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STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING

ANDHRA PRADESH

“INDUSTRIAL TRAININGE AT Dr. NARLA TATA RAO THERMAL


POWER STATION, IBRAHIMPATNAM,VIJAYAWADA”
Submitted to

State Board of Technical Education and Training, A.P.


In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of

DIPlOMA
IN
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Submitted by
T.BHAVANI (16351-EE-011)
G.HARIKA DEVI(16351-EE-021)
M.HEMA DIVYAJA(16351-EE-022)
U.NAVYA(16351-EE-034)
Y.SOWMYA(16351-EE-049)

Under the Esteemed Guidance of


Mr. S.RAVIKANTH, M.TECH,
Assistant Professor

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

Devineni Venkata Ramana& Dr. HimaSekhar


MIC COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY
Kanchikacherla , Krishna Dist., AP-521180
Approved by AICTE, New Delhi, Permanently Afflicated to JNTUK, Kakinada

1
DevineniVenkataRamana&Dr.HimaSekhar
MIC College of Technology
Kanchikacherla, Krishna Dist, PIN: 521180, A.P, India.

Approved by AICTE, New Delhi, Permanently Afflicated to JNTUK, Kakinada

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Project report entitled “Dr. NARLA TATA RAO THERMAL POWER
STATION, IBRAHIMPATNAM,VIJAYAWADA ”being submitted for the partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the award of the degree in Diploma in Electrical Engineering from State Board
of Technical Education and Training. It is the bonafied workdone by T.BHAVANI,G.HARIKA
DEVI,M.HEMADIVYAJA,U.NAVYA,Y.SOWMYAbearing register numbers
16351-EE-011,16351-EE-021,16351-EE022,16351-EE-034,16351-EE-049of III-Diploma submitted to
DVR & Dr. HS MIC College of Technology (SBTET) for the partial fulfillment of Diploma course for the
award of the degree of Diploma in Electrical Engineering during the academic year 2018-2019.

(T.VAMSEE KIRAN)
Project Guide Head of the Department

(Dr. Y. SUDHEER BABU)


Principal

Examiner 1 Examiner2

2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We express our gratitude to our principal Dr. Y. SUDHEER BABU for his
encouragement and facilitates provided during the course of project.

We express our heart full gratitude and deep indebtedness to our beloved Head of the
Department Dr. T. Vamsee Kiran for his great help and encouragement in doing project
successfully.

We express also our gratitude to our guide Mr.S.Ravikanth for his encouragement. We
thank one and all who have rendered help to us directly or indirectly in the completion of this
work.

Regards

T.BHAVANI (16351-EE-011)
G.HARIKA DEVI(16351-EE-021)
M.HEMA DIVYAJA(16351-EE-022)
U.NAVYA(16351-EE-034)
Y.SOWMYA(16351-EE-049)

3
DECLARATION
.

We the members of the project “Dr. NARLA TATA RAO THERMAL POWER
STATION,IBRAHIMPATNAM, VIJAYAWADA ”hereby declare that the matter included in
this project is the genuine work done by us and has not been submitted to any other university
/institute for the fulfillment of the requirement of any other course of study.

Regards

T.BHAVANI (16351-EE-011)
G.HARIKA DEVI(16351-EE-021)
M.HEMA DIVYAJA(16351-EE-022)
U.NAVYA(16351-EE-034)
Y.SOWMYA(16351-EE-049)

4
CHAPTERS

1.INTRODUCTION
2.PLANT LAYOUT
3.GENERATOR
4.TRANSFORMERS
5.SWITCH YARD
6.CONCUSION

5
INDEX

THE THERMAL POWER STATION


1.INTRODUCTION

2.PLANT LAYOUT
2.1 consteuction

2.2boilers

2.3turbine

2.4transmission

2.5main parts and working

2.6fuel and gas circuit

2.7 air and gas circuit

2.8 feed water and steam circuit

2.9 cooling water circuit

2.10 power generating process in NTTPS

2.11 coal handling plant

2.12 mills

2.13 air pre-heater

2.14 primary air fan(PA fan)

2.15 forced draught fan (FD fan)

2.16 induced draught fan(ID fan)

2.17 boiler drum


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2.18 economizer

2.19 super heater

2.20 re-heater

2.21 high pressure turbine(HPT)

2.22 inermeadiat pressure turbine(IPT)

2.23 low pressure turbine(LPT)

2.24 condenser

2.25 condenser extraction pump

2.26 water heater

2.27 gland steam cooler

2.28 feed water control

2.29 boiler feed pump

2.30 high pressure heaters (HPH)

2.31 furnace

2.32 electro static precipicators (ESP)

3.GENERATOR
3.1 generator introduction

3.2 main parts of renerator

3.3.1 stator

3.3.2 rotor

3.3.3 excitation system

3.3.4 stator frame

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3.3.5 stator winding

3.3.6 rotor shaft

3.3.7 rotor shaft

3.3.8 rotor winding

3.3.9 rotating rings

3.3.10 field connection

3.4 generator protection

3.4.1 hydrogen(H2) cooling system in generator

3.5 water cooling system in generator

3.5.1 class-A
3.5.2 class-B

3.5.3 class-C

4.TRANSFORMERS
4.1introduction

4.2 definition of transformer

4.3generator transformer

4.4 station transformer

4.5unit ransformer

4.6 unit auxiliry and station auxiliry transformer

4.7 low transformers

5.SWITCH YARD
5.1 220 KV switch yard

6.CONCLUSION
8
-:CHAPTER 1 :-
-:INTRODUCTION:-

Dr. NARLA TATA RAO THERMAL POWER STATION


The electricity has become an essential commodity rather than luxury now a
day. In a state or region thermal power stations will become important, as
hydro resources are in adequate. The concept of modern thermal power
station is that it should be situated at such a place that the basic
requirements of the fuels, water and land should be satisfied.

Dr. NARLA TATA RAO THRMAL POWER SATATION (Dr. NTTPS) is the
prestigious entity of AP GENCO .LTD (Dr. NTTPS) is located on left bank of
river of Krishna and 16km away from north side of Vijayawada city. The total
area of Dr. NTTPS is 2567 acres including ash pond.

In this plant bituminous coal as a primary fuel is burnt in the presence of


oxygen and chemical energy of coal is converted into electrical energy with
an efficiency of 34.5%

Among all type of power stations, the most reliable and uninterrupted
continuous power supply is possible only from thermal power stations
such as Vijayawada thermal power station which is the second largest
capacity in Andhra Pradesh.

FEATURES OF NTPS:

 Stage 1, 2 & 3each of 210MW total 6 Units with a total capacity of


1260MW'S.
 Stage 4 is 500WM total 1 Units with a total capacity of 500MW'S.

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 stag 5 is 800WM total 1 Units with a total capacity of 800MW'S
(Construction).
 Totalcapacity
1260WM+500WM+800WM=2560WM
 Primary fuel is coal.
 Inputs: coal, oil & Water.
 Output: Electric power, Ash & flue gas.

Stage No Unit No Capacity Date of commissioning


1 210MW 01-11-1979
I
2 210MW 10-10-1980
3 210MW 05-10-1989
II
4 210MW 23-08-1990
5 210MW 31-03-1994
III
6 210MW 24-02-1995
IV 7 500MW 06-04-2009
V 8 800MW Construction

The basic energy conservation cycle in thermal plant is as follows:


Chemical Thermal Steam Mechanical Electrical

Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy

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Plant Line Diagram

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-:CHAPTER 2:-
-: PLANT LAYOUT :-
2.1Construction:
Boilers, turbines and generators are the essential are the essential of a
thermal power plant and the constitute system. The overview of the
unit is shown in the figure overleaf.

2.2Boilers :
Input being coal is carried by a hot primary air into the furnace to a
height of around 2mt, where it burns in suspension. The enormous
amount of heat generated in combustion process creates a
temperature of 1400 degrees. The chemical energy of coal is converted
into heat energy of water (steam).

Side view of boiler


Specification Fabricate from steel plant of fusion welded
construction in accordance with ASME/IBE/ISO specification SA 299

Dimensions of Boiler Drum:

Internal dia : 1767 mm

Thickness : 133 mm

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Length: 15.68 mts

No. Of safety valves : 3 No

Make No Set per Size Relieving


PSI capacity

Dresses 1 2250 3” /6 159.4


(159) T/hr
1759 WA

Dresses 2 2290 3” /6 193.2


(161) T/hr
1749 WA 3” /6
2310 194.9
(163) T/hr

Down comers:6 No.s

Size: 406 X 32 mm

Platen down comers: 2 No.s

Size: 323.9 X 25 mm

Water walls:

Water walls No. of tubes Dia. (mm) Spacing


type

Front 181 63.5 76.2

Rear 181 63.5 76.2

Right side 130 63.5 76.2

Left side 130 63.5 76.2

: ASME/IBR/ISO code and consists steel

Type : welded wall construction

Furnace volume: 5210 m3.


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Headers:

Material: seam less steel pipe.

Position Type Size Material


spacing

Upper Round 219.1 X 40 mm SA 106


(front) grade : B

219 X 36 mm

Lower Round 406.4 X 50 mm SA 106


grade c.

2.3 Turbine :
It consists of 3 parts. High pressure Turbine, intermediate pressure
turbine, Low pressure turbine with varying pressure and are mounted
on a common shaft which is coupled to the rotor of alternator. As
steam flows through them, the shaft as a result of conversion of heat
energy of steam into mechanical energy.

2.4 Transmission :
Electrical power generated at 15.75 KV is stepped up to 220KV using
transformer before being transmitted. There are 15 feeders in
connection with plant.

2.5 Main parts and working :


A center steam basically works on the Rankin. Steam produced in a
boiler is expanded in to prime and is expanded in the prime mover is
condensed in a condenser to be fed into the boiler again. In practice,
however a good number of improvements are affected so as to have
heat economy and to increase the thermal efficiency of station.

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Schematic layout (flowchart) of a typical fired modern power station is
in fig.

There are four main circuits in a plant


1. Fuel and gas circuit
2. Air and gas circuit
3. Feed water and steam circuit
4. Cooling water circuit

2.6 Fuel and gas circuit :


Fuel from the storage is fed to boiler through fuel feeding device
commonly known as coal handling plant. Ash produced as a result of,
combustion of coal collects at the back of the boiler and is removed to
ash storage through ash handling equipment.

2.7Air and gas circuit :


Air from the atmosphere is supplied to the combustion chamber of the
boiler through the action of a draught fan or induced draught fan. The
air before being supplied to the boiler fans through the air pre heater
where it is heated by the heat of the fuel gases which are the made to
pass to the chimney.

The fuel gases first pass around the boiler tubes super heater tubes in
the furnace next through bust collector (or precipitator) and then
atmosphere through the air pre heater.

2.8 Feed water and steam circuit :


The condensate is first heated in closed feed water through extracted
steam from the lowest pressure extraction point of the turbine. The
water then passed through deaerator and a few more water heaters
before it goes into the boiler through the economizer. A small part of
the steam and water about 1% in passing through the different

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components of the system is lost. Therefore water is added in the feed
water system as make up water. Raw in the evaporator is heated to
steam and condensed in to water in the evaporator and then passes
through the feed water pump into the water in the water system in the
boiler as in figure.

In the boiler drum and tubes water circulates because of the difference
in density in the lower and higher temperature sections of the boiler.
Wet steam from the drum is further heated in the super heater before
it is supplied to the prime mover. The steam after it’s where it is
original dryness or superheat being passed on to the low pressure.
From the I.P turbine it is exhausted through the condenser into the hot
well.

2.9 Cooling water circuit :


A large quantity of cooling water is required to condense the steam in
the condenser and in maintaining a low pressure in it. Cooling water
may be taken the upper side of the river and after passing through the
condenser (where it gets heated) it may be discharged to the lower side
of the river. Such a system of cooling water is practicable if adequate
quantity is available throughout the year. Where adequate quantity is
not available water coming out the condenser may be cooled either in a
cooling pond pr cooling towers as in NTTPS.

2.10 Power generating process in NTTPS :


Boiler, turbine and generator-together constitute a unit in which the
energy transformation takes place. Power is generated in the thermal
station by the principle of energy conservation. The chemical energy
stored in the form of coal in burnt in the furnace and thermal energy is
obtained. This heat converts water in the boiler in to steam energy. The
steam obtained is sent to the turbine with the high pressure and is used
in three stares (high presser HP, intermediate pressure IP and low
pressure LP), the turbine shaft is thus rotated and mechanical energy is
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obtained. This shaft is coupled with rotor shift of the generator and it
rotates with a constant speed of 3000rpm. Thus electric power is
generated and is transferred through transmission lines to various
consumer points.

2.11 Coal handling plant :


Coal is the primary fuel of a thermal power station.Coal to be uesd in
furnace is supplied by coal handling plat though conveyor belts. Coal
from the wasgons are unloaded using charger arms and wagon tipplers,
Which driven by the hydraulic syatem. Raw coal is taken by belt
conveyors from which it is fed the crusher. The coal is crushed in to a
size of 20mm, if any problem occers in one path the process is diverted
to anther path from the motor control cabin itself.

2.12 Mills :
Coal from is feed to mill from both sides. Each mill will consist of large
iron bowl.

The mill designed as XRP 1003


X- 3 phase 50 Hz supply,

R-Raymond (inventor of the mill),

P-Pressurized,

100-Nominal dia. of the Bowl (inches)

3-Number of the grinding rolls.

At each mill, we have primary air header air header pressure control
and mill outlet temperature control.

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2.13 Air pre- heater:
It is used primary and secondary air by utilizing the temperature
constant in the flue gases. This is done in trisect or heaters.

SPECIFICATIONS RETING
make BHEL under licence from air
per heater company, chicago
size 27-VI -72(7)
Type Tri sector Regenerative27VI72
Heating surface 18230 m2
Heat exchanger Reliance heat teansfer (PVT)
Ltd; bombay
Size 10*36
Model P*c
Desing
2.14 Primary air fan (PA FAN) :
This is used to lift the pulverized coal into the boiler elevations and
varies high press ure differentials.

FAN MOTOR

Make BHEL Make BHEL


type NDFV 22(B) Range 3Φ,squirrel
cage
induction
motor,50c/
s
Ref 0211-1-56-1 Type DAZ
35 015-44-4PT
Qty 231120 Watts 1250
m3/Hr Volts 6.6KV
Amps 132

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2.15 Frced draught fan (FD FAN) :
This is used to give sufficient air to the furpose for purpose of good
combustion.

Forced Draft Fans (FD Fans): 2 No.s

FAN MOTOR

Make: BHEL under licence Make: BHEL

KW: 800, V= 6.6 KV

RPM : 1480 Amps: 84.9 ; RPM=


1480

Capacity: 104.7 m3/sec 3 Φ, 50 c/s

2.16 Induced draugh fan (ID FAN):


Inuce draught fans removes flue gases from steam generator and also
induced draught fans controls furnace pressure.

Induced Draft Fans (ID Fans):3 No.s

FAN MOTOR

Make: BHEL under licence Make: BHEL

From KKK west Germany Type:1K 120 M6

Type : NDZ V31 (b) KW: 1300,V= 6.6


KV

RPM : 740 Amps: 140.5; RPM=


740

Capacity: 240 m3/sec 3 Φ, 50 c/s

Sp: 376 mm of H20CL Temp. Rise at rated full


load=900 C

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Max. Temp of gas: 1500 C recommended lubricant
heavy medium

2.17 Boiler Drum :


It is the most important part in power generation system. The main
purpose of the drum is to separate the steam and water mix. The only
means of indication of presence of water in tubes located in furnace is
the presence of water in drum. The drum is located above furnace at an
elevation of 64 meters. It has turbo separators, down comers and rise
tubs. The water is sent back to the boiler through down corner tubes
and steam is sent to super heater and then onto turbine. The water
level in drum must be maintained at a certain optimum valve for proper
operation of the turbo separator and to prevent the damage of turbine
and turbo separators.

2.18 Economizer :
It is a part of the boiler at 60mheight. It consists of numbers of pipes
through which water from HPHs are circulated. This water temperature
form the flue gases escaping out of boiler and rises to 290 degrees
centigrade. Mixture of steam and water is sent to the drum, which is at
65-meter height.

SPECIFICATIONS RETING
Inlet header 1 no.
size 324(O.D)mm
material Meadium carbon,SA 106
grade B.
2.19 Super heater :
Steam from drum is at around 340 degrees centigrade is just saturated
(at 150Kg/sq.cm) and there is a chance that it may contain moisture,
therefore steam is sent through three super heaters (LTSH,ITSH,HTSH)
to get super steam, which does not have any moisture.

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Super heater consists of number of pipes together arranged at different
deviation in boiler. Absorbing heat through convection and radiation
from the gases and flames superheats the steam respectively. The
outlet of the super heaters is steam at 540-degrees centigrade,
150Kg/cm and at a rate of 690 tones/hr. This steam is suitable for giving
to the turbine and is called main stream.

Stages Heating surface

Platen section 1005 m2

Product section 1039 m2

(final super heater)

Rear horizontal section 8350 m2


(LTSH)

Steam cooled wall & root 540 m2


section

Total 10934 m2

2.20 Re-Heaters :
The CRH lines are sent to re-heaters again super heat the steam. There
are two types of re heaters. There are: LTRSH and HTRH.

The outlet of HTRH again has a temperature of 540 degrees centigrade,


but pressure at 34Kg/sq.cm. These re-heaters are also a bunch of pipes
inside the boiler just like super heaters. The out let of HTRH is hot
re-heater (HTRH) line.

Heating surface: 2650 m2 ( of conversion area)

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Location: 1. front between rear water wall hanger tubes and super
heater platen section

2. Rear prudent vertical spaced section is located above the furnace


arch between water cooled screen wall tubes and rear water hanger
tubes.

Safety valves:5 No.s

Make: M/S dessers

Locati Ta Typ N Size Se Relieving


on g e o t applicati
N pr on
O /

PS
I

Re R4 177 1 4”/8 47 100.4 RH


heater 2 5 ” 0 Pr. Relief
WA
Inlet
CRH right
side

R1 178 1 6”/8 47 130.3 RH


5 ” 5 Pr. Relief
WA

R2 -Do 1 -Do- 48 131.6


- 0 CRH left
side

R3 -Do 1 -Do- 48 132.9 RH


- 5 Pr. Relief

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Right
side

Re R4 170 1 -Do- 43 114.3 RH


heater 5 5 Pr. Relief
RW
Outlet
D
HRH
right side

CRH pipe: 2 No.s

Size: 508 X 14 mm

Material: SA 515 grade 70 plate formed

HRH pipe : 2 No.s

Size: 558 X 20 mm

Material: BS 1501-622 grade 31(b) plate formed

DE Super heater: 2 No.s

Location: CRH steam pipes before

RHH NO 1

Type : spray

2.21 High pressure turbine (HPT) :

The main stream is introduced into HPT and it works by rotating shaft.
As a result, the temperature of steam drops at 350 degrees centigrade
and pressure at 34Kg/sq.cm sat outlet is called reheat line (CRH lines).

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High pressure turbine
2.22 Inermediae pressure turbine (IPT) :
The re-heat steam with a temperature of 540 degree centigrade and a
pressure of 34 Kg/sq.cm is introduced into the IPT, unlike HPT, where
steam expands in one direction, in LPT steam expands in both
directions, when is steam is introduced in the middle, the outlet steam
of IPT has a temperature of 320 degrees temperature and a pressure of
6 Kg/sq.cm.

Inermediae pressure turbine

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2.23 low pressure turbine (LPT):
The outlet steam of IPT is directly introduced into the LPT. Out of the
work to be done to generator 210MW, 20% of it is done in HPT, 30% in
IPT and 50% in LPT. Thus LPT extracts maximum work from steam. The
steam loses its entire energy and is sucked into condenser by
maintaining a negative pressure of 0.9-Kg/sq.cm. The temperature
world is around 50 degrees centigrade.

low pressure turbine


Technical data of 210mw turbine:

Main steam pressure:130 kg/cm2

Main steam temperature :535º c

Reheat steam temperature:535º c

Full load steam flow :670t/hr

Back pressure range :0.03 ata to 0.12 ata.

No. of Extraction:6

No of stagesHPT:1*12

IPT:1*11

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LPT:2*4

Large stat blade height:661.4mm

Overall length:16.175 meters

Width:10.6 meters

Frequency band:47.5 to 51.5

Pressure and temp variation: as per IEC recommendation

2.24 Condenser :

Cooling water is circulated through tubes in condenser. The worked out


steam from LPT get cooled and condense into water. Makeup water is
added to this. The condenser water collects in hot well.

Consumption of cooling water: 13,500 m3/Hr

Surface area: 7300 m2

Design Pr: 0.1 kg/cm2 abs

No. of tubes: 7810

Length of tubes: 10 m

Dia of tubes: 30/28 mm

Temp/ of cooling water: 360 c

Pr/ in water space: 6 kg/cm2

Hot well capacity: 6 tons

2.25 Condenser extraction pump :

Because the negative pressure, water in condenser is to be extracted


from hot well to deaerator. These are three CEPTS for each unit. These
pump the water into the water heater with a pressure of 20 Kg/sq.cm.
26
2.26 Water heater :
The temperature of water of CEP discharged is about 50 degrees
centigrade. It is not advisable to heat this water and make super heated
steam of 50 degrees centigrade temperature directly in the boiler. So
this water is heated gradually at different stages by water heaters,
which use steam as a medium of heating. The water passes through all
water heaters, and attains a temperature of 250 degrees centigrade at
160 Kg/sq. Cm before it is actually introduced into the boiler and
converted into steam.

2.27 Gland steam cooler :


When steam is introduced into turbine at high pressure, there is a
chance for it escapes between shaft and bearing. To avoid this steam is
given continuously the shaft at a pressure of 0.01 kg/sq.cm the latent
heat present in this steam should not be wasted. Therefore if is
introduce into the water heater called gland steam cooler.

2.28 Feed water control :


Feed Water control is the regulation of water in the boiler drum. The
water is admitted into the boiler drum and the absorbing heat the
furnace (SPHTR) it generates steam. The level of water in steam drum
should be maintained within certain load. A decrease in this level may
uncover the boiler tubes, which causes the heating of the boiler tubes.
If the drum level increases, the water enters the turbine and causes
erosion to the turbine blades. Controlling feed water control the drum
level.

2.29 Boiler feed pumps:


The BFP send water to the boiler with very high pressure. These are
very powerful pumps (3Nos) with a very high pressure of around of
around 180 kg/sq cm. So the Stream ente ring the turbine has a

27
pressure of 150kg/sqcm. Out of these three pumps, two are in service
and one is stand by. Due to pump action, there is also a riso in
temperature of two- three degree centigrade. Here BEP re-circulation
contol is prvided if water dose not flow through these pumps
continuouously.

2.30 HIGH PRESSURE HEATERS (HPH) :


As the autlet of BFP has a very high pressure, thase
called highpressureheaters. There are tow heating,
HPH5andHPH6.Steam is tapped from HPT for HPH6 for heating feed
water. The water gains temperature from 170-240 degree
centigrade.This water is fed to the boiler by a control station called fed
water regulating station at a rate of 690 T/Hr. The steam is tapped from
various turbines, after giving away heat to feed water is drained into a
condenser. Hence hph high and normal level control is used.

2.31 Furnace :
Pulverized coal is lifted to the fur ace by air is supplied for good
combustion. Burners are set at each corner and directed to strike an
imaginary circle at the center of furnace. This is called tangential firing.

SPECIFICATIOPN RETING
Type Balanced draft furnace with
fusion with fusion welded walls
Widrh 18034mm
Depth 15797mm
Volume 14272m3(as per specification)
Fuel heat I/P 11981.9×106 Kcal/h
2.32 Electro static precipitators :
ESP’s are used to collect ash from the flue gases. The main purpose of
this is to reduce the ecvironmental pollution caused by impurites
present in the gases. Which are released to the atmosphere. The

28
precipitated ash is used in maunfacture of bricks and to preserve
fertility of field’s topsoil.

Make: Advani Oerlikon

TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER

KVA: 57 KW: 28

Volts at no load: Hv : 46400 Volts DC: 60000


peak

Vrms LV(primary) : 384 Amps DC: 0.800

Amps: HV (secondary): 1.10 Connection: 1- Φ


bridge

RmsLV(primary): 158

Phases: HV(sec):1

LV(pri):1

Type of cooling: oil natural

50 c/s type SCR-HVR / 60-80

Service : out door

ESP Performance:

Gas flow rate : 1,332,000 m3/Hr

Temp: 1400 C

Dust concentration : 35.60 gm/m3

Pr. At inlet of the ESPs: 200 mm of Wcl

Type of precipitator : 2 FAA – (36) 4 X 36-9590-2

29
Collection of efficiency: 98.5 %

Pressure drop across precipitator: 15 mm of Wcl

210 MW UNIT OVERVIEW

30
-:CHAPTER 3:-
-: GENERATOR :-
3.1 GENERATOR INTRODUCTION:
In electricity generatio, an electric generator is a device that that
converts mechanical energy to electrical enrgy. A generator force
electons in the windings to flow through the external electrical circuit.
Generatrs produce almost all of the elcetricitty used by people. They
supply the electrical power that runs machines in facories, provide
lighting and operate appliances at home. Tere are two type of
generators- alternating current ( AC) generate and direc currect
(DC) generators. The sorce of the mechanical energy may be
reciprocating or turbine steam ecgine, water falling on a turbine, wind
turbine or any other source of mechanical energy.

210 MW GENERATOR

31
SPECIFICATIOPN RETING
Power 500MW
Voltage 21000V
Current 16200A
Power factor 0.85 lag
Phase 3 phase
Frequency 50 Hz
Windin Y-Y
Cooling type Hydrogen(H2)&Water(H2O)

3.2 Working principle :


The A.C Generator or alternator is based upon the principle of
electromagnetic induction and consists generally of a stationary part
called stator and rotating part called rotor. The stator housed the
armature winding. The roror houses the fied winding to which the D.C
voltage is supplied.

H.P :High pressure turbine

I.P :Inermediae turbine

L.P :low pressure turbine

32
GEN :Genrator

C :coupling

When the rotor is roated, the lines of magnetic flux cut through the
stator windings. This induces an eletromagnetic force (E.M.F) in the
stator windings. The magnitude of the genrate e.m.f is given by
following exqrssion.

E=4.44×Ø×F×T

Ø =Strength of magnetic field in weder

F =Frequency/sec = PN/120

P =Number of poles

T=Number of turns in a coil of stator winding

3.3 MAIN PARTS OF GENERAOR :


3.3.1 Stator :
The generator consists of armature winding mounted on stationary
element called stater. Consists of stator frame, stator core, stator
winding and hydrogen cooler.

Generator stator
33
3.3.2 Rotor :
The generator consis of field windings on a rotating element called
rotor. The rotor consists of rotor winding. Rotor winding rings, field
conections, bearings and shaft seals.

Generator Roto
3.3.3 Excitation system :
Rotating rectifier wheels (RRW), Three- phase main exciter, and
three-phase pilot exciter, cooling of exciter.

Excitation system
34
3.3.4 Stator frame :
The stator fram is a welded steel frame construction and
accommodates the laminated core, winding and cooler arranged
horizontally in the generator housing. Both gas ducts and the welded
circular ribs provide for the rigidity of the stator frame.Ed shield
containing the shaft seal and bearing component are bolted to the
frame and walls.

Stator frame
The flanged connection are sealed gas tight by means of viscous
cement. Feet are welded to the stator frame to bolt the stator to the
machine sole plates. The stator is firmly connected to the foundatin
with anchor bolts through the machine sole plates.

3.3.5 Stator core :


The stator core is stacked from insulated electical sheel laminatios with
a low loss index and suspended diretly in the stator frame from
insulated dovetailed guide and nonmagnetc through type clamping
bolts, which are insulated from the core especially within the range of
the teeth, and provide for uifrm intensive coling of the stator core ends.

35
Stator core
3.3.6 Stator winding :
The three-phase stator windng is fractional pitch, double layer type
consisting of individual bars. Each stator slots bottom bars are
displaced from each othe by one other by one windind pitch and
connected at their ends to from coil group. The coil groups are
connected together withe phese connector inside the stator frame this
arranged at and the shape of the bars at the end results in a one
shaped winding having particularly favorable characteristics both in
respect of its electrical propertiesand resistance to magnetic induced
forces. The bars are referred maximum perting reliability since each coil
one turn, this makes turns insulated and the main insulation identical.

Stator winding
36
3.3.7 Rotor Shaft:
The rotor shaft is single piece solid forging manufactured from a
vacuum casting slots for insertion of field windings are milled in to the
rotor body. The longitudinal slots are distributed over the
circumference so that two solid poles are obtained. The motor poles
are obtained. The rotor poles are designed with transverse solts to
reduce twice ststem frequncy rotor-vibration caused by deflection in
the direction of the pole and noumal axis. To ensure that only high
quantity forgings are used strength tests material analysis and
ultrasonic test are performed during manufacture of the rotor. After
completion the rotor is balanced in various planes at different speeds
and then subjected to an over speed test at 120%of rated speed for
two minutes.

Rotor Shaft
3.3.8 Rotor winding :
The rotor winding consists of several coils, which are inserted into the
slots, and series connected such that two coil groups form one pole.
Each coil consists of several series connected turns each of which
consists of two half turns which are connected by brazing in the in the
end section. The roto winding consists of silver bearing dexidized

37
copper hallow conductors with two lateral cooling ducts. L-shaped
strips of laminated epoxy glass fiber fabric with nomex filler is used for
slot insulation. The solt windings are made of high conductivity material
and extended below the shrink sheet of the retaining rings. The sheet
of the retaining rings is silver plated to ensure a good electrical contact
between the slot windings and rotor retaining rings. This system has
provided to be a good damper winding.

Rotor winding
3.3.9 Rotating rings :
The cetrifugal forces of roto end windings are contained by single piece
rotor retaining rings. The retaing rings are made of nonmagnetic high
srength steel in order to reduce stray losses. Each retaining ring with its
shrink fitted insed insert ring is shrunk outo the rotor body in an
overhanging position. The retaining ring is secured in the axial position
by a snap ring.

38
Rotaing rings
3.3.10 Field connections :
The field current is supplied to the rotor winding through radial
terminals and two semi circular conductors located in the hallow bore
of the exciter and rotor shists. The field current lodes are connected to
the exciter leads at the exciter coupling with muliti contact plug in
contacts, which allows for un obstructed thermal expansion of field
current leads.

Field current
39
3.4 GENERATOR PROTECTION :-
3.4.1 Hydrogen (H2) cooling system in geneartor :
The hydrogen coolers in a shell and tube type heat exchangers, which
cools the hydrogen gas in the generator . The heat removed from the
hydrogen is dissipated through the cooling water. The cooling water
flows through the tubes while the hydrogen is passed around the fined
tubes. The cooler is subdivided into sections, which are highly mounted
the stator houing. The cooling water flows through the tubes according
to the return water channel channel on the cold gas side and the
heated water is retured on the hot gas side. The cooling water flow
phase is obtained through a partiton in the inle/ water channel.

Hydrogen (H2) cooling in geneartor


3.5 Water cooling system in generator:
The generator stator temperature is very high in that temperature is
controlling into the water cooling system. The water pumping in to the
water tubes with help motors.

40
Water cooling system
3.5.1 Class-A :
All fault detected within the unit and auxiliaries direcly connected to
the unit wher in the entir unit with its axuiliaries and prime mover has
to be shtdown instantly.

3.5.2 Class-B :
All fault occurring in the prime movre or auxiliaries where safe
shutdown of the unit is possible, the unit is tripped in class-A via
reverse power protection.

3.5.3 Class-C :
All faults occurring in the grid affecting the unit where the unit can be
isolated from the grid but the prime mover and auxiaries retained for
synchronizing the unit back to grid at the earliest.

 Protection of the generator is the most coplex and elaborate.


The reasons being the following.
 Generator is large machine and is connected to bus bars, it is a
accopanied by unit- transformers, Auxiliary transformer and bus
system.

41
 Excitation system, prime mover, voltage regulator, cooling
system etc. Hence it is not single equipment. The protection of
generator should be coordinated with associated equipment.

 It is costly and important equipment. It should not be shut off as


far possible because that would result in power shortage and
emergency.

-:CHAPTER 4 :-
-: TRANSFORMERS :-

4.1 INTRODUCTION :

The different type of transformers present in the 4th stade of Dr. NTTPS
are :
 Generator transformeers
 Station transformers
 Unit transfrormers
 Unit auxiliary and ststion auxiliary transfmers
 LT transfmers.

4.2 Definition of Transformer :


Transformer is a static device, which transfers the electrical power or
energy from one alternating current circuit to another with the desired
change in voltage or current and without any change in the frequency.
The primary induced voltage is
Ep =4.44f Øm Tp
ES =4.44f Øm TS

42
Whrere
F -Freqency
Øm -Mutual flux
Tp -Number of turns in the primery
TS -Number of turns in the second

4.3 Generator Tansformer :


The main purpose of this transfrmer is to step up the genrated voltage
from 21KV to 400 KV so as to synchronize this voltag to grid voltage.

4.4 Station Trnsformer :


The main purpose of the this transformer is to receive is to receiver
power from grid. If ther is any problem occuurred or trios in unit the
power is taken is taken from grid. I lere we use two station
transformers there are station transformer-6 and station
transformer-7.

43
4.5 Unit Transformer :
The main purpose of this transformer is tap the power from generated
power i.e., from isolated phase bus duct for 11KV unit auxiliaries like ID
fans, PA fans, CW pumps and MDBFP etc.

4.6 Unit Auxiliary and Station Auxiliary Transformer :


The main purpose of unit auxiliary and station auxiliary transformers
are for supplingh power to 3.3 KV HT drives i.e FD fans, Mill motors ,
BCW pumps and ACW pumps etc.

44
4.7 Low Tension Transformers :
There are different types of LT transformers connected to the station
transformers or unit auxiliary transformers they are 2 MAV and 1.6
MVA transformers. These transformers are known as location
transformers, which are used to supply power to 415 volts LT motors.

Transformer Ratings

G ST ST UT UA SA LT
T -7 -6 (0 T T Trans
(0 (0 (0 2n (02 (0 forme
3n 1n 1n o) no) 2n rs
o) o) o) o) (10+6
no)
Ty O O O O ON O ONAN
pe N N N N AN N
of A A A A /O A
co N N N N NA N
oli /O /O /O /O F /O
ng N N N N N
AF AF AF AF AF
/O /O /O

45
FA FA FA
F F F

Ra 12 48 30 20 10/ 10 1600
ti 4. / / / 12. /1 KVA
ng 2/ 64 40 25 5 2. /2000
M 16 / / 5 KVA
V 5. 80 50
A 6/
20
7
N 21 11 11 11 3.6 3. 0.433
O .5- .5 .5 6
Lo 11
ad .5
V LV
ol 1&
ta LV
ge 2
(H
V)
K
V
H 53 11 13 54 52 52 84 /
V 7. 5. 1. 9. 4.8 4. 105
Li 8/ 5 22 86 6 / 86
ne 71 / 65 /
cu 7. 68 6.0 65
rr 1 7. 8 6.
en /9 32 08
t 6.
A 3
m
ps

46
LV 59 20 25 10 16 16 2133.
lin 14 08 10 04 03. 03 4/
e .2 .2- .2 .0 75 .7 2666.
cu / 20 2 9 /20 5/ 75
rr 78 00 /1 04. 20
en 85 8. 25 69 04
t .7 2 5. .6
A / LV 1 9
m 98 1&
ps 57 LV
.1 2
Ph 1 3 3 3 3 3 3
as
e

TRANSFORMER
47
-:CHAPTER 5 :-
-:SWITCH YARD:-
5.1 220 KV SWITCH YARD :
EHV Substation at Dr. NTTPS

1. 220 KV /132 KV SS
2. A) 220 KV/132 KV SS
B) 132 KV SS AT (RWPH, Bhavanipuram)

3. 400KV switch yard (for stage -4)

The 220 KV switch yard at Dr. NTTPS receives electrical power from 6 X
210 MV and import feeders like, Nunna, (50 MV), kothkota and Lanco
(200MV), via incoming transmission lines and delivers electrical power
via the outgoing transmission lines to various substations namely,
Podili(2), Tallapalli (2), Nunna (2), Tadikonda (2), Kondapalli (2),
Gunadala (1), Bheemadole (1). Vijjeswaram (1), naraketpalli (1) and
Chilakallu (1).

Through the generation at Dr. NTTPS is 1760 MW, only 8-10% of


1760MV is utilized for auxiliary consumption.

48
220 KV SWITCH YARD

49
50
-:CHAPTER 6 :-
CONCLUSION :

The six months industrial training that we received at Dr. NTTPS was a
great experience for me. Here in this industrial training I experienced the
efficient working of a thermal power plant and generation of electricity in it. It
is a complex structure involving a number of stages working simultaneously
for the production of electricity.
The most important and the necessary parts of the thermal plant are
boiler, turbine, condenser and generator. The efficiency of a thermal plant
depends upon the effective working of these parts.
Thus, I conclude that the working of a thermal power plant does not
entirely rely upon the boiler and generator but, the co-ordination of various
systems together get the efficient generation.

51