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views or policies of the Asian


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POLICY FOR POVERTY REDUCTION THROUGH GREEN GROWTH


IN THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

By: Alibek RAIPOV, National expert on the Kyoto Protocol, RSE “Kazakh Scientific Research
Institute of Ecology and Climate”

Background Paper for Conference on the “The Environments of the Poor”,


24-26 Nov 2010, New Delhi

Today, more than ever, «making green» of economic growth becomes viable strategy
achievement of sustainable development though the Asian-Pacific region lags behind expectations
in the efforts under the decision of remaining and new problems of development. The volume of
natural resources is reduced, and demand for power resources, water and other natural resources
as it is supposed, will continue to grow fast rates while base requirements of millions people remain
unsatisfied. It is impossible to admit preservations of existing models of economic growth which
lead to overexploitation of the natural and human capital.

From September, 27th till October, 2nd, 2010 the Sixth Ministerial Conference of
Environmental protection and Sustainable development for the countries of the Asian-Pacific region
with participation of representatives and figures from 62 countries in Astana has taken place.
Kazakhstan, being on a joint of various cultures, is in the center of the Eurasian continent, having
transboundary general ecosystem both with European and with the Asian countries has pushed the
Initiative «Green bridge».

Except the given Initiative also the Ministerial declaration on environment protection and
development and the Regional implementation plan 2011-2015 has been confirmed. The
declaration assumes a capture of ecological obligations and obligations on advancement of
principles of preservation of the environment and a sustainable development on itself.

The main aim of the Astana “Green Bridge” Initiative - is «Promotion partnership between
Europe, Asia and Pacific in implementation of “Green Growth” plans and programs».

For realization of Partnership of Europe, Asia and Pacific ocean countries are planned five
thematic directions:

1. Eco-Efficient Use of Natural Resources and Investment in Ecosystem Services - focuses


on enhancing the eco-efficiency of natural resource use and investment in ecosystem services

2. Low Carbon Development and Adaptation to Climate Change - focuses on policy options
to improve eco-efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including low-carbon green
growth development to promote mitigation, and to promote climate change adaptation and
resilience.

3. Promoting Sustainable Urban Development - focuses on policy options to address current


unsustainable urban development patterns.

4. Promoting Green Business and Green Technology - focuses on a number of policies that
can drive the greening of business, spur eco-efficient innovation and production, enable the transfer
of green technologies and green investments, and promote sustainable products and services to
enhance people’s livelihoods.
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5. Promoting Sustainable Lifestyle and Improving the Quality of Life - focuses on policy
options that promote a shift from inefficient and intensive industrialization patterns to low-carbon
green growth and that will create long-term benefits for the quality of life of society for generations
ahead and reduce the ecological deficit to future generations through the exchange of sustainable
consumption and production practices between the regions of Europe and Asia and the Pacific.

The inter-regional and intersectoral office «Green bridge» which will support in development
of the Special Program of Partnership of two regions - Europe, Asia and Pacific ocean – with
accent on water ecosystems and climate change problems will be created in Astana.

Essential efforts on environment protection at national level are made. The main principle of
"Green growth» is pledged in the Strategic plan of development of the Republic of Kazakhstan by
2020. The plan provides creation of the source efficiency, power efficiency and introduction of
renewed energy sources system. Aims of the Plan are: to reduce GDP energy intensity by 25% and
increase share of alternative energy sources by more than 3%.

The one of important programs of Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan became the
program «Zhassyl Damu» (Green Growth) for 2010-2014. The program will promote to the complex
decision of many ecological questions, including: GHG emissions, air pollution, ecological
catastrophes, specially protected areas, production and consumption wastes, water resources,
biological diversity, planting and others.

Staged rehabilitation of hydrometereological service with formation of new environmental


monitoring model on the level of the world’s best practice has started.

Regional comprehensive Program “Initiative of Central Asian countries on land resources


management” is being implemented is being implemented, being it is a lot of countries program
developed with a view of struggle against degradation of the earth by means of stimulation of
approaches of steady management by ground resources that as a result will lead to
stabilization/improvement of ecological integrity and increase of a standard of life of agricultural
population in the countries of the Central Asia. Also the program of desertification abatement in the
Republic of Kazakhstan for 2005-2015 is being implemented. The program purpose is stay and
prevention of process of desertification in Republic Kazakhstan territory. For object in view of
realization it is provided to solve following problems:

At the first stage (2005-2007):

- Inventory and estimation of the degraded earths;


- Informing and maintenance of participation of all levels of population in decision-making
process on problems of struggle against desertification;
- Working out and realization of pilot projects on restoration of the earth or prevention of their
degradation;

At the second stage (2008-2010):

- Working out and introduction of standard requirements and the economic mechanisms of
steady land tenure providing preservation and restoration of resource base;
- Maintenance of the consolidated realization of the international ecological conventions;
- Reduction of scales and prevention of development of process of desertification and
negative influence of droughts;

At the third stage (2011-2015):


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- Integration of measures on struggle against desertification in economic and social


development of the state;

Within the limits of realization of the given program implementation of project “Arid lands
management” in Shetskii region has been completed.

Kazakhstan has joined the Copenhagen Accord and took the commitments to reduce GHG
emissions by 15% by 2020 and by 25% by 2050 with regards to year 1992.

Now with a view of accomplishment of the accepted international emission reduction


commitments active work on strategy of low emissions economy development and the program of
adaptation to climate change is led in the country. Legislative framework to implement Kyoto
protocol mechanisms, strengthening of responsibility for environmental offenses, creation of the
National carbon trading scheme is formed.

In Kazakhstan the Law “On support of renewable energy sources” is adopted, being the law
creating favorable conditions for manufacture electric and thermal energy in use of renewed energy
sources, for decrease in power consumption and power influence on environment, increase in a
share of renewed energy sources by manufacture electric and thermal energy.

Also the draft law “About energy saving” is planned to adopt. The given draft law provides
special positions which will cause necessity of creation of favorable conditions for interested
participants of the market - manufacturers and consumers electric and thermal energy.