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The University of Sydney

School of Mathematics and Statistics

Board Tutorial 5: Pointwise and uniform convergence of sequences of


functions
MATH3068 Analysis Semester 2, 2019
Web Page: http://www.maths.usyd.edu.au/MATH3068/
Lecturer: Laurentiu Paunescu

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1. Given un (x) = 3x+2n x
1+n2 x2 for every x ∈ R and u(x) = 2x for every x ∈ R.
(a) Show that limn→∞ un (x) = u(x) pointwise for every x ∈ R.
|x|
(b) Show that |u(x) − un (x)| = .
1 + n2 x2
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(c) Use (1 − n|x|)2 ≥ 0 to show that 2n|x| ≤ 1 + n2 x2 , and hence that |u(x) − un (x)| ≤ 2n .
(d) Write down the statement which gives the definition that a sequence of functions un (x)
converges uniformly to the function u(x) and hence conclude that the sequence of functions
3x + 2n2 x3
converges uniformly to the function 2x on R.
1 + n2 x2

2. (a) Let un (x) be the infinite sequence of functions given by un (x) = xn for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.
(i) Draw the graphs of the functions u1 (x), u2 (x), u3 (x), u4 (x).
(ii) Find the limit function u(x) as n → ∞.
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(iii) Put an = ( 21 ) n . Calculate |u(an ) − un (an )|.
(iv) Does the sequence un (x) converges to u(x) UNIFORMLY?
(v) Is the limit function u(x) continuous?

3. (a) Let un (x) be an infinite sequence of functions defined on [0, ∞) by un (x) = n2 xe−nx .
(i) Find the limit function u(x) as n → ∞.
(ii) Find the maximal value of un (x).
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(iii) For an = n calculate |u(an ) − un (an )|.
(iv) Does the sequence un (x) converges to u(x) UNIFORMLY?
(v) Show that un (x) dx = −nxe−nx − e−nx .
R
R1
(vi) Find limn→∞ 0 un (x) dx.
R1
(vii) Find 0 limn→∞ un (x) dx. Observe this is not the same as above.

4. Let fn (x) = xn (1 − x), for n = 1, 2, 3, . . ..


(a) For what values of x is the sequence {fn (x)} convergent?
(b) What is the limit function f (x) of the sequence {fn (x)} on [0, 1]?
(c) Show that {fn (x)} is monotonic decreasing for each x ∈ [0, 1].
(d) Find the maximum value of fn (x) on [0, 1].
(e) Illustrate with a sketch the behaviour of the graphs of fn (x) as n increases.
(f) Show that {fn (x)} is uniformly convergent on [0, 1].

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