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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

INTRODUCTION

The condition of zero fluid velocity at the solid

surface is referred to as ‘no slip’ and the layer of
fluid between the surface and the free stream fluid is
termed BOUNDARY LAYER.

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

Shear stress, τ

∂u
τ =µ
∂y

Reynolds number
The criterion which determines whether flow is
laminar or turbulent.

ρU s x U s x
Re x = =
µ υ

Re < 5 x 105 : Laminar

Re ≈ 5 x 105 : Transition (Engineering critical
Reynolds number)
Re > 5 x 105 : Turbulent

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

Turbulent layer usually has a greater

velocity gradient at the surface, which cause greater
shear stress.
From a turbulent layer, there is a more ready
interchange of particles with the main flow, and this
explains the more rapid increase in thickness of a
turbulent layer.
The thickness of a laminar boundary layer
increases as x0.5 (when pressure is uniform), a
turbulent layer thickens approximately as x0.8.

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

Laminar flow; Re < 2000

120 pipe diameters (=120D)

Turbulent flow; Re > 2000

60 pipe diameters (=60D)

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

DEFINITION
Boundary layer thickness, δ
Displacement thickness, δ*
Momentum thickness, θ

Boundary layer thickness is defined as that distance

from the surface where the local velocity equals
99% of the free stream velocity.

δ = y(u =0.99U )
s

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

DISPLACEMENT THICKNESS, δ*

The displacement thickness for the boundary layer is

defined as the distance the surface would have to
move in the y-direction to reduce the flow passing
by a volume equivalent to the real effect of the
boundary layer.

δ u
δ =∫ *
(1 − )dy
0 Us

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

MOMENTUM THICKNESS θ
Momentum thickness is the distance that, when
multiplied by the square of the free stream velocity,
equals the integral of the momentum defect.
Alternatively, the total loss of momentum flux is
equivalent to the removal of momentum through a
distance θ. It is a theoretical length scale to quantify
the effects of fluid viscosity near a physical
boundary.

δ u ⎛ u ⎞
θ =∫ ⎜⎜1 − ⎟⎟dy
0 Us ⎝ Us ⎠

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

When the object is completely surrounded by the fluid

and the flows are termed external flows.

Theoretical (analytical and numerical techniques) and

experimental approached are used to obtain information
on the fluid forces developed by external flows

One of the method to obtain flow data is by wind tunnel

testing works.

1
Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

(a) Full scale wind tunnel test

(b) Model scale wind tunnel test

2
Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

Such as a airplane flying through still air, the fluid far

from the body is stationary and the body moves through
the fluid with velocity U.

Such as the wind blowing past a building, the body is

stationary and the fluid flows past the body with velocity
U.

To simplify the evaluation, we treat the situation as fluid

flowing past a stationary body with velocity U, called the
upstream velocity.

The velocity is assumed a uniform and constant velocity.

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

1. Two-dimensional objects (infinitely long and of

constant cross-sectional size and shape)
2. Axisymmetric bodies (formed by rotating their
cross-sectional shape about the axis of symmetry)
3. Three-dimension bodies that may or may not possess a
line or plane of symmetry.

4
Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

The resultant force in the direction of the upstream

velocity is termed the drag, D.

The resultant force normal to the upstream velocity is

termed the lift, L.

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

The resultant of the shear stress and pressure

distributions can be obtained by integral the effect of
these two quantities on the body surface as shown below.

The x and y components are;

dFx = ( pdA) cosθ + (τ wdA) sin θ
dFy = −( pdA) sin θ + (τ w dA) cosθ

The drag, D is;

D = ∫ dFx = ∫ p cos θ dA + ∫ τ w sin θdA

The lift, L is;

L = ∫ dFy = −∫ p sin θ dA + ∫ τ w cos θdA

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

The widely used alternative is to define dimensionless

lift and drag coefficients.

L
CL =
2 ρU A
1 2

D
CD = 1
2 ρU 2
A

A is a characteristic area of the object.

ρ is the density of flowing fluid
U is the upstream velocity

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

Typically, A is taken to be frontal area - the projected

area seen by a person looking toward the object from a
direction parallel to the upstream velocity U.

In other situations A is taken to be the platform area – the

projected area seen by an observer looking toward the
object from a direction normal to the upstream velocity.

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER

For flat plate with zero pressure gradient.

Shear stress at wall ;

⎛ du ⎞
τ o = µ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ dy ⎠ y =0

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

BOUNDARY LAYER EQUATION

∂u ∂v
+ =0
∂x ∂y

x-axis;

⎛ ∂u ∂u ⎞ ∂p ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ⎞
ρ ⎜⎜ u + v ⎟⎟ = − + µ ⎜⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟⎟
⎝ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ∂x ⎝ ∂x ∂y ⎠

y-axis;

⎛ ∂v ∂v ⎞ ∂p ⎛ ∂ 2v ∂ 2v ⎞
ρ ⎜⎜ u + v ⎟⎟ = − + µ ⎜⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟⎟
⎝ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ∂x ⎝ ∂x ∂y ⎠

y-axis component could be ignored.

( v << u ) (∂p / ∂y = 0)
( p = p(x)) (∂ u / ∂x
2 2
⇒0 )

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

Navier-Stokes equation;

∂u ∂v
+ =0
∂x ∂y

⎛ ∂u ∂u ⎞ ∂p ⎛ ∂ 2u ⎞
ρ ⎜⎜ u + v ⎟⎟ = − + µ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟
⎝ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ∂x ⎝ ∂y ⎠
=== (∂p / ∂x ⇒ 0) could be ignored ===

⎛ ∂u ∂u ⎞ ⎛ ∂ 2u ⎞
ρ ⎜⎜ u + v ⎟⎟ = µ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟
⎝ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ∂y ⎠

∂u ∂u ⎛ ∂ 2u ⎞
u +v = υ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟
∂x ∂y ⎝ ∂y ⎠
Where υ is kinematics viscosity

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

boundary conditions;
y=0, u=0
y= δ , u=U, (du / dy = 0)

u y
= g (η ) η∝
U δ

υx U
δ∝ η=y
U υx

∂ψ ∂ψ
u= v=−
∂y ∂x

From above assumption, Navier-Stokes equation

could be written as;

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

∂ψ ⎛ ∂ 2ψ ⎞ ∂ψ ⎛ ∂ 2ψ ⎞ ∂ 3ψ
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ = υ 3
∂y ⎝ ∂x∂y ⎠ ∂x ⎝ ∂y ⎠ ∂y

ψ
f (η ) =
υxU

∂ψ df
u= =U
∂y dη

∂ψ 1 υU ⎛ df ⎞
v=− = ⎜⎜η − f ⎟⎟
∂x 2 x ⎝ dη ⎠

differentiate u = U (df / dη ) to x and y ;

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

∂u ∂ ⎛ ∂f ⎞ U d2 f
= U ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = − η
∂x ∂x ⎝ ∂η ⎠ 2 x dη 2

∂u ∂ ⎛ ∂f ⎞ U d2 f
= U ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = U
∂y ∂y ⎝ ∂η ⎠ υx dη 2

∂ 2u U 2 d3 f
=−
∂y 2
υx dη 3

Replace above equation into Navier-Stokes equation,

and we found;
df ⎛ U d 2 f ⎞ 1 υU ⎛ df ⎞ U d2 f U d3 f
U ⎜⎜ − η ⎟+ ⎜η − f ⎟⎟U =υ
dη ⎝ 2 x dη ⎠ 2 x ⎜⎝ dη
2 ⎟
⎠ υ x dη 2
υx d η 3

It could be simplified as;

d3 f d2 f
2 3+f =0
∂η dη 2

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

Or;
2 f ′′′ + f f ′′ = 0

Or;
1
f ′′′ + f f ′′ = 0
2

Boundary conditions;
df
η =0 f = =0

df
η =∞ f = =1

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

Solution of the Blasius laminar flat plate boundary

layer in similarity variables. Function f (η ) is

solved using the Runge-Kutta numerical technique.

η = y U υx f f′=u f ′′
U

3.0 1.3968 0.8460 0.1614

3.5 1.8377 0.9130 0.1078
4.0 2.3057 0.9555 0.0642
4.5 2.7901 0.9795 0.0340
5.0 3.2833 0.9915 0.0159
5.5 3.7806 0.9969 0.0066
6.0 4.2796 0.9990 0.0024
6.5 4.7793 0.9997 0.0008
7.0 5.2792 0.9999 0.0002
7.5 5.7792 1.0000 0.0001

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BLASIUS SOLUTION WITH RUNGE-KUTTA METHOD.

U u
η=y f f′= f ′′
υx U
0 0 0 0.3321
0.5 0.0415 0.1659 0.3309
1.0 0.1656 0.3298 0.3230
1.5 0.3701 0.4868 0.3026
2.0 0.6500 0.6298 0.2668
2.5 0.9963 0.7513 0.2174
3.0 1.3968 0.8460 0.1614
3.5 1.8377 0.9130 0.1078
4.0 2.3057 0.9555 0.0642
4.5 2.7901 0.9795 0.0340
5.0 3.2833 0.9915 0.0159
5.5 3.7806 0.9969 0.0066
6.0 4.2796 0.9990 0.0024
6.5 4.7793 0.9997 0.0008
7.0 5.2792 0.9999 0.0002
7.5 5.7792 1.000 0.0001
8.0 6.2792 1.000 0.0000
Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

u
η =5 = 0.09915
U

Value of u U is suitable for boundary layer

thickness δ . u U = 0.99 ( )

From;

U
η=y η =5 , y =δ
υx with

U
5=δ
υx

5x
δ=
Re x

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

Displacement thickness δ * ;
δ ⎛ u⎞ υx
δ* = ∫ ⎜1 − ⎟dy dy = dη
0
⎝ U⎠ U

1.729 x
δ* =
Re x

Momentum thickness θ ;

δ u ⎛ u⎞ 0.664 x
θ =∫ ⎜ 1 − ⎟ dy =
0 U ⎝ U⎠ Re x

Shear stress τ o ;

⎡ du ⎤ U
τ o = µ ⎢ ⎥ = µ (0.3321) Re x
⎣ dy ⎦ y =0 u

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Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

τo 0.664
Cf = 1 =
2 ρU
2
Re x

Average skin friction CF ;

FD
1.328
CF = A
=
1
2 ρU 2 Re x

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VON KÁRMÁN INTEGRAL EQUATION

Control volume ABCD

Flow in : AB and BC
Flow out : CD
Assumption : incompressible flow, a unit width

21
Continuity equation ;

∂ δ
m& BC = m& out − m& in = ∫ ρudy ⋅ dx
∂x 0

From 2nd law of Newton ;

∑ x out in BC
F = &
M − &
M − &
M

⎛ 1 ∂p ⎞ ⎛ ∂p ⎞
pδ + ⎜ p + dx ⎟dδ − ⎜ p + dx ⎟(δ + dδ ) − τ o dx
⎝ 2 ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ⎠
⎛ δ 2 ∂ δ 2 ⎞ ⎛ δ 2 ⎞ ⎡⎛ ∂ δ ⎞ ⎤
= ⎜ ∫ ρu dy + ∫ ρu dydx ⎟ − ⎜ ∫ ρu dy ⎟ − ⎢⎜ ∫ ρudydx ⎟U ⎥
⎝ 0 ∂x 0 ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎣⎝ ∂x 0 ⎠ ⎦
∂ δ 2 ⎛∂ δ ⎞
=
∂x ∫0
ρu dydx − ⎜
⎝ ∂x
∫0
ρudydx ⎟U

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Simplify ;

∂p ∂ δ ⎛∂ δ ⎞
−δ dx − τ o dx = ∫ ρu 2 dydx − ⎜ ∫ ρudydx ⎟U
∂x ∂x 0 ⎝ ∂x 0 ⎠
Divide by (-dx) ;
∂p ∂ δ ∂ δ
τo + δ = U ∫ ρu 2 dy − ∫ ρu 2 dy
∂x ∂x 0 ∂x 0

Simplify ;
dp d δ 2 d δ 2
τo +δ
dx
=U
dx ∫0
ρu dy −
dx ∫0
ρu dy

Pressure gradient ; (from Bernoulli equation)

P + 12 ρU 2 = C (Neglect the potential energy)

dp dU
+ ρU =0
dx dx
dp dU
= − ρU
dx dx

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Von Kármán equation becomes ;
τo d 2
= (U θ ) + δ *U
dU
ρ dx dx

if (dp dx ) = 0 , and dU
dx =0

Von Kármán equation becomes ;

τ o = ρU 2
dx

if η = y δ and dy = δdη
dδ 1 u⎛ u⎞
τ o = ρU 2
dx ∫0 U ⎜⎝ U ⎟⎠dη
1 −

1 u⎛ u⎞
if α = ∫0 U ⎜⎝1 − U ⎟⎠dη

τ o = ρU 2α
dx

24
Use idea of Blasius ;

Shear stress ;
⎛ du ⎞
τ o = µ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ dy ⎠ y =0

from Karman equation ;

dδ ⎛ du ⎞
τ o = ρU 2α = µ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
dx ⎝ dy ⎠ y =0
1u ⎛ u⎞
which α =∫ ⎜1 − ⎟dη
0U
⎝ U⎠

Assumption ;
u y
= f (η ) , η=
U δ

1u ⎛ u⎞
Integral of α =∫ ⎜1 − ⎟dη
0U
⎝ U⎠
Will becomes constant, and assume that ;

25
⎡ df (η ) ⎤
β =⎢ ⎥
⎣ dη ⎦ y = 0

µ dδ
Uβ = ρU 2α
δ dx

δ
multiple with U and do integral;
µβ ∫ dx = ρUα ∫ δdδ
δ2
µβx = ρUα + pemalar
2

at δ = 0 and x = 0 ;
1 1
⎛ 2 µβx ⎞ 2
⎛ 2β ⎞ x2
δ = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ρUα ⎠ ⎝ α ⎠ (Re )2
1
x

ρUx
Re x = is called local Reynolds number
µ

1
dδ ⎛ αβ ⎞ 2
τ o = ρU 2α = ρU 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
dx ⎝ 2 Re x ⎠

26
Local skin friction coefficient ;
1
τo ⎛ 2αβ ⎞ 2
Cf = = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
1
2
ρU 2
Re
⎝ x⎠

Drag force ;

( )
1
FD = 2αβµρU L 3 2

Average skin friction coefficient ;

1
2(2αβ ) 2
CF = 1
(Re L )
2

27
conditions ;
u=0 , y=0 and u =U , y = δ

shear stress τ = 0 at y = δ
⎛ du ⎞
τ = µ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = K (δ − y )
⎝ dy ⎠

Integral ;
⎛ y2 ⎞
µu = K ⎜⎜ yδ − ⎟⎟ + c
⎝ 2 ⎠

u=0 , y=0 , c=0

y = ηδ , and divided by µU

u Kδ 2 ⎛ η2 ⎞
= ⎜η − ⎟⎟
U µU ⎜⎝ 2c ⎠

Kδ 2
u = U , η = 1 , µU = 2

f (η ) = 2η − η 2

28
From this ;
2
α= β =2
15 ,

Boundary layer thickness ;

5.48 x
δx =
Re x

Displacement thickness ;
1.826 x
δ* =
Re x

Momentum thickness ;
0.730 x
θ=
Re x

shear stress ;
0.365ρU 2
τo =
Re x

29
Local skin friction coefficient ;
0.73
Cf =
Re x

Average skin friction coefficient ;

1.46
CF =
Re L

Other assumptions ;
u = a + by + cy 2 + dy 3
u = a sin(by )

boundary conditions ;
(1) y = 0 , u = 0
d 2u
(2) y = 0 , dy 2 = 0

(3) y = δ , u = U
du
(4) y = δ , dy = 0

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31
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER ON FLAT PLATE

Shear stress in pipe ;

τ o = ρ U 2 ( f / 2)

R is radius of pipe ;
1
1 ⎛ υ ⎞ 4
τ o = ρU 2 ⎜ ⎟
2 ⎝ U 2R ⎠

If R is assumed as boundary layer thickness ;

1
⎛ υ ⎞ 4
τ o = constant × ρU 2 ⎜ ⎟
⎝ Uδ ⎠

From Von Karman equation ;

1
⎛ υ ⎞ 2⎧
41u ⎛ u ⎞ ⎫ dδ
constant × ρU 2 ⎜ ⎟ = ρU ⎨∫0 ⎜1 − ⎟dη ⎬
⎝ Uδ ⎠ ⎩ U ⎝ U ⎠ ⎭ dx

32
From Prandtl, constant = 0.0229

1
0.0229
δ 4
= 1
dx
⎛U ⎞4
α⎜ ⎟
⎝υ ⎠
1u ⎛ u⎞
α = ∫ ⎜1 − ⎟dη
0U
⎝ U⎠

ONE-SEVENTH-POWER LAW
Velocity of flow ;
1
1
u ⎛ y⎞ 7
= ⎜ ⎟ =η7
U ⎝δ ⎠
1u⎛ u⎞ 7
α =∫ ⎜ 1 − ⎟dη =
0U
⎝ U⎠ 12

1
0.0229
δ 4
= 1
dx
⎛ 7 ⎞⎛ U ⎞ 4
⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟
⎝ 72 ⎠⎝ υ ⎠

Integral ;
0.376 x
δx = 1
(Re x ) 5

33
0.047 x
δ* = 1
(Re x ) 5

0.037 x
θ= 1
(Re x )5

dδ 0.0229
= 1
dx
⎛ Uδ ⎞ 4
α⎜ ⎟
⎝ υ ⎠

Shear stress ;
⎡ 1 1
4 ⎛ υ ⎞5 −
1⎤
⎛ 1 ⎞
τ o = 0.0229ρU 2 ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ x 5⎥
⎢⎝ 0.3769 ⎠ ⎝ U ⎠ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

Drag force ;
1
⎛ υ ⎞ 5
FD = 0.036 ρU 2 ⎜ ⎟ L
⎝ UL ⎠

34
Average skin friction coefficient ;
1
F / A ⎛υ ⎞ 5
4
5
CF = 1 2 ⎜ ⎟ L
2
ρU L u
⎝ ⎠

35
FRICTION COEFFICIENT FOR MIXED
(TURBULENT + LAMINAR) FLOW

Assumption ;
Length of transition area is ignored.
FD = FDA − FDB + FDC

FDA : Friction force for turbulent from 0 to L

FDB : Friction force for turbulent from 0 to Xt
FDC : Friction force for turbulent from 0 to Xt

FD 0.455 0.073 ⎛ X t ⎞ 1.461 ⎛ X t ⎞

= − 1 ⎜ ⎟+ 1 ⎜ ⎟
1
2 ρU 2
L (log10 Re L )2.58
(Re Xt )5 ⎝ ⎠ (Re Xt )2 ⎝ ⎠
L L

Assumption ;
X t Re Xt
Re Xt = 5 × 10 5
, =
L Re L
0.4 1612
CF = −
(log10 Re L ) 2.58 Re L

36
BOUNDARY LAYER THICKNESS FOR MIXED
(TURBULENT + LAMINAR) FLOW

Assume as Le

Re Xt = 5 × 105
Re Xt × υ ⎛υ ⎞
Xt = = 5 × 105 ⎜ ⎟
U ⎝U ⎠

distance from A to transition point;

( Le)turbulent = L − X t + x′

with value of (Le)turbulent, we could defined displacement

thickness, momentum thickness and shear stress.

37
38
Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

Question 1

δ* θ
Determine the and for below mentioned velocity distribution.
δ δ
1
u ⎛ y⎞ 2
1. =⎜ ⎟
U ⎝δ ⎠
2
u ⎛ y⎞ ⎛ y⎞
2. = 2⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ ⎟ (parabolic profile)
U ⎝δ ⎠ ⎝δ ⎠

u ⎛π y ⎞
3. = sin ⎜ ⎟ (sinusoidal profile)
U ⎝2δ⎠

Question 2

using the necessary boundary conditions.

Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

Question 3

In the boundary layer over the face of a high spillway, the velocity

0.22
u ⎛ y⎞
=⎜ ⎟
U ⎝δ ⎠

The free stream velocity U at a certain section was observed to be 30m/s

and a boundary layer thickness of 60mm was estimated from the velocity

3. The loss of energy up to the section under consideration

Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

Question 4

1. Explain what you understand by boundary layer thickness and

displacement thickness.

2. Assume that in the laminar boundary layer the flow obeys the law,

du
shear stress τ = µ , where µ is the viscosity, which lead to the
dy

2

3. The velocity distribution in the turbulent boundary layer is given by

1
u ⎛ y⎞ 7
= ⎜ ⎟ . Determine the displacement thickness.
U ⎝δ ⎠
Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

SOALAN

Sekeping plat rata, lebarnya b(m) dan panjangnya L(m), terendam di dalam satu aliran. Lapisan
u ⎛ y⎞
= A sin⎜ B ⎟
U ⎝ δ⎠

Dengan A dan B ialah pemalar dan U ialah halaju utama. Dapatkan nilai pemalar A dan B.

Tunjukkan bahawa;
1
⎛ υ ⎞2
τ o = 0.327 ρU ⎜ ⎟
2

⎝ Ux ⎠
Dan

( )
1
FD = 1.308b ρµU 3 L 2

Halaju aliran minyak 3.0m/s melintasi plat rata, nipis dengan lebarnya 1.25(m) dan panjang
2.5(m). Berdasarkan taburan halaju di atas, tentukan;
2. Tegasan riceh pada pertengahan plat.
3. Jumlah daya geseran bagi kedua-dua belah plat.

Diberi ρ = 850 kg/m3

υ = 10-5 m2/s
Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

Q1
A submarine can be assumed to have cylindrical shape with rounded nose. Assuming its length to be 50m
and diameter 5.0m. Determine the total power required to overcome boundary friction if it cruises at 8m/s
velocity in sea water at 20 degree Celsius.

( ρ = 1030kg / m 3 , υ = 1×10 −6 m 2 / s )

Q2
A barge with a rectangular bottom surface 30m long times 10m wide is traveling down a river with a
velocity of 0.6m/s. a laminar boundary layer exist up to a Reynolds number equivalent to 5 x 105 and
subsequently abrupt transition occurs to turbulent boundary layer.
Calculate ;
i. The maximum distance from the leading edge up to which laminar boundary layer thickness
persists and the maximum boundary layer thickness at that point.
ii. The total drag force on the flat bottom surface of the barge.
iii. The power required to push the bottom surface through water at the given velocity.

( ρ = 998kg / m 3 , υ = 1 × 10 −6 m 2 / s )

Q3
Sekeping plat rata nipis berbentuk segitiga sama terjunam ke dalam air dengan halaju seragam, U=3 m/s
seperti gambarajah. Tentukan ;
1. tempat berlaku aliran peralihan, diukur dari puncak plat
3. daya seret yang dialami plat

Q4
Sebuah pelurus aliran terdiri daripada sebuah kotak dengan panjang L = 30 cm, luas keratan rentas A = 4 x
4 cm2 dipasang pada sebuah terowong angina. Jika 20 kotak serupa digunakan, tentukan daya seret yang
ditimbulkan oleh pelurus aliran tersebut. Halaju aliran yang memasuki kotak adalah seragam pada 10 m/s.
Chapter 1 : Boundary Layer

Question 1
δ* θ
Determine the and for below mentioned velocity profile.
δ δ

u ⎛π y ⎞
(a) = sin ⎜ ⎟
U ⎝2δ⎠
3
u 3⎛ y ⎞ 1⎛ y ⎞
(b) = ⎜ ⎟− ⎜ ⎟
U 2⎝δ ⎠ 2⎝δ ⎠

Question 2
A laminar boundary layer velocity profile is given by;
f (η ) = 2η − 2η 3 + η 4
u y
where f (η ) = and η =
U δ

Find the value of C D Re L where ReL is a Reynolds number for plate length L at trailing edge

and CD is drag coefficient (mean skin friction coefficient)

Question 3
Velocity distribution for a laminar boundary layer flow is given as
u = A sin By + C cos Dy

u
Determine using appropriate boundary layer conditions.
U
( - (

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TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER

EMPIRICAL FORM

The empirical method of predicting turbulent flow
quantities on a flat plate with zero pressure gradient
is based entirely on data.

It is more accurate than the power-law form but also
more complicated.

The time average turbulent velocity profile can be
divided into two regions, the inner region and the
outer region.

The inner is defined as :

M MN Q
=P
MN R

ST
MN = = shear velocity
U

The outer region is defined as :

VW − M Q
=P
MN Y

VW − M = velocity defect

The equations above involve the shear velocity, MN ,
which depends on the wall shear stress, ST . There are
several such relationships used; one that gives
excellent results is:

0.455
\] = ^_ =
ln 0.06 ∙ efg h

\] = local skin friction

This local skin friction coefficient (local drag
coefficient) allows us to determine ST and thus MN at
any location of interest. The velocity profiles can be
used to calculated quantities of interest but MN must
be known.

Assuming turbulent flow flow the leading edge, the
shear stress can be integrated to yield the drag. Then
the skin friction coefficient (Drag coefficient)
becomes:

0.523
^] = ^l =
ln 0.06 ∙ efo h

This relation is very good and can be used up to
ef = 10q with an error of 2% or less. Even at
ef = 10sT the error is about 4%.

Finally, this equation can be summarized:

VW MN ∙ Y
= 2.44 ∙ ln + 7.4
MN R

this equation allows an easy calculation of Y by
knowing MN .

EXAMPLE 1:

EXAMPLE 2:

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