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,'~ International Institute , of Business Analysis '

A Guide to the Bu. :'. :s·:; in te c. ',s·" s"" A·, -I n 'a":'l~'-' ·'·8:;···· ",·s· '.;'

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Portions ofAppendu.A: Glossary are from Tlr.e SojtwareRequJrement'l< Memmy}('gge..'r:_ by Ellen GoU;(;!Sd]C[i!C:::f. ® 2005 GOAL/QPe and < •. F.e iJJ.!>ediwi"tth permisaieo.

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Under~yin91 Competenciles


Other Sour'!3E.'S o,f Bus.iness Amillysis Inf'QlI'mat~on


2.1 PlanlBusin,ess Analy:s'is ApPIl'.atKh

2.2 Conduct Sta~t?hollder Analyslis


Plain IRequ~rements !Manalgement PmceS5



(hapte1r3: Eliciitatilmll

iPrepare f()f~ll kltation

Conduct Elk;italtiotll Acti vity



Gonfilrm Elicilta'l:ion Re;!;.ullts



"u MclnCl.ge SolLJt~on Scope & Begtlilreme'llIts

4.2 Manage ReqLlliref1l1lents fra(5eability

4.3 Maint~lin Requir,em ants fo r lRe-usle

4.4 Prepare ~i}eqUlirements lPa,cka,ge


[}etelrmine Solution Appmadl

5 ... 2

Asse-ss c'apabilhy Gaps

5 .. 4

[}em ne Solution Scope

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o.l Prioritize lRequ~fements





Spedrfy and MQdellReql.!ilreltT!elillt~




Validate lRequ~rem!O!nts,





[)emne Tiramlsitllon lReguirremems


Valild.ate SQlluu~Qn



Eval Iljaite SQlution perWrm<!nce




8.11 AnalytiiCal Thi1inkilfng and Probll@m .solving



Behaviora,ll Charraderistks






Software Appllic;ations.

9.1 AGceptanc:;e and Evalluatiol1 (Iriiterial D~ifmilfion



Data. Fllow Diagrams


Data. Modellingl

















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!Root Cause ,Ana~ys~s, Sqmal[iolS and IUse CaSe!); S,r::op@ Mod@lilfllq S.e:quence D~aglfalms SU!'t,~ lDi!~grraJms Sl1rJ1.:J·ctUlr'edi Wal kthmug Wn SILl rvey!QuestiiOilil m1ailr!3 SWOT Amlilysis

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ReqlLlirememits AnaJ:ysis and Documentation

Reg ILl irrememlts COmmlllmi kation



Ulnderl\l'ing F~l1idamel:'iital$

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IlBA· W'i~8 . .rounded il!lJ Toronto, Canada. in Octeb ar of 2f) 003 11:0 suppcn,:~; the b uslness a:i!lJ ... ~lySES ClOmi:tmnUy by:

Ii- C [e.d:i ng<U!nd! devel(lJJ.i.~.l.g IlW,l[elleSs, 'lndC:(~C(lgHitc~on of the value and oo[ltribl~tion oHlte BIlS'i ness Amdyst.

'" Provldinga forum for knowledge s:ha.rhllg and conmhution to the business analysts pm§:essJion ..

Ii- Publicly recognizJn,gand! certifying qulUfUed p.c:actltU()ners through aninternadionallyack[l(Jwlf;ldged eertiflcatkm pt{l:gram.

lhc Body oJ K n~w]~dg.c (0[1[1 [,[1 ittec was [Qrm cd in (I ctober of 2004 to define fine! draft a global standerd t'~l" the practice of bill si ness an a~ys~ s, ] I) I an t!@I[rY of 200 5:, IlBA released version 1.0 of A Gutde to the Business An;a1;ysts BoOdy qfKrwwledge: (BABOK· Gllfde;) for f~edba.ekflnd comment 1fualt version lnclndedan outli n€ of the proposed content and wine ~ey definitions, Version l4 was released in October of 2:005, wHlt draft content

in some knowledge areas. Version M. which included detailcdinfannation regarding most of the knowlcd ge areas, was publl shedi n draft tbrm~u Ju ne of 2006 flud u.pdaood to i ncorperate errata :~n Octob er of" 2n08.

1l1i~ puhlicatkm supersedes A. (hdtle ta the Business JI.n.a{ygis BoatV.oJ KnrJ'n/le~·, Ve.I:S'i(m 16. Followil!lJg I.he pu MiN~~]OI!lJ of cve.r.si(m 1.6, IIBA· sO iL!lghl: oUI.!iJ.l!lJumb er .ofrecog[llzed exper ~s in business a nililI.],si;s. and re~.a.Le~. neMs. and solietted the:lir f~,e(n':iacl:t: On the COii!J.tent of that edition. ·]hei[ comments were used to plan the scope of'this revision, HBA" vojunteers then worked ~:o define al. structure for version ~i.Ofln(] developed the revised text, wlnchwas made avail.ab~e to the business analysis conmranlty fOli review in 2008. DLnhllg~l~.all: expos.l~.ireper]od, HM· iL~S{} s,oUdl.ed feedback from il!lJdl~strJ' expeus and business anaJy'S~s rrrllcUttioUiJers througha ro.rma.~ review process, IlBA" received theusands of ccmments du ring this process, and this document has been revised to Incorporate as tlJUU']y of those comments as p osstble,

nle BABOK+ G~idB C(.l'nl~i n~'5 a. descriptiou of g!!l[le:ra]lo/ accepted peactices in thefif;lkll ofbtLsi.ness anaJyr-;:ls. Thecontem included :in t~hi~ release has been verified il:hrnugh reviews hy practltloners, surveys of the buslness ana~¥s.us eommunity, and cnnslldbllions wltl:Jrecogniz.ed experts 1111 thefield, The datanllH::lbie to [[BA" d'emCl~l$t[i[lte

tha!t the hsh and!ttedlnil;jUeS d~s:cri.bed In this puiJlicarUon are Inuse by a majorU:y (If busiuf;lSf> anatys~s ptactittioners. As a result.we can have conll,de.nCf;l that the l;a5kl"~nd technlques described in the BABOrauidB shoukl be applleable lu ~no~1: contexts where husinass a.m~dys.us Isperfnrmed, most of the lime.

lhe BABor Guide shou Id notbeccnstrued to mandate that th e practices desertbedi n thispuMication should be followed under am ci[CiIJ.~[I~*~nces:, Any set o[pracU.ces must be tailored to the sp eclfic cond ltious under w hicl1 business analysis is: being p erformed. In addition, practices whichere not g.cncra]]yrucccph:!<(1 by the business runalysis.com!nunity at the tim e of pub ltcation !H@lybe eq u .dly effecti \'C, or more effecUvc. t han the

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!Hftctice:s dascrib ed ln the ll~tBOr Ci.!lide. As such 'prfLlc~jc'e.s become geJl.01'ally fLoccepil:ed, . and at; data iscollected to \1e~.'ify their elIeCil:~venE:t;s. il:heywiU bemcorporated ill~K)[U" ture {ulit](oos ef d~.is prub~.i.catro[l .. ]]B.A encourages an p.fa(;t~ti();ners of bru&'un.flS:s alla.~:ys.~;l"i 1)0 h,e trf.le:n. to naw approaelresandnew tdefu:S,1i!I].d w.i.&he.'ii toem:olKnuge in[lClV,M~i;()n 'Oil the praenee oJ business a.naly,sls.

... Km:pt,(]!v!I:l cons]r.;~;e:ncJ' w.ith other gmJiE.':[aUYSi.cClepl:illd s~;andards reLating to the pr.ac~:](;..!il (lfhliS:iUiJe."if' ,fu.n.al:ysi.fi;.,

..E.xte~]d the {)0'H)nlgill of (he BAIBor a~~id.r; to descrlhe bustuess analy",i;!:l ln otm~exts beyond badlU(}~],l~ <lpproaclne(i; to custom soflw,J,I'e app~~C,fi!tuon devdopl]lent,i~]" dilld~l1g but ~H)tlimit'Cdt)o Ilgule methodo~.ogiC8, BI.]::;iness P[mX~88 M;anag:ememt, .a md ClOHl mercial-off-the-shelf (CO,['S) a[)p]icfllt~o:l1! assessmeat and jnlple~ne'rJJ;ation.

.. Chi.llify the lIii.\!tLIUOllf,l'Djp between busmess 3Jl!fL;lysis~m.d 0~he:r d.~rsc]p.lin.es. partteu~.arlly 1}~.'nj0cl~matliLgeme[~J:. I:esljn~,. and uiSability andinformation arclntecture,

... FOGIJi(:l OIl! the practlce ofbusinc!'iiS. il;in;aJY8,!;,'l,in the c(mtC'->Li; (lftt.~ indiv~dl,i;al lndtlative, witn maneria] om sl:r<ll;egJic .or enterprfse-wlde huslneas a ma]ys:is ~wpa:tal:ed fnrIneluS~.(Ji1l inafuture application exl;oosinn.

II" MallY otthe tasks fouml in version 1,J(5 haVie beeuconsohdated, resulting ln areduet]om f~mm 77 tasks to 3~;t

.. TM]{!l ln the .Re.q.!lire.ments Plcmnf;ng afj,dM{'jJ~agem.~mt K.~]o~".~edge A.rea h!il('e been realkrcated t(.f) Bllsin.(}8s Ana:itvsls Picutrdng anil iVlo'ftUm'~,~g and .Req~i;fI'.6rn(m;Ui MIX1~agernel1i al~d CO:rJ'Ul'uu1ic;atiwz.

UBA' would ]]b~ to extend lts tban ks <t:!l!d" the thanks of thee business analysla ·eommLt!.l]· ty t01!li~ those w]rno volnmeeeed i;hdr time and d'f,jr~ to the deveiop~]l~)nt !!)rf~js l'evi.si()ln. IIrS well ,lS! these wc~.o pn)vu(!eo. in:f~Jm~al f'C'()db;;Jj(Jk to U::;· ~.11 of~e:r 1I\'([r"'-

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What is the Busilless Anal,s,is Body If Knowledge?

A Guidr;; to the BtJ;..5il~S An.~f.y'Sh; Body (!f Krl()wled.gc· (BAB(JK" Guide) ]5 a gLQba Uy re;cofJnized staudard for the practice oEbus'i]1JCSS analysls, The BA1.J'OI("'Gutde descrtbes bustness<Jjol,a~ys~$ areas of" li;nm,,'led:ge, tfueir assoetated ,ajt;:~;uv:uties and tasks, and the skills ueoossao:'Y to be effective-in the! 0:' e,;mect!tuon.

lheprilmuy purpose of Ute JJ.ABOK" Guuie ls to define tile profession ofbuSll1ieSS al1lalys]s. U; serves as a baseline nat praetitionere Cf!;11 agree upon in order .~~ discuss [he work tln~y do and to GIl5Un thwt Ua.ey hfl.VB the slms thBynGNlttoBf]ective]y perform the role, and dC'J.i ues the skms and knowledge that people who work wittlli and emp]oy business &'ila.[}'$ts should expect ,fj! skilled prac:t;~rjon.el' to demenstrare. It lS a fmmewark that describes the business anaJy",~s taskstha; must IJ e ped'ofmiJ.ed in order til) undersaand how a solution w]]] deliver VI-due to the 8p~nsodng orgaJlJ.za.tion. The lormtaose tasks taike, tile ordm they are performed in, tbemlaHve tmportauce of ths itrn;ks:,.fl!ncl other things Inay vary. but each task centeibutea iu &OUJC tashtou, directly 01" indiirectJly, to

til flit overaJ]§oal

']]11 i5 d'n.<lpb::r pnnrid.lfs an itl!trodl~c~:~J()~ll ~i() key C()~.1(:epb; U:n.llheH~kl! (];f blLl$i neas a[[J.i1I.lys]~ and descrfhes the structure of the remainder ()fd1e BABOK" Gld;de~ Ch.apters 2 thrcfUigh 'i define ~he tasks thau a b U:Sl[i!BSS aFlia,l.ysl:mru:~st be C!aJpable of iPedorm~.tI!g. C hapter :& describes the .ca.mpeLe~c~es that support the e.ffective pel'forffitUl.ee oJ ltnisi.Fiess anaJy.sls, and Chapter 9 describ es a number of generally accepted It.echnlq_ ues that sllI.ppod the !H:,flI.ct:ice of business analysls"

Whait is Busine.5sAJna~ysijs?

Bu si Il.CSS !\oHllysis:is the set of tasks and tech niques used to wnrkas a ]i~,]S:O:l1! am ong sta.kehQlders in order to unde;I"StiJI.ndl fne :stl·Jiq,cttlre,. policies, and opel"a:U()'Iils of an organization" and [QH:C0111me:nd so~ution5 that enable the otgllnization to achieve its: gQ<I!~$.

Busi ness analysisiuvelses understanding lliJ.aw orga;llizatt.:i.ons fu ncticn to aceom plish their purposes, and defining thli capubi]]ti@8 an o:rgruldz1!Ition requiresto prov]d,@ products and services to externalstakehelders. H inclndlm; the definition of mgf!lll[z8i:tioDfl-l goals, how thosegoalsecn neetto speeifle objectIves, del!ermiIl]]}g the courses (!if action til flit <I n organleanon has to u ndertake toachieve those goals and ob] ectives, and definIng how the various orgamsatluaal nnits and 8,ttal:elliLoMers with]]} and outside ofthat o:rgnn]zation interact,

Businessanalysis lllay be perfermed to understand the eurrent state of an orgau]zaJtuon 0:[ to serve as a basis for the h'l!le:r klienti:llcaUoEli efbussness needs.Jn most cases" ho.weyer, billsio]t:sf>ana]ysusi.f>pe[:fl):[111ed to de,fiue and v<a1M ate soh:dions that meet blllsio]eS5 needs, g.oals, or objiectt]v,es.

13[1 sl uess !\ou)1ystts must analy"';e and sy~dhes:i?:e jHtO~'m ation provided by a ~arge Humber orpeJople wlrointeract wifh fhe' business, such as customers, staff, IT pro[ess:ion~ a~s"amd ezecuttves, 'The business analyst is D'eSlJOI'!$ul;:ile for elidting the actual needs 0:[ sta:ke:hold:ers, not simply~lmcir e.(Kp]J1I~6s.ed d·eskes. In m~:ny cases, the bU5,]ne....'I-:S analyst:


, .3.11


1.3 •. 3


will alsc work to f"cu~ittate {.;()mlUll,nicnt~!()n between organi zattion<1!1 IUlIilts. In [J@rticul!lr, business ,m,llyslts ohen p!"Y ·",centt.a:1 role in aligm~l1g the needs of bU8~ne::;:$ units wifh the oa.p:jbi.IiUes dd:iv~rt~d byimf(!ltn~a~i(.mhH;,:bn().log:y, Ilnd ffi:;li.y serve asa "'trans~ato[" bc~""c~l1 those g;r{JI!ijJ'!.i',

A bll8tru~S!§ an;a.fcy8t isffiny IP®~"S{)il1 who performs btli:1h'tessffiu8ilys:is @()t!v]t]es, no mat-

ter Whlllf, their job tiU~ Of 1}[~;lnh:atjo~llaJ ['oLc!U@y be; IDIl.1>im~1>5 'l,naJys:js. practitioners Include not only people with the job title ofbusiness analyst, but m IlY II]SO includ!e business systeIllliS ana.l:ysts" sy:ste:m.s analysts, raq ni.:t;'1e:t~Knjlts e~nllg;i.nee::rs" process anaJlyMs, product managers, product ewners, enterprise 3J'lIaMy.s:ts" business .flLfchH.ects, management oensulrants, or any other persan w11lO perfcrms the tasks described in tliile JJAIWK~ (iu,ide, ][!()hun~llg those who ,1111"'0 perform related d]sciiP'Unes such 1lS P:l'ojC(;t man11lgement, sottware development qU:Ilit;Yll:s:s~~,ra~~ce, :uldiHtm:11I,QUO~1l deslgu,


A dOimainis the :;Ii:real!iml~'rgOiing ,a!uaJysis. It mlLY oo.r'Gspu[ld to ~]me boundaries of an org.auhaUol] er orgam~z,ati.oinal~!nit,,,,s wl;lll as key stal\;dtolder~ OyttSJJdl;l those bou[lcl~uieeaud ]nlterlIctkms w~th these stakeholders.


A solunon Is a set nJcn.a[lgeco:; Ito the current SI:~tW of an m~fl!Hni.z~~tuf)in. dur~ are made in erderto eni~bl.e I:hfLll:o:rga.r.d'l.a.I:i,o.n to meet a businass need, Sf JIve a problem, ott' take .fL4C]vantage of an OppO,I.' tunlty, The scope of the solu tion is usnallynnrrower than the scope of the domain w.ittM:Il. which .it :is .i.~.!n.p~eme[lted, and wU~ Sili!ne as I;h.ehas:i£ for. the scope nf a p:mject 110 .i.m.p~ement ~:Elall: snllLI.II~~(on OF ~ts C1rH:lfi.pOIl,eo.l:S"

Most &OhlUO~~$ ~lre I.~ ::;y!>tem ofinter<tcting so~uUom Oc,nuIN:Jnenw, e~uih Qfwhidlwre IM)tenUIl~~Y' SfJluUon::;.un tJl~ir own :rig,ht EX:llmp~.es of $oluti()[Is ~nJ !i!tl~.t!~UOI1i (~ompO[lo()nts indl!lGe 8of:tW:;Ii:re Oli.pp.I!(;llti,()(ns., web S<~[Y~(Jes.. bl!i(:ihlt~SS, pFOOeSS~J\':l, the bill8ine8snJ!les thOlit &\Hi'l,l!rn that process, an~nk~Fl1~liHonl!~chnol{)~yaDplil(,:aU.o~.1l, a rC\i'~$~d ~:~tg'a[liZ:;li~:UO[lli] ~tructure, OI,lI~lM,mrci~]:~, in(:lOI,iFr,:![JJg'. [~dil,dllt~ng j,(,lb roles, I)F amy I:ot;flerr method of cre~ting a t)~J,p@bU~ty needed by an .()!rg~~ni7.aUom,

Bns:iueS5 .ilHfl.lys~.s helps ol"~;an:i ~;aUmn,s d,®fic~]e the o[ptn.rnn.al solu timll fo:r the~ I.' needs, g~Ve.il UJ€: set of cOIt:l.8trarint" (imllclu.dlltil.g time, bndlg:et regulsrious, and others) under w.hiC:h that organizetlon opecates.


1. A ceudition or capability needed by a stakehcldseto solve 111. proble~ll 01" achieve an oh'j,eci:ivti:,

2. A c~'ndlitiOi[l {or c<l!pabili.ty d'~.at ~.[m8.~ be met OJ IN)$~c$$OC!dI ~).y a 8.ohutuon OF S(l.]lLl.t~:OI] component to :s.:ilJti'ii~:Y a. OO[ltra.ct, staru:'l.aF.cJI, siP'ec~j]cation., or ether Di'm:n.allyimpo$;ed documents.

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A.s implied by tfu~B d,en~tutj~n, a I.' equi rement IntlLy he unstated a . implied by or derived from cther requirementa, or directly stated and I.UJI,I].agstL (hll'e of the !;::,ey olhDectiv'es of business an~I,]Ys]s is to ensure that f!3Jq]Lljren.Len~ll are v~mb~e to and understood by a[~ stfilkehGlden;,

]be l:e::ri:]l."req"u1~re:me:nf' i~ OK]e tha'~ ge[le:ml:c;s a ~{)I: of dtscussion w~l:hi:iiJ U~(lbu;s;ir1e.siil ~lHI,~.yS~.5! eommuntty M !lny of these deb ares lOCruS on what should or should not he C().11.<!~.~:tenJJ.fLlr.EN1!ILlir.,el:r.eni:, and what ,fLlre the necessary characterfstlcs of areq uirement. When readlng the BAROK" Ch'dde, ]I.f:Iwl1've.r; .i'~ ts v.itril.l. I:hrilt ~lteqru.i.re;merlt" be tltulierstoodi iii thelnnadest posl>:ihle SflnS(l, H(llqjrui:ll,etmJ.(l[u~:s include but .:il.re [Io.t UrnUed. to •. r,a;fl~, pr:esent, and future condtttons or capabthnes in an. enterprise, and desc:rr~pu.Qlng oforga.!tdzational 8t:nu::tul'es"m~es,pl'()ces1'!ies,poli.deg. rules, andInfarmanon s:yste.~ns. A requiremont .~nay decs,c,ibe til£'! cunent.QJ' till.e future stare of anyaspect of the ~me:r.p~.':ise,.

Much {If ttil!;! clx:~.&t:i[l~lite[~t;uFl;l ~m bUi\l:iness ~n~ly8i$i~wtittel] wit~Cl tti,e ;&88UlIl.p~UO[Jj dLl~t; J:{)q~~jr~)l.1~.e:~t~ [Ml.ijy dr,s·m;ibeil!ui nf~f!~llJtioH t)~lcl:molog:y ~y&f)~j~ th Iltis b ~~j~g cousidered for implement<ltion, Other deAnituons m'Jyunch~de future state hus:inesshmctiou:s as wen, O'r rcstrict fnc mClu:illng: ufr'tll!c term to define the ·ends $t~.kchold,en; are seekilTI~l)o ",~~~icve ~nd nofJ the m~;,'I!ns by wltj~h tho8!e ~nds are achi(~\'ed"WhHe .;,'I!I~ (lfth~s~ dii'fEJrent US'l;lS. of the h;::rrn ate Fl;l~SO[l!albl.e.uld dc:(:el.l(;iib~I~, and the BA.BQKo (}llidf:''ij u:.':l~:&'e of the IlBrm!ndmJc$ those meani[l!gs, dlCY arc :!1ignific .. mdy narrowerthan dle way the I:c:rn~ .. ~s used here,

Sllnlli~,r[(r~y" WH do not assume that re:qUlinYfiil.e:IHS are a.~nllalY:lied at~1>lly particular level O[ detail, other than to sm:y that they slonhl be assessed tOlili'hat0VeI ~®vel of depth L!;, neeessary for understandlag and (}'GtiO'H .•. [n the conti3j;t ofa Business Process M.runa.g®ment inH;i@JJv~; therequlremems m ay he a descrjption ot'the business processes currently iu use kL IH1I. orgauiz<JJtlon, On other prolects •. the b1l.S~~M)"'S !l[la]yst rna.)' choose to develop re>q~~,U[Qll'~e:nt!> to d()~crub~)~~e current state oft~u.J e:nterpdsc {whiJc:hu~i.l~. H)Se~f II S{lh~,t~OI' to existing or past business ueeds) ibefhr® inv,esti:gaJi!.'~,g changes to tba(~ so]ution ~~eeded to meet changjug business cendttlons,

J Hequkements Cllas:smcOiltion Scheme

Fer dte purposes of the B/tBOR~Guidf!, Itheft)~low~.ng classi.~.ca~:ifi[1J schemeIs used 1,0 describe reqclJi]m.mewt5!:

jIo- B~sinesf:i ·Requ.illtcrnents are h~gillr.lr·hnrc:~ st;,'l!tJem{mtsof the goals, obj,tlctiw)$, UJ [JjE,leds of the ent;f;lrpFi8:e" Thev dG~cdb e d~e t~~;!JQn*" why a pN}jec:t h~s bGeniniti ... ted, f~iiLe ()hj~)(:t;~.ves that f~iiLc project will I,d_~jcve, and the metrles that wm beused to meil!SUu)ut!> suceess.Buslness n~q~1iletT!lents de!;cdbe needs of the orgil!ll~7.c<ltion as awhole, ,i)!mJ not ~[\Jll!pS O[ stakeholdcrs; w!fffiJin it. They are developed and ddJined ~~~rfjJu;gh m~~cf'p·rt.sc· (uw/y-J)$s,

.. St.akeholder t{e(Ju~]j"Gmel!!tn~ are statemeots oif'the ru;e;®as of a, particular stake][o~dIM er class {~l stakeholders .. ,[IN'l), dl1i;S,crib!3 the n®Gdls that a, given sf;::1i.!i:@ho](i®r' has and how that stakeholder will i uteeaet with il sO~lJ.tion. Slta_k@hl}~dJ0r requl cements 8E:),Ve M a brldge between bnsunessmq,u.IJr,e[nents and the va:rlQus classes of solatlou I('equj.~."@:nents, Tiley H.mdl~velopli:d and detiL!l!ed r:broug;1lJ r''(){llllr~mem:'f a:na{ysts,

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II- SOhlUOJil Ill'lql!!!irom('lnb describe the cha'llctedstks ofa sQ!lut~on that meet bUS3r ness ]'iequrirernentll:J and !>tnli::ehoMel: req uiremeots, 1ill1~y are d,ev~~opcd and ,Jefined t][t«.l!t!~ill.rij'm~~r-cmm#'Ii m~aV$rs. '])hey aH~ fnJ{Ju~nt~.y dirvl!d~d in~.Q &~~b~C.;3!~.e~OidesJ paiitk:iJ,I .. latlywh~n thr; t'eqL~i.reme~.1t8, desctiihe .". softw."tc s()ll,.l:tkJi[l:

1[:> Fu,ncfjonn~ Iil!1iq]lii1irlcl,Ui1in~iS di3s,ol"ibiTl tile behavioraud ]Ufm:uMJ[!On that the solution will manage, 'nw)' describe cllpEIIlhj lities the system will he able to perform in terms of behavior'S or Opt~:i~tionS='-spedfic jul'omHltion t!tldlr!O'logy fliPl)l:icaUo~n actions <or responses,

Ir,> Non-InnetitMIJ81R.eQ!u.ir·~rn.enli:!il ,c:apture;coltdit:]f:nlS thai: do .n.()t di.fed~y :mla.te 110 ~;E~.e het~ac\!'~or m~ fUDilctio,n.a.lUy of the SO~.1!1~~MI, brlt raJther dascrfhe e.n.v'l:mnmentalconditions under wn]ch the solutton must remain eJf:ective or qualtnes that the Rysi:e.:r]~.s must have, T~.1ey a!l'!C also known as quallty 01' supplementary reqIL!l1Tecmm]ts. 'Ihese c$l\nill!cl.ud.el:'eQu.~.['\ill]j,ents,m~ated to cap!l.cil:y, speed, seeurili.y, aV.ii:i.~.fI.b'i.mty and theiilfm"lna:tioIll1.([chi~echIre ami. presentanon of theuser interface,

II- 'fr:i!:lns:iUilJ.n BJ~qj~irl~m(l;nb describe capttoHiUes that tht~ s!!)~lJ!tion must ~av'e i.~J order tc facilitate transitlou from the current state llf the enrer:pr..tse to .;;Ii. des il:·eJ f:utwre st.a!te, but that win not be n©ed©d (l['l!t:c tl:tatt:ransitl,ouis CO~~1.p·~EJ~e. nH~Y ~U\© diff'e['eI]U"t{;.':d froin otb~r t·~qLli[""I.n{;.':ntt'l tYPG:,) becalJ:.'ii'~ they ate 4~:way~ te:mpot ... f}' ]:[1 [IatuF,e and. heCrfI.LI$.e tbey cann(J'1i; irl'C developed LlnUl both an ~X:I,:'itil]g and new 80hl.t:]ODi! are defulI.ed,.lhey typica.lIy cever d.u\a c(ooversiCll] from exi~"t:]ng SYf>.liBm.S, slnl g~~p~::: that must be .".dd.te~~ed, and otfu~t re:lated cha!n,g~::; tott'eacb fhe desuredfutlJ!te (:ltab~:, Theyare Je'Vd()'ped ,,,nJ! d~fintJd th.rfJlllgh 8o,f#tiQn: .("lIff~CSJfni;{}l~t a~~d j)r;didO!lCi(',~_

Knowledge' Areas

KnowJedge areas define what a practirioner olbusilness@ualysi8 needsto understand and the tEIISkS,l P!f@cti.iti~nei!J UIUJ.st he able to [)~dorm.

Bn&iness1in1i.~ys~!! are Hkcly to perform tasks from all knowledge areal'! in ra(p1d sueGe1ii::::~~]I[I, ]1;e,lral:.~.vcl.y, Qr 1ii~ml).d~:a.nC'(,m!illy. TBJ~J:::s may be perfermedIn amy ()rd{;lr as kmgu!i' I:he .wq]tt]rcd .~.npr~t:s are available. In P.f]:Dilcip~:B, a hil1s[ne;sifl an~~lysis eJ(orl:ma.y r>;i;afl: 'Wi~:h any ~;ask!.aJlt:h(fl!lg:h dm m{ll~t~~.ke~y candtdatesare Dejiue, But;iltf1!SS Need ,('5.1) or Rr!al~la~e Sclimioll Petforman.ee (7.6~.

KnowlC!Jge M'C1.lS 1.lH~ mot i~1temded to represent phases Ina pI'oj,ect.[tis cert"j~dy pessuble",ndlpen11j88iih~.~ to prooeed!ff:rom pedl)rm~ng. e;nil;erprise analysis act~.lI'HtiesJ' to r~ql!i:utemC:[It8 analysis acti.'!.I'.if;i.f;lSJ' f!() fjolutiu!l asaeasmentand va]]daUol] acti.v.itucg, and treat each as Oil d istinot phase lH Oil [Jwj ect, However, the RABor Guid@ does g~ot reg~lin:) thllt you do 8.(.lI<lndiil; S:ho~M not be ·[]onsltn.l,~d as a n1eiChodologyfoFthe pedbrrno,l,nce of' business ,u~;l~Y8if:i,

B;UiS~ DeiS'S AnlllysiiS PlalUJ!ilii ns and Mouit;oriug (Chapter 2) ]51 the knowledge area that CQVlBrS h{}w business 9Ut~['YSt." a:~tt~n1mjne which activities ,fii['(j neeessary i!i1J order to complete a busmess imEillylris ei'fmt It covers identificatinn of stakeholders, seJ0of(!O[IJ of business a[w,.~r~us tschnlques, rr..Il.e process tI]lI& w.UI be used to manage ~.'eqlLlimmellti!!, and bow tnasssastheprcgress of the work, Thli:: tasks tn this k~llowl.mlge: aXI@a govern niH perfonmmc® Of.flit[ other' bU,sUl!0SS .fj)['t[~lyrus tasks,

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EI idt,aUon (Chapter 3) desenh es how business ~ln<J,lyst;s W{Jrk wifl:! stakeheklees [0 idc[ltH'y <3!nd l,.m(le[i$.tand their needs andconceens, (md understand the er:I'Vll'itHlment ln wl:ii,(.:ill they work, nH~ puepose of diciV~Uonii$ toemst![e that .;)ii. st,ake~.o~der·Sllic~:ua!1 ynde:dying needs ... re umde[':!,)·t,{)od, t<;l!~h~r ~h a n th,ei.F. ~t:atted or 51l.pe:r:fi.ci .... ] de~it~"

Ih'l(IUir-C1i1lolllts MOillagcme:!OCt OIUrl"l C(im~ll.i!!!ica:Uo:!i! {Chapter 4) diesc!f.ilN';S how busine5S1tl1·1)~Yl>ts ma!JJa.grt confllcts, i3SUc.. .. end changes iu m11e:r to ensure filiat stakeholders and the project team eem a in in agreement on the solutlou Sf;OPO(:, how reqnrrements a:!'tl CfHUn]1I1.1Jlli.cat®G. to !l~~lkdi!)~der8. tI.:nd how km.1iw.ledge grl(i.il®G by thi.'i!ib,[l!l:i:~lIIi:.SB analyst ts maintamed far future use,

~i!iltC:F[n·.i~le.A..!i1Ii~.Ylsi.!li (ChaIUe.r 5) descril)fl§ holW husi.n.·ess .:itiJalysts id,el1.l~if~' a hus.itiJes:; need, refine and dM'.i.fy the definttion of 11].f[(1: need, and. define a solu~io:11 scope that can .feas~.lJlly he 'UIl]l)~,em€1l!ted by U~e business, This know.le'c]gell.l'ea. describes problem cl.el'uninon and a:m,d:,yS:i:!>. businesscase .c]e .... ll!~.npm(mt, feas:ilh.~.~.~ty !HiI!!I.d~:@s, and the de[ij.nituon of oo:lri..itinl!i &cope,

IItlill:.Jl!!ii.l"'fJJ1I1.~n.b! .AnOlJysis (Chapter 6) describes how bu smees an '1~.yStg pfioil::i~~~e lind [)f\t~g!Ft;s:giv~ly elahorate stahhol,dier and <':loh~tionre~]uure;mentts in or-der to en1l!~ble

the pFo}ectlieam t(}imp~,ementa S.()!hlt~om that will meet the needs of the sptm:~odn~ o[g~n]z ... th,m ... nd stake:ll(lclden;L~tunY.[)lves .~n;)iily:zing ~takeho~d~t nee>d!s to de:fine ~olY!ti:l)n:o;. that meet tt.'O(ji~ n~~cl~, "'(jil'i'~s~in.g the current <':lt~t~ fjJfd'i!.l blJ$inr~(ji8-Lo .j.dcn~jf:y .~n,J! recommenJ lmprnverneets, am] I;he\i'efifi.c::a~:~nm andvalidatien (lfthe re$ul~:'ng. requirememl:J::l.,

t--'-'-'-'--'- -.-.-.-.--.- -.-.-.-.-.-.- -.-.- -.--.- -.-.-.-.--.- -.-.-.-.--.- -.-.-.-.--.- -.-.- -.--.- -.-.- -.-~\

: . . 8usi!'liti!ss AJI'li~II¥:Slis i

_"~~""~ ~"[~ ~ ~~~~ ~~J ~~" ~~~"~~:::::i::"~ ~"~~ ~I~~" ~ ~~"~~ .. " ~ ~"" ~ ~"~,






Req LU.i rements Maltll(!,glemem altlld Ciolill'lmunil~hon


S,oolulilon .A:s;s>essmem altlldl V~lildatio:n

Enl::elfptise Analllosis



ReQUJlr'~m~ntl; cAJnillll:YSlIS




I u ~------------------------------~

j ,-----------------------------------------------------------,

.... --- --- ---- --- -.--- -.-- ---- --.- -·--:t·-·-- ---- --.- ---.- --- -----.-- ----.--.~'

U lil;cll~~lyin,g1 Comp@t~ndi·f,!!s

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So~uUon Ass~ss;nll1lnt Ilnd VI!!Hd!!!tion {Chapf,;~r 7} de~C'dbes how business 'fll'llyst:s ,lS$CS$ proposed sohrtlens to dlJt:erminc w-hu.ih s~lult:ioi[l bestnts the busmess need, identify g:aPC&OiuJ sltQrt()omin~ :iJn s~liYtj(ln~~" 'a!nd! de:lterminc mece.::;sary WO[l\LOiro~nd.s or Ghal1g,~::; to the solutleu, It al~o d~\'iH,:tibe.::;,li.ow bY;,'l;ines.s.O!uOi,IYf.:ltf.:l a5~~(:l[:l de~J]oy~d 8'uhltlons to seehowwf;:~~ tl:l'er met the ~lri~~na] ['I.eed so' dH!t~he $pom:S(l([]jn~, Qirg'anizat.ion Can assess dH~re.rf'()irma:tl!()e and eff:tBctiv(:iine~~ of'the ~()~lItii~n.

I n(h.~rlyhlg ClilmIH~;teJ!i!di1ls {C'fu);pt;er8) describes the bel:m;,vio:rcS,kH(lW]~)d:g,e>,md other char,floCWl'is1iiic:s, that support the effec.tive pe:rft"ji,Hnl,aH(;El oJ bns:i,llJe8s[~,Halys:i:s.


,Eae.h knowledge area desenbes thel:fLsJtS pedn.r[I.liled by bUr.";m.essan,a.tysn;s to aceompllsh the pnpose of ~:hatkMwledgearea. Each task In the B.ABOr auide is,p.re,o;el!i.l:ed ~.IiI~he fol.l.owiug format.


.Ea.c.h taos!;:: liiias s.purpose. '1he ~)n~."pose ls a ilJiI.on d,®5c:riptioH ofthe reason Iora ibfls:ilne:S$; ~tna~y~t to Imdmrm the task and the value created threugh performdng the task,

Desc:li1i ption

A task isau essenrial 1)]e~0 af'!.V"\))l~k tha;~ must be per:liormedfll:!:l part nfbusi!i1!~<;S analys:h;, E.IJGh task &.mQuld be p~)d'ormed<l~ l~<ls:t once du ri ng the vast nru,aj orH;y off' buslaess ,ln1J~~~S imI.U,<ltivl."-S, but thereis n~11PI]cr :~~mit to (he number of tlmes amy til!slk,uay be perfQrmed,

T~1Sk;s nll~lly be perlormedat allY sea .. le, Each. task rna.}' be Imdmrm.e.cll OVEr periods lianging from several mouths ill time to a f'03wH:l iIIUIOOS. For example, (I, business case l1\ay be 11 document sev'(3]f8l1 hundred p,8Iges long, justifying a. rnulti-billien dollar inv,eSitnu~nL or a sj.ng:i.e senteuceexplahrtng the beneflt tbtl(i~ a change willprodnce rorr a. sjnglei.ndi~ vidual ..

II> A task :lcoompUshes1l ],Ql~tI,]t in au output that ereutes value to the sp~ns~ri~lg Ql'l~f!.ni.7~1lti(jn-th.ati s,ifa ta:skis pl.")dorm~Hl it itilonld produce some delU(Jins~rablt~ posltlve outcome which is useful, specific, vi<'3.uble <J!nc]n1e1lst!rabie,

it- A ta.flk i5c:omplete-i.~11 prmelple, successor tasks that make use of t1ntfmlU; should be able te be pertunned by a d:iil'if'€:mJi]t persDn orgroup,

... A task is aneeessarypart of I:]w purpose of the K[JJow"ledge Area w.ith ~'\!'h.i.ch 'ut .~.s assoctated,

n.,(;l B.l1BOKO Guide does ~lO~ P!'Q)f;lcdbe a prceees or an order in which tasks ar(i' performed. SQ!Jii[~ ordering of tasks is inevUabJoi1i',,@s 'G!1irtfiiiu tasks produce outpnts that arerequired illljl_)lJi[s fer other tasks. HOW~)Vl;;r; it; is ]mpmta,]][ to kcltJp in rnmd that the B.fllJOlC Ouid(~ only prescribes that; the input m ust exist The input m.iI)' bel ucamplete ur subiect to cltarnge ~~ndr~vis3.Dn, whUch may ea usethe taskto be perf'oIr~~I![.:dmu IU[J~le ti,m~!i:i. ]tera1i!Jve oFa:gi1e .Hf<:lC'ydes maiyre(..iu~.re that tll~k!:! in am knowledge areas be performed! in.para~.~el, and lifecydes. with c~~<:l!r~y d,~finedpha:':le8Wi~~ 5ti~JrC'qjllj]\~ ta8b

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fl'iOlll mulUple kmow~~~Jge<lrel.ls to be pe:r{~rmcd ln ·every phase, TiI!sll,s 1n<J!:y be performed in any ordcr, ,fi!S long as the ~lecessa[yhlputsl;!o a task are p[cs(mt,.,

1bs d.esc;rilptl.on of a task E:!rpllaimlISJlltilgJ:'1sate:r detail wby the task 11S pe:rfonliil.oo" what the task is" .and the r®$u~Jts tim task shculd a,0comJ)~Ls.h.



Alii. ilil.plU~ represents tt.heinruc)!I'mal:iun and lJ'n~'cJJ[I{Ht[on~ necessary fur a tusk ~;o beg;i]]. [nputsmay br;.::


W·"-"I'~"'~I·]" ·(j1"·-I'''''r<·t·"",l "'.I!!l' t·"'-I,(~ll'" ·1·11'" ""'''''-P''' orl'·v'~rr""·"" .,°[1·'1"""1·" (",.1 '~O-ll"~·I"·'.(I'I·',O"" , .... r '"

,~~,.~.~,,~,"".~IL-':J ~,'i:i •. I!IJ. .~, 1i:i!l,;.._L 'I." ~"').._ ,u~ ., ~.'IJ ~1i.,.,~) •• ''I:i- .·11 1J.I!1.·1H."').~.".LI.Ii:i~Q G, .. .cr. I!~ 01 , &".0 •• 'i.,,'_ ',~ .i:lIli.-.. u ..... , .. ~. - .- •. u u .. ~,

soft\Yare app.liCt~.Uon),.

lhm.-i'l is noassamptlon thatthe presence o:f8ininput (U: :It1J output me8i!~S that dl,Ga:s:soelated cl~liv,er1l!lble ~scomplet~ air in H)$.l]nal st1l!te, Theunpt!t only needs. to be st!ITIdently compl1etc to~[1(Jw successive w(Jirik. to be'J~n" Any number of instances of anunpt!t nllay ~xi8t during thelifecyeJe of an inm~ti'!{e"

Fig'Q~ h;!~ Tl~k Inp:!!~mQtpYI~: Piaglra~

",_ ,., __ •• _ ;o;._,;a; _ ,. __ , •• _ OI;._,;a; ,_, .. _ ,_, __ ,_;a; ,_,;a; _ "'"





In put/O utlPlJJlt


Extemailly Prod ~Iced Iby a Produced by

Pir;Qduo~d Task (see task #) Mulltiplle Ta.s:ks •


~"_. _". _. - .,,_ ._,. -,. _.- .,_. _". - .. - .,,_ ._,. -,. _.- .,_ .. _".-...

( T-aslks and Klnowledgle .AreasI



Task (w~th Sectiioln #)

,1 R~ql!.lh~m~nt~

Raq1l1irE!Iliil.entts aJi1€ a. speeielcase .W8.wl Input or output, whkh should 1.~Qt be SllU"I)g."js]ng g[ven their ]mport;~.nce to businesa acIlMysis. ']hey acre the m1!Jy input or output that Js not produced by a s.ingh'!: task. [{.eClujr~meliJJts eau beclassified in ~, number !l)f di!ffier'(l:u:t ways amd exist in <l:t1iy 0(' ,81. number of different states, When listedas 8Il1 input or OH.tput in thi s sect~Url of thetask, fhefhllowlug: f'Ofm:d; w:~11 be used toi udieate the d'IS$~fkationand state ofa rsqu .. il1'smeTl.t or set .()frel]HjLl1'tfnll,eJl~ll:

ClalssilflicaUollRequire:nu:.':nl:cS [S,li3te O.r Stal:ll.s]l .. H no ,t~ass~l1c;a~:~!)n OF statesare li:!'lted, any Of9J.U requirements maybe used as an i.n[[H:ut or output, 1'or exilmpk~,[h:l(fl1li.ren~ent!l [Statedl means th<"L~ the requirement may halve 1L(nydass.imcatt]on, whenm£l.O'l1sli.l1le:ss

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1 .. 5.4

'1 • .5.5


Rl'lqlL!!il"!(';N1~nts wou~,drnean that the buslnesstequlrements nllly be in 'lrIly possible st~te (e"g, ve;rU'icd,. prkJidti7;ed, stated, or comb!na:ltuon::; dl.ereufj.,.

States H.my also be comhmed in snm~ eases, F()Ju@;~~unpl.e s . H,eqIUl.~relill,emts [P:dol1'ilUzetl OIDd Verified] shon]d be read to mdicate tJilat the requirements ~ave b~ml both. pr]O!1'[tized and ~]j'ititHlL ltcqu.il!CrnClIts [P]jiori~~ :led or 'Velifi!1id~1 means that Lhe requirements may be prioriti zed, v€'!lifimi; or both.

In general text. the state wlllbe wdtl:efll:Ufst. f(JT~owed by theclassificatton (e,g" stated

requtrements '''''''''I'-::I'~'d' bu "'~'''''''''''' 1",T'q"""I'I'"-I'I'''f''\''' ,,,.oe;)' 110 "'''(If' ~,f''''~' "1'0>/'''' or ,.;11 .. ",,,,Pl ea FI'" " .. 'I:i-'''', •. U'~' . ~" .. ~.II:r.~.~ .. "') .. ""!IJ~ ... HI;:; .. ~U.~IIJeI."" u. ~' u. ~ . ~ ~ ~.'I:r .~.~.d:l ~II.!L." '.' i.'~~b'':'~-' .~ .a . u, .~.~y 1."')ILaIL~ 1; ' ....... Uaao".U!L<.:' ~lJ... ,,,-_iii

is :indlic~~t:ed, ~t means that the .mt}ui:rren~.e:n~ lis :nnl: .restrkted. to anj'parrl:i.cM.lar St:il.li8 or da::\l::\l'il1cal~]~)n.


r]be fl1!l1'HuI.telncl structure ofthis section is uniquc to e.elch task, ll'N:: elements seetian describeskeyconcepts that; areneeded IiO understand how to perform the task,


fIlch task cantains It Hstt:ing: of relevant toahIliqu(ls. SOmE;)ltcciHlIi(,lu.esare spcdfi.a to dIe [);f;!:durm::,J!:IU:~ (lIfiil! s~ng,]c tiil!.&k, wltile oth,~rs al'~ tdE,lv'(mt~o th.E,lpel'fol'~]lano~ of a ~arg,e I1llimibc:r oft;ash. {amd. Me H:)lced In CJ~Cft1.l(3r 9),.[fu pa[~;ucul".[ ~;ask can use both kind:::;

of technlques, the ones filLi[lQ In Cheq'J.ter 9 wiU he Ilsted under a"'o.etle[all'ecl~.[lique",'" sabseetlon, Ifthere are no subsectlens, th~n an tconmlql!lCSln<!ly 'be foumd in IC~apN~r 9, For ad!dj[~Q}na~ .~.n~lmll~t~.o:n, see .'lcdmiq~~eli (J,{j},

Each task.unclndm. !l.~iBiiung o;f generic stt.f~k.eholderR whof~re~ike.~y topf~r~;uci.p~~tei.n the exacutlon of that task or who will.!l [be affected by H:. A~@n@liic stakebolder represents fl. class (lfpeop~euli~.a~ !:Il,{l business ;.'i.[lalys!: :is hke~y ~~O ~[lterac~; wil:h In .a, spec]fiC way. Ih{~ BABOK" (}uidtJ does notmandate thtL'~ these roles be flUed 1'0.£ any given :inH~i2t.'~tve., Any stakehelder can be a source of requlrementa, aasumptiona, or COHstm.i.nts"

-nIlS Ji:st is ~](lti~1tend.edl!o b~ an cxh~u:stive C~ist of aUposs~.ble (jtak,~bokl!er classiAc,,tlons, us it wodd s.impiy n!)t~)I[;! p():)~ibl;r; to 1;;J(,Mo[l.p:il~ silidl a Hilitim~. Son~c l,liJ!d:iUunal examples OfpMp~.e wEw fh into each (Jf ·~he..'>-e gener~e F.ole~rilte[l!wY.idedu:n. Piglu,e 1-a. ]0. !tIo",;!; cases, there w.i.n he mu~tir~e stakeholderroles !found w:uthln. each c[}IJeg.(~ry" S;,iI:l]J'iliiI!dy,iiI! $~n~llc~ndhriJllial mar fin mote ttu"n one role,

,1 B'usine$$ Analys:t

By de.l] ultiou, the bu!>]m~'!is analyst ]8 a stakeholder in all business analysis aetivitiea, rKhe IMl'fOK " Guide is written with the presumptina that the business a.naJy.sis [81 respons]blc@ncl accountable for the ~xecll,til))n of these ll~fjvHje..'l-.[n some cases, thebusi ness a,na~ysl: m.ay also he re6I)Ongi.b~.ef:or the performance of acti:vitu€:S thal fan under another g~,ac:keh()ld!erlfol!e. 'The most common roles to be assigned to buslness analysts, in ,md.d.llion to tile business anaJysis n:l~~, are Uw Dm:l1la]H Sl!1bjec~ NIaiU®~" Expert, Implernsntatiou Subject, M,ruU®~" Exp~mt Project M a,Ha.g~!l, and 'i'esJ)el·. Guidance on. P€irfOifDing Uljji'SI1i eldld]til))naJ roles faUs outside the scope of the /JAlJ.OK" Guiae;els these roles arc no~ part of the d~sd[)~ine of busiuess <J!!HIlys~s.

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Pl1ojiect: libra rila n," Chang e Ma nag!$!r, Conlfig IJ.rr~t:!Qn Mana'g>E!'r." Sollu~ion, AifClhitea,. Developer, DBA, Itiilfb:rm,UioIFl Architect, Usa oil'irty Analyst irailli1l,er, Orrganiizat'i,ana I Change' Co nsult<;1011,l;n.:;-.

I lEnd User


I Sp,ol:lisor

,2 (~stomer

A.t;~stomu;).T' is <l stakdl(lWe;r outsidr;) the boundary of a g~'!fell organuzat~(Jm or or:~aniza" tionalunit. Customers make use ofprod~wf;..'> or serv]oes produoed by the orgaJJ]]z;aHon lind may have contractual or moral dg:hts that the orgi>1,ni zatinn is oMjg,ed to meet.

,,3 Derneln Subject Martler Il:xp'!':nt (5M ~J

A domain subject matter expertrs anyin.dividu'fI,~~vH:h In-depth knowl€clg€ O[ ftc toP]C nilev'il.lItl: to dw t)ILI~itJ!BSSll.eed! or. s,(}I(ut~on !fIcope. l1:l]s tole Js n.~te;1l ff1U,ed hy peop~e who will also be end (Users Or pfmple who wiH be ,i.n,d:irect utiier.'> of !:he ,,,,otUl~~on, such riI.fl managers, IM'OC>eSS, owners, legal staff (WflO may ac~ as prextes for ]legl!.t~al~orrs), consultants, and others,

,4 End Vser

End U81l!fS am st@keho]d(l[fs who wi]] diJiiG:ct;[y i[llh~r, .. ct with the solutlon, 'Ihs term ]s most f'req~~,iC._ntDy used in ,1JI. seftware devclQpml!~nt context, wfue:r~ end nS~fS1JlTe those who wi II.loTIuJ,ally use the 1>oftwilrtl ilP'l]I]GatifJ'!l thi:1!t Is bel ~~.g developed, but hlJ, the broader ()ol1!bn:t of I.l solutiou th,r;y t)<l,ll!undude a ~~. pi:1!Ttidpanw ill! a buslness [)roCt)::;~i;,

,,5 hlnipl,ement:at~on 5iJ,J~~e{;t MaUer Expert {SMIE)

Irnplementatkm subjeet mat~er expClt'h are .re..~;p()[Is[l:de tiJ'.r design!J[lg and .~mpleme:[JJtillgpOIIBn.iiril.~. solutions. ~]:he ~mple;mentM:i,on sl!1biie'~t mali:l~er experts wm pf.O"i!~de SPflelaltst expertise on I:fue des]gn and eonsrruction nfi:h,e solution components tlla(tf$~n outside the scope tlfbtisiner;.fi;.fLlll,alygi.::>,.

Whil~ :ut is not :PO\':l~Ii.b.~(l to deti~l~ a! Hf:ltiug oflin~.ple:memtati:Oin S~bjIC(,;t matbJ;r~x.pe['tro~.~fS th.<ttu8 apptopr.illi;c for anin~t~1lU1i'~'h :.'lome of the most C(lmUIICn1 [!Ole.') are:

Dellell,[)per:5/Softv!t.'jlre ~h9un,eelFs

Developers are respensfble for the eonatruetron of SOJtWiU'e appheatjens, A:rea~s, of

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~xperU::;e<llllol]g developers ~r software ,t:ng,ineer"::lundw:l,e p'lll'thmJar languages orapli~iG<)!tion comptUl,('jIUts, 'Go~d ~ot:tw:;ue dt1ve~opme~lt pr<lctkes wiU ::;:tg;niI:iCil!uUyr(!!dh,l()C the costto b~ulda!n l~ppn(l~.Jtjon, the p[edic~-~~I)~~ityQ!ftbe deveDopmentpro(;eS's, aind th~ ... b,Uity b) ,~,nlp1e:ment ch.~ngle(:l In the f~[I(,:tj,urHl.nty ::;lllpp(Jrt!f;~d by "'~,1 <Lpp~.~,G;;l,t:iOEl.

Drga niz.aitionilll Cha nge Malm',gIement IPirofes5,iorH:.ls

Or!¥~lij:za(~~tt')tia\l, change fr~,aiiJilg.e:r'ti!e(ll~nt'j,~e:3&'~o,nfL,lrs arereaponstble for f:aeil1~~a(~~](lg iLL:ceptance and adopuon of'new sohmons and overcQ.,ming resistanca to change, Areas

of exp,el,'tisJs ~m~,o[~,g change lUfL,na,geme;~]1: p.mft:s!l~onaJsi,nc~udeundnf>try andcultural ex:pt'l:rtilse, Hood, c:hl1.Ll.lg,e m.mn,age;nfJl.~I~ can help to create advoearas for' change within full argn.!Jj7.:a.tim1i.

Syste:tT!1 a,rdliiJteds ,I.Fe I'espom.uble fi:)t dividing <J. sofhnl.Fe (lpp~~cattion into ,a()m~)'ol]ents ,md de11l [l~.mg [l:ieint~n~(;tion::; be1tw'een them. }\Flea::; of ex:petti8~~ among :system arehlt[;lC[(:l!ndlllcilc undergt<lflding (Ifmf;!thodo~.o;~ic:8 and uf 80~Yt]on::;. offciI'ed by spec:ufl.c vendJ!)rt'l" GOtH.:! system ... rd]U'ccl:llil''''' w.iU, [;acHUt;af;e r<Lpid dcvd.upm(.'(ntt oK sO]IlI:i,(lins and reuse of' oomponenw in u(he:r gO~Ul,ti~ns;


Trainers are responsible for ensuring it:l1l.at the encl. users ofa solution understand howit is supposed to wnrkand are able tOM.!!€; it e:fi:f;(')ctively. Anm.s of expertise among trf1ii.lle:l.'8 may include elassroom-besed or o]flJ]ine education, Effective trainiug w]]l fl1.LcLilitate ,l]JCeeptance and adoptton of a scluuon.

Usa biliity Professioll'lhllllls

USllb]:~iity prof;)l::;s~.tmll.~~ are respo!1::;:ib,lel1or the external h]t~rllcti(ln ,di(!!::;:ig,n oftecltn.o.logy 5uliUHom(:l<l!nd! fur m<lkil],~ tbo~e (:l(J~I,lt:ion::; as 1j:imphl to lI::;C asis,~e"'(:iilhle. ArC'<I!$ ofcxpc;:;rtlse <Ll1~()m~ U8:1l.lJ)mty pFofe8(:>iJOn<l.1!liinchvd~ user Jnljeil'f<L~ (l~s~,~nCir.Ji; <l!nrJi iElfiotma tion Ilr()hH;ect$,Go~d t!8~bUity wuUunccrC;<lSQ) prQdnctivi1t,y, eustomer ::;at~.sfnction, lu~d reduce cost ill !:IO~lJltioumau:nlten.lmGt_: (md tr(linung,

.!6 Pro:ject Managl~r

Project marn,ag:t:.rs fire responsihle for nu •. naging the workrequired 1;0 deliver a solution thet meets a. business need, and f()ir ensurlug that tile p]1oj,ee't;'s objectives are met wl1i]]e balanclng the project cOHstlJ1'ailruts. .. Iucludmg seepe, budg;€!t, schedule, !N3810UJ:10U" gjuaUty, l'usk, ft.r.~.d others,

,,7 lester

T~t,er\':l are te(:ip()fl.8ih~.e fer J!e!l'e[m:~~ling, ~:lo(J!W to ,rectify th<Lt the (:iolJvUol1 meets th'e 8tllwtlonrequirements ~lefinCJJI by di~ blliSiine8l:1, <l!U<L~Y::;~;, aswell as c~:mducl;~ng the vedl:katlon I)[oeess. Testers als(~ seek. to ensure that the ~o~.IU.U()j] ~!J]eel;."arp.l.k::ab]e qudi~:)' stt..3!:ndard,s<lnd tt]mat the risk ,tlf defects of f'aihJf1es ts undecstocd and munim:iz,ed"

.8 R'lil'g ulator

fte:gl[l.lator!l am respenslhls for the demnlltiiorm. andenforcemera of standmrds. Standards m~,y be those that the temn "llevelop]Hg O.e so]nUon ]8 required to fo[~aw, staJw.(I,l"d,;s,lne solution must meet, orboth HeguJa.t;ors may enforce legislatiaa, corporate govtrrnano(±: standards aud]t standards. or sta,n.dards deJined by Qrel).mtzationa.~ centers nf,cnrnpE!!"

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.9 Sponsor

SPOHSO.l:S am I.'espo.lls:uble .FQf J.~]utiau.[~.g the effortto deflmem business need and develop fI, sohrtion d]ar~ ~nM.eets .:h.8.I: nee'C]I, 'Ihlty autherize wnrk to beperformed and cuntrolthe budget for the ]I1H:ia t]ve,

..10 :5up~:dii,er

A. s·~p'p~ue;ri:s a ~itakd]olJer Q~~s:id~ fhe bO'J.ndary of agiv,~n t~l'golnizati~n or (~rg~U1il';a" tion"Junit. &l!pplier~ provide prOdU'()tfO er servlcesto the ~Jtg:aniza1i]o]] and mIl)' have contt<H;:tLl",J or m~"lraJ ri~hbJ~nJ ob~ig a ti.Oins that must Iber;:ons~dered,



A.n. uti:lput is <.II. nCJCesS,fl.f)' result of the work descrihed LUi! d~.e ti!lJ.&l\i., 0 iLi.tpi!1t:il are cre~~I:ed, transformed or change state tiS a result of the successful completlon ofall:as:k. A~thCli[jgh ill parneulsr output is c:mn(~~ed and mai [iJta'o ned byal shilg;le task, a task can have multlple eutputs,

An OiU.~p~~t n~ay be a de:Jli!1;rf;lr·~bI.e or be a part ~f u larg"er dd~ve:ratJole, ·II:U,l f~rn~ of an outFiliI: :is dC!penden~ on d'l!,l~ype of i:[lJUtiaU'!{f;l iI,I.ndf;.\rway;. stt~l].da[dfl\ adiupted by~J1C o:rgaril:l:atiJ()Il,.llud! ~J~);st j1udg;mCllt of the business 'lna~yst as t01l!nllpprQpri.llb~ wa)' toaddress the infunn<ltion needs of key ~1t<'3!keholder~"

As wilth.i.np~~.ts, an instance O[ a. taek ~m.ay be completedwlthout an output beimlg in its final state. 'Ihe mput or ourput only ueedsto be Slliffic]0.ll~Y ,emnpL!3tl3 t,08l1[O'l"{ sueeess:]v~1i'!lork to begin. Shu Ua,~';ny> there Hf!.a,y be one or rna.lllY mstauees OfM1t output created as part (D]- a.II!y given j n.Hj.8i[iv~, Fi:l1!aJ]y; the creation of an output doc. s not ~1JN;C."8a:riJy l'eqlL!lire that sobsequent taskswhich usa that work product as an input must beg]n,

11 .. 6

Teehuiques pt(J,...~rlell.drl.iU~!md~n1Iyrn~a~:~mll on d~~f'erent w:!Iiy.o:: that a task may i1)e per.fo.r.med. or dif1:{lr!Bn:l: fOI':rE.s n:h.e ~)ru.n:rlH: ()f~he tclJS:k .I:ttay take, A task ttl.ay have rno:ne, one, or more ~[·e]ilted tecll.m~qrl.et;.,. A IJed.~.n.iCUHe must l)e related 1)0 at least oll.e task,

1he RABor Guid.e does ~](J~ prr'e8cdbe a set of"nldy\lO~stf.lch n~l[lIllW;S. tlli.at must beused, 'The ~~chmiq~leS de&cdfbedin thu8 dAlCii;!me~~tal'e those t!h'lt h"ve heeu demonstrated to be OfVll~~W~Hd i:t1J lIS~ by a majoritty oflhe bnsin~sS~111)IlyS]S community. BusmessauaIysts who IU"e famma,:r with these techniques are tlil~)ret'0]1~l Uke~yto [}0 <1lb~e to perfenn effectivtj~y under most dr-Qurnf>tal1!oes that they are li kelyto {)mOOI] l]h'lL However,. these t~chn ~.q ues ar·e not necessarily tt."h~ best posslble onesto use ~.l1! any given s3tua~~tm, nor are they ne()es.saJdly IlMe tu"ddre~8 every s:utuatiol1i ette(;t!i:vdy: Sun~il~dy; His unlikely that abusiness IDtfIJlyst will [),® can~d on to dmn{)'Hsti.rllt® e.l\.lJ®:rrtis® with '(l'v®ry rlecl\mique defined in t;fu~ lJAROlC Guide.

A subset of tilil.e techniques in the BAllO/(-' Guide Ct~11 be deseribed as bet~~g In widespread use, 'Ihsse teehnlques are In UtegukLII.' useby a rM.:a~ority ofbus:uues.~ analysts .fLlnc] see oeeastenal use by the va.s!: lua~([ldty ofpra.ctltimll(tlLs. and litl.S Ul;:.e:.~y thra& ~m.a~lIy if mot most (yrg&i!1]Z8it!.OiHS WU] expect business il,ml,~Yilts to Jro.~."..,e a, wo~';!ki!JJg knowledge oftfuGSe teelmiques, 'lhe techniques that fall into this; category are:

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.. Document An.aJys~s (9.,9)

II- ]:nb:~rvit;'w\':l. {9J4}

... Non-fucretlonal Reqni.re:men.l~q .A.n.aJysis. (9.17~

'JbeBABOK" DulCie Inay in som'e !C1l$~~ l§~ouP (.ol~mH1;ir t!ed]nillJlU~:S, or tech nlques that shan,! a si~TI~~cpu[po8<e, U[Ji(]~F a 8ing1ehc"din~. FOl'exampJc, the Data AJr;Jdeling' (9.7) Ilechll.~.q ue covers class modcls anden~:a¥-,rda~:inrl.sh.~.p diagrams and could in .prundple cmi'eJc():nce:p~~ maps, term and fael~ mod,e~s. ohject rule models, .riI!],d other ~e:ss wJide1y[jd!op~ed.~unffiJ.lysi.s tecl.]n~que:s.


Ordl[lC$whatt t;he~.ec:~c[[Iique i~IU:\lledlT().r,.i!ll]d the eireumstances under wbich:it i~ must likelyllo be a[JplJjcah~ril.

Des(~i ption

!,)escr[o,es whatthe teehulqae ]8 and how if> ~s used,


11R~ f'GllJm atand structure (j;J' this section hi unique to e:<lch tech uique, The elements section desenbes ~~eytiom;:~pts: that aee ne®ded to uud~[s:~(~nd how to use (ffiI~l tedlnuq1..:Jm.

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. eooes


Usagle Considerations

Oe~cr.~bes ·C(l·:ri{U~]ons under wh:ich the liecltll.ir]I.Hl [flay b(l([l(Jre or les s e.ffect'iVCt.


Underlyilflgl Clmlpeten(i es

'Jbe ~.ndtJ!t:~y~.l1ga(lmpetel1des aJre dHls, knuW'.ltJdgtJ and personal characbJ.ris:t~m, that support fhed:'fer.:uivcperfurmanoe o~:' bl]$ine~s. <l!n,;;Ji~y(:l~S. 'Ihe l,.Hlide[cly~l1g. competency I.re'IS relevant to business an I.lysis Jnelnde

AUJ1]yfiical Tbilnklng fl.ndiProhl.e!ll~ S.olviin~ supportsefleetlve identiflcation olhusiness problems, assessment ofpm~~)()~ed solutions 1(.0 those problems, fmdl!!luders[[lllding of the ~r,lle.)eds of stakeholders .. "'\.!iU\]lyt:~.C~11. th:i.nki.ng and problem oo.l.v.i1lginvolyes assessinga situation, understanding if; as. fullyas possible, and making judgments aboutposs]bl€l soluttous to a. problem,

8e.hav.ior~d Ch;iu'a~ct~r!i;sl:!ies !'-U!lppon the development of e::[f!ective working ml,a~:if)[I·sMp8, with staluiho1den: ~ndii'ilJ,::]~d;f;.'! ql4~diti~s such 4S ·~d[ic:s, Uustwo:nhiIH;l~s>a~1d personal org~.n.i.z.~.Uon ...

[liu.si n!1l~S K nowll1idse supports understaudi ng of th:e envrronment lu \Nt]c!:! business Ilml~:rllisl;s. performed and knowle4~f.l of g:eneml business prjm.:iph)$ ami <lvO},ilable &O~IJ.HOIl::; ..

COIillJll,mnlcntlioll SkUI.s support l:nl;S:ii~ll€.SS analgstsln €.~.kiii:ttlig and comnnuncatlng requtrements amomg stakehoklers .. Ccmmunicatirm skjJ1g address the need to Iisten to and understaud tJle aLuli®IDlo®, ·~I.nd®['\5~a:I1djng howan audisnoe pi3!i1cmve:S the business UHI.~.ySit, Klllclers~~fL\n(]ing of the communtcatlons ohj.ecUve{s), the[f~.e&!Hlge n~8e~f. and the most ~l,ppn:rpl"uate: media [I [lei [onnat f'(j[ cemmunlcarion.

Il!It·~r:tH:::tion Skm:~ support the bu~ifll~8!j a~.1la~]'st wJu~;[1 wo'rkin.g: with !ilI!r!!i~ nurnhers ~:~F lSllak(lh(~ldars, amlInvclve hoth ~;h·a ahu.lity I:() wnrk as P':iltt ofa ]arger tea:n1.1lL and In help I:hat terii.m. reach dec.i.s:'i()!ri:.'>,. Whi.~e mnst of the work ofbnsi[le.sifi. $~n.!~I.:ys:i$ .in.volV'esi.ae;[ItilYlng and daserflnng iI destred future state, the iYU!lsi.ness 1inaJyst t1HLlSI: iI~;80 lHl able

in help Hm organization reach. agreement iJ]a& dim future state in qUe£ttifJ~] i81 desired thr(rl4g,h a c~)n~biUli~tuon of ]c:~dcr~h.~.p aml faciHhUQn,

Softwaro Apll~jcllitions are used to facilitete the enllahorative development, reeordiug and ~U!:lt~'ibutJon ,(,It" !:eqnireLme.::ntl.'> to ::;t<lkeho]diers. BU:!:li~leS8 !1!JJa.lysJ;.s sh ould be skilled users oftJu.,;: tools used in their oug<l.n~7o<l:tiuin .1luJm[!st umlerstaud fhe sbrmg:tlJi::; and weili.kl1C8SeS of"ea,eh"

11 .. 8

Oflher .Solrces of IBusiness Amalysiis InformlartiolD

llhe BABOl(" Glltc:te is ~l 8ym:hes:i.s of iuformafion Oltl the business a:t1Jalys:lslfO~.e drawn Irom HI WLC](j WL\l']ety ofa\pp.rfJflCbes to busmess :irnprO'!rome:.fllt and. .cll.ange .. A (':0 mplete U;fl;H[l{i of worksreferenced 1[jj fl1ie development oJ the JJAB():!(" GtltdB can be found in ApjJ(mrli:x B; .mbl~(Jg,.ap~;y. ll3![js~ne58 [ln~.~ystt; .~oo.k.~mg to exPfWc] 011 tbetrunderstandlng of buslness fUll.a.~J8us m.~;ywi:s:h to eoneultworks 111 these otlffier fields, obtalu traimlungf:rmn speC]aJlst\s in Ul:eSelUiI3:11.g, or Im~'\s~I® other eppertunities [O~" edueattou and IHlofes:siollflil d,{fJ,llelop[llent;,

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In p~U'tic~~,I<l:r, we have dnnvl1i (Jninfonn<ltionfrDm the fbHowit1!g: app~i(,~<ltiol1i areas f.or business .m'l~Y8Uf5 andrclatcd profcssional bodu(lS of knowledgct

II" Enttlllpdsc A["cMfj~ct;[.[,~ ~inclndJi L1,g the Zwah man Fmmcwo!:k fnr Ent~["pds~ Arcblteetute" <lind! TOGA F~)

.. Governanceand COtU~d.~,fI,[I.cll!f.':rtilXtlewol·ks, 'md.llild~ng ga!l"b2L1.~e£,"Ol!:IIllY, B.AS.El Il, and others

111~ BABor a!'lid~ Ji)cu$[;.':(j on d,~j][JJing~Jlcl)lJ(jin'~st'iCl.I], ... ~ys~[j .fQk., .;:II.(;:r.()t'i~ilI. b[Q!l3iJl[al]g~ of b I!1s~.l:!i.ess ana~ysis approachesend S(~ ()inty touches, hrl!e:f1y nn much of the infnrmatifort d,{f\!lal.opeJ. hy pr1ictl~~oFl!er.s wn,rk~j]gij] these fields. :~rlLts~ness anaIYBi,," will fiFl!d that a study Ql'amy {Jf fJlm(lseal'l;la~ will be n:r'i.v~rdEJdwith agt,e~tl;)ir umd.el'stoanding, of the bi[:!~i" .[J~S!'i .~na~ys~.(j pr.()fC(:lsion, abiiHtyto o()~~,ab{lirah; w.~th oth~tD[f)['e(j8'i.(.m~.ls, and ,mllil1dr~t$li:..ilInding of 11. nurnber of dlfferC:[IIw<l!rs,l~ha t hU.'ij,Jne$S ana 1.y8.I;l'i eun b C!.FI!efitl~he orga~lb~ations that e:mp],orJ' them,

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Ihe Jhl8bieS~ j~1'li aly.~.ig .l?laruting em&' Monl~()ri:ng K['iJiOfw~:ed.:@e Area defmes Ute tasks asscelated wHh. the: planning a nd monttertng of bustness a]]a:!ys.is. aetl vities, Includj ng:

In addltlon ~ ~:hl.s knilJlw.ledige area d,ra~c]".m.bf::5 the wl(!lr.k :i.m!{~]v,rad. in. :mO'IJi.U".o:r:lng and .Ii:':ep ort:i.ng on work peif'form.ed t(l ,eIJUsIU re ~,hal: tt~he bus.i ness .~M],a~.YHi.s !:::~ffI[I["~ pr.odh.lces the ex.lHad;ed. Il:~JiI:G(J.[I]es. H thes-e (JJ!J.tCl[}ttH~S d.o [(J:()~ 00[:11:[', d'u~ hU.~nBss analyst m.u.s;tt. ·tt :zi!,ke con.'e,c:I!Jve ac::t:ion '~O meet stakeholder ex .. peetatlons,

Fig un' 2,-1: ,gusinHS,Aln'd'Jy.sJs 'lonnJ'n'9 9d'M'ORitwing Ilnp'utlQ Ul1Jj)ut lialgram'


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.6IJsllfllf:z. Busine£> Need!

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Plan IBI:siness Analysis ,AIPPlrIOlch


'111 Is t1'I!.~k d.esc:~[ihiraS how t.o select an alJpffHtC'h to :pe.rlt}[nIlIj:ng blLl.iu.nes;.~. an~l:ys~;s". whlch stakeholders need. ~A') be hJ!'v:o~.ved hi ~~.e ,t~eC}~i(l(I:i. who wfU 'be ·co:nf5.'lliL:~ted re'g,ardlra,g; !'I!.IJ:iJ.d ill fotm'8d of the approach, .!iI!.~:1Id fhe ration ale rot us:v:n~. ill.

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Descrli ption

Bu&iness1i.rHi.~.yS~.~ app,roa,ch.a s d.escrlibe the o\"eranprf)c::e .. s~h:at: will be Jo,l~orw'ecl to perform busmess :an11lysis work on a guven ~rdil:~M~Vi®, how and when tasks will he performed, the techniques tha twill be used. and the dehverables tlI].fLi~; should be prndllu::Jed.

111,ete ate l.nl1hjp~e c~talbli&Hied w<l!y~ to aIJ'Dtoacllbu~ine.~,~. an;l,l!lysis wor\k.~[1! (.oloftW'jiFe dev'IflI.opmeTl!~;,~JmJ' [.1Iuge from. th05ill d.ict1lted bytblfl waterfall app.wach to. the use ofagile tliJdln~t]ues, Simi l:ally, tll!elre ;Jjrea n~!mb er ofwliJ~l.l\;;nown bus:i~]ef>f;l p!'oces!>i~]lp[;lJVe" IntJnt metl1od.ol~jgi.es,i~lI:;;~t!ding: Lean and Si~ Sigm,<I!,. ,l~ well <J.r:; Inan)1 pil\)ptil~ta[yand ln-house mefJhod(lo'~~Jlg,ies, 't;U8h::m~.S, a]]dpFaJ.ctice;s. Hle:ment:s from clilflerent alJpnl1<H;ll!es may 'bc combined; fU.H.VeV,er only a sub~et (of aUpl)gs~.bLe otll[lb][Iatkmgwi.U be viable for 1:11;1'-" p:il!tticu~.a.r nrganjjzati(}l]a~ environment in which anlnitlatlve Is ~N1ing pe:rfor.iTIed ..

[0 orderto pl:~l:!J the bu smess an<ill!ysiSllp[)fO;aAJh, the busmess analyst !HIJ,st u udersrand the oq;;;j,ni za tlon~d process needs a~~d t{trjtlcU.yeS th(!:~ apply to th~) ~.niU.aU:ve. 'Ihese needs and olhj®ct1ves mayfnelude ci)mpfI!tibility with other orgaulzetlonal processes, comstralnrs on tlms-ta-market, eompliance with regn htOifY and gOY!ilif!il:<lJ1!O@ frameworks, the desire to evaluate newapprcaehes to SO]U;tiOl1 d~ve!op~~nt;, Of (d~:~:l' busi ness objecUw)!;, lIthe objlecti\1l~S:llr:e uot known, tilt) business an<ill.lYl>t maybe rcqu]!:0di tilj' dlelh~~) the nX]UUHrmenlt.s. that the precess mu stmeet,

ln nu.:n!y cases, or'g:a.llIUZa~]m:1lll will have fm.'.mm~ . or informal standards in place reg:a.rdttlli!o]; bow busluess nun . .IlysJis is doneand .ihUlw ift tits into p~.'\(}joG!ct ~hn(ll other activ~des,. If th:l~ is the case, il:he busaness a:li.a~.ysn: reviews auy ,ex]Sil:~.ng ()rfl!a,ni.:zal~jt!;.naJ standards, ][jJclL!ldo~.!tlg standards gutdeltnes, and processes ralanng to the current Inttlatlve, 11.1E:ifle .m,f~y suggest or dlctate whic:.fu approach to use, [\len where a standard ft.P[lif~.fLdl.exus;ts. U muet betalleredto th€ nseds of aspecnlc hl.ilt~.at~v{J. Ta~Jo.I.'IIlg Ull~W be governed hy o.r.gan~.:!'.fI.·· tioual s~Am(llard;s thwu.l. d€Drll]iI]: whi ell a.ppr.'ou.chtts are ])lllmiJtood.. wh.~.c..Ih. ell@m.enl.:; of those processes May be tailored, gIDltera] gujdeHntes for s®]®cUmg aprucess, (!.:I1Ja so forth.

[fno s~an,da~rdsex:ust. the business a:ll.a~ys~: works w~uth the ar'rfrnp:ri~"tl~e stakeholders n:o determlne how fhe work wi.n 'ti"e O[Jmpleted ... 'Ihe bllsiil1C88 ll]]ta!.I.yst shauld be capable of se~'l;!din~ or crcaUrI!!lam appr(),ad~. and workin'!!lw:ith key stakll;.':hl,lI,Jle;r.~, p!il!rti.culady the p[.i)jecl~ manmJg.ur andpwj ecn: team.to ensure that It :is s.uitable.

lhe business analysis approach h,· often b ased (]I]] or related to the projQ)ctllPP!l:Q@ch,

but Iu S~.lme (;;8!${:1> theym.ilIIY bei.~~.depe~~denUy detQ)['m.~m~Hl (f'jrex(!.mpl,(), an Ql'g(!ni7~@tu(j11 may use ,l plan~drive:[1 alpp'roach to dduncil:.s busmess processes .. md th~~n~lse a ,~h1!!n~e" drrven approach to li:Iu]]d the supporting s.{)inw.~m '~lrrUcatJia]j]s) ..


nu~iJ.ne:!ih$OiN'ectl.: Tille buslness a~la~Y!.i>i$ approach .... lll be shaped by~Jw prohleru (Or oppo.nrunH:y faced hr the or~an'i:za.tinn. :[1: is. g,,{,;ll.e!t':aUy l]ece~sarrylJo oOI]£'ider the rlsks assoeiated with u~, the timaframe hi ,>,ihiell the need must he addressed, and hm!l' well d.w need is understood, 'Ill]!! will fu.e~p determme whetheraplsn-dnven or dlnln,g,e-cl.r·.~:ve;:r1 appmach is fLlppropr.i.a;~;e ..

Ix:_pcrl Jll.dgLQCUJ: Used to- d0h3F~ni!ile the optimel busi tHlSSMl1)IiyS]5 , •. pproach, Expstl. tise ~1!l1Jy be prevkled from a w]de range of soureesl ~~dudjng stakeholdersi u the .~ ultiati.ve;,. ol'g~I~,j7';atkHHd C enters of' C QmlH':tency. ()!(JtnSIl ltants, !(Jir<lSsoci<l!tuons andi ndiustl'y

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g!l'OU[JI!h Pdo[ ~xpe[uenc('"" of the bU8~IH~\'51> 'In!I~YS~ and ~f~~r stakehcldees shou kl! b~ (Jon::;tiilercd when g,eI,ect~ng orrnodifying: all! ;a:ppH~actL

OrgnltilzaU!on.a.11 P raC(lSS Asset~ ] nclude the ·ell@me;l1Its 0[' exlstlng buslness a.g.utllysJls ap a p:l:'oaclli3s inuse by tile O~''g)aHj z:a nan, (h''g)a!li zatioaul pruceas assets tili:at ma.)" be useful in d~:njng t.fu@ l.}tlShl~Sfi!.ltSJly:sis::'l:ppr~)fidl include methodologles tor precess change 01' software d0'!1e~Op!]la_nt tools or todln]qucs thElit .. U·~ in U.3e OT uuderstcod by st8Jk0ho]d· ~)tS, corporate governance standards (such MCOBJ'T, S:'lrb,mcs·O~'<leyjiill!]d Basel I I), .. iilln·d! templates [Of dellverables, In ~clld.i.tWitilt;() these gell!er~lIl. standards, th.e o'fga.ltli::wti.on I:Ufl:Y have g!l1hlehni3:.S m place fb~" tailormg the process to. fit it specific initintive,

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IBIJJ[s:iiness Need

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IPila,n R.eq'uire:mell'llts Mgt Proces:~


Alm~)~t; all m~f~\iJ"ld~"ll()g]je8. J:)t ()10mcwhe[~a~.(ling .<Ii spectrum beh'i'eenD~.al.l-ddli'en und (,:hung.e-d[ivemill.ppn)"H;h.~8.

[Jlan~drh'l1l~l ap'P110( •. ches fbml.s on mhdnriz.:ing up"h"Ont~l.nc~rtajnt;YM1i.d eusurmg that 1:I1.eso~.llltiIGnlls fuJmy defined b erm:e tmplemematinn beg,bu. in order to maximize control and t;li1IjI1in1~:;>,e risl, 'Ihase apI1g.'ICH .•. c'l\l.e:.s tend to be pre [e:r red. in S:~tLI.at:im~.s w he~'le requtrements can effecttvelybe d®fiui3d madvanee of'[mIP'Je:m,e!.~t~fj()in.., the rjslk. Offilll incorrect

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imp~~~~]]e:r:Jitat~om ts un".(x;~~ptably high, or whenllllln,tglng: stakehokleeinteraetmns presents sign~fic.mt d:Hl~~eng.e8" The ,mfffiJor~tyl!o 1.lpprf)'l'l,'l[1equ~rt~mcntg typic1.llIy.e~ts with &e1ect~d ~hlbehoMen:i a!n,Jj the p[!(lJect :::lpO~lt>lOit, Thepitoject sp!!)n(:iQit ",,'iii h,tve thefl,· [lOll. Jl!:Llth.f~F..ay tf) a!.PI}rl}'l'C 5u1iUti{)!lr~qiU.i.tell1.·~]]t(:i,. b~tit is co~nl.n()m f(}i' sp~Jln:';:lon;; to :ins:i~t tll~t other i:'it ... lket.ol.de;r~ grant t;hd[ app.ff.l'l''''] bdi;~tel:h·e :'.:l[p()[lt-lo:t win.W a I:e[f~n methods of ~o.ftwa.m d,eve~opmel]~ and husiness p.rm:::ess r.ril-e:ngil],(le:riUlig initial:iv·es are typical exam[J,ies: of pian~dd'!{C!n ap[JIr01!.dll(l!:l,

C.b:IU11,g~-d.:r.i.v'enll.ppro.aJ.cb(!!1I focus on rapid d.elJi.y(:~.''Y of business vaJne i.~ll sb{'frt~teTatkl.llS in rsturn fOir acceptance of a higher degree Oflll1CertaJnty regfiJ.fd.ing thee oven •. U dellv~[>y of the so~uUon" 'Ihese approaches tend to bepreterred when taking: an ex:ph]rariiory apprnaeh to finiHng G@ b·0S~ so]uliion or fbr meremental improvement of an existJing SO!HtJO~~, n~~)1!iut;~w~city to approve requiremeuts It:sna~J: rests with OJ, ~ig~g]QJ individual, who ~S[1>n a,cr~iVB ])art~.C'.~pil.i:i'itin Uw teami's d['i.(ill!' activities-vethers ~fJ~l.a'Y .[1>(lviSIii:: or be infermed but may not withlrold censent, and the apprcvel pmo(:lSSU]U8t be completed within a strict; time limit Agi~e m~li.fuod8 of SO§1I:WM~ development, ~.S well as contiuuous hnprovement projeets, ar®~YI)ic1!l! ·exam.p]es ofdill.1.ngc·driv'(:lH a.p]J'~'1)1!iche:s"

1be perform ance of this task ls depl@tc~c],e.nt on whe.n:! the selected approach :I:1'l lls on thts spectrum. 'Ihe des.C:Ii.~.ptim~s below teueh on the ends orrthe spectru~~I,fi.\ild hyibf.id approacbea rrnay combine .fl!Spe:C~ll o[both., StrM .. iku eonsidernnons must be ta .. keninto account whether the huslness analy .. t ]S se~el~lt[ng m: 1::1~~oring; H]C1i.pplrOac]I ..

..1 liim:iliilg 011 Business Anallysiis Work

[)etermjne when the business 1.ln:dysis efforts ~hmdd OOQur, ""chen tasks neod to be l'cdQrm~dl,;!!nJ if thelevel {j;f b~sinC(:lsama~ys:iJ~ (ll'lk,)[t WU~ n~ed to V:;)l,ry QV~I' time, This indllld~s d·~t.erm:inin~ wh~th~F ~nt~t]Jir:i~~J <l!n".~~~$,. :r~qjl,.d:t~me:OIts a na.~ys:~s, and S()~l]t:ion assessment andvalidatian activiUe8wiU ib~ perr.J[m~d primarily In ~pe~ifi.c P[(¥J~ct phases o<ritm;,"tuve~y ov~r the OOU!I:\sC of the it1Jitiativc.

I'kmodriiwe:fil appmachesh:i'l V'@ nW::;i!: business ana:~y.s;us work OCICIlI' at the b@gh~.tTI.ng of the project 01.' daring one specifie JH'ojlGict phase, The: exact name of the plln.ase V' a :ri.'es by tile spec]:fic met\.._hodo]ogy. but the madu focus. ofthephase Includes such a.cfivitiet> .[~S eHejtjng, analyztng, documeutlug, Vi6dfyjng and commu.ni~fll~jng tilie mgjn]r~m~'nts, as well as reporung on the st8JtU!5 of the business a.[lJa.My.-;]!; activities w~rk for the pmjl(:!cL

Cb;iU~MJB-dl'ive!n1i.pp.ro.a\Cb®s [[fl1iY have fLl bU!>:i.fI!BssfLlU.alyslseffon conducted ealf.'r-y to p:[udllc~ an. :iniU~1 C~iilit; or t..:iglc~.-1C!vel. F.·(;ltgll.~.[\f;."~.nents. (i;I.l:!:1ore~~trcdl~{)~sr.etgll.i.tel.ll~nl;t-l envi- 5<ifJningj. nti:sr.t()dli(;thack~~.Ig I:; then updated th]"ough!}[ut fhepf,(]!jec~ as new teCjl.dr.ements emmge:,. TIu'orughorut the :flrojlec·t:,~hese requirements ,.l,t.~.n hril.r·~rk~riti zed and repnortttsed based on the bustnessneed. 'Ihe higIH.t~~:-fl.r:ioril:y reC]ru.irremen~s w'{11 be taken Irom the b£'IJ.:kl.og f:olt de~:aUe(] requtrements :11rl.a~.y5~;.s. H,.s.reiSou:wes beeome avacil,fL\~)]e rOlr i.iIil)~.e[ne:~nat~.o[~ .• and implerneetatien will begin as soon as analys:iB ]S ClO.Hlp1eW,.

,2 FOlrma,lhy And Le'''lell Of Deta~~ Of El,uIs~t'iie~s .Anallysis. De~ivefables

[)ef;~:mrdne whether requireutentswill b® ddiv®]'ed as I:t)nn.8J~ do eumeotatieu ar thrcugh inlbrrnal oomalu~,ic<lJ(io]lj with s~.<tI.k~h~ldel':!:l, and the ~1[)prOpfiate ]eve;! of detall that should bc()Ointtainedin those doeuments, The expected dcH'Il,cr<3!iblcs must be defined us Plll't Qifthe ,~pproaC:h, See Cnap''f;r 4;' Re·qr;iremer~~8Ma:~iIJ;qgcme..nf,· an:a CQmmu~ nicllti(}n: flll' ex ... mpl~. of businef:l:::> an ... ~~i8 dt;livcrabies.

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['hll!l-clr-iiv·(,)!rI approaches typiCIIHy call 1'01" a 8~gnificunt 'Imoumt off'iDI"Ill<l~~t)' and detail R.c~p.lir(litT!le:ntts are eaptared in a foYmll~ doaumcnt 0'[ set ohh.HJument:s which fo~~,(Jw s~~:nda[d~zt~d. v©mpl~teb',. 'Ihi~ Inay he p'fE;1cedied b}'a n~mb~Jr ofreqjUUrt~mlyn~~ td~~ed dlO(,:u.mcn:~8, bL]i.~t wHhi:nc[!Ca(:ii.[lgle!t~~s of del a n, ~.l1d!uding .~. high .lc'Vd vl(:lkmO!uJj

scope dt~f;l,ime:llit that Ji)CL~;S!eS (on~)~s~ne~(,'i [eq~d.rc:men~s, and docL~:menl~. de8cdhi[l~ the mql!.tUtenHllUlits from I:hill .[pniHt Of"'l!llW of £pedfic £i;rilk.e.hoM'!il[ gWI!iPl~', R.e:levanl stakeholders myst g:en>CI'','lily t:orm ai i)! appr-Q'I;'e~a{)h ohh~(i:~ ~h){Jum~nts bd'Qre w'Qy"k; bqgin!:l 011 .req~:i[em!;)![It:) Ilta~{)Wer level of d~t~iL Th'e specifie CQl1vent and EurmOl t oftJilJ.e(~uit~~" ments U!fj"lCUl1Hml(s COin vaFY, d1epeml:ing. on the o:rgal1haUlOn a ~ Inethodoll(J':J~es,pnH;cSl':i;,r;~8. and templ .. tes,

ChiL\gSI1l·drivl.'ln~nJm,iIJ.0b(:lS f~lvor defin1ng requlremeuts through team inl!~[',iIJctJjO]] ami fJm:m:g:h g~J,th~lringfce;dback on II w'Qd:Jng solntleu, Miilndawry rl;lqu~Jn~me:rlt~ doeumeutarionts often Itfi])ilt.ed toa p:dQr~t'iI7;ed requtrements Jlilst Atk1itionfil~ doc'~~lrne;filltatfioltllt1i:l.ay hecreated at the discretion of the [efilm snd g~me:ra]]yoomm5ts of models developed to enhance th.€ltea,m'sllllfld(;:!f"8f;:lll~d!]ng of' a, ~pedfic preblem, An Idh~mativ:e:llpp[ollc:l\!ish} document the req I] lremeuts In the form ofacceptance eriteria ' .• ,c('oIUpanlcd by tests. Forma~ dO{)UJ,me;ntiiltion ]!> often preduced after the solution is i.m.plemcnted to fhci~U;ahj knowledge transfer,

,3 Hequkement:s Plfi:olr~fiEafion

Determine hnov requirements w.ill. bepr.io.rUl;hed and haw those ptu~)r.iti.e:s. !NHI beused 110 J{~ffine the £n.I~lJiti~m .. cope. Nleth(~ds oJ prior:itizing requttements am dtseussed 'on. Prioritize .Req.~tJ'l',e.rnems (6, I)., }!Jso see Clm/net' 5: .Enterp',risfi A.Pta~s~'l fo·:r in.:forfl1ati.o.n 011 ,c]efinl[ig the solutton scope and Clu.xpter4: Re)(lu~remtmlli Man;agf!fJ'lenl aru:l C01'I1JJw.nlcGnon, forinformation on managing the solation scope .. [l'rioifiti~tfltioil.inel:hods will also he used whenpcrfm:'lII!flg All(lcate ReqJt.iren:~e.n'J; (7..2J. Chatl!ge-d[~vt\lli'il.pP!ly).~ches tend 1)0 place: a g;r.e~~t deal nfe:trrl.pEl~tS~.S on (l~fftilcti:v'e .r.eqclJi:i:rem.CiUlits p:ri~)r.i.l~iz~ttiii)n m.ed~ods, due 1)0 the :3lnl1iU score of I!::1:M::h iMra(~:]t'J[IJ 0:1:' release,

,4 (hal~g~ Managemfilli'ilt

ChOlillges to requitcrnentt;s·!]'!O,l;Y O(JCl;.itllit anytime, Ccm::;tidel' the expe>!_:tedlik~nl!Jood1l!mJ trequeuey of c:l\!ang_'GflLndl @18Uf€ that the 0h@n.~Gl mauagemeut PWCIJl;S·:S 18i €!ff~ctive tor those levels of c_h .. ange. IUf00tiJVC' business analysts pr.ilJ1cUolC)S can s]gnif[ciIJ.ntly reduce th .. e IlHlO[! ~'OCt of ch al'lg~ ]'Ql(lUgj;ed iua s~ah~c business environment bu t ()·Il!U1:(1f;e]]m]n,iIJteit entlrely,

rlan"ddvCiIil approaches see]k. toensure ~;ha:l;ch,fI,nges mdy OCCI!.U when they are genuin€~y t1ieCes~iu"y HI]d can be clmu.'lly jINsr;i.fi.e{]i .. TInecliil C:lffiKfl1Ig-e:is olten handlsd as a "mini IHO'j6~t,,~ complete wH .. 11 requlremeuts elleuatlon, estnnates, dm;:~gn. @tC.Cb:lllTg'C:!a reqnirerfl.e:[lts Impact both the S<Q~.uUon scope and tile pltOj,ect I.>,cope Hlfl.d the change management process wU.I. he .uH.corpol.'ate(]unt(() the O' .. erallprojeet mf~i.liLg'lllment process,

Mam)' Qr~"[I.lz"tiQIl3 hav'e a f()tmO!I processwhiehIucludes a t.eque:±it; fo:r diang'c, a chang.e ]og that tracks the chaJnge$ that have been recciv.ed, and an analy:\.:is n[ the 'Impact ofll:he c:I]$~l1gtl nol: ofl.lyl:n the [project, hru~: also tn other brUSrmflf>:SlUl.d aiU.llO\l:Ili'illded s.yste;ms. In p~meticc;, tlre I1urnl)e--r and. Impact of change requests o1!lierl.~rlc:;rea.q.es Mwards the end 0[' the fl]\O'ject, 1lii(:l c;.O!u be due toO!ny OOI[lO]n01 tion 0[' f~do[~,. illi(,:~ud][Ig louSlel}' scoped proj ects, ~",c;k Of[Ctqjlljr'cmlent~ (Jwner~h.ipby pmje~t 8!t;a.keh.~:~kl!ers, poorly performed hlJ~'l..un.e:s.s an.a~ys~.s, changing managel!J]en~:pt.~ntitue.lS., hw'..ine:s.:s.[(l!Oirgafluza-

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CbangB~drlven approaches p.resl.une that it is dim.cl.!llt to id~[~ti.fy am requirements.In a,(]vanc~' oJ the:! r ~.lrnp.IHme:ntatlnn, There is g.e:Herally no ~e!pfUa.l~,~ chanlg~' ~nm.:1:magelt1tl.,enit process dlstiuet from the se]e,etiorli ohe~uirem.·Hlnts :lior a given it!lllr,fli~Wio!J]" Gl1llUlIg:e:s to ~::s:j!itWing solution cajplfilb"Uties are s:ilUp~y :rr]orHiz,ed and selected for' filID ]t€i'lfMim1l us]ng the same criteria asnew f"0lltill~"es and Cilp,@lbi[i:ti:m;,

.5 Business Analysis IPlalnn~ng PWGess

111,r; bus~ne~ 1;im.;iI.yst must del;e:rmine the p[.()C~;S(iO thlll;\'1,~H he fuUuw,ed to plan the executkm o:ftn.ltt>~ne:)ses ana.l.ysi$ actlvltles, In mu~l; caSU8, (his, process will be iIJ!hl~p'al;~d .lrll:.O alarger :p[,!!'l;iec:t pl.riI.m ..

l:l (.omml[Jn~,caiti:on W~tn Sta[ke~o[[dErr$

Commu 1l~.c.~.tJ;ons ~m.ay be wriJt~en or verbal, formal ol.'~nfo.if~O]nal. Deeislens lUI.!l!li: be made at the outset of the project as to tllw applicahil]iI,y of such oonununica tiens technologies such as mnm ~ w]th regards to pre] set d!lllcis']mNlilaL.k:]ng and approval ofdlm:lv-erable'S,

.P~an.-d.Fi:v,e:m. a pproachestend '~;() .rely om f:onnaleommun:icatinn methods, M.lI.,ell nf the connnumcanon of the aCI:l.l.3J requtrements ]~ in wrttlng, and often uses pre-defined IO.I.'IU!! requdring !!~gnfL\~AJl'yap!}ro.-V'.dB., AU pr'oject documentatton isnnrmallyarchrved as part orrUle. project fujl'ltory.

Cb.uilge-dri,,~n ."pprO,<I!.cl:""iles f~:~cl1:) mere 011 fr,~qLIe:ncy ofGommllnh;:aU()~l [!ham on ft~tmal d!i]!,()umentat~on" Offid<l~ d!i]!<t;umentat~on is On,e~].in wrU:ing, but llil!fbrmaloommuw n ~(Jati~n takes pr~{)eoJc;m;~· uve;r mO!l'\:l fonulli W!I'itttQ)n eommu nic;attua~lL Documc;ntation ft,~(~uently oocurr:: :tTi:.J,lliJwing: lmplementation,

.. f Requirements Anallysis andl M.arnagemelr'ltfo,o!ls

lhe bus.ime!:h'l· ana.lyst must ~(]ml~dL[ymI1Y ~."!UIl[ljre:mel1t:s.fl(Ji]a(lyrus or lt1t1alt:l.ag;e;numl~, tools 1:lu:;I: ...... m be used, These tool'Sm:ay shape the selectlon of bustness analysis tech nlques, notf[(ijorll.'> to be used, and the way~fuat requirements will be packaged,

,8 Project: (omplex~ty

1h1~ oompl(l!.:dty ofth~ proiect, th.e nature of dIe de.livutllblr;s, and tl:i.{l ~wr;F."ndsk to the bil;!8il]es~ needs~.o be taken into ·Gon8~d'et<l!~jon.,. '[i!w fach}r~ ]~8t:~cl bukHi'i.',.<I!mong QdlJers, increase the aOimpl{lx:~ty ofbusiness a~,la~ys:~s efforts: as fhey :~m.:reas·m

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FQr example, newvemtun::, m'lI:~ll,'eting: and research pH)j'ects tendto have". ~i;Jle:r req~iH)mC;[Its ul1!(')crtl.l~nty,!i\/~Ill~ a'(')(lountingandfUIHlm(JC projeetstend to h",ve a l'id,1!!tivc~y h)w,e.r M~vlJi ~tt' n,lqu~.r{!m®mtSIJnCE;)rt,;Jjin1).y,

Mu,]1fj"' O:rg~!.l~Z,~;fjOI1S ha:V'(;l a ['D_'(;!:0c1 nor knowledge regarding ,ft> s()]nUo]j]~o b;e malnramed over the long term, because l"eSIPoHs.:ibmty for the selution may be outsonreed, because at' turnover withi H the project team, g:OOglfOll):fulicfIIl distrihutinn of p~ • .rtieiperrts, or because key personnel are on ecntraet and wi II Hot retn ain 'j,v,ri~,abl~~ to the mganj zatlon t:ol.I,()iwt~ll:g: tCli1I.p.I.e:.Il).el.UJIUOIl" Funnal ,clIOC~~lIIM~n~,actilon ~~Il,ay be required to addressthese r]s!i;iS.

Techir1lilq ues

Dedsi'on Alla\Lysii!il {9.,8):May b eused to rate avai.lab]e meth(JdoIQ~ic(j a~a]nst; the otg'an~.z,rilti(]ltalneeds and. objlecti!1{cs.

Process Mod('!~ ~!'!g {9,·~O' Process NJodr;ls can be u sed to define and do,t)u.m~n~ the business arrn.a..liysilll approaeh,

Sli:rlIlldu!t!(';,[J Wa.~·kthl!"(mgh (9.:m}: TI~bi. can he used as a means ();ht;idida~;~ng. a created, f.lD~.ed,ed, m: i:a.Uored fn.l.sines&1iJ.n.aly-:~isa:ppmadl.



CUiStOl1ll1l!!i. [)!iI'Itlain 8MB. End U!!HH;' or SUll"U!1ir~: 1h.~ approach taken may depend on their av,riJabiUty amd Iuvolvemenr with thei nltiative .

. 1.m~)I.eme!f~taUoU! S~UE: the business anal.j'[i;ill ap'pmach taken should be cempatible with the i~.!Ilp~e:men.tntuon~if-eC:J'de used b}f the .i.mp~ern.eillI~:aUol1J. ~;ei"ilm,

['1;I(I~0ct;Ml1nag(lin The lllwject nl<l~]agt)rmust ensure that the business armJysis app!'01.Uihu!; oompat~b~e with other projeet aettvttles.

Beglililaotor: .A.s:pects of theril.p[l[!(jad~. or ,diedsin.ns made in I:h.e ta]~(jringp:mcess ~na:J' fe(rl!i~.fe approv.rill

SpOl1lsorr:: 'Ihtl approach t".kr,:n :m.ay depend (lCi fheir ,wai ~'Il:b~.li!ty <'lind iI1!Vtl~V~~ll1ie'Ut w~th thciuiti,ltivc, The spousor may also have needs <md objeetlves that apply to f~e appr-llach ]t~G~f,

2 .• 1.7


fiU:!l])ne:!,Mi A.l!lalyS:i:!ilo Approach: 1hisis a d.ef]rui~](~n of dWrilpp[o>f~ch thai: wil~ he tal4!en for hi11>~ne.",-~ a.na.lysi'i ][) a. g]Vie[Jj ][Jj'I'~]a~~ve. Ain!lsine;."s anaIY1>.is approach m.lJY sp(ldfy Ilearn roles, J.e~i:\:rerah]eR,lll1a.~ysi.s taclmlques, the t:imingllnd. fwqu.e[Jjcy of ~ttl(ke:fw~der i(lter'fLctioflS, and O!:IHlr elements ofl:Il,(j business aniL.l.ys:ii.> process fA :methodnlogyus

a formalized and repeatable business ana~ys:us approach, II: includes a decision about which n[ganiza~i~jna~ p.rocess assets w.~.~.~ bra appllad and.rili:l]' dec~;s~k~[Jjs naade Fegardiifllg !:a~~().rill.g of the process for ,~~ spec'iFJJc s:i~:CU!lal:i.on. nocum.en~:ab(m.regriln:j]ng. ~:Im approach mayevem"U!l;,dly beadded to the orgarri20atiQn':S ~t,ert')s~!:ory ofpmc.ess assets,

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.2.2 2 .. 2.~


2 .. 2.3

Go,ndud: Stalkeiholdelr Amallyslis Purpose

]ll1s task covers I;he~dentU]cation n[ stakehnlders who ~.n.a:y he <lJffec~;ed! it],], aproposed .ill~ti.aUve 0.£ who sham a comm.nll bustnesa n.eed,. ]den~Hyingappr![1pr.i.a.l~ stakebnlders .fo.r~he p,ro:jGct m: projectph.ase, ao.d de~e:rm:in.~.ng gtaikGht') Mer tnfluence ilnJrUm:arutl~ori~y regarding the approval of pmj ect delrverables,

Des:c;:~i plion

S!:a~.e.l'J,o.lderl1.l.I1'[1.l.I.ys:i.sis pe:rf:orm.ed as soon. all a lJlI1stm,::S1l needi;f;~denti.filec] and will. tI;s,~~.ally be an amgoimg activity as 1m'tg asbusiness .ll.illa.Mys]s contrnaes S~,~Lk®hi)lde:r analysis begins wH.h ]d®ntitfyjng stakehelders wllilQ niHt}' beaffseted hy thi30ns1[1!(:)8s

need 0]' a new solutlo», S~a.krdl:l!i)lders muy be groH1P{ld i uto c@fJI::gorJGS that ]'(lH0Ctl tb~i:i involv'emenl:m: ~.nte;lie\!>t ln the ~.ll.:iUat~.ve. Them~eiS,respons:ihiUti.es, and.fLlui:.hor:i:ty over the :re.(]ujnmnetl~£ f-o:reacl1 s~,tlkeholde:r or stakeholder g.mlLl.p I:UU.st be c.~eady deserfbed, Sf;akclLoJd~rwltmlysis also irilvollves understanding stakeholder iufluence en and attitude towards tllile hrlt!atiV"®,fllld ~.SS®8!d~1lg pos.:ltJV"® and n@ga.thi'\l attltudes.eud b ehavlors

wh lch III a,y affe~t the outccme ot' the hdUa.Hye~nd acceptance of the solurlou,


flogs) nl'l;S<SO 1'lIll!lGd :h.Ie:l1it~fy and al1iaUy:z~e t~l,e pos~U()n t}f'the :l>tall<,eholders ,ill:t'~x)ood by the billsimesS' need, As (he lH1.dCrSt'lndhlg,of that need (!voinJ~ t]mnlu~~l de:fii~~jfkm ofbu~une.\l~ .reql!i:un.lm~nt:::l, (:loh:ltiJoI:l :::lOOIN;~, (:lta:kehulder .reql!iirumcnt8, and 8;()IIIU(lm n:lql!l:ir~mcn.hl, tll<J:t a.dd~ti()nalinf(~F~[Iatklinwm bel!l8edttr) <;i!s:sill:'j~; Im~Je:nHf:y~l1g. lldd~ti.{Jin.<I!1 ~tak~lio~de.r(:l or u[I{].ershm.din.ghow exi$t~ng i'i.tal:cC:holde.rs may ha.'l',e chill!n:l;l.'ed thr£:i.r posltlon,

"EJ1!tC'!i'p:dSo~ A!!':'ChUGctUl'Gi Desceibes the o!:ga:rd zati[l~l<d n!]]t~ til at ,t:x]st, theiri nteractions with other Oirg~ul].:mti.o.nl1Ll. units, customers, and 8npJ)~iers, their :mspons:ib:iHti.e:s within the {~r~l1.i['liza(t:!oH"l~[~(] tJhe roles and re:lut:l(mshl:ps wttlnneaeh Clrg~,n:lzu;tjO[w.l mut.

OF~:an.lzat!i!oI1I.a\~ Prucet;sAssets: 'Ihese melude o!rganizat~onal po]~c:]e,sand procedures, forms that must be completed, suggested erprescrjbed rnetho(]o]og:ieiS, templates, and project imith.or:i.7.fLL~jongl"Ui,deUnes., UUi.'!ynl!.fLlybemrmdfL(i;ed or expressed inthe (orin of gu1di.i.ng pF..~.rv[:.:uplles,.


Stakeholder roles musa b ill' ]d®ntimeod! ear Iy in Lhe project in order to help e]]SiUJiie Um~ly delivery of ~'\i3ql]jrmnGnts dclMV'(£~"·aIJ;1es:, Noh~ that; some ]nd lvlduals may be caHed on to l)]RY ~l,va~iety of stllkehoMt~~· reles on the same pl'{Jject"M W{l]] us on difif-ere:..nt roles on dilfe[Q~nt projects,

,,1 Ident~Il(;.at~on

Ul]dersl:a[JJiHngw~wttbe stakehnlders are and. the .hn.PliJd or: proposed c:hange.~ On them Js v]~:al to rUl1derrst:!lrllclii!]:g what needs, w'iin.~:s, and ecoi.pectatio.ns mIllS!: t){l iMuti;t;;:lled hy $1 [l.oJrLlt~orl,

EeCfl:u~se [~{ll~iFen~entsail'e b.@(iied. on st@keho~det needs, W:J,nts, and cxpea~"atiQn~, fhose tl:'i.a:t areunceveredeither ]at~J 01' nut at all (:ul!lld. requiru a t().'I'l!skmto requirements that

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Or'9!11n iliItij,olnilll Prroc-ess Assets '.

~._._._._._._._. ._._._._.J

ErJlt~rp:rise An::hiltli!clUfe

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2.2 Conduct S:laikli!i'nolde:r All11ally'Sis


St(lkehol der

lL~st, Roil!!!:), a IIId ReslPonsiib~liIties


~ "=" =~ =0= "="=~ =0 O=~="'. ~ =.0= "=".=.~ =.0= 0= "=.,

1asks Using ilihis OutlP'llJIt


Pililln SA A!tivilti!l~

3.11 Preparre for ~ll icitation


Plan SA GommUl11i !catiolill

4.11 Mcmag,e Solution S((lp~& R@q't's;

6.11 Priorijtile Re-qluilr,eme-Iilts

... ----:...:. _,_,_ .:..:.....-,.;.,_.:. _,_,_.:..:.....- ';',,---,';' ----:...:. _,_,_ .:..:.....-,.;.,----:...:. _,:.,_.:..:.....- .;.,:........:,.;. ----:....:, ~I


ch[il,nges o.r nulhfies completed tasks crtasksalready ~.fi progress, ][lc,I.'efls:ing 'cos [is and d,o®c:refLc5]ng stakeholder s·f1tis:f:t1cti;(m. ChaJ11;g)3"ilr~.vo®[~.flIp~~)I.'O!lIc:Jm.es ~m.ay better accommodate this rlsk, hut cannot elimlnatsjt, as Ilate: Bt~];keh.olc]e:ric]mltifi!catiim[]l ean still result inalterarlons to the project readrnap and j['·e]ease eontent,

who p1i.rt~c~patf':l'ii In whleh business a[la~y£~s ~~ct~v.~tiesc$~.n vary t)etwee]] [p£ojled:s. 1.n.tJthodo.lo:g~.(ls, and ol'~an:izati(~ns. For example, (:iom~ oirgilJ!.ni.zatio:ns may~~lOOll!fag,~ members of the l:ec;hnica·~ tC:<I!ffi to att~[JJcl reql!i!fc:m.C;[JJtrs w(~ttk::djoP8 to ptovi.,Je ,(,::os,~(:l, teelmlcal cJfort estlmates am.l.!~db[matkm enteehnlcalJmpaets ""hUe others may [de l:h:i!tno~:edmicaJ d~SC;U1SS!(}[il is permitted durin,g these [lI!J.ee~:]ng:.q"

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,2 Com p,llexity of Stalbeholder Group

1l1ril oo.rnplexjty of 'u:n~:e:racti.o.n.s ""lith a ~'.:t1Ikeho]der group ItI11y be affec~:ed byhldAlrS s1!1c:h as:

II> Numbt\lr ll!udv'Ilrrlicty olidir>ectc;nd I!!!se:rs in their Ctli[l~tutuer:Jicy, Oil1e:xl1ent (lp" pn.);(l(JI:i.(lS, p.lil!.n:s,. nrpo:rts, umaunt off'OrmllHty; and the amount of d,oclJ!"I.ne~~tl[Uo:n. cal] be CLl~~J)mized based on the number of 8bkei1old!;)!.[s,each ~'UbjC'(,:t matter expert represesrts, Stllkle~:'H,llde:n~ with ~ewe[ constituents m,aiY beable to represent ~;~leir :st:ilk.e.ho]der gWIiP wlthnut ffilich difficu~.ty,. Staike:ho1der'srr8p,re£,e[llimg a large mumbtJT o:f(Jo:nst.iJtu!')nt!:l 01' l"1(lprel:H:ntin:!i! those from d~.jJ]:erent fl;!m;ll:u{ma~ areas o:r divisions may needto nl:iielltchin~o[ml[ti,o:n (lir eng<l!ge in reoqjl,.l.]remc:nts ~~idtation themselves.

... Number On!llterli'ad:ug busii[!J(lIS:S prOCGSiS1e:s and llIutl!lmated s:y:stGms. 'llbepL8Jl1w Ding: Ib:r stakeholders who represent those p~fifbrmlimg complex, ]nf!CffThcing. or ov~):r!@Pi)]ng bus! ness processes is c! ~fif'er~)!l!t; fW~1!J those whose precesses an) more se:H:"Otmtll~~1(~(L Since not<l]~ stakeholders can or want to Irthmd all requure:menl:.s wcrkshops, t .. h~y eau be more @asily persuaded if Ute workshop pertaius to thee]]:' process and the asseciated s.oftwa,r(:g a.lPiI:)]iefllltion .

.. ] Attitude andlln1iiluence

Assess sl;flke:.l~o]der attmades towardend ][]]f:ll!1ell.ce over the im'utiativlU. ]'acltor:s. to C()[Us:Uder' lltcii1de:

Ir,> Are the possilbl.e negathte effects .of tbril~[li~;]at~"Vifl 0(1[1. thbl £tak.e:i]oMer greater than the rcward<':J'{

1[:0 Do they p~.''ef.>enit osJ()I:UI.I:~.on5i. and expect the requlremeuts to be containedin that solutlon, and believe that this will enable themte $li .. old reqntrements definifi()in'~

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If? H8iY~ keytuembers of theproject team (i[lldnding hut Hot Ha]t(;d to tile busineSS1)H .. ~yst) built fC:IUStj ug relationships or have there been pri():i failerl pmj· ects O~" projeet phasesl !1v'O~v~ng: til ose people?

In tiJrllence: Understandiug the nature of j!tlfh!lB'IlClB and the .~.nlll!!lB.tme SI:l"U.Ctl!1:rBS and. channels w.iUriIlfLln 'Oorga.nu~;a,t~on can provoinvalaable when Si3ekJ.~~g: to buijd re~M~O!i1i" s.hil[P'o and work towards building trust, Understanding the influence each stakeholder may h.&lV'@, as wellasthelr attitude, ean help dev()lop strategies for oihta.iIDIing bny.;]n am] collaJbo!riL,[jf)fII, Some factors.relsnng to tnfluence to Cot1s~~ter iL(l'e::

• .hll.tluen.c;le on the~rl(ljied. How lTIluch ]nfilt!em;~ does the f:'ta.keholdt;l[ have on the ptujl~ct? F't~Ein:::;t;".[I(,:c, bec~u~c spunS{]i[:'j obt~il] f~:nd:~ng,.im:,:hldiI1ig, te(:lt~I;i['Cc.::;, <;lind mal\:ce vital d,e(::i;~~n[l$, th.cy iLJ$Utl.lJy e..l[crt more than end-users,

II'- I n flU!I3H<lG in Ute ors~:mj zaUoJi!. ll1CW are usnallyform1d <lind] iIDformaJ structures wit'hiHO[[g1u1,izat~![lns, 1lnd one's title or job role, w'hHcit can provIde 'i,i~atls called (n~tho[ityO[ P{j{i:ut]tmal power, does not .1l!iw.a!y81[e;fI,~ct fhe ~wtl!,a!iimportano~ or author.itya 8takr;ho,~d,er has,

... hlfl:ul'\1;Dee needed for the good (if thc proOij Get. The business ana •. ~y:s~ shonld analyse how mud] ][lllILle:nce ]!'l needed ito make the IM'n:je!Ct succeed compared wiith. it~.l!e amount o[]ulll!1e.nce the. key stakeholders, such as the project sponsor, b.mw. For example, on a 11l1'\I?j.E:, complex I)I'()~ect~@qui.r.iugm~ulY Internal and ~t«<rnalt'1e!lm!lrc~s., UiI.e ~~)foje:ctwi.U need a 8~'OI:i'iSOI." who has et.fect:i,Vie~ek~fj.onIl:l].:i~~)s with [l1u.d'il~llg gronps [0 ensure tbfilt evtlleqLw.ite lf€SOUrC'(:lS are ava:iklJbts for Imljed work. Prcjects that acre srnuller m8lY m'q]ui!i'@ sponsors with ]€S8 [nf]ue'llo~. Utl11M·® is a mismateh betw(;@iI1 dll.e ]u.nu.en.ce reqrLljlted and IJle ameunt of Influence the sl:a.keho~.de::r brucS Of is pereeived 1:00 have, develop rtsk plans and responses and other st~.'fl(liegUE:S that m.~.gliiit be needed ro obtain the requiredlevel of support:.

... Jnfluenee wifh olh.c.1i' 1'lta,ktitwldJcrs"W:ithhu m.o~~t org,,~t1iul!t~()tIS ~;EH~re i,. aninformal way '~nfhle[J],ce neeurs. n: Is he..'St~o he aware oftEIJsh!i.fo:rmaJi[J]f:hleD1lce struetura. For example, U there are stakeholders w Em cClnsic](J(r themselves proDectch:1l.mp'ions, diiey CiLIfI. be hel,:lf"UllUn converting those w.ho are less enthustastte O~.' even outwardly hastlle to the prclj1ect p~tp~:~~etlnJ! designated ()i[utc(,l~n~:s •

.4 Authorriity Lewis For' BU"lin ess ATlla,llysu5 Work

[d~)~1iJ:ifywh]ch stakeh elders w] It have , • .utho:rH:y over bU:!i~!JJes:s analysis .ilcfJjV"ULes, in relatio!1 to bot h busiaess anil.IYl>i s work and product deliverables Stakeho~(lm:'" may have

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A(]d~I:~.onaJ~nfof!]Hl.t~Cln on anH~m:'nJ'Ie- .. rels can be ftYllilnd In Plan. Requlrel1'U'.lH.~ Mtmaglf!men!; PrfJI~,£Mf (2.5~.,

2 .• 2.5


,1 Gener.;;tJI Techniques

Acocpt.nncc nnd .l&vnlu.uUoH. Critelr~.u DelllllU!I!l,n (9.U~ The business analyst should, (IS part ((Ili't-he stakeholder am:IJys:l1;, M.~mti:li')' which stakehelders hav'e :!Hllfi.(,:ient a.ulhO!fH:y to accept or mject tJlw:so]ut.iOI1.

8rad. Ilsl:m:'ttlilnfilj. (9.3)= M$IY $11'ii!i~S~: in .i.de:n.Ufy.~ng needsand requirements th~H lead ~:o possible st..fLlk,el~()M.ers, or inc1'Ieat]ng it. ~.i[ij.ti.ng of: poss:ilb~,e stakebolderrolcs,

Org:an ~znt~O:!Jl Modeling ~9.1l9'): Assess to determme if the {)irgflLnizsjtioTt8il1UuiL.<; ()if people listed h,1V€ any unique needs and interests thrult. shculd b® oon&idiefl3,dL It w]]] describe the ro.l€i!'i and functlons In i:!J.€ Ofg!fLclli.ULii::ioll and i:b€Vl!'aJi:!'iiH~"'hi.ch £i:~~kd.o~.de~.'s illt~~"~wt and 5.0 win h.e.llp to ~!ClIelltify sl:akel'wldm'"!i w.h~ areaffaeted hy a, chmng@.

Pr.:o.(]II.!~$Motlil':hr:lg 1(9 •. n}: .Any Pllt$(lIHinl'o:lved.in the execution (!f:hU:$~nel"ljI proeesses a.ffect:ed hy the s<nll.l.t~nl]. wiU bea stakehelder, Precessmedels cal]. he it source f\).[ Ideni:ifytll{'; addlttonal stakeholders, S][JJOB releted processes may he .Hffecll:edl, In iI.dd~tinn., c~l~egor]:z~.ng stakeholders by the systems that support their businessprecesses can [he Q~~efl!il when (,:h~n~r;H) I]~edh} b© ~I1ad#~o tl1!Q~liI;! .P[UC!,l~~~ :,m,J ~Y1iittem s,

J~I1l(Juir-e1Ln!1lnts W(lr!ks~ops (9.23;): Dudng requirements werkshops, UN'!: business anaIyst mayask participants if th ~)y C<1IiH ~r~l.g:~:est other sta~ehold~~l'S,

III sk .An.aJy,s.i.s (9,.:H):: :BiskB to thei.l1~ttfL(UVemnlY result from stakeholder <?Uitil:l!1d.€s m~ the ability oU:.ey stakeholders to participate in the inltiative,

Scenllrios a.nd[Jse Cases· (9.26); and Usc!t Slioriie~· t9 •. :~:~)i:lde.nUJlled 8t~".ehu]det roles may ~",er\!llfl as a [useful sl:anjjng poin]: (OJ ]d,entifying actersand roles •.

Seopo Mod(lil~ng. (9' .• 2j~: Scope models saeuld s~how stakeholders that filU outside the scope of ~h{J SO~IJ!~u(!n but sitiM int·[Jr.1!U~ withut im some W01Y,

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,2 RACiI Mautx

1he UIACI marrjx describes thewles oftho:seiuvo.~v~d.in business analysJ.8 aetivines .. [I: desertbes stakeholders M havlng O!t1l.H 0.. more of the ftllml,ll.ng re:s])OH8iilJillki.el,fo[ fl. g[Ve:I1 task or d@]Mv@nl.b113;

An exampla Qf'a, :HACI Mah'!x maybe seen be~o,w,

Figl!Ul! 2-4; S ... ·mple IRMII M;'I~rl:!!

I Bus.ine:5:s Awhiitect R

End lIs@r

lnfcrmatkm Architect I c

S:uibjiect Matter .I:xpelrt {SME)

I R"Crl (va.~"ll~$)'

. .3 Stakeholdelr Mllp

St<llihold c~~ mapsare visual dU<J!grams that depict the rd<lUOIls]rdp of stakeholders to. the S{)~U t]~n andto ~n(l another, Thm'it: ,tree m,my~Oirn!lS of !>tttl\:.ehoi,der ,"Hlp, but two oommon ones :in,GEt!dJ~,

... 1'1 msmx In.mpP'ing the level of stakeholder ]n tlueuee ~,gatl1st the l,(!y.®[ of stakeholder interest

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II- All onion dia:!!l'<1!munduf;:ld;i ng howinvl)~ved the stakehclderls withi1he solutlon {which 8ttakec~!!)~dcI'S win dirO(Jtlyintcl''o1ct wifh the solution or parti(:~pi!tc in ,Ill bustness PJO{le&::;, which ,aI:repa:rt of' the~arge[ (lirgalniza!tiou,a!nd which ,alre o(!t,:::;id,tl the otg:",,:ni.Z;;l!t~fJi[l)

Sf;aki1lhoJd~r mrurs often include ]]nBS of eom munieananbetween stt.a:.k®l[QLdle:r8.

Figlure 1~5:Stl1k~ltiO!lder MlrtiriDi


Ilrnl U!li'ice of Stakeholder

~nls:ure titakiehol'der remains £alti:s:fied.

WQ~k dO!Siely wnth silak@h'Qlderto, en!i'Ullr,e·th<llt they are iln agreemen!: withal!1!d support th~.:;;h~ng~"

Moni!:orto ~!1!:sure sta[k'€!hoild~r!i illlitffi"€!SI: at lin,f1lul~llio;l do not thartge.

lK!'fep inrormed; stdeiho~d@r is I ilil:;eily to be very concerned a n,d may fe.e.lalt1lxilousabou~ la,ck of control


1llfIilpad~n Stlk.eholder

~(U,' ,~QrrU~r5' SUPPlil@f!i',J LE!gUlaWrs, and others.

... -


- ... [sponsors," eXE!(IUiIV@!i'J

do:main SMEs, and others

witliO ... '.I.ln. t.er, .a.ct, '. W.:. I,ti.ln. 'the,'

r" _- 1_ ;a,ffE:Oe!d group.. _

Aiffimed EIt.ernnll Stllk:eholdfU

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DO.ma.iln. SME: M$~.y be able h1 recemmend ol~her business expertsto US:uSlt In d!efi:[Iing l'eqILt'~:re[rlerlits.

~)l'I(iject l\hutager: Mayb,e ableto :klleHtJfY8Jud reccmmend stukehelders .. In the {lont®xt at' a. project with a dcs:-igrtffllted project mfflln~I@i"'):U; mSlHH1.,>jbi Ut)' fb:u stakeholder Jdentitication <lind managemerrt mU8t[H: shared with fhc projeetmaneger, 1hc busmess analyst and pro1ect rm.3tllng.'e::r should c:ollmoomt® m] l)e::rfontl1~ng t]hiJs task.Ihe project man-

a~er ]s ac'cO'U!ntwhLe fm" 'I3nSllI rmg that the l)[ojlec~ team meets cmlilmjtments made to

UJG stakehoklers, m1lJil8ic'6ing: the asmgmliL~n1i of' stakehalders to pr~j set tasks <l!i1!a. their DWBhr'C::l'W6mt in theexecution IJlfthe projcctl,.fflIL1d ensurtng th: .. t; changes thtJi~ implld Uw project scope arc appmprjat!.C!y mauagsd and ItI'prQV1xt The business analyst wi]] :dSQ IIS'SU:st the proJect mIIna:g~jr i~]. defi.ning '\:'lih.:ich p!r(Jjr)ot tellm m~lmbQlr!!:l glHJU Id. be il]vo~vr)dI in develol)illlg, :r~vjew]ng or approving bU.s:inC:lssruml1ysis dellverebles,

R~g~I!!!ltIOl"' M"y n~quir~ (hat spedl'Uc stakdlo~der !Fepr~",cnt"Uves or groups beinVl)~v,ed in the [)[1tlCCSf:'"

S.,01llS0r: lV]la.y be able til) .iid.,('!!ntify domm:in sUlbj,ecf: martter experts to help with re'l]ILI.he· meats ~.~fiI1[tioiJl.

2 .• 2.7


Sl!:akehold,~r List; Rul.c'.'iI, and.R.eS.[i(IIl.s.ibili.M,l!.o;;: 'Illh;;. ma)'im;:llU(],eunfQimlilatu~;on such Ut-l:

II" List {Jfr~quir~d roles

.2;;3 2 .• 3.1

Plan IBlilsi ness Analysis Activities Purpose

Determine the actlvitie:s. tfuat [nos I: he performed and the d:e[1Vlel.·{tJb~,es thatmust be produced, e.sUnud\.e the aITo!'l; required to perform thatwork, and .klentiJy th.@ raanagement 1101I)]S required to measure the pn)grass ofdwse .~UC~:]'I]II:[(iS and ddiverables..

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.2 .• 3.2

Descrli ption

]be In.lJs~[JJe.<;s a:na.IY!:li.1: del:.er.r.tI.ines wll'uch acttvtnes are requtred fnral gi:ve:n. ]IlU:l.a(VuV'e, Fww 1:I1'(H~e acti.vities wm be carried out, the wO!l'k Illl'fu!l't involved, and an et;tir]~ate ofh.ow long the activitieswill take, ,]bis task.includes activities te:

TJ[he activities thfilt are executed and how tJ:tey are executed w]]] determine the quality and timeliness ot the h[l.~JJID&'i8 analysis d~]iv~rabItls and u~lt.:lmate[y ohlll3 sohrtion, '1Iht:! business IHllll.]YS]S .p]:an(s)!denJJfy aud schedule the activities <lJndJ resources r0CJ1uj:r~)d tii]l produce a clear, C:Oi~C~.S® set of ret]ujre::m.enJ!.8 thar £lllppOl.'t de'fElo~~)i1le[]jJ: of the soJlt~Li!oi1.

111ii'i p]an[ling;!ldj'l':ilywHllyp.ic:a!.~y nceur more ~:h.a[[l unee un 11 g.ivel]~l]ln~l1tb,!'eo[ Iwnject, iiI.SO plans ffeqrL.lent~.y must he updated to address cha[[l~ing b LU;~:~Il.e"iS. c(md~tinllii<, .i;SSl.H:!S eneeuneered by t1H:! business 'l:ll.a~ys~: or o·d~er ~:ealrn members, lessons learned 1:lm:rl:ig:h~hep.er[Oi.r:t]~.:a[JJce oflJfI!!¥ineSSR\rHd:ysi.[II. .aC!l ... iv:i~je.s, o.r oth.er. changing C~.rCUI]I.stances,

On~ way {Jf l;ii;:OOl.nmodaHng iha:[Ig:e O~lO! .. ku;!!i~t ]ni~jill!:~.ir\fe [8 ~o pl.O!.n 'lUl~Ul~llct~~:illcnta~~

or rolli ng,;w,J;ve hM"~, 'Ihis approach to. l]l~m:l"dng creates a h ig.h':]eve! plan tor the ]oug te[,1l1tlnd detailed plans toaddress near-term actlvlties, wuth the undreI\'iittlnlJung !Chat the iOllg4em1 p~~),ns wi H dH~ng~ as nH)l'einJ~Jr~~H~tlon becomes av:;,u hlhie e . An aJternaUve, used in(:hlu(lge"d:r~ven m~t!ll.od()I.og~~:::;, i:::; to f"O~!GW a wd.I.~d~fin.ed, tiIIl.~·lilllit~cl pr~H':~SS for UG'I'ciClp:iI"lg r~qju][1emcnl;s and limit ea~;Jl.a~rati(l'll b) the wmk that: CUEI! be compl~!~ed in the time a]]otl'ed. A l.ong .... lj~F~Il nJ"dm"p may be Iliscd!tto set ex.pe~;:t"ti.on$,.l)ut the onntents offheroa1dmap aee co~~sta~~tly l'!Cvis:itedll$ p['knutil."~ ch<ilngc.



Bus:j!lU'!S;S An.alyS:i.sAp'proach: Defines the nf:ec:yc.la,. de:.liver.ab~es,~ . emplates, and tasks 1:I1.ft1 should be ]nch!.lded. F.)~ftn-drr,,·en approaches seek to deflne requdremeuts.as e~r~y M lWi!>sihle to reduce nnoert~.~.n~:y, w1m.me change-driven appreaehes encourage requrrements to. be defined as cloos€: to iJr.np.Ie:.lllleiltf~lion. as possible, These dirffiel'ences wilm ~.ea.d. in J.~fYemnr. demver:ft bles and t1iJ.~h he.~[jg :iden~Hled as ...... dl1i.s d:iffereni: sequences and dependencles of tasks, The approach will also deternnne how theplalnning precess ts perfor:lnec],

RlJs:ineS:5i Andys:i.sP'·c:dQrmill.r:J.I::c.ll!:i~H~':;ii5iment: nl.c blus~:ne8!.':ll;i:n.O!.I.y$t must iU.(:l~ pir:io:r uxperlences on Ul.]8 iIl!mathr,~ ot O'll {l!ther~ ~;(~ detetm~me d'fic dJo:itinvo]ved In performillg bu&i.[K"Si!i.rilrHt~:J's~s work.

Org:an i'luUo!i!.d [J irIilC€SS·J\sSlfi.')ts: 'Hue org~m]Z~IUon, a .l standard s<lnd process assets in place milay mandate eartam de:.liVB]('u.blle8. Lessons learned from 1)~.''f!"..jon;sin:iHa.tiveB, as well as trem cll.lrrjent~y ongolngbusiness analysis activitles, maybe used in the di3've.lopment otbusiuesa l).ma.Jlys]s: p]am",

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Figlure l~ 7: .Plan lkrfil.l.tss.AIIlOiy.siS Adiwtits Ilnput/O'utpUrl Diagram


: B B Inputs D BI1


BiUs~ne.ss IBulsines;s l\.nally:s:is:

AIil:aly'$i~ I?erfol1ma n(~ l.lst, RoJles, and

,A~pma(h Asse"l"lltnerlrt lResPQnlsiib~llit'ies .,


Cl'r,ganilZationall Proc~s:'l Assets



Plan BA .Ac.tivitie:s




Aoallysis PI~n{s)


Tasks UsilngThis Output


PI!an SA (ommil!ni;(~tiDr!


lRe-quirreme:rnts Mgt Qlnd C(Nll1lffiUltIi icat~on


.2 .•. 5

Plan Heq'ts Mgrt Process

2.6 Mana'gle' BA IPer1kmm~ !il(ll!'

~nt.elrpri5e Analysis





$!i)lmiQ!) As:s:ess:mell'i1t and Valiida,tiion


\ .J

Stak!1l:1il0hlh.rr List, [tol,es,. and JitJll;s!pou.~dbj UUes: St~k~holdeTS wi U {lxhjb'it ]ndividu.d behavmrs and prehlrC!lCo.s.llhatmay need to btl lTIC't Fm" example, {me key s~a:kd'l(lkl!er may pFiefcr the use of precess m"ps, which (j(!Hdd in filue~]lcc the planning or busmeas ;;I!na~~~s tl~~ks rd;;i!tedto this staik.eh;j}ider, AniOtlli(!r sta]keh,Qid~}r m;)ii.¥ havEJ some ©xperience ~si[lg apartieudar t~d:u]olu:gy and befn fa:vo[' {lIfits (iiloic(l :lbrtbC;l cm'!CC;ll1:tptoj'[;lct, whlch m~~ht<J!l~o~mflucn~~ the bUi.':;:I[JJe5S <;i!n<l!iysi$ ddivcrablC1:l, hslk~, .<I!nd! C5ti!TIl1lt!~S, Undcrshlndlng thQ~h·ro~es ami respo'!1:5~U:rilitir;s on the project wUI helpto deb~fm.im; how milch those pI1cftr(.H1~;~win shu[)e (ffile p~a~], In .a!dditiol1!, time wUI fllJ'lfeto be f;i:et aside to work with gta.k~;):ho~ders todic:it and ~nll~:r;r;~ :r0qJl,.d:remel1it~ and for those stak·eho~d~ erswlfh der;:]8iIO\n-mak~mg au~_h()[~ty tu appru~ [e(,jju~.[~m~t8. 'Ihe :rO~,[;l of each f:ltU:k,C;l-

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hold~[' must be understacd so that the <lpprQ]JrillJ!e uctivitiescan be scheduled <lind the llIeoe:l>!>~[y 1tumc .. ~~tltt(!!(l

2 .. 3.4


J Geographic Ii) icstriburtiiolfll of Stalkelh olldelrs.

111e bus~ne~, OiIlOilyst must C'[Ji[l8iider the pltrsuca~ kH,:at;~fj"m (~Kker stakeholders on flie pr«'ljecL S~~me p.t'Ojed$wm h.ilIve the $t",kefmMers ~1I)C:ilIted ina, shl!glel()cathm wh,me o~:hrilrs w~~[ h~~,ve smme oftheiF ke}1 :iit:il,kel~olJ.·er~<;; dispersed over a 1i.\!',!dle~lLrea. 111e..Qe latIlrilrp!t'()i,ec.~s may 'IN"eU :i'Il,volyeirnCFe~\S0d! .c.omiP,lexi~:y, whk':h wil,I,h.~,ve an 'umpaet O,[l, the estimate of some activtttes and tasks ]n tiheproj,ect. Stakeholders may be cellecated or dispC[8~d..

C{lUoent.ed: AU key statei:IO]d;e;!I'S are ]o(:at~d in the; same local geographic U!iiIJ<I", ']Jl:!{lt'G are no special lecattou-eelated p]ttll!ni~w~ eonsldeeatiens f'Ol' thebusiuess analyst hl!1Q.~ved im these PICOj0()t,;,':;_

.Dlsp ersed; Tbese more oQnll)~eX j::Jiroj sets hrt.ve so.mekey stakeholders r • ~Qca.ted in differ-

, 'Ii,,"". -" T-I ~ ,- r 1'" ~ .'1,'1 -" ,:j " ('4"

erO,II: geograparc regions or eounmes ... c ie racturs Oi: c .H,;~_aJICe,. P0:S'S;I;u, e tune uurerences

and cultural and ~~ •. n,guag'€ dljfferm~)(ls Increase the ~xm1p~sx]ty ['Or bu;sinessaL['ta.lygis and win requtre ef.fm:t to identify and .fLICCQunt for dlEl.Se dH'lJe:re.:noes 3.]']Jd how tbey wi]] affect 1'ieqni.I.·e.me.lII)S~)I.fLlnni.ng and soluitklli1 deve~opmejIIJse~e,ct]Qn. testtng and impleme.l.lI~fLlti.OH. If stakeholder» are dlapersed.It .ina:y benecessary to bave ~~~.(!Jm te~econf;er" ences O~.· videocon(e:I:1€llJce:s. rather than [alee to f'aoe H1I!1~€ttijmlg.R.

Anot]~.er cemmrm s~.tu.a~;il,()[I.ill.\!'(dyeiS.:l[l. outsourced d.evelopm.fill:!Jt project whe.re the deve.l{)rmen~: team ]S phyS:~caUy located many tome ZUI1!BS aw.rJ'. 1ht'S I:ype of sitiLl.:ilti.ul1., for example. will beacceunted ford1.u,i.ng buslness analys:ispl.alfl,rling; and fl1~,gl:u: be better served with more ,Jet<ln~d requiremenjs dUCYlnentat~JOfI and! acceptance c:rute:rla, mere l·r.~qlUent r~v]ew $.C[js:ifJms ()i[ more del;a1]~d dOClUmll;!ml:al:iuu .

. 2 Type of Project OIF Inlti~ti\!'"e

'I!hG triP III ofW['6jo'CJt; or i!J!!m QiltiVI1l te wnjch the business , •. n, •. ]yst ]S , •. ~sjgnedm1lY h avc' a s:]g!!~ric.ant ]mpluJ~ on fne1l~UvmCS that ~~ml!d to be performed, F{Jf exasaple, in II projeet to purchase .~. nf:W' soft;war.~j packagQj,Illl,~~ work W~.U be d:iff'(lrent from an e:1fI:brttt) devet- 01P' a H0W lmsiness process, [Hffe~'ml~ kinds of'husiness 1l.n~.Jys]5 initiatives, include hlll~ are not; ]imifJIui hH

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,,3 Billsiness Analysjs Delliveralblles

AIi..:t of deH¥eF.rilh~.es .1." u;s.efrll 3.,'.; 3. lHI"~us ti~Fa.(::tivH:y .idetl.tiHcal;ic)i] .. Methods fnr .Ici.etlfufyillg deltverables imcl:L1cJk:" bue are I:!I.CI~: Ilmlted t(~:

... Rev]ew nrgatl]zatio[l.:iI~ 'pr.(')(::es~ assets, suehaa mflthndn];o;gies and 1;e~.!J1p]3.tes, which mJry dJcl::iI.lie wJrich dehverahles are !t'!flqu:i.red"

A.n O!rg:an:iza.1j:u()b1im~J:y ha'll'(l ~l stO'!.I1dilrd set of clQl~ive!F.albles. Ole mu .. lt~.p.le sets fh<l~ a!'Ql used to support differ·ent Ilppl'<Jv~dl metl1odQlogies.. 'Th~ bre,ltdllwn ofddivcrabl~. maY"~Bo be dependeut on the tech nlques ~electedl by the business 'U:ila~Y8tJ and may:indl!ide delive;rab]us Sl,.H;J~ a8 Interview ~yestkm8, m1eetin,g m~~!l.y~je(j, use ca8<e diagran~:ll and desorlptlous, arid Ilf>·js/to be busmees precess models. TIle business Ima.lys~s approach fll(l<It!en1t.ly urandates the use of certain tech[liq ues, Most ag,ile urethods lls-stune that user storles win be used to dOC:l!.lmcnt stakd:Kl~de[ I'cqnire:mcntts, and I.lB~$in·e~s Pro" CCSB M"'ll . ...,~cme:[It~niHaUve wuH teql;l!i.r,e procest-l ~nodellJng.

[i]f@quently, additional tech ulques may hs selected om an ad-hoc basis d~l.dng: executlen at' busluess anaJys]s as Ute btls]ncss a:.o.@lyst(j[ljconn:t(l['s. sltuetions fQTWll~ch th:(lY;ll·r,e most <Jippmpri~,tc, Ear example, the business analyst :ill1JlY decidetn e~~oitwCJIuj:rement\8 u.s:iing a requtremeuts workshop" and then aer,m'"uli!t1t€ in that work.sho~p thai: 11 partlcular stalkeh0lhklr fuag adtlH.:inmd r®q uiraments which are best identified Lhwll£;fu an h]te:rview 01" observing that stakeholder on th.® job,

Deliverables wtll of:l:en cake the f't)r.rr~ of <It !t'·e.ql!1:ilem,enl~" :package,. as described 1:[1 Pre" pa.re; Requir6lfu;.a/;S .Pa.(;kCl!{§f! ,~/,.tl), 'Jl1o se~e,ctioll! and form.a(l~ {)if requtrementa iP'fL~ck,ag:es is like.lyiio be mandated by i:h€ business al].nJys:iR approach. .

.4 Determine IBus,iines:s Ana lysis Activi~i:es

An tmpoetaut tOH~ In d~finlng: the seope nf werk and in ,dJc'Vl3loping estimates js(h~ work b!rcd::dow[l struetuee (\iVBS). TIle WBS deeomposes the projeet SCUl)C iuto smaller aml smallet pieces, CHl<l.ti!ng ,';I, ll.hjrl~n:hy of "\:'Ii'fjirk A WBS !n@Y bnxd". down the proj ecti nto i.terat~.ons, releases, ,or pliaseS:i br--eal de I iveI'llbles ~l1hlW(liUk p<!ok<!(~es~ OF bre<lk activities into smaller tasks,

Work packages include at least one and usually nlli.-my .@I.d:i!v]ties, which can be fn~thcr br~'"!ke:ll! ]nto smallerand smaller tasks, 'Ilus decomposttten of a,c~:iv:ilt]es and tasks ereates the AC!:i'!r.ity List,

,.. Ta.tin,g each dcliv~n,bl~, assignmg the' aettvittes required to complete the deliverable, and breaki ngeaeh illl.)UVjty j nto ta1>ks

.. Di.v:idi.ng theprotect mto phases.rteranons. increments. orrre1eaiSes,i.detl~;ufyi.ng the deliverables for e~cJm, and addtl1,ga,cUvutiies and tasks accOIn:Hngly

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II- U~~.ng, ~l pr'evuuus slm llar projeet as an ouUune 'H],J ex.pamdi ngit w~th dd;1I!~led tasks [!l1U{It!tJ thr f~c 'i!:II;U;:lIlieSS ,1111 <l.ly8Js phase of tile ct![H~nt project

II- AcMv~ty dl1ls~r::i,tl on labeledwith II verb and a nOUJ:l, and d,esGrU~ing the detailed tasks that CO~]lpl'"~Se e1~i~ ~~ctivity,r(!lr exa~]1p!e. am 11 ctivity ~]light be tabeled "Update H0(]u.]['em~l1t~ Doeu meut",

1\.ssn.mptitIln,s: Por erfl.c;h task, therem,ofIJ!' be factors ({r Cc'()<l1djll:[~)nS 1r'!i'hid~. are cCmi.&iil.ered In he true, The bnstnessanalyst can document these factors, and w here present estimates wUI. he developed using thaseassampttous,

nCp'Gnd.Cilld~si: :!dellti['y~og;i,clll rei,;;JjltilJ[I!8hjpl':l,. 8uch 01,8 w~ich ,:;i!djn;r~Hcs !havl;l! to 'b,c COin' l)]~ted before sabsequenttasks can begjn,

~Jii.les'to.[I,e~: .Repr.esent s..lgn~.[UCaitlteVl@nt!:1lun. tbeprogress of aprejaet. Mu.l.er>liL!.nes are usedto measure the p~.'~')lgr'es!1l of the project and compareactual J)I.'l')g~.'!i1is!> toe~HI.~.e~.' estimates M ~~!esitf:n]e;l!· C[i.U be used as a time to celehrafe the completlon or de~i\1e:ry of a maejlor (lle:.IJI'ft::lff]bh~ or section of'pruject work, An example Off] Illflljor ndl~8tion@~s the stalkehahters' and :sponsor's lormal apPl"OYffil ()i{ a r@tlnil:1~m®[!t1l document,

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EsUrnatioH (9.In): A v'J.r]~t.y of,esti~,[lution teCh!l~qLH~s can be used t;~ produce an OV~):i· Il~~ assessment of theamount ,tlt'bus~ne\\ll;; <HHlIysis wQrk IClc]uured. In !;>o~]1.n c<l!;>es,rnuUti· p:~~ tec~ht1i:u(.[t!'C!i:i m Ity be us~d to 'V1l~~.di1lt,~ Qt1iC' another, E8!tiln.llt~s I.lIi~ I]tll'm<l.Hy d'~v~.~()[J'ed in «::vnjUIlGtlJonwith f~cproject man~@er and of~~rteam m.e:mber8,.<I!I]J] ffiOlJ!i!C W:H; ofthc org,1lnhIlUOl]ll] 'neth~Jd~.llo~y and tjemp]1ltc:sf.)F d,evdoplmg estimates,

IfUllCU01Ud IJl1lcompOsiUoll (9'.,:[ Z~: D€Ootll])Osjtiolfl of U:l€ tasks in a pmj€ct {uskog a wmk hre:fLlkdawn cS~;r.ll!lctnre) or product (Illsl.ng a solutlcn b]'1sakc]owm structure] een be usedto f:ac:i1~:tfllie a~~]Il!lHd.el.·!S~:t1ild:iilg ofthe work [1(t ~1 snffici~iIl; .~e\i'B.l o[dli:t[ii~.liO B.il,fiJh~e estim ... tton of U1S]ks,


AU stakehclders ]]site;C! here may P()it~HUffiHy participate ill the verrtieatian and validanon of business ano'lJys.:~s deliverables.

(:u8'iOltier.. DlJ.lmaii Iii 8ME.End U8Cl\;;tnd Sup'pl.iie!t:: [l emain SME~ wHI.l.ilk,dy b G ill majur source of .rc,quirr,emcnbiil!]d their avai ~.abn~ty~s ctiUc ... l when pJillnni[l~ .iilctivil:.iC$. Their understanding ()fhu.ts:i[ltl.S,;; anall'sii".:~:edmh:iI.u.es mrill' Slti'l!re the: sdecl:~nn of techniques or !:'1eqflire that the businesa rfI.n.riI.Iyst de'i!(~I~e some time 'to $1~"';;~.!:1!1: I~hem. in. r,nder~~:and.~ng Il,ow tile lecfLiJ:re:mcuts are def.iDlJed. {:; ustomers and su~)pIue:rs m~.y be ecs~)ec]any dilTI.C"tl!lt In schedule e:ffeeUlVe~y,.

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Im[pl('lfn{lntllltiOD! SMR; The ]'mpIernentat]on SMEs m<J!y part]dpah:in business .<J!IH!Jlyl;;is ,uj1ti'l.'ut~e(i; in order tof<l.Gu~itate'J!nde.stand~.~~g Of!;:t'lk(jholde;. needs, They w~JI HIN:d to know ]n wh;;i!~ ~l:H'ln ,Uld! when delive:r;lbieswH~ be produ()ed :;Iisinp!J~.:s ]nto tll!e;it QWB .u:,:~i.v]ty [l·~anHl.~n;g,.

0pClnUO:tlal Su.:p'.wolh Mayul,8I® bu s.:inaSSfl>lt1!l·[YS[S di1iliver~,b]es as a besis Em plaaning o[)erEllt]ongJJls!Jl,ppoT~ activities or devcloping 1l1~pro'PdgJJte tloemneutation,

f]:'\o~ eet .l\hlII1UI.IC'l': ln ,a\ project,. the business ;In;:dy.s];s plan is ]fIItegrlate:d. with nine] a c()mp(ilne:~]t ofthe overall p.rojedp~an" 'HH! piroject r.rw.nage::u :sJJOl.tM participateIn busi.nf';Sfii,riI!rHi~:ysb. p~atl:nille;a.nd :is re.<>:pn.n:sllible rO.f eltS;l!1r:ung. ~:hat ~;h(}S8 p~,rii.rH;;a.feintflg:rrril!lied wi~:h the l'7ti:rlit performed by other proje>ct [!1,c1"wJineL hi .. 1iJ~ldi~:~ol:!i, the scope orr business illna~.ys~.s work within a projecl: is managedaspart ohhc o\"Cramp.mjlcd scope, and changes [(0 tha(t scope of'wcrk ~rur example.as 1l!(JI.\!' stakeholdersare ide:ntm.ed .0.1' ihu£~ness reC]Il.IIr@m.em:s c.hang:e)m~lY re.C]ulr,@ approval of fi pr.oject scope change, The project m.riil!iil,ger wU~ .dsopl.riI)1 a key !ro(!~e in .. id.C!fI~UyitiJg .fCw%oi..i.rcest:ope.d{!;rrn. tasks, sc:beditl.ill;g the OiIeLhrit]e;.,>,ffiJIlId dcvdop.il:!i;t;l: cost eslim.al,es.

'f'~f:!h'l!r:Wull l1Bed to kU(Jw in wh~[t fO[]l1! andwhen d{~~uve[ll~b~,e:ii\lLlill. be produced as inputs into their OW11 activity p~a~1n]l1!g.


fiu8:ineti,5 AJtidys:i8P'.~a.n(~): 'Ihe bl1t'>in~85<1!n"~)'::li$ pla11(8) ~.nayi~1(;:h].dcinfi)tm<lti.Qn :::;;l;ic;:~i as "'. de.'iicdr1:1on ()fd'H~ scope (!fw{)rk,.the dd!.\i'erahleW(~tkBreakd~~wl] Structure, an AdivityList,.<lnd estimates fol" e,uillii activity and task; It sh(J~ld also descrilb e ,l/lliie;n and how theplan should be (:!:1;;l!Jlged in respO!ls·e to Ch;;Jjng~.ng oond!:iUOl1i~l. Thelevel ofdetall a:s:sucuated! w~th the p.laEl!(8) ~$d!et©[mi~lud by f~u by~~ne55<1!n<l!ly8i5 .ap]J1[o,<I!r;;l:iamd the (Jver<i]] mc{hod!u]ugy.

~ot(1): All tasks inEliU other knowledge areas h~J:"'B buslness analysis pi@l1sgJJsgJJlljmpUdt input, 1h~) pb.~l~S} determi uewhen and ~HJW ~lny task is peidl]:rrm ed,

Plan IBnsi ness Analy'sis (ommlni('atiiom Purpose

A businef:lsan'lDysl!s C)'um umnlcatloua p:lan deacrtbes the :pnJPos.:ed st[l!lct~[e and &e_:!h,ed· Y~{J for Cfj,ln1.myniC<I!tions· t~g,:atdin;g 'bU::iin©ss analysis activif)ies.,Rl;l!c;o;rd aind org<l!n~2:,f;l ~h~ I.()tiv]ti~)o!i: to l)~C(ividc .81. basis 'for setting {l;\;pectat:ions far business n.t~a.lJys]s W(i~;!l:" meetin:gs, wa~kthrougJI!S, and other i()ommunuC1d;~on1:"

Desc:mi ption

.~l~ann:i1i,g business analysis ecmmuatcattens Ineludesdeternnmng how best to r{~ceive. d:isb]lrlliite, access, "lliipckL(OO. amles(::fii!,ii.ioo inf:(J:rmaJ:ton from p roj eel: £~:iLk.eho]de['il, and de~!etm~n]I1g l'~Hw best h) cnmneuuleete wid~. eac:~l s~;akebo.lde:[.

Heq!Jljre!J1!e~otts eau be presented In varlousformets, 'Ihls flask descdbcs the work requteed to deddc wh~r£h funn'ltJ(s) are <l!ppropriatc for ~l p<J!rt:k:U~~I.i niti<J!tuv~j<J!lld Us st;J!"keholder~, Requ~Iielll(;)mts s~lliioljld be pr(;):::>l;)Intedi :un ;fio:rmats ~h~~t@relJ!n,ders:~and,ib~(;)

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lior the n~vuew{:I': they must be dC<l.r, concise, accll[1Jh~, and at the a~)ip["-O'[H'~'lb~ lev~~!I]f detail,

...whal; 1I,{lBcJiSb:O he eornm lUIli.cated::

... 'What type.s. of connnunicatious will be requlred ~B.g,. status, anomalies, ]~8L1@S and Ul~]r resolutton, risks .. , tneetiug results, aetiou item s, ete.),

..Wha~ iCype-~ of requi Ite ItH3'.nJts w'u U he elicited (bI1S]IJJe-S."l, s~akehok]e:r., sclutron, or tm,ns:ltioH; fujgl1 .~evel vs, deta,Ued) and fuow best to elicit them (see the E.llc.il:tUioji KA [-rH' option .... ).

... How best ~;o cornmunicate requiremems cO~lldl];s:umJi:slpllckll:g~s, ind,!ulin:g. authority level (s;ignnff aul;lw.rjjty, y,e'to aul:twt.ity, OJ [lIflV.~CW nuly).


RIl8:ine8i5 AI!l3.1Yfii:s.AppttJ<ich. Mayunc.h;uJ.e stnnd,ll'US 1l11d temp~ate:s used f"(l'[(Jomml)inlcatlnn, and ·expecf;m!tious, reg,ardin:!:'l whenandhow con~mUl1!kation ::;flOI)i]d uoc;u.

nUiS~ ne~s Analy~;!; P~ftt!!(s): ].)@rr,ermill€S when work w]]] b@r~fDl1l1l.1@d and the deliverahles that w]]] be produced, u.!i1!d 14' hkR ueed to-be 00[[1 rnu ulcated,

OI!'Mi;a.n.izafili!01!l.a\~ Proce1lisA:S!le~Sit Mmyi.u.clude a defined set ofl:e.rnplaliI.e!'> for usem hns:u.[I.CSS ft.r.Hi.l.ys~.s eommuutcauon, i.nc:.lnd~ng l.H'·esemat1on fornuuiS,.feoCJjILli.lIernents docl!L.men" tatirm 1;{,:~.!Jlplates, and odwts,

Stakehioh!itn· List, Rol,~s,. and ResiPonsibiliMM. Used to ldentifythe stakeholdees who will ]'ieqt!il'eiuJ'orm.'ltionr~g<l!rding business ana:~ysi::; WD'l:k, determine wC~enUnfOi[[lllaw tlon needs to be pl'(Jvided. a.~1l.d how a stalbehol(j() I: is expected tu use that infl..l[m "ltion ,

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Fig,ure2!--B.: ,PltlflBu51lJeuAll'laJylis ,Com1lUlllKmion Ilnput/iJlutpult miilgliam

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UU i

B!lJsine:5:5 Bu:sine'5S Anlll~:5ii:s, Organ i!zlItiona I

.Alilially.siis PII,tIrll ~fS) Process A:5~l:s 1L~5't, Rulles" ell nld

Appmdlch R;eslPonsilb~li~i@$ •



Plan BA C.ommlu nicatlon




C:ommu IilI'ic1ttiollll IPlan




" Iilisks U siin gTihli s OutPlut ,

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IPlrep'Iff:! R('ttt$ Pa(l\alge

CO'liiliIli1iiIlJlni:ca~e R.equ'ir@1TiI ants


,1 Ge1ogr1;lphry

lhe eommunicanens needed for a team that js eolloeated w]]l he different from COInmanieaclons reqnlrsd fBr ,8i'P[ojIGct 'with g;0oglf1!lphierully dlspersed :5truk~];w]der:s" For (!!sampJe, lt is 11lHJr'~ dlfficuH; b) have short, doo~y team meetings when the perticlpants liVe~Jl va,sl:ly cltl'fe~':eiIt [~Jne zones, when technology Is Ilotmad:lly filc,cess~ble, and where Ill!l1ltU.pl.e:, complex deliverahles with ,emnplexinter:ffllcesal'e being d,ev~loped. s]ml[llita~m::· ons1y in d:Uif~·~]f]f; locations,

Cru:ltrmtlll~vflrs~ty should also t)'B ~:ake[J] .. into accorU[lt w]le:n planning oommrU.D~iC::rttions. Cultu:ral (;o~1,s:ud(ltaJtion~ ~:reumpQttant :r~g1l!rd~~i:l Qfwhe;re fne~(l<l.:m 111emrtN~rs are locatt}Jj,[[1 addition to the obvious .Ia[lgillag~ ihU!f.r:ie:r(:l, there I[lay be mare 5y!ht]e djl];eteuces that 1$h()ull bcp]ur:mtldi,.im;:lud][Ig:

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II- Rl1lhltionship to UDiH~. Some !i::ultures view deadlines as firm oomm iitm~m.it8, wMle ethers lIla}? vk~w de<l,dlines as a gOl<lIl!o be b<!I.1l!u()cd ag<!:inst otl~l«:r ceneerns and .~nite;rEJ~it:!i,

... nQ~aMonsbip to task compleUo:lll. SO!lW cultures complete tasks because tuey have committed to the planned activities. Others complete ta,sIi;J;prhnrudly wham trustendthe human relatiousbip have been built

.. :Re~,fiMo.nshjl) to eontralcts. Some cultures b eHe:::f.'e in the letter of the law. others in U\m Ilpi.I.'.i[( ofthe centract, This dil'fere!tlCi@ might surface when cmfL(Hllg ne{.IILH~st8 for Ptopos~d, fm~ (\xa.:mpl,e.

II- RelaMonship to fbII'm al Qnd ~ n(I!Nl.'n1IalallilUl!odty~ Someeultures prd'Cr a central~:;l'Jed p(Jw~r !>tnmtll[~\NI1!}.T\e de()~$i(jl1i\\l aremade bY<l smtdl g!'ot!p,w~n.ul(l othen'l prelier toinVl)lve all aElibcted st"keholdersun app[1(Jv~l1g decis:u(J'ns,

.. The use ofmodels fo[Low]Hg a standardizerl notation C1},n help ovareome language burriers hy @hlJmjnatJing the need fB!r 1111!lny textua! deserlptrons,

,,) Project lype

Di ffe [1emt prolects win neCC883t,lte dil:f~rent dci~iv'er"blle8, and the extent llf dOCl.]mcmtll· ti[)n~hat ~.i' m~ed,~d in a req uir,~n~~nh p~.clk~~e will v'aty dep~lldl~1~ ,()in th~ Im,~j ect, 80me ~;l;.-:ampl~[j are:

A new.cll,stomizod ill! ·hons(l; s@-ifllware dcv!.\lloplul1l!i1t Froj,e'Cit •. bl[~jf; sceuarlo, <),U mq~dr~)['l~ei._r:lts: ~~Hl)' need to be i[!duci!ed,

Up:;rad.ing the tec.lmo.lolY ori!l~f:I'8iistrTI(')tu re o.F acrlll"rent sy~l!cm. In tlns seenarlo. O[I.ly t~.eWc.hni.caJ requrrements rrnay nead to beiHcllliLd@d~.m the package,

Cbang.e in. al busin~ss ptoClCSS ~I'[[ new dataflH' aiR cl\:isting aplJI]h::aHOIll .• In 1:ILds sce;[I~u](j, d~.eprnoef>s.a.ndl data reqru.i.rem{,(IlI:S, hus:u[II!l&"l F.i!i~es, filll1.C!:t:.i.(jtlal and ~~ech.n]GaJ reqlLtUreme:l1it:!i will be neeoJed,

Purehase of a s.oftwar1cp a,eka~e .. This, type of project w.i U Jike.lly req ulre a. Request For I?TopolSruJ,arndl the packags wi]] used to include the business requlremeuts, fI.Gch.!i1J]ca[ requlrements, limited Iunetienal requtremeuts and other vendor speeiflcatlous,

ShOl't~ fOCfU;:~dI, Rigiloe !Sty.~e It'Cl'lloti.OIl!1;, of~oftwa,Fe d.eyeloplnc'.Il.t:. ".Khese pmDf!ct;.s, may not iSpee~fy an.ym: very little fOl'l'rl,fLll.reqn~.r:er[H)nl;'s docurne.nla:~]o[l., WhUiebo~.rrl!'>. fUp charts, and user stones .il'ifLly SU'UCI®. Agile focuses on cre[bt~ingKfu€: nnnlmum neees&tuy (df (hocumen~:al:iol1 ~:Ii) deliver d~.e requiremanes, iiI.l1LJ. ItIJl!tly agUe'learns w.H~. p~[efCr[ to document the so~nU(jil1alf't(';f .It ha:fl been d.e~r'l!'e:mrl

,,4 Com mun~caiti:oril IFI'~qUl€!ncy

[n'l'estigates thefregu~el1icy l'ieql.]ir,t:d by vari~U$ state holders li"oreadl type of C~II1Im~nu~ ca.1t:uon. Note fhe frequency 'Oif !'epOiftin;g uan v~~ry from (:ltal\:eho~.de:r to 8talehol,Jer, For ~A~mpl.e:, the fr~l.JIu~l1!cy olrr~p!iJlrtil1!g, bllS311~(:i analysis. status C<I!rI be bijl;\i'eell.y f'O:i' the sponsor, 'iV,eCLlk:Dy fhr the ])omai]] Subj'cct Matter Expeets and b]we~)kDy f'Of the tech ulcal l)artn(')rs"

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,,5 Communik:aili:on:s Formallirty

Pb.nnJI1!;l: cemmunfcations .rBqu!ires talki[lgil1il:o cOl1i.siderra.tknl tile level nfforrtl1lJJH:ythat is.needed, 'lhdsceuld V;iU~y from gt:il.ikeholder~o f;ta(keht)Mer,pmj act phase to project phase, work \\!'"itl])[l aprotect phase, and requirements presentatlon,

... 'Ihe Im)je{)t]1I unusuallylerge (by ()irgfi.\i.rl~a(li(mflll sKa:n.dm:ds.) and will be dleliv'e:]'®d. in Iphool(:lS, '[h~ new] of ,oomD unications :I:ormaJj1iy tends to increase as the scale oil' ~. [Jimj eettncreases. 'Ih is is because mom stakeholdersere typicaJlly Jnvalvedaud mere com nnnricatlen is rC1t][ljrc(t

.. The dGn~.ain .in~ol!i'edus\"el'Y complex, Nnw that the dOHlfKinalf"fm::ted by the pro~ect ~.1rI.a:y span dep1lJ,rtm,fll1i.l:aJriI.riId dhli:S~()11i3J hnl:u.ncll~~,r!ieg ...... [I:11i.£I. the oEg1lJn.~.z'1lJ.ti{)n. For example, the d.oma:in of eng:~rlee;ri[lg emp~.o:yee r:ec:nrjtme:n~ could l[1volv:e the e:tIg;ineering, human resources, p~:y:ni.ll. rnar.k.et]ng and benefits ~,dnl.inj1!tral::i.on .(]epanments, 'Ihese groups wtll all he key £1~aike.llo.lder!! for the project andfts delrverables.

... 'Ihe project ]s eonsidered to he m:l!lsitm eritica], in that it ]8 tied diJiiectty to slir,:lltJeg]c e bj,ecUves.


S~~C Prf:)par.rJ; Req~ttrcmR~t8 Pm:kaig~ (4.4)<JJncl Commr.lnioatrz Rcq~t{rClrumts (4.5) fo~' ;a,dd i· tklll.lllin fbnogJJtion, lelml mu n~.G.a.tiQn ~rA,;hl~uquCS1t[C desertbed in CQmmw~t:car,tf;H~ Skills (8A~.

St:rmltrllr.ed. Wall.kthl1'ough (9,.3f}; One ('Jf tile mostcommon approaches to requirements eommunlcetion, Time to COl'U.lU{:t e,8iCh'il<'ldkthmugh and address the i5f;I!H,~S· raised <indus the Mdkthro'lllgh must be included ]ntn~ plan.

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Cu~:tioml1J'r and SlL!!ppl:iIGr; M,ljor eustemees of !11:1i orgO'1n~z.attion (J" supplien. to tChat Qr~ ga:niz~tion (p'll'tkub,dyil~stitutional custom.el'\':l) "Iilay need te beinfurmed ofplanned d1ang.el:l well in ,;l,<t]v,lnoe or in~.p.lememtati.Qn,.

Dom:a~n SM E: M,ft!y be involved in review and ~ •. pproval. Uk®~y to focus on nil.<!U!A3fg of parttcu lar intm'®s1i or OIl the areas onwJilkh tbjjfya,Ji1e an SlvHl" ])omain 8M E.s etten b:ll.v~ influence aver the npproYers"e'l'en i.fd~.e.~r fl.pp~.''Ova.1 is not ff.!Tm.n(IJy n1!quired.,

El!ld[l~t::r:: Maybe~nvoFv.~d In review and approval, i\;lay a]rjO have ('::on;!5uoe!l'."ble :illtll)leuce over .:!IpptDveJH even if'thelrapprevalls not [t)rma]]y .f8qJuJimd.

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O'pGraUolllll Suplwort;~ May be 'iI1!VO~'!.i'Cd! 'ul1!f\evh~Wllnd <l!ppmvat 'Wi&~ p[imild~y focus on thc[C!gjuu[cme;nlts to S!~PPO[t tm,c (:lo:~uti()in.

[lflo~ect M8iun~e.r: In a project, the busmess ~Ulll.~yg~S C{}.lmlliumlli.cat~.()ln planwillgeuera[[y be int!itg;rat!3d ]!lIto t~e O'v'(;!:r.aJlprojiec~ comrauutcanona I)t8l!l. 011 $~m:a]] prejacts the plan ~iftay be ~]j'y brief and mruy notbe fonuruUy doeamented. 0 u large and complex lli{)jects and prejeets win many s~akdu)LdJeT8; it rnaybe included W5 part of the ]lrojl®(;f, ingti<ldon dacumenrstion andIs essentlslas part offhe ov(.'!m]] .projiQlct eounnuuicatlous pJ18Jt.

It~lilglI!!1 ailor.. n~)g:UllItiUirs ma:y req ui re thiiltrQl(l ugr~g~ler!!h;, d,ec~::;;J.~ns, and othermformau,on[Ql~I'lrd ~.~Jg the !')x:ecIJiUQn of' bt!s:i:ne!js1l!.n;'!.~.yi;l~.s processes (jf the defl.n:iUon of fh~ solutlon be retllined and made ,lvailalble to fhenu fli)F rC'\i'i.ew.

S,01ll510n Cemmunicetion needs f~r the "'POn."lOif are lik.dyto focus on business requirements and high. ":]@vlill !It;ak;~hokl~T and solutlon requirements.


nUll) ness Analysis Com~uniiC;iatiJoJil I~laJil ~ Deserihes how, "",heir. and wll!)' the busi ness .m1J~y::;t wi U wo[k din~ct~rwith stake~o~de[s, CotT!lponel1!tsc;,![Iuucil!lde:

Plan IRe'qu ilreln,elRt~s M,amag:eil1lenrt IPr,ocess Purpose

Hefine the p~OCe8!:l that will be used to .<I!.ppwve HjQu~.n~ment:sfh[~.mpkrne:ntOiUon .• ul!d m ... ma:~e chau:l$cs ttl the sohltion O'r rcql!lirements :':loope.

Desc:mi ption

111:i.5 task (leteli'r[nfJ~~ll!iil:S t.he ,filln)f()~)I.'i,a(t)~ reqlltireJngn~s management process fOir it paetlcular :iI1iHal~~i"!'e .. It Includes de'~e.rm:i.lting theprocess !lor requirements d~a[lg;e, whk:h

s taJi::ebolde.rs need In approve c.hange,. who will iheCo.nSI!(~l:e>cl or. informed of changes, and by extension, who does n01 need to be:in"!'olved. lhe~;11I.>k alsorncludes assessing the needfor requtraments trrl.ooabiUty and del:e~."[ii:ljJ~.ing:wh.ichueqllli.~."em.ern.n:5 atl:rilhmli(3S will be captured,


lI:UiS1j n(l~S Ano.ly~iS AllPI~aclt: 'Ihe selectedapproach m~.y ill1clu<di0fIJ <di0ti.nUion or aplli()p:ri'l.t~ fl()q 11 lremeuts m'<ln<l.ge~uent pFOC~!iSCS.,

8l1!>s:1.!neiSiSi AnalY!l.i.iS P.~a.n~~): The hUf.OinegSfL,u,flIIYlli.s planls) define which deUveT~b~e.s. aTE: tobe produced. and when .. Deliverahles cannot be managed uatll they a roe created,

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O'~g:aJilizaUoJiln~ p![I!N:~I1l:':!s·AsSGts! Standard templ.<ltl.':S: [lr processes forreqUll'iememts management wutldn th~ (l[g.mi:l';'ltiJ()1l may I;)!.:d<llt. TII,e busmess ana:lystm!~f:>t be knowledg.~;alble about die;) org1u~izl[ti,Q:n'!ii I~pptoach to FE;)q~i.]'1enHm.ts dej]mitt:iO~l, as it wim g]'1eady !nt!!ly~~u~ ttu;~ [pi[O'!':Cll~ f.:itr.::p:';:l, tash and d:~U'!i'~rl;ihl~ [I\lqll.i.r,ed. U[ exp~ded ,Ju.ti~.ug the [eql!ii.t~mC:[It;:) p]anni[l~~l]d mOElutQ'[ing. actlvlties,

Figure 2-!h ,Pklt,:ti!liequifeimIlUMaa,dyemtlit Prwess l'i'iputiOlii~put IDiiagi'(itii


- Ilnp1uts1!


Busiine5S An<llly~is:



Busine:s:s Aiiilallysi$ ~1<lJI'l'(s}

Orgilli'iliizEitiona II Pn:)(::essAsseis

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Pla,li'I Req'ts Mgt ProO!!!£S


'='" =. =.,.= .=."=. =,=.= "=" =, =.,.= .=".=. =.,.=.= "=" ="

Taslks Usin'g This OutlP~t I

2.6 MCinagle B.A Pelrromflance

Wlequirement5 Ma li1ag1emeli11:


3.2 Conduct ElkltC1tion Actrulil:y


Mall1ialge Reql'its Trd~eabillity

4.1 M.wlEI9le Sohrtion Scope & lReq"ts

6.1 Primiittiz:e Requ ire'rilI'illents



..1 Hepo!siltory

Pi.. rGCJiuj:rel:[I.e:n~[iI repos:'i~n:ry if> a method of t>!iOt]ng requirements, :i:rl.{,:~udi[lg those under d(j'i'e~.op.([iJe.jjt,. tho,s,(j underrevtew, a[id ap~)[ovec] requtrements, H.epos:i~,oi.r~es may ind[l{[~ wMteboardt-l, wQi[dp'n.H,;.e~~~ng: d()cmn~[II;(j, dl,,~[~ml$"[ld models, w.i.ki:ii,. reqlLl.iFen~.c;nts ~!Ilanag.e:me:ntt(jnls and a.pp].icati.nns, 0.[ any other r!rled~()d {)if recording

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in [onn<ltion (hat allows req ulremeuts to be g;iHg~~-1l0U[[i;Od! and ~lV,<li I,<lh~,e to a Urel~'nlnt st~.keh~lde[~ l'Or .. s.lang as f~ey Ilre needed, ,.1,11 aplH1llVt.:d[C!gjuuremlJ;nts S:holl!h.~ be f'Ound in ,01, [E;l!p~sit~ry (as oppesedto using tools s~~ch as e;m;;Jjil. wh~oh ~~ll~y mo~ reach a~1 rd· ~'l'al1!t st"kc:holJ~i\':l and mOil' mot he .retOl~,n~d}"nd! f.:ltakdloWcr(:l need to be a'b]~~UI(H,:ate reql!iut~mC:[It;:) Iu th .. t r~posi~;ory,

']be 5ystemfor adding, ehangiug andd!cLcting requirements shou ld b ~ consistentand d~)<l!:ily u udersteod by the team, Pile or component naming standards wUI assis~ with c~ltego:ril:t';~,ltlg and nl.[~l!ntflc~,ltli:ng requirementa

,2 lrac~21b~liity

Orill:e:r~njne whril~:ber and bow ~;o traCoril ['{lQui.f('(me.nl::S based (~t1ttE~.ec(Jmplex~ty nfthril d,(lmi~in, the I!i.lutn.be:f of 'V]{fWS .of ['eqIJ.ri.fe;ment:~ that wHI. heprod.luced, potenl:~.ll. irnpa.cl:t; from risk.and an understandtng of the costs and benefits invohred.,. Tracing requirements adds ,r;:Qin~~d,~r"lb~e o'l',~rhead to bus~m~8~ am.Jysis w(~ttk<l!nd! ml!i~tbe done corr{_l;:,:l~y .~:nd G()mfil~tefl!;I.y ~;~) havevulue.

,,3 Select Requilrements Attriburtes

Reqrlire.:rw.m:H:!l attnbutes provide l:[If:orrnation about requtrements, such as the source of the requirement, theimportance of thee requi ~'ement, fmc] other rn®~:.1M:]iL:I:;lL At~;~.':ihn~es aM in the oll{;'oing: ItIana:Be~!J1enl; (ohhe requdrernents dlW11.Ighotil; the pmjed li.fccyde. ]bey need to hep~:annedl~or and del;erm~.ne-d, .tkmg wid] the mqu.ireIE.eD1l't themselves, butare :flJQI: In themselvespart ofd~.e sO.~mj.o.n de::ri[lit~on,

R.equire;rI1Ie:n1ls attrlbutes allQ'w f~E;) :[Ogj!Ji:r;()men~s team~QIlS!~;.()ouauei.[lfOil'm I~tki:n wlthIndividual or rel .. tcJ g~OYPf.:l ofrequ~.tf;~m~mtsO!nd Kar;:niJtate the teqjLdr~mmut~ analysis pr~);:':C$S, ihy ex:prC:S:\limg such thin!!l~",$wh.kh [eql!lire;L1~.e:[Itts may add project Fi[jik orrequlre adld:utiona1 amalY8:'S. Ule .1 nfermatlon documented by the al;truhute~l~u[el.ps the team Qlffic:ie~~tly and eff'e{;~u'l-'e.Uy make tl'(ld'eoff.., b~twetJ~~ :[egju.ure:mentt.s,ud~ntify sbki.ihiold'el"s 'lil'fected bypotenti,O!J c;h,mges, and !JBdcrstand the ~l1~P<l!IGt of a proposed dl,tng.~.

... ..r\h::iOOliitie fe:fe·t'emce ~sa. iln.~q'l!.i.e nnIE.er.~.c. (p.re:f-el.Wc]} ortextual .ide.n.ti.ner,. ]]le r·efer.ence is not 1:0 be altered or re-used 'of the requlrement is moved.changad or deleted.

.. AlJjthorr of th~r~qjuire:m~nt If ILhC[~gjuurement is l;)!te[ f"Ound to be ambiiguous (he author may be Clm(i:u~tI~d ~Q!!' c!a!!'ifi,cation,

... Complexity:blu:Hcatl3s how d]fficll.Jt the requirements wi]] be to implement 'Ehis ls o~len indicated thrnugh qualttative scales based on number of ]n~er.ITacl3s.j,comp~ex]ty of essential pw,t)e-..o;.ses Oil: the muuherand nature of lhe resources il:eq~ljre,JJ ..

.. OWI!1.c.i'sl~Jp lndtcates the jj]d:ividnal Clll' gj,l'O"IJIj:) that needs the requtrement m~ will be I:~le tlU8,ine\'i\'i (Jwne:f ahelr theprojecl;is released into the targ.et envirenenent.

II" PriorUy huU~,1Jites which requrrements [wed to he imlPlemetllt~d first. See below for r(![fhe[ dus:cusskm tm pir~()dlt:izing: and 1:lJ1llmag;ing H)quillf.:n1t)mts"

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.. SOIll.rCe of the requ.lrelill.enL Every reqllltr,erM.ent must nriginate from a source that has the antlloriity to a@mlHe this partleuler set oJ req[I.ilfenH~it:l,tS. lhe 80Ll.I1'Ce must ibe consulted if'the requirement changes, or if mere infbrmation l1'®gl[rd:gltg the reqjuremsnt O~" the need that drove tile requirement has to be obtujnecl.

.. StaJbili.flY is used 1:0 ~ndical~~e how mature tile .ril1lqIL~Jre:mel1t ~s. IhJs it; used to deter~]l]ne whether the requirement is firm enough to start work on. Nolie that the ongoung presence of 1Ji,l'gel~'[j:mhe]fs of uustahle core r(iqU]mIM.en~:s may ~.nd~.cal~J2 s:ug:1l1.fI.~ cant risk toptuje>cb: eentinuanee.

II> St{t~us of the r~qll,,~mmen!\' ,imlicating 'lJ~~£h fhh1!g~ as whetherit.s preposed, IIeceptcJ. v~r~.fn.ed,. postponed, cil.UiQe&led., or :um[Jlem~lIt~d,

... Ur~ell(,;y~xii!dli.ca.l:es liii.O'w soon. the l'~qlllire:(]ii.I:r~~t ~s needed, It Is usually Qi:i'i.ly ~ll~Ce5:iH1([y [(\I tlI)ooU'y nh]s separately from tie priority when a deadline ,e:oc]sts for ]mp~em'6l'[tatieu,

... Addi~kmal attrtbutes may IneludeInforraatlnn SruCh1U, cost, :reS01!1rce assignmenc, and reviston number, tra~ce&cfrrorna\n(] traced-to,

A Rfilquh:e:me-nts P~i:olrhi~;;nion p~OO~S$

Req[l,jIemKt}f\..<; (to uot all deliver the !la.me vu]ue to stakehelders, !ReqU!ireluents pdodU- 2:atio[! ['(N.m,sm; effort on d~hO)nn i~lliJi]gwhjGh :ill)q u irements should be j [1l(es;tJgfllJ,ed fi rst, based on the rlsk associated w:itL~ (~em.tLhe eost to delhi',)], thetu, the ben~fH8 th ey w:ill produce, Oir o(~e'rbu:;:t{)rs. Ti meli 1],eS, dQlpend~llcies> resource eonstrafnts, <lind olLher f"(wt-Olr(:, klnYeit1iOe h(JW [eqUJ,i[~mentl!:; <l,I'C pd{lrit~7Jed, ])hUlming thel'equ~rem~~~t prki![uti~ sation process fu.~]PI:l ensure that stakeholders determine and underaaand bow requirements will be prieriti zed tlrroughoataud £lJt the end 01' the busluess ana]ys:j~ effo~"t;,

FormaHty, T~.1J.e fmIF~.aHty and r]g:or of the requirements p:r](Jrr.H:i.z..fLIUm]procesf.i,]s determined IHI.rl:lyby thel~mthoc]o:~ogJ chosen. and by the chan;C~JThI'Ii!1lltuCfl of the projact itiselL lDU'fe.rertl.oes will Ue ill the level of detail, lliii.e HI11l0unt of fOl.'.Imlll. st:rncKl!I.rei.l1t~'l'ii.e lmim".itillla,Uoi:i'i.p:rooess Qte,,~()rllna] :rTIieetic~llgt! ve~.'\Sns infarmal C~"IlVt::Ii"SllHous} and the amount of d.OCUD:F:J.e:rl~a~:ioEl! needed to support dwpdOJ~ti.za~~t()tlp[nce .. s,

Eshl!ibHshiing 'nIGli'r'(liC~ss. And 'F'l'l""hn~'qu~, The precess-to p~an ·~~JW ]'I~quj[cmenll::; pd" oit'iltuzatkml will OOCUF needs toundi!ldewhich pdoriU:z,ation techniqUC(8J wuII be used,

~)I.n:m 'rLlile Pn,:rticipaUoll. lfu.e business ~lna]ystj, in conjunction with the project manager and spons0lf !ihml,~d work together to determ in~th~ pa,rUdpa,nts needed fur the Ipd,niti ~<lJ.;iO:r.l P'~D{)C8:S.

'Vhorn 1:0 i.nvH:e and W~Q does the i.ilvjtung depends (Jill {jr:i¥lcrl.t~a(U(JnfL\l. norms and best pracuees, Since Spm:!lSOI'S are 'u.k~.m~.l:e.~y accountable for the s~lutuon's dfectivene.sf' and Inajlor puojed. aec]s:kHls,. th.ey meed to bHinvl~ed to p~l(rtUcil)ate Inthe di15{~lLlsS:lnn"eViern .ifl:bey delegate cbe pa.rtk':~.paUO:I1 '~O .qubject m~l~~er experts, AEI!CI~her .key t>ta.I:te:hnlder

irs the projectmanager, whoscl)mjiecr. pk"L\(I. ]8 defle:nde:[l~ on wMch requtrementsere released and when, lheunvi.tE!Jes depend on methodologles, (jirg:fl\ni.UL(Uo.~I,f[,I. norms, and 1:I1.e eng,lagJ'e.mellt of the S·pOHI.lO;r, Wh.en th'@I.'€ are multiple llmlnng factors, ~.nvjlte partici-

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5 Chalinge Malilaglem~rilt

Some censlderatlonswhen planning ror :fuJandl~ngl c.l\i.anges arm:

Determiine li;l!,c pr.~.H;:ess, forr.eql!l!cs.tiJllIg ,uhllngc:;;. TIlle p[ooe~:jl ean, but dUGS I]O~; h~vG to, iSlet authorization .leveL .. ftu appmvin,gcilanges. For exampla, it 1.!J].ay he deci.decl tha t .~J achange ]!:ll E:ls[~~urrtHt0d1 to take less thfl.rr. ~l Cerhfirl.rI.rltFil.her. of 11UlUS or (]o~~a~rs!. I:I},{~ reqI!iC!:lto[' al:wd!ptojcc;f manager c"napp!!'!Qve the clh.ang.c. If a pred.e~.mJd timeor cost JiIH~t is exceeded, the 8Jlonsot 1:11l:S tu approveit,

[)etorrnhtl1l who will ftl!l!thodz,e e!l!!nJilg.csh 'Ihe plEIJmlilllg ~ .. cUvity needs to illldud€

II dcs]:g:n<Jit:ion of who (';11111 <lppmve clraugesatter :r~)q u i[ce:ml®!JJts have b@e!lllpP[ovl)di. P]an-d riven methods us!~,a]~y h<'!!y{) a ro~'!n11l1C hange C (l~':IJ;!:Q! B(l~I]1d! (CCIl) or Ch~Ing~ .Al;lltJI.(H'.ity,wh~(JJI. cousidees therequested (lhnnge. ;and pr(!lv~.desin~:ti,d jm:'lgm~)nt [lIJ th'tl IHt;dtt.::;. of fffiJat request, l1H~ CC B can couslst o,f <iJ!ny I]umc[u::!;r of pcop~~in any 1lt!luber of l)OSJtio!ils, n Jrliliol.y or tUtl.y net include the sponsor, the project manager, t;[t(! business tmEIJ~ Lyst" sutyj,ectm11lne~" experts, or other PMUIlJS, Cha[lg~·d]j'[VeH methodsare more likely Ito, IIUOW the projlect; team or a si ngle pimd~.(;~ owuer to h ave diumt coutrol overclrauges,

lm~' act AUilly.sJs. S~)ec][y~;;rbo wHI perform. the amdys]:s of such Impacts as business processes, tOl[[onnat'i,mll requirements, systielM. and hardwarelnterfaees, other software products, other reoCJju.i.tJ1s:rliil.®nts. test strategies and plans, to name a f@w.

P~an. thewordlimB olfd:le .n:eql!JJest. ]I:~s .i.m.po.ft..,~rut ~:() set the ex.pectiilt.ioll ,1~t dm begil1ln~I:iI:~ of the bIJs~uneS\\l a:na!ly~ig aGtivi~~es th~~t~~~th(lu{jh the ;;I!mot!l]t of dot:~~mcnll.<l1i]Qn [eql!i~.[cJ to request d:1anglJ'8 iJ~ pl'cJjectamd m~t:hod!o.lf)gy dlJpen,J~"'t, {he w(Jrdung uHhc [eqI!iGs~; must be clear, 'Ihe tC4!ue~tGd dl~n~re ITIlLu~t be eXD.r~ed in un~l[lhigl!iousteFI[I~, n~filrefom,H; wm be neeessaryto diseuss th . ena tum of dle .fe;Lju:es~ wHJl d~.e req U!es~:m~ f~rrd ol~her .~nJlereSI:E:lrl s~~al\:.'8hnlc]ers.

TI:iJ,(~ I'tJquiremcnf:s pn.)(JIl:lSOS needs to spell out the 1](JtUr'tJ Qffhe CQllTIpC.mtJl1!ts wuthiJllJ a [eqlLw:::ot for d:t'll].ge. 'Ihese mightiluclude,

I~ .[10[, each ib'l!iI!J., work p.roduct, Of ~~echn]c.iillp['oJ.i;UCI: affected, a. twief aSSE:lSsmCI:!J.I: of the expected oost of dl~[nge is to becs~:hnated, As Oil ItIi~U:.e[' flIT good ,p:r.ac.~

tlce, telll8abiHty w.iU yie~J ~.m.pHnrUlm.E;1!l1ts to thG dla!Il.g() process by ]im:iJting the extemt and ~oope of Ch~l]g'f;lS t!() Qd~er oomDone:ntt~. RH;~ g'Q~.~. sJuJdd 'be to e;n;~'l!ir~ [e..."p(ln$~l{efl.e$:'i tel Ch<l[J@B, n(}tfai$~[llg unnmitcd()bj~d:~.mll$ <[II!dumpedimeml;::;ll(} the dw.ngeprnoess"

p The f.'81Li!ma te wJ!! provide anintegeated view of ftlJ) ()OSIis, eesources needed, imp~tme;llJtat~!!)n tlruefeame, a,]d1l!ny d.c[Jendendcs,

Ir,>· How the c.hamgeal~£;n$ wB~h tt..eptojlect and huslness ~)bjedi1i!&~~(~he.lfI enaure $~Il changes add I)US~l1ImlS value.

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lp, Since there an: often unintended consequences to wh<l!t seems like ,iI!. f<l:vol':a~bk: d](ll1!g,e, the IClCJ!uest r:>hulJ!ld ~ndl;!iJe ,<l. weU·::;rtiti[!()turcJ change .maUysu::; l'Q1"m (".,.,rlUe;[1 (lrverbal), staiterl1.E,Jnt,(:l of the exp~#.:~~d! Fis;k::;, ~nch),Ji[!g 'both neg;;Jjtivli,) "nd!pos~t~veillfll;ir;nce ~,~n I:J!roj~(,:t t~bje(,:tj¥1;1,\h BC!,[Ic;fit:s censidered may :indliid~ not (IDly flm:l.nci~J benefit:), bl!lt a](:Io ~;he~cclmic<l["$pccb ofp[od.l1d fea.lu.re:ii, lnfluenees no project scope, time, O()S';, qUlJility,wsouroes, and the Iraslness

Ir,> TI.~e course of aetion fn.f I:h{l dKmgen,eed;s, to be expU3.knedi w.lth the I:mdiefsl:a:[la'ill£; oJ b{':n"r[]~:s riI.md rtsks i[l d~.errevinug sec:lioti .. , Se'l!eJriI.~.aberl1,aH'l!e CIiYLU&eS (;:11.n he constdered a . ~.nclllding those recommended hy the requesaorand by other stakeholders By We:ig~ltng the relatlve ihe:ne~ts" r]sk.s, and ether criteria for e:adl optillU" the deci".uon maker, destgnated h~ the approval PI"OC{,!SS, eanmakea choice that wiJl.U best g,e:rVB the needs of the [)'foje,ci[;"

Ir.>. The y.~jj()[l$ npt10ns C(l:n:sude[ed~.ndl the r.ell!'80ni.ng h,)[ the OrtU(![1 fma.~.ly !\.e~eCI:IJ!d! needs to 'be recorded"

1[:0 The recommended COiU!r8~ oJ ,mcUm] needs to' b e complete e:nlloillg,h to pe:rmi~ clear e>()OrdinartJon ofthe parties ~~ff'e:ct\.Gd liJy the change, For ~rl,[''g~ ch,mg:es,. tbis course QJ@ct~QH m]ght be a subprojeet wH,l\lln Lh€i context Qfth@Qvendl prO'j®ot;, jnc~lliclj[lgj cl(lmGntsU!fII~ need tobe put. into the fjiv:era]] projlttC~ plfll.n.

.. UIJodates to thec:a([irrllU.l1icat~CI[ls .~~a~l and 1:IHl method f:or. eonmsunleatlon of the ChfLe.llge ':0 affected stakeholders

... COI!l.fi~l,l['atio[l n~anili&'l;!m~nt. and tt"ce<lbm~y d~.sdp.lin~(j ~hol!ild c:iiot~IhI~s'~lpr'Odliict baJ.i><eline:s and version !I;:laot[(o[pt<lcl;i.G~' tHlatwiH d1eady .IJientitty whichba8clin~~$ <~ff:ect~~{] by tb~ ch,1J!uge.

Coord.i.lllintce .r:r.i.o.r.!lti.znUoIlOfCbangcI, '.[Ili'(~ p.ri.ol::ity oftl':le P:I:10PQs®d Chtu.l,ge must be estahlished ~.''i3:~idive to othercompetmg ]HJte:res.t\s within the current p:rioj,ecf; phase, The requestor should provide a p!fiO'rJty as descrihed 111 the section above, Pmjed decision Hl:llkI3IS will ]]e~d. to consider the lPdodty as weUflluy potential risk ,()ifd~f~[Tjng ]mp~ementation nnW a lah;)[' time,

Cha nige-Driiveln Me-1hodlso

Ch~n:&'l;!-drivc:n n1~thodo]og;ie(:l (1.11 p~rUcu.I,,,.r. a,gile :iiQifit;w4te devel,Qi[m~.~mt 111~tlcl.(Jd~) do not typical.~y 11.<l\!'!e .11. c:h.ang.e c~]n~;[!().]p['(}c:ei'ii~ fhat .~S ~e[l::m["'teftam the .reqjll.jjr.emen~:$ p.tinf.ill::l.zat~nl1J. process, All :r,(lqtu.i.!r{~mel1J.ts.,ii:!i.clilu:~:lng "ne,.,,"riI.fld "dtil.llged" requdrements, are recorded in the product backlog and Pf]ffr.lti.:wd.,. At the beghu1ingof each .i.liera.tiol1,. nUl h:igh{!stp:r.~.(}rirty r{l(Jl!iirementJ8 a:rc :';l~IC'Gttedl'ru:m dIe backlog and ~timated, ,,,nJ t&ie..'m C~~;~l1Hl.tC1:1· areused as input to ,Jet!e[mim~ ,,\!'hI;}Ll:if;.~[ fI'ic tcqui.tel.n.entwm b cump.l.ement!ed In tha~ iteratlnn,

J5 Ta,iloring the Rj~qlllirr~rlrl,€:nJts M,alnag~tlrll€:flJt: PrOC@!SiS

An o~'g:anjz<tfJ0!i!'S requlremeaca mau: •. gement precess ~~J:y need to be t{JJJlowci! t~ meet the needs ofil! sped me lnltiative or [J'fojil.x,t" Fmlcto:rs :i u the t;,.Uori ng precessIncludee

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II- O!rsnnii7'IIJional ~~~tI!r~.ln or~1I!1l·~7.,1I!t;ion8 where (he culture does not support ~brm,dit)', hut whe'E'eunfomllulUty j{)up(lllJizcs the end pH)dUltJt, it wu II be neC(lS:S1!!ry ~J) woO,rk with the st~kehQlders to neg.Q~jO!te an :jppropr~.,~te peccess,

... St.OIKcholder,:r'CfC:r(!u!l)(ls, Some stakeholders !l]fliyriBiCluj:r® :nm.mr® ()]' less f()ifrlloJny, 1\ spousor may, for IDG.mlP]e" want formal approval but mruy not wanta documented process fUJI ~]idting requiremeuts, Asabove, Itt wi U be necessary to reeonrmeud

f~e most appropnate appraaehto h IU1Jdi Ii ng rl)C]~JjH)mC!lt~, p[linting, out risks and illtnpflicffi :as needsd.

... Cnmplili..~ity ~,fp:ro,ieCl:. p,rojled pha\se. or p.r'OdlU::iI: fprodm::f:. serV'lce, o.r result} b1llil.ng deHvered. Formri.~ .. [!,!F.Ocesse."l f(j.f oo,n.j]pn~.at~{!'Jlmf~nagemetl~: and.cha.[J].ge management are mere hlke~.y '~O be used. for:

I~Pr~j:ects that h<J!1i"e m'll:uyuntcr~'aJt)es. m"ny business and/or system :impacts ~r span Oi vari.r;ty '[Jf fllmctkmaJ areas,

If> Products that are bunt wilh many~m1iilp(\l[l@]]ts and subcomponent», have com- 1'](£X intcrfw(B5, will be used by u, var]c:ty and number of stakehelders, iOl' l:i!mv~ other (mmple;.x:ities.

.. Or'lill'l.ii.zaUOlI!f~~ 1l181tTIl'.ity, tess mature organizations tend 1:0 be less Uk.e[y 1:0 'io\\,fllm: h" spend time or .mo[J].c}, c[,eating 11 requirements.precess, .and! there may be ()i~[Lrr~g;]~t reslstance 1)0 the ]d:ea. (~fha.c'i'ingap]oocsfi. 1:0 d:eHn(l .mqrLlh.er]].e;n~s.

II- A:vai~abHilty of' !rt:l SOI!!rC) es needed t~ S~l.pport f~~~ 'I'!ff~rt of crc@ting such a process ]8 (~ ~1H~jQr OOllSidl}t:,[tkl'[l, Internal groups, such u~ a PI'!Qj~(;tMa!ll~Je~]l~mt Of:l1,oe IU1d e:lI:t~:rnal ~Oll.n:~ sueh as oon~l!lltiing firms and ,eyen Y,end!fJ!r~ Inay be IlM~to Illlg" mC!ilt Oitg:anizatliomal resources,

2 .. 5.5


Deci!ii:].(llt An.3Ilysl:s (9.8)= Ca.!]. he used 1:0 assess ~:heposs~Me value di(o;].i:\!'(\redi hy a (:lumge and assess, areas tlfUn,cefta]n~y,

Plioblelii 'J'!rackii ng (9.2,0): Used to trllck pCI'.':l:s,ublc dtll~:l:g~s. and©l1!f:lUr:.~ tih,lta! dedskm is reached,

IU sk Am alysis (9 .. :!4)~ Used to kllentify pos:s]ble r]sks asseeinted with the change man- 1l@(,!Ll1(!IIJJ; PlfOO(;lSS and pOiS8ib]e· r]sk<; asseciated wHili making orch:o~8ing. not to make the change,

2 .• .5.6

JJ(lrnaiin 8MB, CUDsudh}J in (Jirdcr to dct'ermin,© dl~umportance ohequ:i[cm.entsand to assess the vulue Qfd:l,u1!glJtt'e(~Uests,

IEmdl!Js~r: Consu~Jte,dl 1:111 order to determine Uw ]mpo[ta[lo® ojfn~quir,enl®nts and torussass, the VaJUl,(£ ofchange requests,

.In~!plemenlta"ti.ojj~ 8ME:: [:(lir~s"i!1lted In order-to determine the d:ifficu]ty Of][iip.l,e([jJe(ll~iJlg; a requirement orproposed change,

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2 .• S.7

.2.6 2 .• 6.1

2 .. 6.2

. 2.0.3

O'pGraUolllll Sup'wort~ [nfQirmed of' chang:e.':l torCl~]UUr,em~~nts: to ensure that the so~uw tlou {jan operate dfeootivel:r

[lflo~ect M8iun~e.r: Ril."l])omdib]le~()r managing changes to Uli~ ]1!;1oject scope and alecountable for deH\"ery otthe proj®ot scope. Changes W tJil® solutien and requiremeuta WOp!1lMe: ahuostcerteiu to impact the :rrojloo'~ scope, Si~:ii:d]a,l1'ly, changes to the pro] eet S{)(]!PC may i mpao [ the s(}~ufJjon and r0C]Ldr~menf!S scope. Most projects use a single

ch <lng~ managemeut p~"O'~X~S5 to h and ~,e bothand desenbe theimpaeta to sohninn ami projeet scope ilB f() s:i,I,~,g]l® chmn~('l ~,''e:ql!.Wgt UJI ls will!.1 ~,'\il!qui:roe Ute :i,!.1VoJverlll,e:nllt of the ]u''Oject m(l.n11~er ]n this tfilSJk. and agreement {In the Iper1'lol1 responsible fOir the iihiange management process,

S~OIilf:ior:: Acc~I!,U:ltable for the 8~Ii[!ti.(Hl scope ~:nd urust ~:Pt);rov,e pru();r~ti7.~"'tjoi[l of reql!iiFen~c;nts andchanilil,es to rcquh'f;!I.ur.lnts.


Requi.r:em.enils. Ma\lla~emc:nt P~a(I1I., A .f~LJiiU.h,en~.e.n~;s IltrirHI.g.eme:t1t pkltl. describes the:

... Requimmemt:s change prnoess, mcludirrg h~)w Cfua[lges,wm be requested, 'l[lla.liyzed, <1P'P]'(Jved, nmd Implemented.

Manage :Bu5iil1esisAnally:sis Perfoll'iman~e Purpose

T~ mOl.n.a~tJ the pe:EfOnlHl.m~~ ofb[lsincss .ulOl,lysi:s ac:tiviUotj$ to ensrrre that t!hey are ex' eeutetl as !\lffcctuvd)'<I!s pO::lsible"

Desc:mi ption

lh:i.s'ta,s.k eovsrs de.:en'i1l.]Hing wlueh Inet~."ics w][l. be used. to measure the work performed hy i:he business 1ina~ys~; .. [i: Includes tmVii' to track, assess, and report 0[1] '~t~.e quali~y ort]m work. and. take steps to correct any problems 1:lul;l: may alr'ise,. ]llis mar feed 1nm !:IHi deve.~.op.rrue.nti offuture busi.ness afia.lys~is phU1S,. 'Ihe se,~eeter](~leITiC$. are de:fl,[Hid. and described tn the org.n\ilj;~ati.'Qnfl,l. p:mCi355 assets 01' the bns:iness.nlila.lylSl.S plans.

111lt'l task a15c:~ d~sc;::rlibcs. ih(JW otgilinizatkmal pt(!r;:es:s assets g.ovGtnlE1g huslness analysis ac~i.v]t~.es are n~anaJgedand!l!ipd!aJ~ed, .


ni1s:i!iU~llI,S An.alyS:i.1Ii Pe:-dol'.ma.!fH:,e NI.et!flt:!s: Actual perrorm.a,(vte measures are captured, ula~Yled, ami. become the basis forl:a;kung correetree orpreventive aetlon.C ~.pt:m.'ung actual Im:d'or.[uartlo€ metrlesls a process that OClcl.ucslJl.rou.gh th.€; hUs:IIl@SS. $knm~.ysl.s ,€f~ fort and i.simpHdrdly ,rt> l)O~elltual ('H.lJt}mt f~"()nll everybusmess ~u.utLys.is task,

Copyrighted material

rlius:i n(l)S<SO .<\nalysis r'~llnb)~ These pbns deseribe ddivt~r a bles, activities, tasks, and Q~8- timatc$ fOit"U business an,llysis wod," Comf'Jml(U10e to these p:~ans may be the pri.IU(lI'Y metd.(; used to j1udg;e perro;rma:noe,

o rg;an ~z:at~o]Jln] PCltOr'mftuce Sta.m~n:rds: May melude mandated p®r[O~'lUfil[~C!l3i I1:N:~tries or expectations for business ana.lysjs work.

R.eqi[jJi1"tlmem;~. Nla([I.a.ji(eme:.nt P~a\l!l: Ih.e requtremeots malfl.ag!ilrne.:lIJtp~a[i mayaJ;s,Q set expec~iLth)fi!! for the frequency of changesldD requfrementa and the work involved in .Inana,ging, that change,

Fi9ure .2=1 OJ: jflfm,g~ Blul\'N'$j' AooaJYsis hl.Mrma~ Ilnp ... n1()lu~put liIiiagram

".- .. _ .. _ .. _. - ._ .. _ .. _. - .. - .. _ .. _. - . - .. _ ......

InlPlts .

Buslne!:5:) ,Alillallysls P.erformance Metrrks

Busim!'ss Anallys,is Pl<mb)


Organ iz.a.tiioln8J1 Performanc~ Standards

He-qUi ~relill'lientts; Management PiI.lIr1


2.6 MarnagrelB.A ~erformilm;e·

. .• ,


SA P'erformaiflce As:s;e~smenlt




. i~ld:s UsinglThi5,Ou1tPlut ' I


Pllall1l 1M, ActhJlit~es




B.A. P!I"oces$



___ t _

r -O[~tP~t .A~50-Us,~dlIBy . 'II


019 •. Process II


rl II

\ .. _,. -- _.- .. _ .. _,- _;'


J Pelrwolrmalr'H:e Measures

l?l3:rfOinliil~l,mlc® nnm.sll!res areused to set expeetatlons regardlng what cnnstdhl.t:es effscti:::"e [)US:i1H)SS acnaly:sis wor1\:. :i.n!1]econ'~eli:t ·of apartteular organlsarton . .o.r i[JJ'mattv{~. P;erforrfliL([lJCe messures.may be based on de:l:i.verab~e due dates as spec1J:tled In the ihu;s~ness ftna.~.yl'l~.s plan, mei:r]cs. such as the frequency of changes te requirements or the uumber of!r\@,v.~@w cycl@smquured, or qua(litmUv8 [eEH:]bfLlckfn:rm stakeholdere and peer's,

Copyrighted material

of' the business an <l.lY1>L Apl)Iitlpriah: perffbrm!IIlOe measures shou ~,d enable (~~~ bu siness ,m(l~~t to delt.(~l'mi~]le wC~e;r:Ji pl'·ob~.ems a n'l OCCIJ.nimg that may <lff'ed dl~' pcrfurm<ll1!1)e or biYsim~~ss; ~~m,~~Y8u~ Qrcyther a(;tt:~v~ti.e~, OrUd{lntify opp~)rtiY.lllutiE;):S fQFi.l.npl'~FVemem~_,

,,2 Pelr1TolrmJi'M'ICe lRepotn~ng

Reports oa.r.!! be ~r.!! wntten form~l~ to provids for arehivel and t:r',fl!cc!ki~~g, or t.!lie)' can be irl[OrIIl.fL\[ .1ind. ,\1(lrlti;aJ, based OK] '~:l1i.e needs of~:l1i.e praject, Some reportsm.ay be [nade [orru.aUy and. D.I.'fLJly aspreseutatlens to vanouslevels oJ stakeholders andnsanagemara,

'Tbe bU8]ne~ an'l.I.yst 8:Im~JiYld",.S8es$ theperformance measures to detcrmJine where prub]ums in CXI;!CIItt:ung b'llsine5.J::;. a:n:aIJ'~~;s ~Io:;~jvjj~;ies ar~ uo:;cllrdng 0':1' opf,HlIrtunit.i.e5. f(,lit' impn.wing the bnstuess IIna~ys:is pr(M')!;,J8S r',;\d$L OU()C this a8sr~:sm()n1j. is {;omp~ete (he business ~m,l~Y8~ shot! ~d cngi1l!:ge the necessary s;t.:'l!kehold~~. toid~nt~fy the correct preventative 'Or coneclJive adion~, Prev'ent1ltive or {~OF[e~;;tuvG actiou i~ li.l:cd.yto resudtln c;hang.~s to' thebuslness analysis plan,

2.6 • .5

lechlrn ilq ues

,,1 GeneralliFeci1niques

h:lte:rview,~ (9.~.iI):: Stakeholdars tFHl.y be .i.n.t:ent.iewed tog.'tJ:her assessments ofhuslness analysts red:orm1~.n.ce,.

l'~~S(loJilS I l'll!!rn{ld [~r(l cess (9 .. 15): He~pfsidenUfy ch""l~es 1)0 busmess an:dys:i8 processes and de~uv~r.~cb~e::; that 'Gan be 'incorporated into future work

iM.ctrics and I((lY f'erf!!l['luallce .Ii:md~,cl\Jtors 'f9 •. .!l(j)~ Can be used to determilH'l w!hat metrtcs are apprnpriate fOral&8eSS~[ig ihu;s~[jJessalnallys:i.s performance and how th,eyrnfLl;!' be tracked,

P~oblem ['rackiJ ng (~Vl!li)~: May b ell(j~d!~o track issues that UC!I;ut dl,dng~~hc perttormance ofb~ls~mess andysu:sffJF l"ter t<f;l$()~IJ~j~:m.

['mcess Mo!li!GUng ,(9,.21): C<l!l be used to define buamessenalysls processes and uuderstand hQwto~ml1JW'i'tl those processes to red uee probletus fm~11 hiillnd!Qfff's,! mp!l:ovi;l cytJ.~tj times" or aUe:r how business ~malysiS!iVo:rkis pedbrm~H] to supPQirt i.[I'IpfliJlvem~mih; in downstream precsssea

RootC8.cllse An.alysis (9',.25)= 'Can. help identi.fy the underlying C:i~IL!lSe offaJhires er dHIiculties In aocou:llp.ltsJlung bustnessanalysls work.

Sill rv~y IQ.Ul'lSU(Htnl!!illll: '(9 .. :~l)!i: Can b eusedto g,'1 the;rli'eodcback fr-.O!ll<J! li3!rge !lumber 01:' sw.~kEJhoh],l;lr~.

,2 Valriance Anaillysii$

r)[be IPU],p{~8,e anJJJ]s tooh:t1i]Que is tOffil1ttlyze diserepnaetes b®~w®eH v]a~:il]1Jeldl and actual performance, detertnine fJh~ ImlJgnitudie ot'those discrepancies, and I'0CJ(HnmG:nd cor.1.'ecHv,e and prev€nUv€ aetion as required, V~H]ulice8 can he relatedto planned.versus actual estimates, cost, seope, prodirct expectations. o~."fmy meaaures that h~l:Vie been estahlisaed durmg the plar:m]ug p~".QCBSS,

Copyrighted material

'¥~l~n variances between the actual worl and t~H~ pilln Me thund,. varuanct~ analysis measures the m<lgn:ittu~de of' the vuriatkm, Va[~,mCt_: IJna:~ys:us ,lIsoundu~des s:tt!dY'Ul1!g the ca:~~e3 of the v~danct~ to dete[mi!TIt~ it cQnec~ive or prevl;)nthre actiom~ ,air\(:! .reCl~urEJd to bii':ill~ th,~ bIll5i.~TI~~8 amdys:us work .i.l:il.li.l]~with the bU$in~(:l1:! ,ma~.Y8~.(:l P.].,U:I:;l •


lI)oma,iln. S1\II E ~i!I1!d! EIfI.d U se:l": Shnruld he .i.nth.rITil.ed ofl~he perforrnanee of bu&in!Bss analy&'os acti.v.i.Hes in order lin set expe(:l:ati.n.nsf!o,r~he]r :io.'Vo]verllc!t1J:.

I m!p.I.em~J1It.l1!ti.on 81\1£.0 "eratiolJlJ:d Support. and Tcst(!lr: .D ep!')nd~nt om dl!(l ~I'fecti,\!,(l pcdQ[mOl!m~t~ onll,.I$ine8i~ ,m,tlysl(:lllctivities. to perform thdr [ole. ghO'~l~d bi'e censulted when a8s~(:lsin:!:'l those llcthdties.

Pl10j ect l\hntager: ',I]':!€ pwj@ct Itl1HllUg.@1" is accou utable Em the sueeess of a IP;ro:jecil and must he kept imf{Yrme,dJ of tI:N:: enrrent st8JtU<\1, 0:1' businesseualysls work.If poteutial p:l'ob~~ms 0:1' opporllunH;ies for i~11[)ToV'em ent Il!l:eidetntified, the pro] ect m ~.m(Ig;ru' must be cnnsultad before changes are implemeuted to a1'.'1H~85 whether those changes wiUU have run impact en the project, The project mruLt8Jg@[' macy also d(lliv€[ reports on business ffil11a[y!i[s performance to. the sponsnr a:!1!d ether sttake1u]]den;.

S(ilOl!l.~or:: M,ayr.eqni.m reports 0[1 bus'OIleSS1!,n.a~ysi.sperJClmlaIliCel)Q address problems as UHf)' are ldenl:Hlect Aln:anf~,gell' oK hns.:inessfLcnfLl[YSi!:S r.n.ay also sponsor :il~lilj,a,lj~s to 1.IUIH''OI'!I'tl theperformance ofhusiness til.na.ly\S~is activities,


U;UiiS~ ueiSeS Anl\lys:iiS PedormnlHlo Assc,ssmout: '1[118 ]ncll!1aes 11, cemparlsou of planned versus ,8I,ctuaJr@rf'Ormano®, LI.mden,.ttand1ng the root cause of'variauces from the plan, and other ililfOifnru.:atimll to help u nderstaud the level ot'~[lhr1i requi redto complete busiuessau .. lys~s wadi:""

D;UiS)rneSiS Au aJ:y!l.i.s Pmee,ss: ASiS,et~: Wllrie:l] nefLInfl.~)'sl.s of'tha performance ofHlE: busineSS1tiUI~YS~,s wo~';l\;; yile;~d.s less than sat:i.sfa,cl:my results, n~.s helpfu] to ~.'l3'\1tew ~nIIO~ m].ly I:he[e,q,rul~s II:hetmi.selves, but also thepmoess l:l~f~l:r.[l')dH(:Jed those results. U~ isprooesfi, illna~.ys~.:l! often .res,uhs in recommendations ffn Improvement In the b usiness anaJysLs process. 'Iherevisec] precess and tie:rl.l!p~.illlim;. for business llc.nfLl~.ys~.sc]elive:rill.bIEll>, should U!® ana .. ~j'~;ed fmc] documented and lessons .IBfLll,'.wl\d shonJd he recorded, 'Illest:: ,maybe tncorporsted into Org[mt:r.f1Uo.llfl.~. Process Assets,

Copyrighted material

mM::U:i.ng .feql!l'intme:nts ~S !1 key I:ask In business analysis, Because the req utrements serve as the foundation for the so]ruUI'}nw the business need s H Is ElsseUlUal that the reql!JjremeflitS be eomplete, clear, correct. and consistent leve:rag][lg pwve~] means to eHd[ re.qM]re.me.nts wlll help meet these q uallty goa1:5L

11:h~se de;llnH:i'(l\lls h:ighl~.ght the need! toa'c:tively e~],gil!.;~(~ the stakeholders ill definung req]l!i:i[~n].l;l!.[Its.

111is chapter ]Ilchides detalls fm" ,eUciting busluess, stakeholder, solutio'll, or tlfnl1sitiio]1 I;e:CJlN,'ure~uc;l1!ts. The btl siness ~Il a~yst shou Id understand the CiOlU nl;m1]y uS0d1tech~i<[tHl$ to e]ic:.it requirements, ShOldd beable to select appropriate techn.iqlill.e(s) fm a! givm situ" anonand IJ e b1LliJw]edge'fi1ble of the tasks needed toprepare, execute ami. complete ea.ch teehniq U®,

m.~c[li.ng requtrements is notan tselated or comp~L,rttme.n~ali.zed~l.ct:lv~ty. l'yp~cril~ly,. l'eCJil!l]rem.efil~s are ide.nl!.i11 ed tlU'UUg]lout the ehcuanon, analysis, veltllca[]on and vahdation activities, Forex.acmp]e, requirementa jj:llay be elicited in lnten]ew!'> or requirements 'l:'\i'u.rhhopg.,.l~te[',. when those requlrementsare usedto hui Id andveri:i:y mmlel(s) gaps in the requlrements may he d]soo'l.'ered. lilis wHJ':hen. re!l]uire eUcit:ing det~~jJs of those ne~"'lyid.e:ntlfied reqstrements, usmgteehmques eutllned ~FiJ chis cfuapwr.

TQ :fill .. I.ly 'ex"'l11ine"'~:1,d de,nne th:e :['e([t!i.ite:mellt~ <J!. c(mlb:~na~um.1 Qif c@m.plemel]ta~J d:icita" tlon lJechniques is typica]]y ued. A. n~mber offadors ~tfue business domain, thecoeporate culture and euvlrtmment, the ~kills o[ the analyst and the requitememtts cle]li'vr;!taMr::s ~hal;wm be created) gu:iJe wh~.chl!ed~miq~e.o;: will be u~Bd.

IWig1lllfe 3rl: (ielil:eralWrv Alloo,pt'ed ,mci~ .. ~ion1ie(hlni~ue!i alildl :Sylilion!'Jms

ElidtatioDrl Technique SynDnym

Job S~adowilng

I Revl>El'W of;'[lX lsHng docum entaHoll

FOCUS GmUip {9.1 n

In~~rviews (9.114)

IPmtlYityping (9,.22)

I ~torybo,a rdiin g, Nalvigaltion F'llow, Pape'r lP'mtotylP'ungI :Scr~~n Flows

m~dt1Jt;~!()n dellverables depend on !Che d~citat~on techuiques used, 'e,g~,intr:rvicw notes, sl!lrvey responses, g~tl!>SlJry terms, and Sit) forth,

H: is ,exlmcteod thart at some poillnt: wh.idie p~d'()JU~.llhllg elicitarti.on that snffilci.i.'int material will l1U,VG been elicited from the businass experts to aJ]O'w ltnltly'!ill; aoctiviti®!l to bagin, rKhe combined results of <},U the i3Jjcitfi(t~o!i1! t!.6Chn1(,iiUeS used wm :S~Vi3 as ]Hl'tI~ to bu]]d" ing the &e~~ch~ldJ a,naJy[kll,~ models. Miss]ng; iueomplete 0]' inecrrect reqaireraents w]U hlcaUy be C:X.lJOS~~{l! du rlng the all I.lysis IwtiviUes, fh~~s I:cq,ujdng add [tgona~ dk;itaUm]',

Note; the performance of all e1ic:itl'n;jjnHtl\CUv.~.i:i!€s are govm.·.lled fuy the bustness !j,na.lys:is pla[ls (Si8e ~.:~), and buslness analYiS;is peri~)rttl,arv;::ettl'8~;F.~'(:s <oihol'lld be tracked {£M ::il .. oJ..

Figure 3~.2: EJidtdfio'!J Ili'Ip:ut{@utput lii!1glram


Il:lplLlt!i I


l.~ Condl!Kt IEliciitaliDD Mti'lil),







3,;1 li'H!iP~re For Elicirt<litiM

- .


. ",.,;;..


> •


E!'i~i~?!~i~!'l $0Il!~~1~!\;:~

ffi.~l!Ilt5 ft~,!.'OI!JHe5


R_~q~l!rem<lMs Mtlt)<lgelfUll'it Ph'r:!

::;;u'IIj~I(ln 5W~!l

1i<t!,l~~tMI\j~IT 1J15~', I!iWIes, ~nd • F!>;:~pomibilitj~ I

3.3 DQ~l!!ment !;1'idt2l~ikm IRe51!J1~~.

lA (Ql"ifilrlfi l~i(ii~a~lon IRe5u1~5

.3..1 3.1.,1

Pr'apart for EUdtatJi.OI1 P~Ii"PQSe

Ensure aU needec]resoufCles ~U''e m.''g:u.ni.zed rl.l.Iu.I. sc.:lilec]ltiied [h[' eondncting U':!,e e~i!cH;al:~!on act(jv]t~®s"

3 .. 1.,2.

Desc:li1i ption

Bulld .<Ii duwi~ed schedule ffJ[ 11 pa:rt;h;:'[IlS!t didtatii!)llm!cUv~!:y, defin:ing the spccuJ'lt,: aelivitie;s. and the planned dates,



8US)ilUlS;S Need.: Heqrutl"lBd to ensure that the ibu;s~ness anll,lysl: understands what tnfor[(uU:i.nn should !tie ,e~icil:eC]f:I.'o:r'l~. tl'n.e stakeholders, Th.is ~.!l1Pll!1: is used when eUcitung hu£~ii1.eSS rt:,C]lu.iJr®menI:5 (wilklhi I:lhi.e exCepUOH nf the business i1®ed.itiselo.

8o~uition Sm,pe and BU8,in'C8!ii CIl'!iiC: Heql!lirU'di toensure th.a~: the businet):) .a.[jlu~Yl:l~ understands whatInformetfrm should he elicited from the stakeholders, 'Ihese Jnputssre used when e&udting staC~d]oldcr, solution, ... ud transitionrtqull'iements"

Stakebold.er List, . .R.o.l.os, a:ndi n.eiSl)I!I'Uis:i.b.I .. I.r.ti.e~~ Used tolG.enUlfy the S~:"fkkehold.erswh.o sn~HJd participate in 'lll!ic]tatio~ll activitres

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BUsiness ea::ill! ,(seetext)





Solution Scope (see te:_Xf)

SI'a ktillh elder Ust. Rol~$. and Respon~ibiil it1es

3.1 PlrelPare For f:lk'iit1ttion


~ r;

.. L_',. _J L. _".' _ ., ,_ '" '_J,. -. L. __

f 'Tasl!cJ; Us,i!if! 91 This 'OUltput .,






Srhednled Re!>oulr(:e"l

, ,




Sup;porting .M<lterr~all,,,,

COIIild!U!(:,t Elidtation



~._. ._._. .J

.. ChU",i.fy ~Jll,l spr;H;:.j,Ji]c :\lCOIJ'I,l h.H' the !iiclE,llcted. eu,ci.ta.tion tl,lch[l,~q~1,l and~a.!;hers ar:uy ne{;r,s~a:.y supporting m'Lt~jr:i<l,~\':l .. ,

For -ev,en:t·b.1listlde]icita,t]on (brai:l:l!ston"!:l i:l:l!g, ffJGU~ group, h1ihlJv]ew, ol:nmrvld:iml, pwtutyping, n':(luircmenrn workshop) ground rules must be est a ~b]j!>h,ed"Ag;reementi8 reached with dl~ 81t'3,ke~l!J)1,dcns It!> to th~~b.m and f~equc'l(:)}' oft'~edb<l!.ck during the dic:i~a,tiol1i l.n'OC~~8 as w~iI as the metlfl an U(:ll'l1 ftlr v~ifyil]g;;i!nJ ~igning 0,"' on ~1:J,e c:iicited [esllli~s.

3..1 .. 5

Teehn Ilq lI@S

AC]d]t~(.[([aJ~nfof:rmal:~nj] on the performanze of dris task can he found in. the d.escF,~pti()1l. of the !:IeleV~.I:'H: 1~C:.htl.i.qnes.

Copyrighted material


3.2 3.2.1



AU StHl,keh,oldef1O: Deperl,dir.l,g on the l'eqt!lire,me.1l1:s oJ theel~c:itat~Cln ac.lj,'l'i,[iY, acny stakeholder mHly he <I P~1rti.c.iJ)::U]t.

Pt.'ojC!c:tManagc:l': 'II],~prQjl~cn; mamag,et wi]] assit"tun e.n::>ludngttl!J.at I:lh,: needed [e.tj,f,~utr;:es are avai lahle,


Sehcduled ,Reiton.r:ce!>: Ih]s Includes d\i,e par~lctl)ant~, the loeanon ]n which the enc::it~k tion fLoc:tilV]ty will, occur, and !i,ny oUler resources tl\i,at maybe requdred,

SuppodiIllg Mllt,el'ials:: Any materl .. b;[~qu~,ted to helpexplain the ted~niq~H;8;1!l8ed Oir perform them.

Co,ndud: Ellicitation Adiviity


Mee~: with .. ta,ke.holder{s) to elicitinfimnation regardlng their needs,

De$c:~i ption

lhe e,liaita:lio.i1 event tac~,es. place (bratnstonnmg, fnCU5 g~,''OuJ)s,i[~J:e!rvilews. ·observation, protetyping, requirements worb.h.wf)S), or e.licitation i.1! psrtormed (document a~llll\I.ys:ifl, interface a.!JJa.lysis) or ,dIL"ltrfbuted (sn~"V,(ly/qHe:sti@!JJliJJaire)..


[liu;s;i "lilli'S; !Nieod; Il~Hl uired to enstrre that th e business analyst U uderstand s what mtoemati(Jin should 'be elicited i1h~rn (~e stakeholders. 1Jhis ~.nput is usedwhen ~)Ijdltung busuness I~qil.!j[;e~]lenh. (witt.'lTIi. flTIie exception of the business needits!')H)..

Copyrighted material


Rl'lqlL!!il"!(';N1~nts l\I[!!!nag~mc;nt PJ'Uil: Oetr:rminl;'"s what ~nf:UrmaU[ln needs to be reeorded and tracked as an euteoure of f~e ,1!!cl';uyity, ]nparticU~Il'" many.,eq uil'elnent:si!tltd~ butes mt!~\>t be dklitcd and c~·DtiY.red whU~~ pcrr\lrn~ing, d1is task,

S{':he(!lu~ed 1\('!S{'IUJ1'COS: 'Ihe l"®~(;lvIu1if; :s;t;flIkeh(JU~rs, loc~;tio:n., and other ]1~SQrU1oes must be ava]]able,

So~ulti.un Scope ajj]d. BU1li,iness CacSie are requtred toensure tb1i.l: the buslness 1i.[I.aly.sr, understands wl].f[(t i[lIol'~nZLtjon should he elicited from the stakeholders, Theile .unpnts are used when eHctUng stakeholder" sollLlijon. andtransluon requirements,

Sl!IJpp'orHIlIg l'1Ihit,I,H'ia,ls:, Wbitebo<J!.rds, mupd~.a[ts, dOCLumemts.,1l11J other In1lte[~lll$ must beavatlablewh He f~,(l@It)~Jvityis eonducted.

Figllu'@3;-4:{oaduuEHcittUio.Jl".A!crMty IliIputlOm:put IDi~lialm

(- . _ .. _ .. - .. - ._. Iln;pUlt~.- .. - . -, .. - ,. - .. - . 'Ii

: B B D

IB,I,IIr;~rneSs Case (seete:Jtt)

, Reqll.~iremelli1ts Mil! ntlg ement Pllaltil

Businec$s Need Olrg!,m izafionall

(m rPxl) PmoeS:5 Assets

I J.1J

Schled uled Resource'.s

$olmkm S.c'Ope (see text)



II Supportllng Ii

Mate:ritll!> ,; II


~.-.-.-.-.---.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- . .


CD n dud Elidtation Activity



I:IIi1ditldon Res!lJIlts


r= ,= "="=~ =.,.= "="-

~ ralsk_,$ Usin,gl This QIUltPlut .



EI'idtilltion Re.sullts

.= ,,"'='''' =." ='~.= ".='."'=.,, ~I

Copyrighted material


l'raei ne; .I'equ.~.~e'.m.en~s: While etic:illtng~J]e reqrutretw.E:i:nt;; U: ]~ rmportanttcguard a~fi.ltnst scope creep, 'f!L'.n,ci.ng requtrements backto the bl1l.'i~[ues,~ goals/objlE:ctuves helps In validate whether !I. requtrernenc should beincladed,

Clluptl1fingrequi.r'c:rne:n.t lluribute.'ii: While didtj~TI~ the requjrements ~h~clumemUmg £eqILtUteJme;[Its uttrlhutes such ~I;S the .r(:!!4!u:i[~me;[ll:'s source, v:alue aud Fir.iDtity wII.~.1I.id i[l 'nanagLn§i: IJ1HilTIi [eql!li[ement!tJt[oughouti~ Hfe {)ytl~e,

~Jctrtcs; TmC:ktnll~: the elicitation p~1rtic;il)aIlts and the actual tnne spent eliciting the req~.~jr®mentilp:m""id(:ls a. basis for future p[an!Jj]~g;,

.For ev·el!i.t-baJ.Sied.el~dNttuli)n l~ed~.nkJi:iJe.", .: eH.c'iJt1ng reqlu.i.rem.ej].~::'''' is h~gldy (]epfilndien.·~ 0[1 the knowledge of~Jm stakeholders, the'ir wUJ~llgness 1:0 participate In d.erun:i.ng :mql[j~.!1'{~meats, and the group'!'; aNI:il], to reach C()[I~e.rISU;S. it Is ]rnpo!rt1inl: tba(t all de:Ilr.Hiicl. stakeholders are: he:fLll.'O dl1r1.I~g: elic:ib'l,ljnn of reql1ire:rM.eIlt(s. 11: m[~y be n£i!oess~~')' to further cI.a~.tfy and po.sE:libly rM~f1I:e the ~.'\equ:ire.mei1l;s. to em~o.mJ)MS all stak.eholde~'\S.' pe~.'\'l~)ec" ti]!'es,.



IJQjlta [)j cHon arYlu.:u~ Gl!!lS8AlY {9 .. 5): A bnsluess.glossery ]s an essentiel .fIIS80f; tor all dicitation tech uiques, '[be g~ogsllrr should coutain key dOm(I]]1! terms along with their business denmltuom",

(~eneral Tech lI!hlneiS~ B!erer to each tschnlqus below for unique elements of conducung that I)9.rtl.cul..?lT technlque.

3.2 .• 6

Cn!l!'tonll!:r., [)iollltll.in SMIFLlil:nd User, Sup.Il'Uer and Sponsor: MfL(Y partieipatstn this task fl.S fI ~ouwe of:l:1equ:I.~.'lem.@rl:il.tfl.,.

I miPlementati.orl! SME, Op.era(Linna1 SUiPp,tld, Pr~l.j ect .Man a@.er, Sllp.pHeit and 'feste.r: M ay pril.rticip~ltel:o improve dHl~.r rundifilrsl:a[ldirJig of dm £t~a keFwld.er need s rill1.d to

Copyrighted material


.Regn~.8iJton MfL,ypflirtic:i.pate di.l.'ect~y (as~. source of reqtrirements] and may also dictate that a s[pec:i.fiIC I)~'l)cess b~ followed or tbmt c:e,rtaJin 1'~Cor1(]j8 be kept,


~hdt.dionR,csulb:i' M<I!yimclilld~ documesrtatien appitopriate to the te'{,::b~l~.ql!l~<I!nJ capture th,einE'Qnl~atium p[(nr:id'ed. by the sl: .. l:6hQldGr.

3..3- 3.3.~

Dec:u I1iHi!lRt lEU dtation IR,@sults


Record U]e~.nforntflt~,()il1pmv~dled by stakeholders for cruse .in1~nalysis"


Des(~i ptiQO

For au ,el~,c:imt~C!n E1'!reuli (brrlli.nstol.'.mi.!lI.g, :f:o,eu.3 gl.'~,)Ul)s.i!lI!;erv]e:ws,. obBel'n~l;jm]. prototY!pi.ing. 1.''equire:nM.ffilfi8wor.kshopill) a summary ofthe ou.tru~, from tlliie event. including iBSIH!lS lspruduced,


II icit,ll,tj on [t~S:IlJt;s: Ineludes the j ntnnn aticn provided by :!Jt'@kelmlclcff> that will be recordcdaud structured.



...WM~elma.rds ~ejj!:he:r actual m~v.i.rtluil.l) whe:r8 :t101~e..",:.ue .rCI:a.ltlea. until they are transferred 1jo<t!H)tlt~t medium,

lhe technique used for e]icihdjon.. as. well as. thebusiness a:nalys.:is app!fo:ach, will determinewhat kind oKodlo,cLlm~nta.Uon is pos.sjbJG ,~L1:d d@sin.b]®.

3 .. 3.5


fit.'a(i:nst:m:m.ii ng (9,.3,):: nle"H;thr~~;y gBn8r.<I!Uy produces the nece$satyd!oclI.meFItal:im.l.

Copyrighted material

froiloty~li.Ill.g ~9 •. 22): 'Iheresu .. ~l:g of e&ucita(~jjon I1n~tYllil.ncl.ergo reC]'LI.ure~O]letllt8 [lUO!!iJys:us direct.lly,witJu.)u.t the need for ani imlte.l1'lm.ea.uate steip' to doeument them,

Requi.r:.em.enil:s \Vnr.lk.dmp:s (9.23:}: n~e resulrs ()if elicitatien ItIii1Y Hod.ergo requirements :illla~:y:s~.s dime Uy, w~tborul~ 1:I~.e need for an :il1~e.n:nedi,ate sl:e:p I~O dOCllmumt them.

Fig!UIf-e~S; 90wmeRf ,E/idtatir.uJ ,Rfs!J'It.$ln:py~'/OQ1;Pyt lJi:agram



Elicitation HeslUllh

\.."=."="-=".=" = ·





3.3 DOmnHlnil EII~ciltajjioln ResUllt!!


IRiiq'liireiiril@;nt:s [5ta'l:@odm

,------ .1. -------

. Tas.iks Usingl Thiis Output ~ I

3.4 (olfrfmn ElilataJtiloffil 1?,)@!S;lJllts


Delli n~ B'iJsines.s IN@!@d

6 .. 1 Prrimitilze R:eq Uli renH~nlt5

'6.4 Spe(ilW alWl.a Mode~ !Mieq Uliremenlts

7.4 Deftllli!!! Trllr!:sitiQ!l IRequirenmi:·:tlt5

. \,..=.="="=.=.="=.=.="="=.=.-


StCIlt@hC!l!d~r COiilc@rtI5


_ .. _ .. ~_~_~_;a;_~_~ ~_~_~--..

Tasks llI.sing ThisOUltlput

:3.,4 (,ciIiiIllll'iifI Elliciltation Re!iults

:5 •. 5

De,fine BlJi5!i JlI~55 Ca!i!il

7.3 Assess Org" Rea·(jiffil,es:s:


D(>filne As:s:ulmptiolii1:S .a.nldl COlns1i!r<l'i IfiIts:

Copyrighted material


3 .. 3~6


. 3,,4 3.4.1

3.4 .. 2.

3 .. 4 ... 3






JJllql!!!ir-l.Hll(lnb! [Stntl'Jld]. Described from the perspeettee offhe stakehnlder, Stlllt)[.:d re>q~lun~me;r:Jits deS:Grilbc thQj stalkdloM~~r's need [lOm (he stakeholder's perspective,

Slake.ltJJol~.(lr COIil.cenu~: ]Il{~lU!des.iISSlleSldenUli'led hy the stfl.ke:.hoM.er, ~'i~ks. as.cslllmpo l:i:o.nl".Ct)[JJstra~.nl~",.ruJ.rndi other rel!til'Va.rnt ]EI!fo.rm~ltif~[I ..


VaHc]mlAJ that the stated ~.'eqlllireIl]e:.rltis expressed by itIlElI>U~ke.llo1r]e:r ~m.atcll. tills atakel.lo.ldeir~s ILulJ(lel:'sta,i1c]~ng of the problem and tliii.e stakeholder's needs,

Oesc:mi ption

Some ciidtatill)illb:l(ll!nklJue:s benefit fl'!i::m~ reviewing tll:Hl docl;llncml!ed llutP'i!lts with the sw.:kch(~ldr;.\r~. to en (:'ure th.at the ~nalJ'sf::; understanding oonfOFlllS t!O the aetual d'(;lsil''es or inte:r!t]~ns: [lf1l.Il~) stakehclder,


Requi]':{lnl.ent!li [Sta'ted~ lJnc>on.fi.rm.edl]l: Hep!l'{iSem theb usiness a[lfayse!:'>. understanditl£; of the sl;3.k.ebolde:r·i.>~tl~;erltio'[liS.

Stakehoh!l~r C(NitcerlHi [Unconfii.ItIiD.,cdh H.tJ'pre::;e:nt the business Ol,:na.!Y:::lt'~ understandin;g: (l\fb;i:-;;lLu;::s.~denti[ucd br~~~lC' st~kd'IOI.de:r,. rrsks, assumptkms, {;()i[lstr."int:SJ;)i!nd o~:her relevantinfcrtnaticu til at H1!<l!y be u sedi n busi ness: '.~1!<l.]y.s:]:s,

Refer t·j) the desenption of the relevant tedln]que for unique aspects oJ or}n~.rm][lJg dHl resufts Qftnelnterview and ObSC!I'WLil[UOI] techniques.


... ]uh'jl'viem (9J4)

Any stlollk!Bll:Okll3T wfuQ bas psrtielpated inother I3licit;~fioH tasks 111ay partielpata in this task,


B~ql!!!i~N1ents [St!!!t0d..C~nfil"DU~dh ]dcnticail!o Fl.equirc:mcntts [Stated] [Dr <til pr<lclti. cal purposes, il1d~!ding use Il!i:i Ill.1ilIr~t h) ~fhe:r tllfi'k~h

Stakooo~(!ter (;O!iu:eru [:Collfi:r!ilWd]: Ideuneal to St:[l,)k!!ll[lokll@.' Conoer]1s for all praeticalpurposes, ~:t1clndling use as an input b) other tasks,

Copyrighted material

r.~Ulfe 3~6: (onflrm ElicifdtianRitD,lts IlnlPUtJllui!:piut Diagram

r- .'_'. _', _ "_ .'_'.'_. _"'-"

IlnpU1it!!i, '

Requiil1ements StaJkeholder

I[Stlfited, Concerns

-, Ulf1leOnnlrmed] [UlliKDllilfilrmed] )

_,,. = ~,= ;0;,=.;0; =--,r = ,,",= ... ~ ;0;,=0,00; "




3.4 COl'ilifiritl'li E.ncirnfiol'il Results

ReQluilr,ements I[Stlflt,ed & Coni']rmrn,ed]

. .



, Tiaslks Using·, ihis OlllltP'Ult (see tex.t)

I .." ,


D'e·1ii l'ile· Bm~ness Need

~rioriitize .Req uliremelnB


De1ii he Tra iilSijtioh .Req uliremelnts

6.4 Specify end Model Requirement!>

,..__ .,_,;0;,_,. _ .• ,_ .,_ ;0;,_.;0; _,. _,.,_ .,_,;0;._,. _,.

Stakeho!l der ConcEms ICon'rmedll

" "


_ .,_,. _,. __ ,_ .,I_;a; _,I. _, __ .,,_ .,_,. _,.-....

Ialsks Usingl Tihii.s 'O'utPlut (see text)' '6,5

Den rile' A!l8Umpt'ioml S and Constra hilts

7.3 Ass;ess Q;r.gl. Re~dir!e5s

l._._._._._._. ._._. )

Copyrighted material

]he Req11.i)~e't1:ten.'lB ,Mtmagt;m~e~ll (mel Co}7'tmfifiic,l1iOn Knowledge A rea descrtbes tbe

t~ c ~jv~tt[es and 00 nslderauons :[0.1' m a rn.agjng and expressing reqlJl,i:l!"eme,r.IIlts to a bread and diverse audience, ·111 ese' 't asks are performed [0 ensure that ,aJU sta keholders have a shared und .. erstandmg of the nature of'a solution and to @j};lii,EllFS that those stalk .. eholders with approval authcrlty are 'i 111. agreement aJ8, to the requirements that the solution sh @J,1I mee-t.

Com mu ni .. can[jjg requ i rements hdp8 1.01 ll!J.'],ng_ the sta . keholders to Oft com mon U lll,iJe1[s.la:nd"i"ng of the requirements, Because (he, stil.kdi.o1dei.'s represent people :b'o:rn di:f.f:er.e!l:lt

'b, ' L<IJI" ,~I ,:" sd br ,", " d,",:, ,', ~ '11-'16,· .",',' "" ,t'i' "i 1. ,t,~ "~", 'il'~ '<iJI'.' 'i!J!", , ,j" "'t"-, U''lCti..Cl,[OU,1'lI~,~ ,~U], ~ 1lI s.:mie~s, _ m11l,a],[IJ;S~ ~u,l:S COllTIl11IU.ml!l;,i;'I!._ uon, .US I-~O .u c~,I,~~J!.~!l;:nt'll.n~ ;;;Jim .. ~ C[,U ~l

cal to the S;R,:!:CDE:SS nrmtu::r ,in:iJtLa:l:i'lllB. :~t ]1I1rVO~,V'e~"l, determ i,Dlrl.~, 'W hk..h, sets of :nH'PJ.i:r,ran'il,!1:!:r:II~;!;,SloW ,re:~e'!lant to a particular sta:k.eh(},~d:i:ar grf[lup and 'presBnU:ng those requl rementa :i n an t~ ppropriate form al . .fll',[ that .H\D,:Ldh:m,ce:..

M, ~U:i1,ag!Bm!lellt of :['eq:l!l.h"'e~:TlI,ents. assists 'w:it.h understaedtng ,the effects of !(')h,alll,ge and

Jin ki I1S lou, siness go ~1J8, and o:b~ectiv'e:; to' the actual solution til at is, constr ueted and deliv€(nxl Over the long ter m, it also GIltS-I] res that the knowledge ~~md II] ndm·;ErrilndJn.g of the m:gtl,l']'i satlon galued du dng business en n~Y8ii$. 'is av.aJlab]c for future usc',

Ni!i],lte::: the performance of an requt rements management a nd commumeanon accU:v]-, ties. ere governed by HIe business ZlJllalysis 'plans (gee 2.3}, and business ana l.y,s;i_s perform ance metrics shnu ld be tracked (see 2 ,61 .

..,--'--'- -.--- - --,-,- -'~"'-'-'-"'-'.- _ .. -'-

Tai'sks '

_,. _,--- _,--- - .. _,.,_ .,_ -_,.,_ --,.

r ,


D c:J I

4,1ii Manage !io~hj~ial!1 ~ OJ pi! a MI R Ei:(t!i'

,4,.2 MallagelR$ Tra ce al. iii t)'

Req u i Ire IiI1t!! n itS Ifi:iI! q!lJ1 re lin EiB'~

l'A!pPfDVed] D~Drfn_m!Jni!:illIBd]

,M Q~lTiitlatialilaii fb;!ql!JiIeFliiet1ts

C)Jlinl'filllliiicaltiDn ProCESS A.:ssl!it:i-


4.3 M::Iir~tlllillRtq~ rer ru::-{lt1E'::

,4 ,Ai IiIre:pare ~!Nf~~ F'o1Ickige

~ .. '."~



H eq u i II-e IiIM! 1'1 ts IRe qtJi re lin BII't5

[M!I;11~~\'j 1100 & rlifa~dlJ



~'··"·~I I . e i I


I ril'equire[1llil!lnil::> SoIl,Ition ::t.QQpe ~t;j~hlQfdet" •

M:an~E11I1el'i~: l.i5t. ftale~, <i!ld ~

PJan ftespansibil'i~i~ I



l. . .. . ~

Q;. mill u D1 k.i!~-e. R-~ir'ei!~err~s


~ql;!i1lir-"!1Irot!i, r

~~dka~ I

\_,_ .. ,_. __ ,_~,_. - _0_- ,_)

4,'1 4,.,1.1

Manage Solution Sculpe &: Requirem@nts Purpose

Ob tain and. maintain consensus a mong key stakeholders r-egJLE.(]tltg Lite overall sohition scope and the rsq u irem ents that wi~,~ be ~ mplemeuted,



Copyrlqhted ma erial


4.1 .. 3


Descrli ption

]ilis taskInvolves sacurtngapprrwal Qf:re~.ll~!l'!f.';ments.fmJ]l H.~{,Mlr(i sbLlkeho]der.s. wbo have the api:i!l'l:}p!ti.ate ;uLiI:hadty, and .rrlanagingusSll{"1l il:htiu:err..e!rge (h!.H~.fig e.lUcita(~jon and [tna~ys~.s. Approvttl. afmCJjnlrecm.entis ma:y he sought at the end of !i. project phase nr at a IU!lullb,er Of~.tljt@[[~:l!iedllate ])n.luts tf]t\..lliw bUE;I.n€S-s.flll.1,a(l.ysis process.

Reql!.l.i.ren~.e:[Itts may he hai!leLinedi f\nnowing appmv<il.A.ny chang'e~liO requiremenfs a~ter b;af:;elining, if ch~n~c::! ar-{) [)©[m~UliJdjUnVtllves use of a ch<~ng;e contro<l proeessaod subSfJ~.lucnt app~(.lv,;;Ji.t As I'eq~:ir~.e[lt:';l a]\~ I'effln!;)d fJI: ch<mg~;::d as the nJ~u:lt tlf ~l(nqinfUirm<J)~ tionJ.r;:hIHlg.e:s will be tracked as we~l.

rKhe solution S00P® is requ]mdl as a b.rus:]s [Qr ]['~CJluk0nu3!JJts: m1).ua,g~:t1ii'le:._r:lt a!i1Jd is-used to determine whether a. proposed rN]ui:l1enl(:)]]t supports the business goalsand oojectiv,es. lf thebusi !lQ)SS need ell a~~gm, dur]ng!(~elH:©ti[!ile ,(Jf'1)n~.~llW1)tive, the SO~uUO!i1J SOOl~(: must ,dS:Q ch,fl:nge. C hllngt)'s to ftl.e >.\lol.uUon scope UHlY1l1so lead to changQlsi u p:!'w,!,uuUlsly approved requiremeuts, which m.ruy [lot support the revised scope.

Chf'll1ge-{lir'ill'c:n arp~r.n~lches. l:yp.ica]ly do mot use a rorm;aJ d~amgecolllt~r.n~ prneesa.as requrremeats arepnortttzed and selec~ed (\Or .~.mp]e:mell~a~~om at the bagtnntng or each i:tiefa.it~on and no dl.angBS to the reqt!lUre·.ITle:.n~:s occur durrngan Iteratlen.


Rl'lljlL!!i["!l);N1('lnh! l\I[ll!nag~mC;liIt PhtIil: Oe[UJlr;S fh~~ process to be fB~~tIwed!inmana:gLng tlHl so.h,lHon &t;f)pe<lndroeq uire~~1el1!ts.

So@~~~Jti.on S.cope: ReqRlr~menti8 must sM.pport the solution sco])e 1m order to be approved, unless the soh:utuo[lJ scope ts modlfled fLcconiimg;ly. The solution scope tSfilso a requnement that can bemanaged in :11:8. own ligbt. (;b.fLlrlgesllO othen Inlgin,es::> requJrementa g~tleTally do not fallwithin the normal c]nngB~]l~Ln.mge.mentproCi€SS of a project, as they are external to the p~C!}@ct i!icope.

Sl!:akei1~lldlllr Ltst, Rnlll·.'i!, and.R.cs[ioll.s.ihHi.l!:tiec\>: 'Ud~ acl1mll$wlcdc:h $ta[\;.£':t.oldcr:il are .itl.v(~ly·ed. In .. rev.i£:wing;al]d arp~r.nving reqru.i.reme:nl:s.

Stak{l:hiohll.el". SO~lL!!ti!1ln. Of "I flUIS it;i.on R.0qu:i.!rom(')!liIts I ConmIIL!!:nicatod 01;" Tr:.acGd]:

ReqllirerlilleHns may be ~li1laIi].wged .alL ~my point ]n the]r lifecycle (stated,. spedfied sud modeled, ver]fi®d,\T@Ucl.wted. @tc.), ~ •. ~thollgh 8ttak@hoMer apprcvel is nomu •. ny restricted fill mq~ljrmn(lnt:s that have been verifiedand vulidated, Bequleemencs mastbe eommunieated to bcm.i!J.HilIIgQld, as stakchcldcrs cannot eensent to requireurents ]f'they an !lot aware ofthenr, He(lilirement.:s.may also be ma.nag.e{] if fhey Clll1 be traced to ret . .J)l~:r®urents fffiJat have been app,,(.)ved, as those "eqrlil'cment;s ,f!:re a basis fur (J,eb~rrnjniu:g Wb·0U\J.®[" other requlremeuts fall w]tliil~!JJ the scope oft..he solution,


J Soilultio'lin Scope M<liliil<lgement

AD $<1:aikeho1det and 8o]utiQn requirements mI![8~; he a:'js~sseJ: to ensure til",1: the]' :Ka]] with~n th·e ~o~utioin scope, Stakeholders wiU fIieqlJ!cnUyidcntiJf-y <l!(I(!utlonul needsthat the ,&t)~·~l t]Ol1 m,lY be capable of add.l'ess:i:ng .. Howevu:l:, U' these Ildd:ition;alrcq ulrements ureinvalid (th.<I!l ]~, fhey ate not <IJ~gned with the apP.fovl;)lJ! bU$ine~l>requ.~.t,~m~[Uts} 01'

Copyrighted material

[',l.Ilfe4-:2: MatWgl! SolrttioJJ .kope Q,PJd Ilequitemen,ts hilPll~OilUPl.lt IDiagram


BI B Inputs ~ 1

Ai~qUiir€:'m@lnu S(l:ll!lit:iorJl SC(lIPll: Stak€:'hQlld@r, Solution or

Malna gelilI'iJiEl' nit Ust" Holes., <M'Id lra n$i~iofil R~q Its

Plan [Ri~",pon"'ibi~irtiecs; ICQmm~n!cat/ll'd orTrg·c:edll I

~--.-.-----.-.-------.-.-.---.-.-----.-.-' ,





Ma n~~g·e Solutien Scope- end R~ql\l~





_'f _

- .,_ --,_,-- _,.,_ --,_,_,_ -- _,.,_ --,_,-- _,.,_ -- _,_, __ ,.,_ .'-



Tas·ks: Usiili1lg This Output

4.3 Ma~nt<iitrl Req Its For IRe-Use


7.1 Assess Proposed Sollution

7.2 A~lloa!te R.eqlu irellTile!li1Its

tll,(~y 1:1.0 ~[;li!i)l\. f'3.]1 withiu the solutien scope, the busmess aH[~.I.ys!: must act to ~.'~5Ci~:\i'B the conflict, This mayt",,') dona by amending tllile business requirementsand I>Oll.UOl1 scope or by reaohlugsgreemeru that the requirement dees not fsllwithin tIl€: scops of the. initi@Jiw.

,,2 Conflkt and IS:5ue M.mtlg,ement

As tCqJuj[.f;lme:)nts are df;lV~~.Opf;ld. and tE:vi.ewcJ!, CQnilh:f}s Q~)f;ln .ari8e:), .A. c(mliliil(;!t ~~lay re!';:[L]~; from t'll:d;:f;\h(lld~s lin d:ilf:;t~~ll;~.rea:fj \'.iewin.g .rC!qjujt~~.U~Ilit[j from diffbr~n~; perspeelive ... ,. :[1; may alsn result fmm CO]]f:I.~.cri[Jjg: p.rin[.~.Ues. ]:m:::ons]s~!e]]t .requ1J.reflJ!J.enls cannot be :satisfued hy a s~ngle sollutiollflnd so any .i.n,c:ons~s~:EHlCy musi: here...;;nlvedl,

Fadlili<'1!tc comllumkmHom between (~e .-:;tak:r;~o~den; w'ho arc Ill! c!!)nf]ict over the r~q~i[~n~e;ll!t ~.n OIiJcr to Iie~oUve the tssue. C Qnnict~ may be resolved (hn:n.!g~ffiI ~~F!~la~ meetingssmong ,fi!ff®-cted sta.k®hokl,13rs.. through research, resolution by a third ll)',uty, 01' other methodsaseppropciate, C euflicts that .@ifrt{)[ the requi rmIIJ0!lt:!5· must be resolved betoee formal appmvaJis g;iVl,;H to those reqnnemeuts,

Copyrighted material

.,3 Pre.slEmtiing lReql1.lilrl1f!m.e'l1Itl> FOIf iRevie'w

Orill:e:rrrrdne how requirements w!ill. bepresanted to various ~S~:1I:ke:t~O~dflirS and whether .p~r.ese'.nJta~~(ms wfll tw fnn:tIJal or Informal. A f(~rm:il.~.pn~se:DJtar.](~Dli mar he fI wr;it~elli syste:[I1requ.~.mr.o,enl~s :specif.icai~on 0,[ a structured 'iill"aJll::thmugll W]1:1I vanous levels

of stakeho1.ders.i.nchldl.ng exm::uUve summaries as we:K~ as a structured model including [LeU ofi:h€ asseclated dlagrams, supporting text, detH(i.l€d ai:i:rifuuij€s, andrevision in[urmartl.on. Arequiremant mayhs presented i.nI'ermaJlJiylin an e-mail message, [I, note, ill' yeriha:~ly.

A.ssm:l!> the r!(}C]~d:re;me:[I:~, a~i.dienC>!o), and ol'ganiz(itlull(tl process assets to determine thelevel of fiJl'm;l!~ity a.pprop[U~tefOi[ bU"'lnc3S <ulJ,;l!lysi", oammunieation, (~el]eta~~y, the mOi[ef:O;[m.d the C~"lmmunlic"'tiO'm;,. the mo[cltJme that will be requdred to p"e:~}ln'c fi"jr mel,l!l:in~;s.J f'(ll[ re\f.~e'\ls,. fur thepresentatlon or requ:i.rcm.cmts packagl.l, etc .. le[:l~ forma I cmnttlIlDliica:l:klln$ rna.y res:ul~~ 1Dli ikey stal\i:8ho~,d!e[s m.I.IiiiS;inginJnrmat:km m~ ,II] increased amhigil.iJ1:y In re(rlLl~~.f(l:me;n.ts.

Wh~11 [Jn~",elltiug the reguJ.ur~me:nts fUII"(:lvicw and ,Olppn:lYal, there needs to be enough formality to support the methodology and eIlSiUJ1() t.l\tat the stnkeholdsrs wm ~'®vi€w, understand, audepprcve tJlil@m .

.. 4 Approvall

Ensure U]al~:~Fm stakaholderfs) responsible for aiP'pmv~ng requtrements undersaands

and accepts the 1'eqM~re!tlJer1~s. Sil:ake~l,Q~c]e:r ~.ppr!Of\!"a:~~]1ay berequlred fer tIl.e result of o~:t.,er bu;:id[le\'iSillnmJlysi~wtl[l\:,imdudung, alloea tion of requlrements, pr.Op·tl~Cldl problem .re.i,o!J1J.tkm.s,.riI.rI,d! other d,ec~",inns.Ar.p.r()val ItI,ay he nh~:a][Iedf:[()m s~:alk.'rilhok]er.sl[J]dj'!i'idu-· a~l:-y or 1I.S 11. grOl.l.p.

Ar~~()l'd of'fhe deci",.iJonl~lay be 'll<ept A ,diecisiolll1'!(;lo(.nd lUll}? ~nd[!de the decusion 11~.adQJ (whliJfh~r or not toundliide thel)e<1u:~.I'!i'l'm{l[lt {)i[ modify the s{;Ope)l. the :re~",,()n f;or fffil~

" _ 0

dec:iskm, and the p;;l!:rtiesinvO~li.'cd,



..1 Generall Techniques

Pr.:o'blem Trackiing (9.:210): Alk~'W.s the busI.nessril.malyst to :managril all!¥ussueside:[I~;ufled wi~:h reql!1'I.fe:m.en~s h~ stakeholdees and ensuee that those 'iSSl1IilS are resolved,

,2 E!aseli~in91

Oncereqmrementa are appmved, Uu:y rl1l.ay b,e baselliiHe~t. lUearot~llg that aJI~ future changes are recorded a.!flJd traLCked,wnd tJm current state U].HLY be compared to the haselmed state, SuhsiillClLl@IDt clfu..mg;e:s to tile r@q~dntlnellt must foUow tile clfu.ange cnntrol proeess,

A.s changes are a pproved, thcrequjrementsmenagement plan mayreq ulre that the basdinedverslorl of the requirement be maint<lJJned In addition tu the ~;:}HmgCldl requdrement, Add]UonaJ~nfrlfn~a~;~nn Is often nralntained suehaa de.,%c~[.~.p~!ioEIJ ohhecha[J]ge:, peirSOn who made thed~aDlige,lIr!idl dm n1f~SOlI1 f\().f ~:he c:lJHnge.

,~ $!9nO'ff

RequiretIlentts !>ign!!)ff f'Qrl]1(di7;e<ll agr~emQlnt 'by 8tlll;eho~d·eI'8 that the (10ntQll~tiil.l~d

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4.2 4.2.1


l)f\esentat]~n of do cum ented r-;equi relll(:nt.l.':lu:s aeeurnte and COHlph:te.. ,1, Jorm<l)1 ",i;,Il-~ff of [cq~irtlimc:nts dOCl;!I11cntlJth.m 111,.,Y be [cqlJ,ircJ by orglln~7 ... ti(lin<l!1 standards (J;r fbI' re<Ju[l~tofy I'ea,::.;on::;,

Obf;~jllll:t:tg: requirements s]gnoiftypicaJ]y involves ,~, Eaoce-to-f'ffi.lt:!il fin~,~ review of!1'®()uM''!3- ments decumentation W]tll ea;c:l1! sta,kehold13li" with. authmU:y to aprroVI3 re1qluh'cmilents. At theend 01 ~,E1J,{~h rcvilJw; the stakehaldee ]8 asked to formaUy ,1,mH"{)Ve the reviewed roq~~jr®~l~eLr:I!ts document. 111 lsapprovul n1!ay be veiba] or be tecoededeither physgoaJly o:r elec~;m~~ll~ca,~,~j':,

If a, stakeholder ~'mly has at.l.~~h(lr,~t:y ~:o s~g:[I-(jff Otl, a subsel: of I:he reqrl,i,reme:tlt'l, a specific: ,It~:~ t)[ the requirements I:be stakeholder is itp[!'!':rov~[JJg. .tll.a a comp~cm.e:DiJt~t:r.~lli;flt of I~he requlrements the stakeholder is not approving (lnlt to wMchtJu: s~ake:fuCl~de!r expWici.tly 11:111> no objeetlon] should be prepared, Un.dar such circumstances, it ts ]ncnrnbent upon 1:Ile;I!.n.!ls~.n@ss a mdys I: to assarethat eaoclm .. ~.[I.divi.dn:,d l'equim.lne:.nli ls exp.luc:kly approved hyatle:;!~r."t nneapprnpriate staIk!Bhol.dc[ w]~:h ~:hB i1.HI~horutv u} do 5.!).

DO!ilUliu SM E: May be involved ]n the l!'~vjM?W audapptnval of requirements, M defined by the s:t;~!i:x:.!:!o](l~n" by the s:t>a~;)lho]de~" roles and respons[b]]]t;y d,e&igrHtt:k~n.

Im~)leme[ntajti,on S~UE: Will. H.l\;.{'!t-y b €I involved 1:[1 Ulis [p'mee..ss to ensure that the requirements arm. bei.rrqlle@lE:tlltec]"

p[\O~C!c:t~1:a.lnagc:l': 'II]I~ proj~ct m<lfllag.eti1ii t~~iP'onl).~.bLe and 1I.O[':Ollnt;able for tncp!i'!Qject scape. 'Ihe [project ~'Ilanage[ mnsthelnvolved In assessing the solution scope lEI ()nlc.r I:() define (file project scope, and ~]UJ!st b~ irlvo~ved in H~viewing :alu)' chaIl!g:eslio the ":H)i~tiol'l scepe for the !:illm~r()a:son, In add.itiom, Jf I.l proposed :r()q,t!.i.remfr.l!1:tis not I.lccep;ted by'.key st<;l!lchold,ers, {hcpmjcr.:;t l1~1in<;l!;g.'er I:il.lillSit m<l!n,,~e the asseclated tis:!.!' to the ptt~j ect (by 1I.~ilJ~ring dl!e ptojl~ct S{,:OIJ'~, el).c<;I!l<;I!lting thei1iii!lI,w. ()ii' through other aIJ'Pn:~pdate [e8:ponsefii)"

SpO!i!sor: 1h1C) business (m,SC', solution or product sCOP~) and ~d] r'l:qu]remcnt:s must; be reviewed and approved by the osoj)(j'Ui'lo:r(s) a.cco:r.1clltngtQ the approval ,fj)Ii:t~:llwl".ity stated ~.1:1 UJ6 requnements management plan,


Reqltl!i.r:'Cm.en~s [Appr~;'Ved]: HiI;.\qjilljFE,l!.l1.~.e[l~swil'dd~ ate &gr~ed b) by 8t;alk'eh()~dcr(j~nd! reilcliy fOf (lise in subsequent husmess ",u,tl.lysi.::;(}.t ,~.m.pleme.nttlU(Jn lli.':f:'f~~tb":i.

Manage Re'qlUilrem entsTr'alc-eabilllity Purpose

Creal~~ and ([Iali.ntalil:l relanenships between business objecti'lle:s,req ulrements, other team dellverables, and solution componenrs to support buslness ana.l.ys..li!:i or o'~~.el:' ac~i.¥]t~.e$.

Des:c:mi ption

Requjn3!Jil.i3:nfl..<; a,)j1(:l related tl!) other reClujrffinwlts, to solutiou ooraponents, and to ot:l1!e:r artifacts such as test C,H.®S. "Iraeing" a requirement ["®f~15 to the t'I.bHity te ]ook ata

Copyrighted material

[eq~~,un~me:nt and the others to which it 'us related, fi'a'Clng: links business nx]uuremenlLs to stlJ!keh()kl~r"nd solution IequiIienle~~ts. to ofh~[llrtif~l(:ts produced biy the team, and to SO~!~~j()n oomponents,

Requlrer]i1!il'ntts trfuCe~tO]mty id@ltWifi,~s1ln:cI docnm~mts the Uneruge of iliHWh ~"!ulujrement" inchtding [f;s baekward trfilCi3,ruoUH:y {dlm']vtl:fion}" its fi]l"Wfi.(['dtra,()~aJbmt:y {a1Jooatkil1}, and its relationshlpto other mCJI[ljre~ne'!Jts, l'raceEllbUH;y is 1I.$~ldJ to help ensure 80]Utj(JiH conformance torequjrements IU1J:I to assist ]]1 scope amI rh,lng:e m'3~n1lge~1l1It~:t1!t, dsk 1.1l:u.~Jt~e:tli1l.~ut, ttnnli: Inl1Lnl1Lg®l:1tlent, cost management and Clom.ltXl.uH~.c.atiKnll ~m.a:ml.g:e.llml1t. lt aJSQ ls used to detect riiljss~ng fu:ucUollil.~tHty or to ]d®li1IUfy ]:I' hnrle~1[l!ent)~d ftll uctienality is Hot suppoeted by 11 speetfic r0q]ujJr~meHJt

Tracing .mtl:-y beperformed iLlt the mdreidual req ulrement level, at the model or package Ie-"el, or at the fe,a(~~nl'e level. iL~S iL(pproYlI.'uate .. The goal of tracing :is to ensure thatraq uire-

• .,. "-1'1-'''', (- ud -.'11--"1" "'1·c_Il""·"-I·""I·'''''''' ", "I'--"-}'1"~"""'1"''') ,- 'Of," ~'c"I"·''';~ ba ak ". "I, ,"' busmess "I,bicc "~,~",, ,.uill. '" . ~L.I .u. t .. U ...... 1 .. ,. ,e'UJ" "",,",.,, .,.",,1 ",{,Uul".u.uOJ.L .• " a.u. '" ~.'.u.t<.."'U .<~c: ..• (, hilU t .:>".~., .. ,,",," (, .~ec".u .• e.

Tracir!tgwCj'ld[c~!I:ie:riJ~:s ahm suppo:rts Impact anii.ly&is, cha.nge manage:me:lib\ and req-U!lircmetlts allocation,

~'-- _,_,_ -- _,_, __ . __ '_'_-.....,.,..

Req uiremeli1~

Heq uliremrn eniiS· Milln~gle ment Plan




4,,2 Malna ge R!l(f1s 'Ira . .ceClbniitry


.,. ,.


Requilrementso I[Tlralced]



~ Ia Sk$ Ushi!9 This 0 WI:t:put


4.11 rVtatml'gle Solllut~O:n SCDpe and Req'!t~

IL ,_ • _, I. _ , __ ., ,_ • ,_, I. _, ,. _.r'

Copyrighted material

.. Impact AU8ilys.~iS" W.hen a reqei rernentis c.h~U:li:V~d the business [l,~UI,~J'S~~ C[lU eru:sily review all of the ~."el,at)ea requtrsments and ,"",oftware e!(}nxf)Cn]liiJlr18 in order to understand tbe"hl~r~u~t" oft\l® change,

...Requirements C.r' .... e:ra'Sie. When busmess nb~ec~:~ve~ are traced. to del:aUed requtrerill ems suchas business :n.i.1.e£i"o::]a(~:a elements, i~(~C] use caaes il: tsclear how tI.~ff)' wtll be accompltshed . Each bussness ob~ecit~ve can be reviewed to make sure Hlm!:.U will b e addressed by the appropriate so.~ni:i!D.n cempenents, lf a business objlec~;uve is not ~:ied M ~~t[y I:hitlg, H: Iias not b8en.an.a.~y~edl f~tud in.dudleditl. the solution, Add:il'io:na1 ~nfOftmiat~om ea.n. be found in . .Asl1ltlBg PrrJjJuMil 8olw;.i;.Oli (7.J).



.Requi.r-Ennenb,:: All requlrements .rnfL\y POliEH]I:~.aHy be traced to other roqurrements, and a~.~. ~strtkd~'):~d.0~' fL(~]d so~.ut]on req uirements .must be traceable to a bu smessreq ulrement.

Requi.t-cm.enits Ma(r:I.agcmc:o:l: PJal1l:: Defineshew and ·w![lcthe;r. tr,a.cc;;Jib.iH~yis bcingpe:rt~()!rmed;, the t00~~ that will be US0d! to support traceahi ttty ,iJ!ml the pro'OMSCS thllJt willhe usedto m1.tnag:eut,

4.2, .. 4


..1 HellatilOmJeshiips

An!~t if;!lGl.mjnin~ and (H'~<l~l~zi[Jg the set of requirements, r~cotJ the dCfpenJen.d.cs and rda~;~.on8hi.ps fo!r each ofthe requiremerua, K~ll(1win~ the d~r~Il!d~[I,d~, and tf;~I,,,ti.()!nRMps he!:ween reqrt.i.remenb~B h.e]Pl~ when dcld(mniokng the :seqM.em::e· lin which requiremenl;S. arato he addifessec], Common . .rela~~iO:[Jj:~h.i.pt; ~utl,cl:u.:tdf.';:

II- Nl".cO!."lS$i~y, Thigre~at~(mf:!hip exists when i~ (jllly m~~ke!> sense toimpl!el~l~lnta partUUl.l!1.1I!t requirement if <I. re~,[ted tequitementis <J.~;::.;oump~,emel1t[-)d, liltu"'.l'd1.l.t~o~TI,s.hip may b~u][!idjmcltio!iltd (Jrbi·d1mcttJiona].

.. :Eff:orb II1~.S nil,a(~jn.nsfu.~p i(!x]si:s w h~m a requtrement is ellcs:ie::r to b]~.p.le.roent ita related requrrement ls also lmplemented,

II> Subf:id:Whe;nthe req ulrement .~s the deoo:mpOJSedoyb;:ome (]if all!otll~r req uirement,

II> Covl'lr:W[lI~n tl~(jl requirement lul]y meludes the oilf:l01' eequirement, This is a special C,IS~) oJ sabser.wbere the f,op -level requirement is the SIl [11 or t;]im sub-requirements,

.. V~dU!i:l: Whe.ll tndl!iclj~]g a requtrement a:f:fiects the desirability Qif ,ftc related requirement {€idlE::rincmM~.[~,g er decreasiugit], 'Ihis In~ty occur because tI]@I'elal~A3d lLequlremsntls cmlil.y ueeessary ]fthe ~.r8t requirement ]8UHl.p.le:tlll'1'l!nted, or because 0.01y one ohhe .reCjl.l.~reme:o!ts sheuld be implemented (for insl~il[Jjce, whe.n d:iscl1ss~ng two fCiL:riLlres that potcnt~.a~~y meet a bUiS~Il!e-SS requirement],

Copyrighted material






,2 hil1pact Analysis

[mpa.d:~tUiI.I:ysi.s i.;;pe;rfm~~.!J1.ed tfo assess OF evd..l.a.I'(! ~:he ]rnpa.c.I: ofa chan:ge. T1'"otcea.MIHy Js a useful tool for perf'().rm~ng ~mpa(:l: ~HI'~I.ly~i.~"WtHHI a. requirement changes, II::." relaI:iD,rl~s~.:ips to 0iC:he::r reCJjU] ee mC-:lllts or syste[l!l components can ber.ewic"I'i'ecl .. Each related requrrernent or compenenc ma,y a,~sQ require achange to SUppOI.'!; the new requtrement, l.hese cemponentscan also be traced to theirrelated components and those cempolle~.1lffiliev'iewed CUll needed changes, KllGw]l1lg tJliisl.IUf):ltct of aclulXllge .htdps business d,ec'ls~.Q[l makers c"l{a~rL.lal:e~I~.e'u:r opti!On.s w~l~h facl::.q"

,,3 (ornfiglUration MiillriHlgemelllt System

A. spec:u:dizC!d!)©q!;!.~.IC!L'lmCl1its m~llllg'CrI1Iel1it tool is .~eu:er;'!.Uy nj'H:ded to tr;'!.ce I.;'!.rge numbers of: tI'J(!uitcmemts..

lechirn ilq ues

,,1 (olvelr<lgle Mani;:.::

A.;:':Qvl,l:[~g!,l matrix .i5~Lalb~~ m~ I$p[\I;."ad5heC!~ used to mcanage tr~c,:i[lg, II: :i!:l typlc:a.Uy used wh'(!I!i. there are .fel:.~t:uve~y few requiremenrs ()[;"'lhem Uadng lisl.i.m.aed ~)) hjgl~-Ievel rC!q[!lirQ)m(!:r:lts ~e.g, tC1.ltl,.l.,es or models),

.1.Jn~'I.eme!f~ta.ti.oU! S~UE:: they 1I'fU.l.SI: be al.de to link the requtrementstc the so~n[~on coral)OIle.nl::s tlli.al: willimplement them ..

T,estl1l!!:t fcs:tertJ· need to nuiiCi!Jst1lJnci! how and wfue['~ requirements are ]mpl,enl~~llted when cH)<l!:ldng test P~,"H!> and testeases.andmay trace test cases to n)qii;!.~J;it:~,l],en1t!;,


Reql!li.r~m.ent5 ['rr:acedh Traeed rC!lJILd.©m!;):n~ ha'!.!'cdeOl,dy definod!~d.aUQin&hipfOto oth,er requlrementswithln the 8~:~]llti()i1l scope $l,id~. that it 15 rc:iati>'dy easy to idenUfy I:hif;.'! ~fli[;lc!~ onother :t[;lqJu.i.r'[;lm~mt~ of a ~hang.e,

Malimtain Re.uilrelments fer' Re"'lse Purpose

To maIl,lIge knOWledge of raq uirements .f:ol.~.()IW][lJg~he:~r Jmplementatten.

Descrii plion

[denti.fy requdrements that are candidateafor long-term usage h:!i' the orgaui.l...i:lilim]., 1bege nll~lly include requlrements thar~ an o:[~mll~.~tf1(tion HlJlLI.sl: meet 011 an ongolng basis; as well as reoqtd:r@me[ljts that ,Me implernantsd ~1.S. 1P'00[t of a. solunon,

To ~H'H.If>e reqniremeuts dIe!, :tFH1SI: beclearly named and del]nca and e~'I:~~~Y avatlable In oil:her arl,!:!.~ysl:s" ~Khe:se requircmeaes rn.1I1 b e stored Ina ~rept!'.s]tO!l'Y. and a person should be i!c]e.:f1tiliedlzl manage there:~h')s:~tary. Wher1 all exlf!I:~.!i1g requtrement nmst be modiI}.ed~t CUI be aC;:':{;l$,!Y[;ld fn,nn the [l;!PO[:iito.fJ ~b[ re-use,

Copyrighted material

Maintenance of rcgIJ,Uremel1!t!> (;;1111 flldlUtllrejmp<lC[<l.ma~r8h; [lfnC'w, preposed changes to th~ business.reduce <lnl.l~ys3s time and ellbrit." .... ssist in m,lintut1!al1!oe Qifprevi!i]~sly imphm~.l;l!.I1!t(ld! solutions, and support otn!;F 'H.lth'iUcs, ]m;:iud~~~:lJ t[Olu:nin:~, OO[D(m~tEJ g.O'!." ern a nee, and sbnJ!atd.s ,[,:umplia:m:,:c;,.

Figulre 4-4: M'tIiRtw:n' Bequiremell,u, fw,Re-Ute Ili'Ip'lIt/(1'utput Diagr,aml

r-"- ._. _. _ .. _ ._. --.

i crpUI$ i

Or9a.l"l!i~ .. ti()na I Hequ ir~melrnts " iProcecs"! A"!setr~

"" ~ ,~,~ ... -~:.".:..:.. -,.,-.:..,...J _ '" ,_, '" _ '. _.".~

4.1 Mallntalin Re-q'iI;S f'O'r lR;e~u!le

ReqYilr~ments [Mailnlta ine-dlB!


. .



I Output A.llso Used By


.Enti!!'.rprhe Au,bJfe.ctur-e


1+ I

,""- II; ,_, .. _,. _ •• , _ .,,_ """_,,, _ •• _., _ ... ,_ ... _I. _ r



o'.r:g:aJtiiZilll!iol!ia\~ Pt~"u:::ess,.it:iiset~: These SCl sl;a.I!i.d.ri.[ds £i\'Jri[dJng ~:l!i)w and.when requfrements should be madntalned for re-use,

It('H:I~il"!(';J1J)ents, f.k~(lt!in;~menti'\ may be mll~nbtined lb, re-use as kmg as they deserfbe infUl'm<ltion {)If IlSC to the urgl.lni7;1.ltiol1 beyond the lHbtinle of anuniti<!tive" n~q uire!Ut;:nll$ w.~n usually be ca~ldid<l.tes for ~n ... ~n~e;[I,;Jjnc:e only if th~ dc..o.u;:tifb'l) thea~~!.HI!J Cyt, tent 8tah~ (Jr.;;!!" organization.

4 .. 3.4


J Omlgoiing R!eqUlirement:s:

OtlgO'IIIg: requ~.:r:emcl!i.l:&~Je thoil'l'(~ mqiLl..i.mmenl:s thatan org;atl.izal:]ODliaJ l!.mili: Is requtred 110 lHl able to .([i,eel: Q(~alc(Hjl:]Dliii1QUS basts, These l[l,arr Include COn~r:ttctual f)b~.igaIUoi[i~s,.

Copyrighted material



4.4 4.4.1


q~l,a~ity stlluCl,1l.nh;, s:el"vic;el{!ve~1lg!l'eements, bustness.rules, business p!I'OCeflS'C!;, O!l' reo qi[!lH)mC;[Its de:lOcrubUng t~.e work products (ffiJe gro~p produces,

,,2 SaHsnedl Requirements

JRyen th()M.;g:lhl. a reqrtlre:llu~I.~t hasbeen 8~l:tdI8~e£1, It is stili. a requlrement as long as the b~I.s:i~H!!SS Shl,k!llloJd.~rs neisd it M fl,]ntainin,g these requirements he]p!:> w]th product enhancemencs and future s:y~'~e:r'ti! changes, EX.i.sHugmqfil.iremenl:t; mal]" ;11:;Q be re-used enrelated business proDeci)!i"

lechil1liiques NOlle.

Busim,l8:!!' Andyst:Re-'used n,lqill.ir.r;ln~~nts<J!re very Itkdy to beused bY:;i diff~[!Cmt. bl,1s~i[lll'!s!';~.rHi.~.J$[ th.an the author al: ~Oim.{l unknown fl!i!ur'e d~.lle. ]t may be n,eClef'iS:!l.r], .[() rev.ise and. Lupd.a.lle II:he req ulrements d(J·C:Hm.e:[')t:~U:]O[l~O limi.Slire that .il~ Is £e~.f-iexpl1l!.n.aJll(}.r~.

Donlain 8M E~ Ongoing requiremeuts an~ .~gkdy to bereferenced by D~Jrna.in SM. Ea Og~ '.l re:'6U~1.l!F basisto ~nSU!Fe that wod, products meet them,

Iln~d.emenhl.d.oUJ S~lE: 'Iheserequiremerrrs are lik.e:]ly~o be used for a variety ofpurI)os,.o ~S, ~llleJntlling d~V'e[opment ~f regression tests and bli1lp~.ct ~U)JI.~yS~S of enhancements.


Ih~lquir{';m('lgts [Mah'lniiJ!!G~ and Ib.';Ii:~s.albJ.l1l]; The out[lul of this LilJsk areWt]u]rQl~1!H:;nt;s that are expressedin iIJ form til atmakes them sltitable fGr long-term usage b;y the organizlJ!JuiI:m (even in fhe absence of the j)takeholde!l's who. tldgil]I~~~Y defined ti]{: n;lquJ.ir~" I.n.t;:nts). They may become Qrgllni:;r;I[tiollal p:['t)C~~!ii Il!ii!l!()t(:l OF be used in future .~.I],it~aUves er projeets, ]n some CElS,®S <I. mqllJn:nl0:!1!t that was notepproved or hupleraented amy be maiutalned f(D:rr,l pOlSs[b]e futu rei n[t:iiIJtive.

Pr'epare Requirements IPa(kagle Purpose

To select and structure a !H~t ohequ:il'cl]lltmt;sin<!napp,ropti,<J!te fa8il:ti{.m to enSl!ire that the re~u][~me;nt~ are c;ffectively comnnmleated to,. um,l!c;n.hlod br,"'[ldl!i~liblebya swkeh(~ldf;lr group t)r·~t()iIl:ps.

DeSCli1i ption

Reqrt:i.re:tFiJ.e:n~s should be presented In fn.n:n.al;,~, that are understandable l)y I~he stakebolder. 'Ihts task daserfbes fhe work required to deetda wh'ud.l form:i'lt(s) are 1l.pp.r()ipr:i,a(~;e .fot' a pm.' neular project and ~.I:S :stfLl!i:e.ho],],m::s. Th.ey must be clear, cOi"ic.~:se e : accUrfL(~;e. and. at the fLl])l)I.W~)I'i,fLll)I~ level of detail, HE:q uiremente documentatton should be created o.nly in i:h..€ {f.xtS:tlil: needed to assure dsac:[ u!t1l.ci.m.'Btandj.lll;gby the team,

Reqlll.i.ren~.e:[Itts p~c]l~l~es may be prepared for a nlU.mhe!f. ()f reasons,inciiLJciin:g biLJt n,ot Ilmlted to e1l!.r[y a:sse.i'SI.mttl~: of q li.a~.H:y a[JJd.pl$~n[')~ng. er".:al~lLtat~on of po,~si.Me al~:e:.mat~v.er>, f()rmal!:~v]e'l,"'~ and .;;Jj:pp!!:tlvals.,imr,rl).l:ts tu soit:uUon d:()sign, c~)n~brn~anc() to >t,:ontr.",(;bla! and t.r;~gul,"'JJO\ry (lblig",tion(:l, ann mllint~[JjOi[IOl for re-use,

Copyrighted material

1he pdm<J!:ry goal of devdopingllrequ1Iiem ents packagei s to {;on'!!~~yinf()'rmatkm dellrly Ilnd in anlJ,nde;~st@nd,il!Ib~e f'a::;h:h,m, To he~p (leddc how to prescnt lle{lt!irclllel]ts. ask the th,IlQwing: ty"PCS of qIJes~jons;

...Wha~ ~Il!fbn:!J]al~[li)n is. :i:m.pmta]]l~ ~:o c(ommun~C:1I118? Wh1l1 ]S I:l~.e ~tpprop.fLatellfrul of detarlto i.nclude?

.. 'WhatwiU the parti(;t!~.lll' ::;td'f.)ho~der understand based om tile typ~}of Imduem;~ f~~y rep~e8e!lt and on that ,stak~lholde['8 p'r~fer[!;J style of eomrmmlcation (XI" learn" ing.1

... Ar(J the n~qnh"{lmmi1lts: Pflcct£IJgC pr~se:nt.@t:i!on and format, and the; reqairemenescontained :i.11 the package, ap[):r.Qpl1'.~.a~ief:m:, the t:n)€ ofriUd:i.e.nce th[~1; needs to r'ev.~ewir~

... HI,}w d(,lC8- the .req~un,ln].I;li[lt;~ p\~Gl~g'f;l ()Upponl;tlll;!p[~'!,!'iQm: and ~llb8E,lql,lf;lnl; plcia()~, (u.e. tcstlng,implemel:ii.l;ati.ou} ~.I[p[!(JJec:t activities and de:llv(lraMcs'i'

Mist! uderstandlng of req ulremeuts wi]] ad;V'e~sely ·aff~ot ~0nutjan Implemeutation, I R leads tore-'wOirk <lIl!d cost ov~)mu ns, p<J!rtiCIJ! hu"lyul' dcfk;h~t1ide1> are UI],{lOVlJHld late ln the process,

... IFormd[)oclUJiHl:ntalilioJll: Fm~I.!J1.a.l dnCUtrWn1a1lnll. is uSludDy based ()[1 a ~:empbl!.fl used by dm ofg:ilI:ii[~l,:!Ilion" sud] as a V]s~on Dneument 0.£ Snfl:w,~~re Hel[:.IuirenHltl~S Spec~.llic~.liorl ...

.. Pr:(ls~ntl:l!tion: Dehversa high.l.evd (1v,()l'vi,f.)w ofthe fl!ln{:t~onllHty de~:ivlJred by t!h.~ selutton,

.. Model~: "]11e requirements [Ilay be prese:ultecU (]1.I1~.y In the farm of Of modal, such as .fLI proeess.map, or captured on ~L whH:ebo.llrd.


rlill:si nGS<SO Ana,ly5i:s. Comnlllniil,.'ili!:tiJon I~lan. 'Thi.s win typ~{Jany dcs()rfbe tlhe r:;t'lkch();lce' g[!(.l't!~J\S, thelr communicatkm needs, and define whether a 8img~~ te'quiTie1uemtspacikaglC or mu Mtildi3 requirementspackages are required. 'Ihe bu siness ,rul't@~ysiscomnruu}jc"t:iOL1 l)]ll,n wj ~[~.~:O define the level (~rt'onm1JHtytha.t is8ippr()pri1lit~~ fOI: tnewC]ju.bQl!ilu:nts:.

O'Il'!1j~I,nizat!lJoI1la\~ Pr0,ce1ils·Assefi~ MfL(yin.c~.ud.e~:.e.mp~.ale!l thatcan he usedto package requirements,

Requi.t-cm.cnits:: RiC QM,.I(jinf;l()S .uualy~t 11l1J;St umJ~:r.':lh,md wIiieh rC'lJ!UiFf;lI.n.E,ln~;:)wm b co Inclnded ln the package. ne..q iU.~.rern.oo~~s rnay he ~'Mlc.:bged a.l;riI.l:ii]' pnint in the.~[' li[tlC'yde ..

Eh~ql!!!ir·'.'Jlll(lgts 8tJ:'Uct;i!.Ir~: A IM.ck8ige shoaldccntaiua conslstent, cohesive, and coherent set of rcquircmcnt:s.

Copyrighted material

- '"' _ .. _. - .,_.,_. _. _. _.,_ '"' _ .. _. _. _. _. _.-;";




!! Gomnu,jlill icat:iolfl

II Plaltli



Oirg'1tlrn izart'ionall Pnu;,e:!>:s AiSSE!'ts

Req'l.!i irre ments Structure

_., _ '"" ,_, '"" _ ,. _,., _ '"' ,_, '"" ,_, .. .,.....,., _., _ '"" ,_, '"" _,. _ .. , _ '"' ,_.,"",_ "

4A Plrepillre Req'ts Package

lReq LJI~reme[ti'lrs Packolge



! 'Ta'~k$·U.s:i'ng Itd~ O~'tP~t'


COom l1ilIuni{a.t~ lReq UI~reme[rnts,



.1 WQlrk Plwducts ailld DeliwtraJbI.ss


A ~""m"k pmdtu;t ~.s .~. dUGllin~e;[It OFGuH~t,:tk~[1 of noitC(j or diagr~ms used by the bu:sune8!s ana:~yst Jilting the ruqulremeets d,evc~,upmc:nt process, The work prud:[tcn: mi!ly 0[' may riD!; hCICt!mea. de]iveraMe:><lJld~Oi!igh duririg dif{c[{ll:iil; phases ().f the [!BqiU.i.fmi~.en~s elucitiO{l:prm::ess, thebusmess a[la~)lsi: m,,~y need to share j:][is~nimlJ:iat~()n w~th. stakeholders in order to,c:~ar.jfy requtrements, el.~.c:'ut:ll.ddni()[Jalr,equ.~n.".ment:.s". or assess the re:ll.,sih~.I.iI:-y of the SQ~I,IUon a.p:pE~,}ach. Ex:aml~J1cs '1):fwo[ll:. :pl'tHlllict:s m:ightt be::

... Interview questiousend notes

Copyrighted material


A deliverahle is a. specific output ofthebasluess ~ •. na]ys]s process that the business !.ml~yst has agreed to. produce, A requi]1tmlQ~~1J dellvershle isused as a basis fDr solatklll d~ig,n;i!.ud impiement1!!ti(ln, Th·tl bustness analyst must understand the d~l"I;e[eu.cQl between these two concepts and use the delivarahles as eommunieetlon mechanisms. rMb('l bl.llshl€S..,· analyst w]]] assess tliil.C:! nei~cls oil' U\J.~ a udlence, determtne the kl'\f.~[ oil'dBta]! that needs tn be cumnumlceterl, andascertadn whklli deliverables to j uclude ]H each IH'tlsentatian package,

.. 2 Format

Oe[H;md.~.mg ~;)n the type (Ihcquiremf;.\nt, the pri';lsent:alh;!n technique mayvaty and. t)pedf"ic f(.Irmal::.qUiriay have been. se:i.celled diLi.tlng. deV!il~(:Ipment of the biU.si.I!i.!ilsS al:!J.ii.~Ysus. (;JO.m.munication pian ... There wml~ikely he a corn.hina~~on of many JO.rmal:''' in one requirementspaekage Conssder the best waf to combine alnc]~uesE!nl: the matertals, so that 1:Il.lfY eonveya cahesive, etIecl:~.ve massage to one or moee audiences who wil.l. pa(ttIJcipate. in the .1.·eqIL~jremeilts ~.·evu.e'~;;r~)rocefi,s.lbi.r;. ItifL(Y 1.'esUJ It l~] more than one raq ulremenrs packa.ge beingcrea~:ecJI['Of the same p.fOjlClCt

Gillie esretul (lo~~$ide:ratkm t)t)w~fuJat types ofinform1!!tion should befnctadedln <l req~iFeme:[Its p,,()l,,~e, and that the enntent may V(lI'Y between dift''C[en~ projects, 'The best :~:o:rma t CffilOUt'tl is fbe Ql'U} fha t b est oO'm~]It!nh;:a tes the \':JpO()ifi.c cuntent uf the reqlLtUrcmt]:[It. E<I!.i:,:h organi ZOi tion may have .standards that the blJ.s;ine55 ana~)'l:lt wi U be r~qlLdt~J to fI)]](n.'i', and the :pro~e!Ct te<ln~'!/I!,'il[ uUlu:lic th.e techniques approp.r~i!ite Jor ~;hdt project, U5u .. I~y.ea'Gh org~U1kz~d;ion. also ~Hl5 an approved suite of t)OO~!> th I .• t1!!TC used for d(l()l.~.menlt.a.t.iJ()n.

[[n~e paekage is created wtth tl':i.e j:l]t\Alilt~on of .obu~i.i].~.ng fU~.".mal~. n.pp~:'OiV'a.ll, theti'eqlt~.~.·'ements deeumentatien must be com[p'JetJ6 in order to prepere the reoqlljn~tr:rm]fljtll package,

Adldiitional Consideratiensfcr Re{luir-emenit~.lDommerl'ta.tiioln

.Eadl reqru.i.rem.el!it .. <>.pac:kag.e m.ay hifil,r.e it TaMe oJ 'Cnl!itenl~S orud'iIling whaJt lis i[JjdlideJ in the paIGka:~tJ. GrOl!ipung of the H'Ilcll1,.drcm.c:nts hulo c'lt)~g.fj)def:' iholJ!ld be de a !!Jy ldeutlfi·ed Iu the Table of Con~en~s tbt !;la~H;l t~f ~]l.av~g<l!Uon,[t m.ay ~J:';lounch;uJ.e a [c:visu{ln '~og to dll)t,:u.mell:~ C:han~l,ls~)et;w~i';l[IJ v·crsi(~n(:lamdhelp [iif;il:k.e:lliq]d·i';l['.'i!. 'l'C!E.i.fy that they have the m(Mitr!ilt:e:n~;vle.fS~(:.riL.


J Requirements DOr:!JII1rMmtaltlion

Reqrt:ire:tW.e:n~s are [reCjU:E!ru:r-y cspnarod in a formal d.ncl:!lmeut ... Many I~erllplalies for reqlLn:mrnems document existand are ]tl commcn ILlSe. WI1.Ue the selectton of templates and documentsIs dependent on the business tUlalj'5~.s aplll.·ofllch. chosen, 0501l1e 0:[ the iUOiSt cGlMmm]i1Yl)es of mq~.d:relne.ilts docu mentstnclude

Copyrighted material

·,2 Requkements for Velflldor Selectiiolfll

[ft:he ;sull)iUol] team fhinks that a po(JLen[~ .... l soluUom i8miV'1lr~able fromau oub5~d·e party, thebl![8~ness a[la-~ygt: may captufc th,f;l [cql!lire;mcntts in the furm ott a&equ.e~tlibrlmformati;(Hl (RF']),ReqlU~~ fl)'r Qw)te (n:rQ), or .Re>lllu.e$~; f~or Prnpusa] (REP) ..

While these terms are sometlmesased ]n~ercha;ngeaMy, theyare Intended toreflect d:il'fe.rixllg: ~,e"ve.lls offomla.~.ityiIl the: vender siiil.iiiCU.OH I)~.''Ocess. The ol"~~1In:iZcfu:tjo:n'5 purchaslug agent, legaldepartment Of procurement orga.l1]zaJio!1 is u:5l1.a.llly the OW-fiG[ of~.hj:s. process,

.. An HFl is gene.raUy used when the ]s~ruing organization is open to it number 0'£ alte::rfi:aU've so]n~]OfiS and .~~s seektng tnfo:rrill.al:ion 1:0 evaluate pessible o:pIT;UO~]s.

• An RrC]: or RFP is USEJd wfllm Hilr;)issu~ng. OFganiz~tu~,ln undQl:r::;hnds the nature of Ui.U SO]lltkm options al{mii~.<tb]u h) it Oind .~s see1\:img v:endoF.5 who CminumD~.em'f;ln[ an (~P~;~.~;on. AnRiPQ ~~l]era~ly f{oll(~w'.S. a h~8~ Knma.~ rUV]e!w and scle!l;:ti()npmce8!ii' than ."'" B~P,

1bs solution team should [!:mrt::ITIlI.Llly Cm]8~)(]l1r how ea.ehvGn(]uu solution will be evaluated. Oft:ell stflLkeho.llders can be Impressed by a product d:sn:l11O when the: u ndledy.~Ilg product; does not truly meet the business rioBiiid.

BUs.i.l!ieSS .1:ll:iiiill)"'Sus m.r~st deve:~op e::,,:a~lI;iiJ:~Ot!lcriMri,fLl based On. dIe bli.~i.ness reC}juj~uern(illjt~ before lookmg at avadlable produets, In partk-llil~:ar. an HFP tY'p]ca.ill.y includes ~. descrlpuon of the selection C:r1te:rrja and process. The evaluation criteria used m.1]:yIHl hac-sed

ou ·t:Ol'it of d'lei.mphm'ile[l~ati~m (:i[ 'I;()tal DOSI: of.()!wner$hip .. An ()bjet1:uve n~e!l3i:$lute:mt.'([I[ (W'elght~ng. c;fi~:e!ll]a) oUO\v well thep:rnpnsetl :;,(jo]liti~F1 tmi.ee~:s I:he requirements tmi.ii.y <'1.1£.0 be included ..

WhQ)n devdoping BFP questlons, ,lVQiid usun,g dosed end~d {pJ!cstion;s (ltJ108erequll"ing o~~ly short answers], The g(l\mi~is to 8timulate the vendors to pr~Jvidc ·ex~t!ns:i'!l~inJ()rm<l!~ lion [~g\Oir~Hn!§'; tt.le~.rpr{}dm:t .mind :'.:lC![v:iOf;l oflil;!rin!§,;S,

Copyrighted material


.Donuliln S.~IEs and End ILrser:s:~ Ne0c]l:eqlt~.~.",e[itl.ents that are wntten 1LI.S:i.ng fannliar fjel.'1l1li.ltl0~!Ogy and that are el1.L&¥ to understand and revilew. They must [u Uy understaud each requirement, ffinc€ it ]10 tl1lisg1'OUp that will be most affectBd by the so]uJ(jmru i.1I1!)~.erHe.:f1itec]" 1.Ms group wm be: [H".i.t:nall.tly concerned how operational processes am ,f[,ffected by the implementanon of the project. and will beiIlte:res~;ed.i.i'i~m.sul':i.[~g that thEl reqM.urertne:ms theyprovi.,c]ec] to the business analyst dl.U"~JtIS the requirements elicitation are ad'Djevedl"

Im[plemenlta.ti.ol1! S~lEs: Need to ot)~:ajll anunderstanding ofi:he overall .reEJiu.!i~[emeIlIS fo.r~he p.ro',ect,.~~nr] "".i.U focus on. ~mCJiui.remeniC!:II l:h.lfY wHl useto de&'ugn the solutten .

. Exte:rna.1 customers and. supphers W'j lf.need datatled !:ech:nica] tnterfaee requtrements to order ~;(~ construct the p.rope:[ [jJ~~w![)'rk and ;!iilecudty [prot;()(.':o1s ln aQ[':ord"l][':cw.ith c:m"pm"rilliril pollcies,

['mjc>ct; Mlulag~rs: Include deliverables (jndu<iing; specific requlremeuts packag:es) ]11 the project plan and typimdlylt:rac.k them as milestone\\> to assess project prljg;reS!S~ Thw.: deliverableaets Il8i Il"contl'~l<()t~ :I\):r th,() proje{~t dll'lfl.nung dlegJj(~l'e~d l,.i~Jon wol'1l:.. 'lb.!) cl(;)~uv" eta~ble beclml~8. O;i pnlj ect af:ii5,et beCaIJ;':H:~ it represents a p[''Oject 'Output.

l1C1gu~I.liJton: Mruy have specific ~egruL, contractual, or gG>'ient8il~Ce requ]ri3~]i[mlt\8 regardIng wb.tl(i~ 'us Ineladedtnarequirements document,

s.,OI!if:lors (and (lth~t m~n".gen; at the c.x'eclJtt:ive~~vel)i ()ft~nW.:;i![It 8Ul1mHlF~r.l8 and high-Ie'if!,l~ I'I,ll(,jjil,.l.lJr.e;mentts. nle;ir pir.im::,a.ry~oali:.':l tu umdc:r(:ltand that the 8!(.l<llu~~()ll will mE,llet !:be return {lIninvU-.,:l:ment expactatleusIn aoct):r,d!Sim.::e w]~:h their business plan, and. to rtl.i.njl.!Jljze~he time reql.'l.i.redi [-Of them. ~:o make an e:tfed:jnfe dec.i.&~()in. The pYflj'rilC!: scope may ~~l1Jmce.il:!ldlld~iIl,g I~he .ROI (Hei:ru.m an. b1lves~:me:nlt) assessment, buslness benef1b, prrnject COSlt and t~[gel: ][Ilp.l.eril1entati.nu d,u\lle(s}.,

'r'~st(lrs~ F'O()U8 on undct'staJn,Jung (fue ,e;titi{;,ll success facbJI'8 or thepl'oJe~t- ~:J.lHi!ed on the needs oft __ he business USI(lfI5., U!ey must acquire tl, thomug,h u.ml®!f"6till.nciing at' the tunetioual and non-fu ~lldjo'rl1l1 requ irementsin order to build (In effective t;c3tilflg 1>h'<lte,gy;



Requi]':{lm.enb.Vaot::li:.ag.e:· The re!:l:rult Ol[ this t~ISl!:. 'os a requimments docnment, present~ltion orpaekage oiheqM~.rem.e:iiJts It'eill.d.y ito he :m'\foe-we£l by stakeholders, fA jJiLcl;:,age ([lillY ecntaln all of the pro] eel: n~ql!!lire.lne:[uts or m.my be brokenmto several suh-packages,

Copyrighted material

COlm mUlnlicBrte Ilequlirle l1Ients Purpose

G(}m~!n[m~{::ating N~qLU.itemej]ti\,is essentiadfor h[~nging stakeholders to ill common unJ.erstanding of: requirements.

4- t' ..

. ,~


Des(:rni ption

Communicating requtrementstneludes conversaftons. notes, documents presentauous, and diSClIi!511DlHI. C(mdse.apJH'(I,p:r.~.ali€, e.i'C€ctIV'~ eommumcatlan requtres that the bM.S~.lli€SS a~nllltlry'St IW:SSe:ss a S:ign:iLfica!i].t set (If skills, hot.llil soft (co~M~m.lll~lJ:~c!llj.OIl) ~l\IH:11 teelmleal (Leo,. req'LI]l1'®~lileHr\S),. Sel('l Communication SkJUs (SA).

IFlgll!fe: 4-6: 'ommlinl~,ft R:eqqii"~fI'lerlir$ln:puJtj(II:npyt llJil!l;gram


II I IiiI puts ;

i BI ~I B I

IReq'U! !rl;me!'l!t$ II GOl'I'ilmUlti'l icati~}I'i1

I Plalti1




4.5 Commun icaii:e Req ulrements


IReq lllirement!i [Cornmuln iGlired]

Reqluirementl> IPadk;age

" " .,.


.r- .. _:_-, .. -_,. _ .. , ~_ .. ,-, .. _,I. -...~

lasks Using 1ihis OutlP'lliIt


Malfl!'lQ,e Solution

S()Op€: and Reql\ts

'..._.- ._. _. _.- -- ._.,)


nUiS,j n(liS'S Ano.lysi.s Con] mu,nieaUon [t~nJi!: D€!.fitHlSwfui.1,t iufnrm arion is to be com H1Unlcated, wbich stakehalders need t;!!] reeetve it, Wfu~[l 00B1 mu llicafJion shou 1d! OCC[l~',. and the fomlit should OOCl![in.

Copyrighted material

Rl'lqlL!!il"!(';N1~nts 1'"n1ckllgl'J:; R~x]uiuemenb; mlly he !i)()nlmun~catted without bdng:in a [oq~~.~.[eme;nts ~JfI!dtil!~e, but ~J a plllcl!rll~Je has been a:sscmb~,cd, a must be d.~$tdbuted, [e'!ticwedi" and the contC[lts l~lIJ!St b(~ COI~HlllUI~ic~ted to ~tl~lbeho,ldt}r,\"



J GenE1!ml Ccmmunicatlon

Reqlll.i.ren~.e:[Itt$ communlcaflon ]$ performediteratlvely and In C(li[ljlUrliclio[JJ wHJ, most of the tasks In the ()I~her knllYw~!ed!;1le areas,

N"ot all c()mn1!.tm.~.~<i!!t~oH Gilt"! or sl],mdd be l~,~~lfl!1ed"llnd :~Hf()[I'm<i!!! commnnJcllti(l!1 uj' roq~d[eme;nts is likdylto be needed d'~I.ring th~ perf'i'Jrm.l.mo~ of mast b!~.sin~s an.dys.:i!:J tll::>ks,ln In,ll~y cases, r,e(!uircrncnb.\; cemmunieafion m011y~e,~J todic:itation of ,,,.ddith:m· <1,[ requlrements,

.. :Elll(erpl'li;se Ana\IY!lh. Tasks: Bu£~[)e~s case: and so~mjou soophilg ]~ilform21.'~]On is eommuntcated,

II> IEJ!icit;Jiiti~n Task:':>; E:,l!c,:[. tlHcitaUon fl~c,:h.n~que rl;1!qju][.~s t'pf;lcifi.c con~munjjcati.Qi[I r;:ki lls.Com unmleatien of t~qilli.r,f;lmi";ll.l.ts. m~y be useful dll.ringC;lllidtatiion ac!:i.Y.itics., asIt may hdp stakeholders-to .~d!e.[lt:]fy o~:her[{l]a~;edl requirements,

II- RG'lluirl1lnulHL s An Illysi:s T.lls,ks;H®(l uirementsare reflued, mcdified, da:rifiedllnd mn'llized tlm]uJ,g:h effectuv'e ~xmlmlJ!nk'lt]OtlL

II- SolhdJiou ASS{!;Sfo;mJJelllitlu~d Va.II.i.duUOlll. "aiSk.s: AssI@5!slUG!nt:s of tb€ SO~I1!1. tlon, allaca~dl(ml ~f'Hlqn~.~.'\Ii:lmel.u;s flo solutien cornponents, mgaJt1.iI'Lafjonal. f€lldin®8S, and transl~jt')[! requirements illI.Dliiii1St be oomrnunicMec].,

Before m;;JJking ,;;JJ:ny pr~'Senta!ti(Jns o:f req ui.t,ememtsto 1.H1 Imdience. dcbmuine ilini1l!:p' pRlpr~.atf;librmllt fitlt the pt'f;lscntatkm." The fo.rrnaJity of tt:~ept:esf;lntaU(ll.1l. is ddvf;lm by the objective of tlilcc,:()mmlmlclltkm aud the audience neads, For C!X:<I!mplf;l, the bill,sunC5:$ Il!HJ~)"'St may be required to present key po,~n!\.s usmga ttjifm~j! presentation U'-':lJHg pregtJlltlltioD s:~idtJ!> and. handents, 'Ihls m (lY be d'esj.['ab~tJ\\\;Jwn prCs{Jlltin,g to s.~niQ:r bustness I~pn~Slentat~'!feswho are mot IwtivdyinvlJdv'ed In the d,cblil {A:'fhc project butneed to understand require;me:nts at 11 hi~t.'f;lr ]~'!Ic:I.

... to enSlJr~ c[osSi·frmctJ,onal fIt wah oth'~F business processareas wid'dn the same prQjlc{;t

Copyrighted material

~(lI1ma IllF'reselntIJttiQlil1

Fon[l",~ pr~8e:[It;aUon~ typk:ally diS1iiem~~lal;~inliOrmation in a wcl I-clrgani zed, struclured fOrnt:J!L A]u.d~.eno(l mernhers may he g~li'en s;;I![p'pnning miille.dals bef:o[,e 0[ dl![rlng I:he prese:n:r.at:ion. l1.Jld[enoe parl:il~~.pa.b(]:nfqiJJ!e~tio.n.s m9JY be encouraged.

Informall Pr~se[r1l't!i!t:ion

A.llli.[1I.fonna.l rifeSli:lltl~fjon macY' be used:

... asan inl1l:rltl.al statuseheek ofreqru.i.runtenl:S (e.g. completeness, ,(:oneel:nes&, .i.ltlpa..r::t on other areas).

Ii- to cammunicate n;:~ql]i[e:menlt5 to the delivery team or h~ting: team to ell;,':lurett:h~re ~s no ambuguity,

... [0 COtlfllIOHU]iical€ requtrements toeffscted hns'iiH€S5 arees {those not h~lrv'i~llg mgn-oftf authorrty butwhere knowledge nf l'il:i!arnges is required),

... to communicate mqn:i.reme:nts to other [p'mjl(liclt ~:e~umi, ,H~" ,a faeilitafion (lxerei:l'>e: 110 enhance r~qjul!!Cern(l[lt chuity. Forex:ample, by bdnging business [I~H:~r8 and teehnlcal t~am:':lttQI';1;!thet .... ,(,:ommUinlJindGrst a ndin~(,:an be r~adjed on t;t.e[~~~yan(,:rd Importance (.fi[ldh{~dl![al requirements as wellasthe f;ea.slbilJj~;y c.f ddivetingim:tuvidual requirements,


.ReqlllJ.i.rcllwnts Wor..blmpis (9.211:)1: .Reqrn.irerw.E:nts may be presentedas p,fL(rt of a req·mLLre:rM.e.~]tswGr.kshop to fll.t!l1UJarJz€ all parti.,€sv!liIJL the <@Xi!lt!lJ~.g soh.l!don SOOp€ and 1:11.€ CI1I:":I:'1ellt raq ulrements,

SI!:l'IIIIChl!t!l':iI'J. Wa~klhumgh (9.U)i: .A structured w:alk~:hrnugh (.fl~ell h(\lJ~nsw.ith a revi,e'i,'if ofdm .f.®quiF.em.enl:s t(J be diseussed,

Stalkeholdlers A.ll


CommUJilii..:;att'ld Reqt!JirGments: SbkehJ()lders; ihm.-dd understund what the ret . .J}[!~i~IU(J;Ilt:.\;. are and. thelr GlJirrcmt state.

Copyrighted material

-file En terprtse A.r.'"alys.ig K:now~.edge Area deserfbes dIe buslnessanalysts ae ti.'l,l.it~es rlil~Clessfll.ry W i.t:lemiry a bustness :i1Jeed, pr(ib~em., or oppo:rrnlnily, de:l1netle :i1Jahrre of&. solution thatmeets that r..eed,acnd justify the investment necessary to deliver that soluHan. .[trnterprise a.nalys:i:s outputs. provlde eentextto [,\!Ului rementa :anaJ.ysiE. and to soluHan ]dentificaUoIl for a giivem.i.nitiaUve or forlcng-term planning. Enterpnse analysis ]S often the 5t~I' tlng point for initiatinga n~w PifOj ect and is continuedas changes O'C0t11' and more .inFormation becomes aVfinab~e. It Is through enterprlse ~1!nJI.~ysis.!li.cn:.:lvIUe,s. lb.~t busmess requirements $l!reir]eJ1l1tiffiedand documented ..

... An&.ly~(l! the business s]tua.dQl1 in order to. fl.lJlly understand buelness prehlems and QP[Joltu.~tiU®s"

.... Assess the capabtltnes ofUle e.11[e[·prt~e ]n order to under.stand thech.aitlge needed to 111eet busmess meeds andachieve stL.:r.llI:Legjc go a.I1;, ..

... ]J eHi:'i.e fi.nd document business l'eqME:remeri[s UnclfL1d lng thebusmessneed, reqlil~li";a,(] eapabihties, solution scope, and business case) ..

N~h~: the pesfermance of an enterprfse al1.<3.I)'8o:i8 activities1l[e g"O·ve;fmed by~fu.e busim;8s ana.~Y8~~pb.ns [see 2.3)1 andbaslness analys:is .redOFITIanOB metrles Sh{lU k~ b (::l tracked (see 2,:6),.

Figlulre 5d~l: iIrJ~rpril'.Il·A1l!I]f;vHs·llnputfOutplilt lrIi,Ujlram

,- IJ_",_ .,,_ ",_. _'. _. _~ _~ _11_ ,_ .'_II_'"

. lirlp'UI~

fugililliratiorual Prooo~.A.sOOIS

IIe'i!Lli~ement:; [51~~1

----------_ .. _._ .



A~uliflp1OOJ1~ .. and (oo~lt~i1lti

Bmsi!l!~~ GQaCs aad Obj,E~li'lt~

E1!.terprii!12 .Anthi lOChml



Ptrfunma.1lIOO Aa!l2~ment

Ilequi~E'd Ci!p~~!i~ie!.

SDIl!ltioru Appwadlo

Sl<i~oo.1OO; Ca~Cern!l.


5.1 5.11 .. 1

D@lirne Blsin@ss Need


Idemtify and define whya.d1.amge to organ:i:zatinmaJ systems Oil c.apllbi.li.tuc5i5 requited.

Copyrighted material

:5 •. 11.2.

Descrli ption

]be defirdtifl:n O[ the business need 'is frequently iChe[llost cr~i·~]ca\1 step ]n any business ~.na~y.s~s effort.. The business need. defines theproblem that the business analYJl:l;us trytng tofind 11 SOIILltil)U for .. 'BH:~ wt~yIJ]e busiuess need ]1; defined determines w.Mch ;1l1~ liel.·nH(Hv~ solutions wiln b e censldered, Whldl stAkH.h~lder8 \'\lI.U b~ cOH:sulu:d.mnd wlnch selutlon a.p])I.·Ofldil.®s wHI. be evaluared,

llilgUlre !i~.2: l!I~filJe .811S1:IJe~ NHd IliIpU!tfOIU~pu~: ID,iaglraJlIiI


r Inputs,

• . - III

I I ~~J i

Bli.!i$ihe%. Goolls .QlnO Objectllv@5

Hoe:q Uiii"em ents I[Stat.@d]



5 .. 1 lDefilil!e BU!5~nes:s; Need


Pia IfI BU:sinlE!:S;:l; AlI'lalysis Approach

3.2 ·Conduct EH<:iitat:ioli'll Acbv~t.y

504 nefime Salution s'mpe


Canduct Stalkli!hollder Analtysis;


Ass,£l!ss. Capabillity GaJI'S


lDefi ne BusiIM'SS Ca:se


V@r·i!fy R,~q tlli~m EltlU

IRieq'uiremrelf1its Mgt and Commlmical:i:Oli1

3·.1 P{@Ipt'lre forr Elkitati:on


5.3 D!!l!t.erm~nle 5011'ut~o:n Approadh

6.~ Pdor·iltt~~e IRieqlu iremelti1t5


Copyrighted material

AniS'sue encou n~en'.:din the orgal1!u zatiom, suehasa customer ,c.;(Jmpl<lintll~O\\JS ofr-evw enue, era new marli;;et OpPO[tlJ! nity, usually tri;ggens (ffiJ~ evalua tian 0[' a business I1!coed" It is (lommon J()T orgfU1!hp;;aUom~ to act to [{lsoiv'(J tbe ~ssm~ wuthout iJnvesUgating. t!r.re Lmde:dyingbU$inf;l(:ii8, nee>U!. The blli(:ii~u~s(:l 4~Hi~~ySt f.:lhull~d 'f.lIUf;l(:iitlon tbf;l <1(:l8,gmptiOl1S a:nd G'Jl1!stt:raintl:'lth"t arc ~.e[lcra]]y~)l1dedin the :'j1: .. tement ofdc~cis(:lue to ,r;:n:)lure thal the carrect prohlemls heJng solved and the wide:s;;~ p(o:ssi.Me F.rilrlglfl (of <lJte:r[UaUve srJlu~jrms .1l!re constdered.

II> Fro~,n the bOWJm up - a problem wlth the ClU:l1ent state Qh precess, fuuc.;tlon or S!}"st~m

... Prom rnidd le .mai1ager[ne~llt: - a ~~l,:iU~~lge:r needs fi>ddJti,olllal jtll[OI1'~fJli:ia t:i.on to make sound decisions er must perform ll!dld.iho:m •. ~ functions 1)0 meet In •. siuess objedi Vies

... from external d.r.i.veFs- dlr.i'l'ell by customer dememd orbusiness e(Jimpetit~(Hl hi the markerplaee



BUill) uess G uals tlind Obj,ec:tijve~; Busmess goals and ebjectlves usually haveto he refiuedin . order 1:0 d@mu€ tile buslness need, In some cases the goal or ofu}€ct~.ve rnay be~x-p~(}uJ.oil'y~tilie: liIUs:iIHISS need I:lilay ba to understand if a ml3t1wdo~ogy or ibllil;]~]eSB model can work,

Requi.l':>Cml.ents [Sta\ted]: E.licil~fI!~ion[!"nJlst be performed :In. order to!l.[li.s:ifi~ stakeholden; in de[lrl.~ng theirperceived needs .. Ensure that 1:IHlY reflect acnaal busmess requiremeats, fL(-S. opposedto d.escrIbing SO~Hti,(HlB ..



J Business 'Goallsand Olbjective,s

Business goalsand olrj,ecti'i'~ describe the ends tb.a;t; U],e fjirgalt1t],:r;a:ti{}ll is se:etg.ltitg to ill,d\i.ieve,. 'Goa~salm:lI ofuj{lct~.ves can relate to changes Id~.at the org.fI:fli.Zca(f~m:iJ wants h) accomplish, (jif current couditlons tluil:it '\!'a[uts tomatntatn,

Goah. atelong'er-'t;l;ltm, lmglli~lg, and qu;aJit:at:inl'f;l f.-ltoate:mcntts (& Oi sta te or ooud!ilion tha.t tbe or'g.a:ni.zatiol1 it); I.M;lekjjng to er)tab]ush and! ITil~:inhin. H~.g~l-.Ie'!lcl goa.l~ can be decemposed 1;0 hreak dOWEl dfi.e general st[<llIegYlnli(} disUl]lct £l~'Cl1S areas nJI.lIt may leadto deslrud results, sueh as ~nc:mfl£.ed eustnmer s1lJtisfril,cl~ion, (Jpeml~i~onal ex:ec]Ie:llc(!; and/or business gmwth .. Fnc[U~~ areas are I!1Su.aUy de.%cri.hedl hi. brief .. u~.wmetl!l:''',. For axample, ill g~}il!.I. may be to "Increase h~gh~reV'em]e ,t,:ush::m~~tS"i;I!:nd th~n further t.r;lfiEl0di linEQ a. g,oal to "mcrease hjgh..,tccvc:nJ;.u;:: custemers tLht(ou,gh mC[~'et(:.i and ... r;:qll.i.~itu(m(:l".

A5 goalsereaualyaed U:my aF® converted into more descriptive, g;n •. nularend specific objedi Vies, ~md Un kedto measures that male jt possibk: to o~It*~ct:ive!y assessif the ebjeclt:ivQ~ has lwclla,c.;l]ie·vl)tl A common test fOir assf~!>!>ing obji~}ctUvtjs :is to ensure fhat t~.U!y l~reSMABT:

Copyrighted material

.. rtleasu.I.'able ~ tmc.ki.ng and measuring the outcome

• n.r(l.e·~bou.fI!(]e(] - time nhjectilve balsa! defined tlmeframe that Is conslstent ~1th the bustness ue€d

,2 BlU5ines<s Problem or OpportUlill!ity

In ()rder~o dcHmE,l a b[[s~ness need, .HI if1lsue III[LStt be ]ny'esti~at!ed to ensure th<lit d'~e['e ls :i[l [act an oppl~:tI;umity for lmprevement ifthe i$!Sue hr~(l~v~d. Fa ct(![l;': the business I.m1.l~~t m1.l)' ctm!Ji,de:rin()~ll(Je:

... AdvefseiIllIKICt:s thll3:p:r'Oble~m.ils C$i>lltst~jlg:whhin the m.'g:arn,uzation and qrw,nti.fy those impwcIiS {e,;g., potential Lost revru]l~®, ime.ffidenciGs, (Us:swUsfied customers, ]ow employ~ morale) ..

• ' Expecwd benel].~s froriIl ,f[,ny POltQ[Jt]al SQ~fI~]O[l (e.g., lncreased revenue, reduced (:IDS!:S, jnc1'le:asec]~fl,a\rket sh~,re)"

• How qui(;kly the lJirob,lem 'G()~ld ~'oit~ntially be rl,'):8o~v~d OF the op'po:rh!nity Ct~u]J! be taken, and the C(lf1lt of doing DQ!thhug .

..3 De',s'ilred Outcome

A desired {Jill teome h-l not ,<Ii. ~O~l,iti{)in. I t d~(:lC:I':ihes tll1~ hu~~neSi8 b(lnccfit::. that wuU result from meeting the bus:ine(j(j need <l!nd the end state d~]red by fjt:akehol.clers .. Pn:~po~ed so]iU~:kll]s ffilust br;! tl!\!'al~a~:cJ! agaimi:t des~r.r;ld oub;:()mel"li(,l emsure ~J~.al: they can ddiv~t I:hof<le om:CI(}I:nes. Ex:ampl.effl .i.rncl.u,d.e:

• C reate ~l ~,1~~W Qapl)~bmty sueh as a ~~ew product or !lerViCtl, add ressing ,1IJ C(l~11[~etjt~ye. diS1.ldv,<ln1tfl:Htl; or ()Fieat~ng: a new (;or:l1lp'et]t~v:e I.ldv<'l!:[Itag:e;

Dostred outcomes should address 1L1 f)robku:w. er opl)o.rtl1[]t~y and S"U!l [,poOr I: the business &'l.l," 1$ and ob:iel;:tivt"S,

Copyrighted material

:5 •. 11.5,


5 .. 2 5.2.1


6enduna.f.kil n!IJ. (91,2): U[ldffi"SI~a\n(]i.ng whu\t CatIl.rHiti[lg t'):rgulrl.~.zaU(ll.n.<; andpaers ara ctoiug allows the org:a.n~zat~Qn ~;Otterill.a.~tl ail: a comparable .~evel orr senr]oe 01:' tderltHy opportmuties to-increase emc~.ency.

nUiSij nos.s Ib:des Ana~ysis (9A)= Ide:ntifycllialil!g(\'J. in the poHcies that guide the o!rglol.nj sation tow~ud~ achitwing its goalsand !Objectives,

FI!IJIl ctiiOJ1 a I Dec(lmpO,\Ji.UoJ1. (~tl Z~: Convert bl;l;S;lncss glJalsunto ac;[.h!'J!ab]el}bj ectbircs lind measirres,

CIlS:tOIJ:Hl'F. or S~ppll,~r:; A business need n~ay ar.~$e['r{)m acth,m~t;l"'en by, er need:s i();~ a eustamee or 8upp,Her. N(~w' ~pportullit~f;ls ~ft·en arlse 018 an unmet (';u::;ton~UlF need 1::; iilc;ntified.

I)oma~n 8M R .fiJ.lld E!iHj User; Uke[y to ba:v,e the most; direct awareness of problems or limitations tha1i eedst in current systerus and the effects those h(IJVf.l,

.I.m~)leme!ntati.on S~UE:: M a.y be aware of capiL,bH~bes C'UJrrenUyp.I.'csentun or e~cSJI.y adide;d1 .~.~.~ exisnng SY.l'>lcms. that may prOlvide new o[l'p()rlnn~tiles.

jJ;~gullltor. MilJy~mllHh'lIQ) new regu ~,rtory or governance req ui remeuts on the m:g;lnj zatlou,

S,OI).son A. sponsor must b e~cle!nl:ifie(] w.H:llin the orgx~]i.l~1i~jou w.ho jls responsible fm i.ua~iIlg sure that the blll.s:i.~ll€:SS naed is. ~n~t andwho can. authoeizeactioa to me~~ It


Bl1s:ineSi~ Need, A busmess nOUld dr.l8Cdb es a problem t.hat. the ()irgall~:z,atioini8 uris Ij ke]yto t~l.CJ~', OF au opportu ~dty 1iIl!<iII~ if; has not taken, ami the (hlSi red eutcome, The business IH1Cd w~l~ gutde t~~l id,f.)nW]C<ltioll! and definiJtuOI1! of posslble aclufion s .

. Asse'.55, CapallbUiity Ga.ps Purpose

To :ld:r;mtify newc,:apab:i.~.iUes rr;qui.red.by the eJ!l1terpr.isebJ meet tl~IJc(;~ bl!ls~ness need,

DeSf:li1i ption

Assess the current C~tlmbiJ]ki.es. nf tb~ente.rprjl~~a.[1t(lld·@[]lti.fr the g:aps that p.mvent It trom nlH~et:il1g business nee·dls and. a.c.hieving desired outeemes, Determine i.filt]8 P()lI>~ s:6ble for the org;~rdu.I:i.on to .meet the business naed "lliitiing nsex:usti:i]g; structure, fU:llOp~e.,. processes. and technologj, Ifthe org{lc.rli~fL(~jn.ru can meet the l':rlliill~.fie.sll need. w~th ex.i;sljng ctt:pab].~]tie:!>, theresl!!IJbmg change Is likely tnbG re.k~tluve.~y small,

Copyrighted material

How~~ve[, lJ ,cxh,t~ng c<lpalhi l~ticS<lTein<ld{::qml!te, it wU~ probabUy be necessary tolannch It project to crea te th,fi!t c,lp.1IihiHtr C ~Hm:15e may b G needed t{J<!uy ClOlllponcnt oftChc ·emterp]'i~e:, indmling [b~t notlimitA!d to); hl~::o~nl;),\J\\lpl'l)tiC\\l\\le\>J fl!4nct~OI~&J.lime~ of bu~in~, O[g~I.l1]:ZIl.U:()fI. stfL]chl.tef:l, ~f;;,1I!.ff oOI.ll.pe~C([Id.e(:l, kn.{lw~.edge and. ~:kU](:l, tt.~i.ni.ng,~d]uti~s, de~kt(lp h~o]:s, or.~"niz"tion k~Gu~;i()ll(:l> d."tll."udi ]nh.H'ma~j(m, a.pp'~Ucllti.un 8.y~tems and! Of techn(!~()g.:yiflfras~n.llC:hlm.

___ .'_;0;_" .'_";_"_,. .,_";_,;0;




II Ii1I puts

Business INleed ~.li1lterprise Solution

! Ar(:hi~E;!<1I,1r~ P~rfQlrmalt1!'~

I A"lIl€SSmelt'iit _

'-.-.---.-.-.-~-.-.-.-.---./ .,.


A."l:s.-e"l(s; C[lpabillity GaJP$

,. ,.

~ 01

R.equlired Calpa bil'iilie-s



, Jilisks Usi n 911his Outp'ut


5,,3 Determilf1l e S.olution Approach

5.4 Deifilt'ii,e Solution Scope


6.11 Pr'ioriUle Fiequilrement5


VeriifY Requ iremelf1lts

R.eqlUiremelf1lts Mgt and Gommulf1licaitiiolll



ni1s:i!i~elll,S Need.: C.a\~)abHihe;.s are assessed .a\g;a,~.!i'lst the business need to i.de:IlU:fy gaEJs.

ElJ!lltc;rpr-.i8,c:A!t'Chitectut~: 'Iheeuterpeise ;a:rchiter;:tu!:c d!;):fine(j the (~ytt~]!.[I!t c~.p;abu.Hties of 11.11 utgi;inizO;i tion,

Copyrighted material

So~uUon f',l'tI!'JOr'Hlan,ClI.'J Ass'I.'JS<!UTl~nt: Ident;ifies shO'rtcomiJngs, preblems or mrl'lutatlons of ,U1 cx~s:tin:g ::loh~doll" In ::lome casessa sollJ,tkm may have ,uap,lbU:itUes thatan orga· !l,~7:'a!tion is not u sing (most oft(~[Jj, diis O(]CU!l'S with apllckllgl;)lJ s!!Jh~tj{m or wuth out· SOLlfl;o;ld f:ii~tv~,~(:l) whlch Gan;;l!lS!o be li(:l$~(:i(:led agllin~t li busin~ need,



,,1 CUlrirent Caipab'illiity ,Analysis

GHthe:r:lS ItlM.c.ll f!:l1lierF[,i,S!e arehltecture 'irufornta~:'ion as ,i,s avatlableahoot I:Im current [;:!:ate ohhe ~u~e~s of th,ee[lte:rpit'tseaf:fec~eJ hy 1:h.einJlsirK~Ss need" lhe g'oa~ ~f.l 1;0 understand the orgaln,~,z,a(UOiU,'S business and. how the business and IJech:noiogyan:Ml:edn.re are sl!lpportil]g th<J!t Ib'IUsine5!~L If a.deqllial;einfotffi.;;I!ti()ini8 mol; aV<ll!lalhl,e. :it will b~ 11e;1;:elf,sa!:], to deV{l~,OP dc~,c model~ and o~J~,er dest:F.~.ptivu intormatimll about thearea of the en~;e:rp,r'ise tha~ b; under :revtew. Once the (;ru,r~[{l!]l:caiPalfu~.il:'ies ()f:theen~leF.iPr:usea.re ful~y descnhed, I:h.ey rtll!iSlt be assessed agJdnst the desired olrjedi.v.es to determine '1li'heth.er the orgsmsation currently has the capabtltty torr.eet dw business uceel

,2 AS$€!$:Sment of N~w Ca pa bmty Requiiremfilrm,

If current ca,p®bil1itie~ are insufficient to meet [he business Heed, the business anaJyst must ~dle:nJjl'y the c!llpab] Lit:ic..<; that need to lHJ added. 'nile business ,!llna~ystwH L deveJop the modelsand other d:Ql~C'r]ptivB jnfo~"!n@tjonmilhoH,t; the ifllt~m:) v]sion I"~':id des()~ihe the fUJ;UIit:: state of the org:ani zatlon, A compansen of the current and desiredfuture states will identify gaps iJn Ol'g<J!niz'iI!tuona I. c'lpab:i.l~Ues th at need to 'bell ~~,ed to support the buslnessvision, :stl"al@gy, g:O,fl.L1:i; and Qbjectiives,

.3 AsslJI mpttcns

[t wHI. often becUfllcmlh orr~:rrlirlo:ssib.~e~o prove 1:1111(1; U]1!l deli:!i'e:ry of a r.~e.wcapalhi.hil:y M.U meet abusiness need, even in cases whel'e:ut appears reasonahle to assume that tfue new Cfl.l:M.Jbi.~,~tJ 'I'i1im ~Hi.V€ the desired effect, These assumptions rnu sJ beidentified and cle~ul)' understeod, !SO I:h.a~:app.ropr.i$I!:e Jee::itl~(ms cam hB made .i.hE~.e' assumptronlater proves mvalld,



I)O'CU!llIllRt llnalysa s (9',.9). U seful to u nderstand the current state of the enterprise, ]]l! asmuch as that curreut staseIs deeumented,

Copyrighted material

SWOT Analysis (9' .. 32): Identify how current c<l!pabu~itie.":l and ~im]hltk.ms (Strengths ;tndWcakne~~es) mi!td] up <lgainst the in[I~~endmg faaLtus (MJpp(jirt:unitiCS<l!nd ThrC<lt;s)"


Cn.s'tomllfF. and SUI)pliicr: Cnstomers arid suppliers mfLiY he i.mlJ2LctecluHhe business developed Of changes tim c~vp~bumtJeJ>.ut has, Th€y mtl(;Y also b€ 1m a position to provtde or support new c:a,pab'uH~:]eisl~hem:s,el'\!'es, Father than Feqlli['~flg tile ()rg.:anizlrtion to chaflge in, order toprevlde ~he:rE,.

fJoma-lin SME. End U;!il'lt:" lmplc;menta.tli,o:n SM,E" and Sponsor. W:~U pl"1l~\'~deinfol"'I.uIl" tion on the streng til,s, .aintJ w!C,lkll©6(:1eS o~:' current c'lp.airb,,~,~,~ties.


,Re:qn,j,red Cttpttb,ililic!;: A,n understanding of the: current capifL\b.i,,~UJ:ies of the organisatin,n, i~nd then,e;w c:apah.ilit~es (p,rociI::'H;'Sieiii, SI:il11)~ features in am ii.pp]~.catt.if)[I, el:C:.} th11~:[[r!Lay be reqinred t:(~ meet the business need.,

5 .. 3· 5·.3.1

Determine' So,lutilon AIPplr,olch Purpose

To determine the most viable SO]I[jt~O!l1 .fL\ppro~dm. to meet the business needin enough detail to aJlow [(')if del] n itdicm nf BolnUon seepsand prepare the business case,

Desc:liii pdQn

'Jhl~ SOll;ltlOIl apptt'(Jacb describes.the g.enCl'Od a:pp:tt'llacll that w.i,n be taken ttl cre:m.te or acq u ire the newcap-1)biHties requ] red to [[1 eet the b~~$i nessneed. '['0 determ inethe solution !llJpn),.dm, ltIs necessary te :~derJ!ti fy po:s!Oib~e approaehes, dcl!m;m ~.ne the !HC!Ul!> bywhk;h the S~~I]Uon may be dduvef'Q)d {ind~dill:g the methodo~t\gy ~~ndiu~iecyclc to he used) andassess whether the org~mu:i';I.lUom i~ capllbl~ Qfimp~,cm(lntil1ig and eff'C~tuvl:).Uy using a SOll;ltiOIl of that nature,

... UI:.:lI:I.zefld.dUional capa hi.H.lies of c;l(isti,(lg software!han:1w~!t'e I:I11:L\1: it Imf~.d:y .iSa\V3j~able w]thiu~he organlzatton

... Partner with other organlzanons, or Olll.tSQI[I.I:'1Ctl work. to supphsrs


[liUiS1j nos.s L)lil,\lo![J: Possible SO]UtiOH5 wi]] he evaluated a.g:ainst the bu smess need to enSUIre that it can be met by the selected apI]]'iOaclit.

Copyrighted material

O'~g:aJil izaUoJiln~ P ![1!N:~I1l:':!S· ASSGts: 'Ihe org!IHU7;!ltkm In a)'roguhe fha1l. spedrnc <J!pproach. es be ta'k,en to scluttcns of a g;iven type {su(:hlls 8pC!c]~k mct!hod(}I,qg~~:s)"

figlure ,54: DlitrmJ;ge Solu,tiD.~'.AlppriDl1l'b IrnputlOlu~pultDiiiillgli'aml


InlP'uts ;



Bus iin,eS:5 Need Orgialn izgtijomd R~qjuil~ed

I! Prm;:1i!'SS Asset'S (aIPClbil~tie5 i


I, .


De'l)enil"l ine Sol ~ti;Q1il1 Appr'Oa,cnl



Solution Appro(l,ch

~- _,_,_ --,_,_, __ ,_, __ ,_ ~

I Ja,sks Usi n gllhis Output ~



IDefi nle Soillut~(l[n SCiOpe

\..,,_ .,_. _". _.- .,,_. _".-


.:1 Alltl1lmaltiv'e! Gel1@'rraltion

[Jcntify as trI.atl!~ipoten~lal np~k~[Jjs aspossible ~o meet the bru1>~ne&s oh~eci~V'es:IlIld fiU ia.e:[ltiF.ied. g:aps :inc:apah].~~i~]e:S. The list of pos:~ible1l\1~er.rlil~:i.ve:s should ][lc]ude the epuen of doing; notlnng, as wel.1 as .~.(f\resl;~gatijlg; ,a(I!:.eI'ilat;ive:s, that ((I.ay aJlowl~.e or.gan~.~ati.oli1 In buy time,


W1hne~JH;,';r~ ]8 no hard ;,l.[Icl fast [[lIe that can be used to det~rmi~ll~ whenemOl!,g~:l d;~rmil!tive:s have blfle:nu:nvestigated, scmeindicators a.m:

Copyrighted material

,,2 A:ss~mptiIOI1l5 .linldl Consttmint5

A.S~lumpt;ion~ 1;11,,1. m"y"JfC'r;:t I;he cho$!en :iKl~tlt]~:m ~h(]l[uld be idenl:iUed. Cerhim Soohutions may be r'uled out because th.ey are believed nQt h) he .riable: teelmleally (or iil,.r ,C(j.~t reasons, while other approaeha';, mit)' he be:lie'V'f';d II('} be E1~~K'Ue.r I:~o execute ~:ha!]. ~:hey rea~~y are, S~.mll!.l;(l!d.y,tJ1~; ('u'gamizatiQu may be oonstndned from l)u[:suing certajn soh;rlj(l'I1 option~ (()ii' oon1)racty"l reasons or h ecause they do mot fitwitl:li theInfrastructure ~;& the organ]zatkm. Assul.n.ptlioms and !l;:!l)n$trainl;s $,h~Jlldd be qllu:."sti{)i[lcd. to ensure thai; they are valid .

. 3 R,ank~ng and SelectilQrlIo;f',Approa(rnes

ln order to assess [1,11 nppro,fLldl, reeord fLlvaHaihl,e :i.nform.atiJo.ll and ~l\na\lY:l',e the operationsl, ceonomlc, technical, schedule-based, orga,n~.l'ltti.{}Il,m.LL, culturnl, legal and mark@II.'iHg Fea.8ihUity. C apture cQnBist~mt Infarmatlon for each eptlou to make iteasier to compare them and review results toensu re accuracy and completeness,

hi. semecases.upamealar solution approaehmay prove In be se~f-e'l.rjf1e:1l!ltly superior to the a~il:e:mMjv.es. ]ftll1s :is not the case, solnnon allJpl'02LCnes must be. assessed acne] ranked .. ]f there are only a .: ~~;;. critical d:ilferenoes het~'! ... een solutiou {j'ptions. it [I],fI)I' be rOSisih~elj(} make riI. qM.aJ~'tativ{~ assessment .of those differences in. order to. make a selectlon.For mere cormp~ex decision problems, a sc:o:r:ing s},'sMm ml:ust he used, 'IV.ith ge~:s of relatedrequfrements ~~,s£i~g:rwd a we~glll~~.flgIJo retleet theirrelauve i.rllpnrULc(I{,:e I/O tile ol'gard:'lal~,Qn. Each solnnon is, scoredand tile ·~iO'P-.I.'iL(~i®r] iSo.IUllO.i:1 or so.~ul:i.o.ns are the:i1! i.llvet'ltigatecl.iH grefLliiel.' detail.



,,1 GeneralliFecMniques

Bell1chlill ark.~ l1ig; (9'.,2):: ldenJjfy solution approaches th~l1i. h.a'\i'~ Pl1'ov'(:!:[1 ®f['l3:ctiv~ ]I1 other arg;l.nh;aJ.ioHs .

. 2 F€asibillity AnaJicysis

.1:;01:" IlftnaJl,rela.i:i.vel.y stra.'ig:hl:rouwanl. ,e:ffoirts, the selution f1lpprm1ch can be determined by-the busmess anu.Jyst alone or with a small team of sx-pe:r1t8 e:xa.~niIiJiHg the a ppH' eaches in an inK'OFma] wmking: session, for ~a!.'g®[" change ]nHJatives requ~jr]ng: sLgni:ficant investmeut.a mo:r® forma] fiB,@ls]b]lifl.y study may a,SSJ..,tt with dctannining the must \l"iabl€ SO.~lItiO'.1l optliom.,

A.'ea(oi~.bUut;y ~tludy ]8 a prd~mi.I].:ll.fy anaJ.yS'is, (lif solutlnnalternatlves ur Olltkm.~ to del;c:rminewhether and how each option can provide an e.xpBcl:ed blUs~ne&s benefit to mlBel:

Copyrighted material

the business ml.)orl.A f;casfbimy studymeyaddness eif~t~r .@!. 'business: pl"oMem to be resolved 0[11 buslnessoppoetunity to be ,expklited, IPo[ma~ t"!')<!sibi litty studies use n'l~i,lb~c data and I~PP~Y statlsttes .u'Hl ffia!rket rese.u"ch to i.dentify 4~]d .;;!!n;;i!~:r1::e D(li~t!nUa1 ",olut~o:n options".

Ibe f~·@s:jbm~y anflLly:s:is ]s aID integral PMt offonuu]atJng a major bUS~ID!1iS," transformetiou pmjcct ~,g~; re-englneeringa COt'C lrasiness [)im{)CSS a.ml supporting tech nol()gy, establisMng a llew Hne (lfl:m8~ne.ss, increasing maeket share th~"Oi[!g~l<llf;quis:itio]1!, or ellevelopimg a new ~~)~.''OduC!t or sel1'v'ilce. Abb:l1'·evi.at~d sturlles I.UJty also be cenducted fOiJ; change ]nH.:iat:irv®s requir]ng ]awe:r ~nV!i?;stHl13IlIt;:s.

5 .. 3.6

CU8'torn.e:r., DODlliiin 8ME, Entl User. and SU[lp,.Me:r.: May ihe1l1Mc topr{l!vidC' slligg,E,l;\":teJ .1~pp.r()riI;t:~·HilS and .i,die:[ItH:y assumptl . ons and c()[!)s!;r:ainhl.

s,0]).1Ior:: 1\1].3:;' be the souree of consti.fLci.nts on tile solution optlons .fLlnc] W.~.U li.k.aly be reql!.tuted ~:o '~fljJmve tEw reemnrnendad a,rproadl.,


So~uUon Approach: A desCTllPUOH uf' tJl13 aprt'{~@eh. that w]]] be taken to ]mp~13m~nJf; '@ new s~t 0:1' {)a.[l\fIIbUiU~s, Soluticnappeoeches deseribe t11~ tYl~,es ~f solution (;O~UllOl'Hl~1J)S. that wHI be dellvered {new processes.a ne'\i!' software ,.ppnc<ll~jon. ete.) and maya lsc describe Ute Itl1@tlffi.odoh)gy that widn h HM.Se(] tn, deliver those components,

5 .. 4

Deine SIIIUrfii.on StIpe Purpose

T(]! def ue wfukh newcapa.bHitks a projittct o:i iteratinn w:i U d~JjVe:f,

5.4 .. 2.

Desc:li1i plion

~Kbe pi.i.[[Hl'lMa (~1Tt:Ms task [s lin oO[!Jcepl:u,ali.z,e the reIXnfi.rni.c[!ded !\i(}I.r~tl(m in e:[It~.r~gl~ detail to enable stakeholders I/o understand w h~.dl new businessca pab'ulic]cs an ]n:iUajj:::1I'Q wn~ deliver. "]he sn.~n~ton scope will dlange Uurfug)U)ll!t aproject, based onchanges in the blli8im~ss ~nvi:tonn~.E,ln~; or ~:lii the P[·(,lje~;:t scope if) changed lA)' me~!; budget. tlme, ql!.l.aJM;y, (If other t:~)nsh~&i[!)t:;" 'Ihe solul.i()[Jj soo.pe .~.ndudie~:

II-- 'Ihe scope ot'@na[ysis (the m:gla,ni z;a~ti'iJ!nal un]t or process f:orwlmJen req ui eemeuts ,lye bQfing developed) whlch l]]·[) ... ldes d],e eoutext ln whieh tfue <':lo~t!tionis implemented.

... The: cap~1.LbJ.lulti€8 supported by ~mlutuoH cemponenrs, such ai, busheess processes, 0rgflLlu~flllt.:lQnffi.ll'lmit s , and sot~wa.]1(:i: apP]]c(l;t;h)i.!1s,

II-- 'The f;nt{b~~ll!g c!'lpalb:i~~ti'()f:ii that<!rI;l [®q u~I1ed in o[d~[ fb[ dl~ CIi[!iP~~]j7;(~tkm to d()vdo([) fmt~ capa!bmUes .r~qlJ!i.red to mej;)!ttt"h~ bU!liin:eS5ntJedi,

Copyrighted material

~loh.,;: Thh. task descrjbes howhuslness Iit:quin':!menf:.':l are allccated fo[ ~.mpleme:nt.il!tion bya ]Jl'ujccL Sec Allocate Beql;~ir~mfll't)J; (1.2) Jbr It diSi!~ussion of how \':ltt..j!ke'-h~ld,e[ and s£Jh"Uon l'equi[I;)!llI.~nfJs ;j]\(:l al~ocated to s~.lih; •. tlou (:omponE;)n~.s ~~l]ld[~~~J',~S(:lS,

Figulle 5-:5: DetirtE,Scl:ution S~e Iln,utfOu~ut Oiilgralm


• IlnIP'Uil.:s "

1 B B B [:]1

i AsslUlmptions glnd

. (on~tr.a,ints

\. . .. -

SolllJltion ApproaiCIh


I. __ ,., _ .. ,_,oo;._,;a; _ ,. ,_ 00;._, "il-'. __ ,_,_ "'_,;a; ,_, .. _ ,_, __ , _ '"

· ·

BllJlsill'll ess Need lRieqrl.J~red

Cap.abill ities




0'19"11 rile Solution $c'oP~



r-. _,,, -" - "'- .,-,. _,,, - ,,- "'_. -'''-" - "'- .,-,. _,,, - ,,- "'_. -'''-...

; Ta:slks Usili1l9 This Owt:pUlt -

3.1 Prepalre for 1:[1 ic:jtatiol1l

Selution Scope

3.2 Conduct EnCiimtion Actiivitry

6.1 P~~olritille Req uirernents

,6.2 Organille Heqlu irernents


!Define BU:!iine,ss Ca~se

7.2 Alllo(ate Requ~reme"G

7.3 A~5:~$~ Org, If.teildiI'les~


Veriify Requ~r-emeli1,ts

Reqtliremeli1ilS, Mgt.. find (ommuli'ilicalIion



- '", _'.' - '" '_' '" '_' '" _'.' _.' - '" '_' '" _'. _'.' - '" '_' ",,'_'''' _'. _~' - ",,'_',," _'., - '.' _,;II'


AssumpUons aod C{IIi!strn'iHJ~iS: n(J[®vn.nf;@ls:s~l,mpHmlls@lncl censtraiuts aay include a:S:!!,lliI..ln~)~].onsfLlbout bow stakeholders lvjII respond to a nflW product or service 01' about 1:11.e: [I,V\'lI lah:HH;y oifh~clH10.I.ogy,. C ornsu'arlnts n~.ayilnc.l.lliI.de limltaticne oro what nUllY be included [r.!, the solatiou scope, Incl~IJdle a[1[1' scneduJe Of fmlJdl]ng ]]mitrnt]oHIl· and s]g!ulilcant standards, policies, !fi3gu~atio11S to be followed and supporting drul1a required,


Copyrighted material

.Reqn.i.rcd Cllipllib.ililics: Describes the new cOl:l~xlJbi~~ti!e8 required to meet the business need,. which serve 11.8 the b.asus for the: solution scope.

St~~uii;i.on .Ap'proa.clll: l1~.e general approa.ch I:.~ken ttl de:Hv(!ry of the neew ca.paMl!it~.es requtred by the hru£~ne&s ,,\!'.~.n be used w]~en assessmg orl:iClI].s~o.r d~.e i[U![pl.e.rn.e!l:!ltatin.llof solunen oo.rll.pt)tiellt.s,



.1 $olluit:iolill Scope lDel1lilliit:icH11

lhe solution ~8 described in terms: of t~.l!B [111.a~or fefL(tures and fnnctUoms that .n'I.'e to be ineluded, a.ncl. the iinl:e:mcfjoils tliil.at the sCiJlutil():~jl w.~.~.I. hfitY~ with people and systems Cilrdll;ide of its scope. State in-sccpe and eut-of-seope co:mpo]f]e:nllS of the solation. D escrih e ll11e business units t1].a(~: will ll:!'I:::involv.ed. bustness.proeesses to be iD:flp:.rOW{lQ or redeslgned, process OWH!ef~. and. ['Y sysI ems .mnc] other technology that wjl~ I.~.k.el.y be affected.

,2 Ili!1pl'emen.t:at~on Approach

n.,(;l .~.n1.p.I~m;f;!nf;iiI!ti()n ~.ppro~,(,:h de&(,:rih~how d1ler;:hos~n (:lohdiQIIl ~p,prQa!.ch wm ddiv(;lt I:be 8'()~·l!ltitm tJ;OOr,N;l. F.o:!: exampl .. e, lf'the so.]ut.i.OIll .i;lIl'D.r~)a,c;:h.il]:\!'t~lvc:) IJ\i;lttituon:ing the proposed pr'ojectinf)o releases that wml drJuv~~rI18efuJ subsets offund;iou<llity to the bustness, thcinlp~eme;nlt.<J,1l.uon approach wU~ d.eS(JdIJH~ the Yt!no1tiJ~naHty~n !J:1I!ohrclcMe and the ti1m~fr:jm~ t:lliiil!t litis exp~(Jted to be ddiv(ltcdi in, If (hE;) soiution 1~ppir~aH;hin'!.!'o~v,e6 oillt'Soutcing :key pt~,wes:'.:lG~, dicimll'l.·el.u~nt<lUUI] approachwill .Jie:fil]ewhicllipror;:es8'e(:l arc Gal1ll:Hd<lt~8 f~~t outt::i;o[un;;:in~, (lit the process tl1!<I!t wU] be used ~;oudemtify ~Jw:)e candidates .. 11.e Implemetttatinn appreach mril!.y break delivery down linb[~ Sp!1lC~fJJc .fe~ea&es or p!'tlVid~ a H)admap t~H~tindicatt18 fffil~ tkmet'p1I!lue i.11I whuch a cllpabiiity CI~l]. be ~:)!.K:p·ected,

,3 Dep~nd!il!nd~$

jl)e:li~lle nlltlLjlo~.'· business and teehnical dependencies lliil.at will ilnl.~~)()!leCOHR~Jl'MIl1:5 rio. the ~il'fort to cl.el)Daj' t.he solution, including derendleli~cies that Infily ®xjs~b®tween solution compunents.



.:1 GeneraJI Techniques

F'uncUonal D!1!;!!..'!ompo.sition (9' . .l2)~ 10 undien,f;Il~~d the scope ofwllYJ;':k .<lndi to brceal\; the solutton 5COI)e into smaller work. pwclncrcs nr deliverables;

h:itedace .A.fia~y~<i.s (9.lll): Dep.id~ the se .. npe OfW(jFk requtred tnint.:;g;riHe I:~I{~ !I:!I.ew ~<;;o~U:tion :ioto the business and taclmlcal M.v'OfQrHE.tl:[UtS.

Uselr Stori,cs, 'f9,.3,~': Deserihe 8talk.,eh('J,~dElrsmHd t]!iIH go~d.li. the syste~fJ~. supports andes saeh can also be-used Ito doorn® the solution il1ooI)e ..

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