) (2) (3)
Fig. 14

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A45 1mm=0.03937inch
A46
Table 30 Clearance between grooved shaft and
housing bore unit: mm
3  Labyrinth
Although it is a little difficult to make, the labyrinth is
Contact type sealing method Table 33 Peripheral speed and surface roughness
of shaft A
very effective in preventing oil leakage especially at In this type of sealing, the shaft is sealed by the appli- Peripheral speed  m / s Surface roughness
Shaft dia. Clearance
high speeds. At low speeds, filling the labyrinth with cation of pressure resulting from the elasticity of the Over Incl. μ mRa ( μ mRy)

B
Incl. 50 mm 0.25 〜 0.4 grease is effective in preventing the entry of dust. In seal material to the sealing surface of the shaft, which −   5 0.8(3.2)
Fig. 17, it is necessary to split the housing or cover rotates, reciprocates or oscillates. Synthetic rubber,
Over 50 mm 0.5 〜 1   5 10 0.4(1.6)
plate into two. In Fig. 18, it is easy to assemble, and synthetic resin and felt are generally used as sealing
10 − 0.2(0.8)
if combined with an oil seal, it improves the sealing materials.
effect.
Table 31 shows the labyrinth clearances generally
used.
1  Oil seal
Synthetic rubber oil seals are the most general type of
2  Felt seal
Because of their simple structure, felt seals have long
C
sealing used. The sealing effect is obtained when the been used to protect grease lubrication from dust.
elastic lip comes into contact with the shaft. Some Since felt absorbs some grease during operation, it

Fig. 15
lips are spring-loaded to maintain adequate pressing
force.
hardly causes heat generation and seizure, but it can-
not be used when the peripheral speed of the shaft is D
The sliding surfaces of the lip and the shaft always high (more than 4 m/s). Where there is a high con-
show frictional behavior such that the boundary lubri- centration of dirt and dust, they may become attached
cation and fluid lubrication are mixed. If there is an to the contact surface of felt, sometimes scratching
2  Flinger
The oil flinger is a disk attached to the shaft which
(1)
insufficient amount of oil between the contact sur- the shaft surface. To prevent this, two felt seals are E
throws off oil due to the centrifugal force of rotation faces, it will cause heat generation, wear and seizure. placed apart from each other, or a felt seal is used
and thus prevents oil leakage and the entry of foreign Conversely, if the oil film is too thick, it may cause oil together with a synthetic rubber seal.
particles. Fig. 16 (1) shows an example in which the leakage.
flinger is located inside the housing, mainly to prevent
oil leakage. Since it sucks in dust and dirt, it should
General oil seals are specified in JIS B 2402-1~5.
Oil Seals for Needle Roller Bearings (See page
F
be used in a dust free environment. Fig. 16 (2) shows L1.) have a low sectional height to match the Needle
an example in which the flinger is located outside the Roller Bearings.

G
housing, and is used in combination with another Nitrile rubber is generally used as the material for oil
(2)
sealing device, to prevent entry of foreign particles. seal lips. Table 32 shows the materials and their
operating temperature ranges.
The finished surface of the shaft where the seal lip
Fig. 17 makes contact must have an appropriate surface
roughness, as shown in Table 33, according to the
peripheral speed. It must also have accurate circular-
H
ity, and the shaft eccentricity should be less than 0.05
(1) mm.
To increase wear resistance, the hardness of the slid-
ing part of the shaft must be more than 40HRC. This I
can be achieved by hard-chrome plating or heat treat-
ment.

(2)
Fig. 18
Table 32 Seal materials and operating temperatures J
Fig. 16
Seal material Operating temperature range ℃
Table 31 Labyrinth clearance unit: mm

Shaft dia.
Clearance
Nitrile rubber
Acrylic rubber
− 25 〜+ 120
− 15 〜+ 130
K
Radial direction Axial direction Synthetic rubber
Silicon rubber − 50 〜+ 180
Incl. 50 mm 0.25 〜 0.4 1〜2
Fluoro rubber − 10 〜+ 180
Over 50 mm 0.5 〜 1 3〜5
Tetrafluoethylene resin − 50 〜+ 220
L

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A47 1mm=0.03937inch
A48
Lubrication Methods of lubrication Grease lubrication 2  Replenishment of grease
The life of grease depends on its type and quality, the
A
Grease lubrication and oil lubrication are generally 1  Amount of grease to be filled type and dimensions of the bearing, operating condi-
Purpose of lubrication used for rolling bearings. In special cases, solid lubri- The amount of grease to be filled depends on the tions, temperature, amount of wear, penetration of for-

B
cants are also used. housing structure, dimensions, type of grease used eign particles and water, etc.
The main purpose of bearing lubrication is to reduce
In general, grease lubrication requires the simplest and atmosphere. Generally, filling about 1/3 to 1/2 of Fig. 20 shows the replenishment intervals for grease,
friction and wear and to prevent heat generation and
sealing device. It is therefore economical, and widely the free space inside of the bearing and the housing and is used as a general guideline. The values
seizure. The lubricant and the lubricating method
used. Also, once filled with grease, the bearing can is considered to be appropriate. Too much will cause obtained from this diagram apply to cases in which
have a big influence on the operating performance of
be used for a long period without replenishing the a rise in temperature, and care should be taken espe- the load condition is normal, the machine body is sta-
C
the bearing, and it is therefore necessary to select
grease. However, compared with oil, its heat removal cially at high speed rotations. tionary, and the operating temperature on the outer
them suitably for the operating conditions.
properties and cooling capacity are inferior, since In Fig. 19, several grease pockets are provided by the surface of bearing outer ring is less than +70°C. If
The effects of lubrication are as follows.
grease has high flow resistance, which causes high grease sectors on one side of the bearing. Even if the the temperature exceeds +70°C, as a general rule,
churning heat. filled grease is dispersed by the centrifugal force at the replenishment interval is halved for every 15°C
1  Reduction of friction and wear
At the contact surfaces between the race rings, rolling
elements and cage of the bearing, lubrication pre-
Oil has greater fluidity and superior heat removal
properties. It is therefore suitable for high-speed
high rotational speeds, it is trapped by the grease
pockets and diverted back into the bearing again. Old
increase.
D
operations. In addition, it is simple to filter out dust grease accumulates in the space on the opposite side
vents metal-to-metal contact, and reduces friction and
and dirt from oil. Thus it can prevent the generation of the bearing, and this can be removed periodically
wear due to sliding and rolling, in the latter of which
of noise and vibration and increase bearing life.
E
micro-slips occur by differential slip, skew, spin, or by taking off the cover.
Another advantage of oil lubrication is that it offers the
elastic deformation.
possibility for selecting the appropriate method for
particular operating conditions from among various
2  Elimination of frictional heat available lubrication methods. However, measures to
The lubricant removes the heat generated by friction
or transferred from outside, and prevents overheating
prevent oil leakage are required. As a guideline for
selection, Table 34 compares grease and oil lubrica-
F
of the bearing. Circulating lubrication is generally
tion.
used for this purpose.
For the lubricants used for Spherical Bushings,

G
see page K8.
3  Influence on bearing life
The bearing life is extended if the rolling contact sur-
faces between the race rings and rolling elements are Table 34 Comparison between grease lubrication Fig. 19
separated by an oil film of adequate thickness, and is and oil lubrication

H
shortened if the oil film is inadequate due to low oil
Item Grease lubrication(1) Oil lubrication 20000
viscosity, etc.
15000
Sealing,
4  Rust prevention Simple Slightly complicated 10000
Housing structure
The lubricant prevents rust formation on the inside 8000

and outside surfaces of the bearing. High temperature allowed 6000


I

hours
Temperature High temperature not allowed
(Cooling effect by circulation) 5000

d = 20
4000

10
m
5  Dust prevention

m
tf
Rotational speed Low and medium speeds High speed allowed 3000
Grease lubrication is particularly effective for dust pre-

30 0
Replenishment interval for grease,

4
J

50 0
6
2000
vention. Oil circulating or jet lubrication is effective in

80
10
120
140

0
Load Low and medium loads High load allowed

1600
washing foreign particles away from the area around 1500

18
200
240
280
300
the bearing. 1000
Elaborate
Maintenance Easy 800
(Pay special attention to oil leaks. )

K
600
500
Lubricant replacement Slightly complicated Simple 400

300

Lubrication performance Good Very good 200 Remark 


200 400 600 1000 2000 4000 6000 10000

L
d is the bore diameter of the inner ring. For a
Rotational speed, n min-1 bearing without an inner ring, the roller set bore
Dust filtration Difficult Simple
diameter F w is used for d .

Dust and dirt can be removed by Fig. 20 Interval for replenishment of grease
Entry of dust and dirt Easy measures for protection
filtering in circulating lubrication.
Note(1) This represents bearing grease for general use. M

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A49 1mm=0.03937inch
A50
Oil lubrication oil flows along the grooves in the case and accumu-
lates in the oil pockets, keeping the oil level constant.
the bearing rotates together with the bearing forming
an air wall. As shown in Fig. 24, the jet from the noz-
Lubricants A
1  Oil bath lubrication So the oil is steadily supplied to the bearing. zle blows directly into the space between the inner For rolling bearings, lubricating grease or oil is gener-
This is the most commonly used oil lubrication ring and the cage. Due to the large amount of oil ally used. For special applications, solid lubricants

B
method, and is used for medium and low speeds. If being used, it is more effective to make the discharge are used.
the amount of oil is too large, heat will be generated port larger, and use the forced discharge.
by churning, and if the amount is too small, seizure When the d m n value (mean value of the bearing out- Lubricating grease
will occur. Therefore, the correct amount of oil must side and bore diameters in millimeter x rotational
be maintained. When the machine is stationary, the speed in min-1) is more than 1,000,000, the speed of Grease is a semi-solid lubricant made by mixing base
correct oil level in the case of a bearing mounted on a
horizontal shaft, is near the center of the lowest rolling
the jet should be 10 〜 20 m/s, the nozzle diameter
should be about 1 mm, oil supply pressure should be
oil (liquid lubricant) and a thickener under heat and
adding additives as required.
C
element. In the case of a vertical shaft, about 50% of 0.1 〜 0.5 MPa, and the oil supply amount should be There are many types of grease according to various
the surfaces of the rolling elements should be sub- about 500 cc/min or greater. When the rotational combinations of base oil, thickeners and additives.
Fig. 22 Oil splash lubrication
merged in oil.
It is desirable to provide an oil gauge so that the oil
speed is higher, the oil supply pressure and the oil
amount should be higher.
Grease is usually classified by thickeners and base
oil. Table 35 shows the general properties of each D
level can be easily checked while the machine is sta- 4  Oil circulating lubrication type of grease.
tionary or running. When automatic lubrication is more economical
because lubrication is required at many points, or
2  Oil drip lubrication when cooling is required for high rotational speed, this
method is used. The oil is supplied with a pump,
E
Oil drips, which are fed down from a sight-feed oiler or
along a fiber string, become an oil spray due to wind which can control the oil pressure, and a filter or cool-
pressure generated by the rotating cage, shaft, nut, er, etc. can be set up in the circulation system, mak-
etc., or they strike the rotating parts and form an oil
spray, which fills up the housing and every required
ing this an ideal method of lubrication. As shown in
Fig. 23, the oil supply and discharge ports are located F
part. Because oil spray removes frictional heat, this opposite to each other, and the discharge port is
method has a more effective cooling effect than the oil made large to prevent the accumulation of oil.
Fig. 24 Oil jet lubrication

G
bath method, and is widely used for high-speed rota-
tion and medium load conditions.
In the case of the sight-feed oiler (Fig. 21), the num- Table 35 Properties of various types of grease
ber of drips can be adjusted. However, this is difficult Name (Common name) Calcium Sodium Aluminum Mixed base Barium Non-soap base grease
grease grease grease grease grease Lithium grease
using the string-feed method. The number of drips (Non-soap grease)
depends on the bearing type, rotational speed, etc.,
but 5 〜 6 drips per minute is generally used. Item (  )
grease (  )
Cup
grease (  )
Fiber Mobile
grease (  )
grease (  )
grease (  )
Diester
grease
Silicon Bentone H
Base oil Mineral oil Mineral oil Mineral oil Mineral oil Mineral oil Mineral oil Diester oil Silicon oil Mineral oil Synthetic oil

Na + Ca soap, Silica gel.


Ca soap
I
Thickener Na soap Al soap Ba soap Li soap Li soap Li soap Bentone Polyurea,
Fig. 23 Oil circulating lubrication Li + Ca soap etc.
Fibrous and Stringy and Fibrous and Fibrous and
Appearance Buttery Buttery Buttery Buttery Buttery Buttery
buttery buttery buttery buttery
5  Oil mist lubrication
After dirt and dust are removed by a filter, the oil is Pour point ℃ 80 〜 90 150 〜 180 70 〜 90 160 〜 190 150 〜 180 170 〜 190 170 〜 190 200 〜 250 200 〜 None
turned into a spray by dry compressed air, and this
lubricates the bearing. When the air and oil pass
Operating temperature range ℃ − 10 〜+ 70 − 20 〜+ 120 − 10 〜+ 80 − 10 〜+ 100 − 10 〜+ 135 − 20 〜+ 120 − 50 〜+ 120 − 50 〜+ 180 − 10 〜+ 150 〜+ 200 J
Pressure resistance Strong to weak Strong to medium Strong Strong Strong to medium Medium Medium Weak Medium to weak Medium
Fig. 21 Oil drip lubrication through the bearing, the air cools the bearing and the
Good, poor for Na+
oil lubricates it. In addition, because the air inside the Water resistance Good Poor Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
Ca soap grease
3  Oil splash lubrication
In this method, oil is splashed in all directions by the
housing is at a higher pressure than the outside air,
the entry of water and foreign particles is prevented. Mechanical stability Fair Good Poor Good Poor Excellent Excellent Excellent Good Good to poor K
rotation of the gear or disk. This can be used for con- There are many other advantages of this method, and Contains about Long fibrous It has water Usable at fairly It has water This is the best Excellent Mainly used Generally good heat resis-
siderably high-speed rotations without soaking the it is suitable for high rotational speed applications 1% water. grease cannot and rust resis- high speeds. and heat resis- all-purpose under low for high tem- tance. Grease having a miner-
When the tem- withstand high tant proper- tant proper- grease among temperature peratures. Not al base oil is for general use.
bearing directly in oil. such as high speed internal grinding spindles.
L
perature rises speeds, but ties, and ties. This is an soap based conditions and suited to high Grease having a synthetic base
In the gear case where shafts and bearings are lubri- to more than has good pres- adheres easily all-purpose greases. has superior speeds and oil is suitable for special use
+80°C, the sure resis- to metal sur- grease. frictional prop- heavy loads. where superior heat and chem-
cated with the same oil, wear particles may be intro- 6  Oil jet lubrication Features and application water evapo- tance proper- face. erties. ical resistance properties are
duced into the bearing as they might get mixed with This is a highly reliable lubrication method and is used rates and the ties. Short Suitable for required.
grease sepa- fibrous grease small bearings
the oil. In this case, a permanent magnet is provided under severe conditions such as ultra-high rotational rates into oil is compara- used in mea-
at the bottom of the gear case to collect metal parti-
cles, or a shield plate is installed next to the bearing.
speeds and high temperatures. The speed of the oil
jet should be more than 20% of the peripheral speed
and soap. This
is used for
medium loads.
tively good for
high speeds.
suring instru-
ments. M
Fig. 22 shows another method in which the splashed of the inner ring raceway surface, since the air around

1N=0.102kgf=0.2248lbs.
A51 1mm=0.03937inch
A52
1  Base oil
Petroleum lubricating oil is usually used as the base
running for long periods of time, its temperature rises.
This results in oxidation of the lubricant and formation Redwood Saybolt
(sec) (sec)
Centi
strokes
A
oil. of oxides, which lead to corrosion of the bearing. ISO viscosity grade
2000 (Viscosity index 80)
As the lubricating performance of grease depends Thus, when a bearing is to be operated for long peri- 5000 5000 1000 A : VG 7 H : VG100

B
mainly on that of base oil, the viscosity of the base oil ods of time without regreasing, antioxidants are 500 B : VG10 J : VG150
2000 2000 C : VG15 K : VG220
is an important property. In general, low viscosity is added. In addition, grease containing extreme pres- 1000
300
1000 200 D : VG22 L : VG320
suitable for light-load and high-speed rotations, and sure additives is suitable for use in places that are E : VG32 M: VG460
500 500 100
high viscosity for heavy-load and low-speed rotations. subjected to heavy loads. F : VG46 N : VG680
300 300 G: VG68
Synthetic lubricants of the diester or silicon series are 50

Viscosity