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Chapter 1

Introduction
• Data Communication
• Networks
• Protocols and Standards
• Standard Organizations

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Figure 1-1

Data Communication System Components

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Figure 1-2

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Figure 1-3

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Chapter 2
Basic Concepts
• Line Configuration
• Topology
• Transmission Mode
• Categories of Networks
• Internetworks

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Figure 2-1

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Figure 2-2

Point-to-Point Line Configuration

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Figure 2-2-continued

Point-to-Point Line Configuration

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Figure 2-2-continued

Point-to-Point Line Configuration

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Figure 2-3

Multipoint Line Configuration

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Figure 2-4

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Figure 2-5

Mesh Topology

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Figure 2-6
Star Topology

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Figure 2-7

Tree Topology

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Figure 2-8

Bus Topology

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Figure 2-9

Ring Topology

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Figure 2-10

Hybrid Topology

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Figure 2-11

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Figure 2-12

Simplex

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Figure 2-13

Half-Duplex

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Figure 2-14

Full-Duplex

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Figure 2-15

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Figure 2-16
Local Area Network

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Figure 2-16-continued
Local Area Network

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Figure 2-17
Metropolitan Area Network

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Figure 2-18
Wide Area Network

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Figure 2-19
Internetwork
(Internet)

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Chapter 3
OSI
Model

• The model
• Functions of the layers

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Figure 3-1
OSI Model

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Figure 3-2
OSI Layers

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Figure 3-3
An Exchange Using the OSI Model

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Figure 3-4

Physical Layer

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Figure 3-5

Data Link Layer

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Figure 3-6

Data Link Layer Example

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Figure 3-7

Network Layer

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Figure 3-8
Network Layer Example

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Figure 3-8-continued
Network Layer Example

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Figure 3-9
Transport Layer

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Figure 3-10
Transport Layer Example

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Figure 3-11
Session Layer

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Figure 3-12

Presentation Layer

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Figure 3-13

Application Layer

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Figure 3-14

Summary of Layer Functions

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Chapter 4
Signals
• Analog and digital
• Aperiodic and periodic signals
• Analog signals

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Figure 4-1

Transformation of Information
to Signals

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Figure 4-2
Analog and Digital Clocks

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Figure 4-3

Analog and Digital Signals

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Figure 4-4
Periodic Signals

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Figure 4-5
Aperiodic Signals

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Figure 4-6
Sine Wave

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Figure 4-7
Phases

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Figure 4-8
Amplitude Change

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Figure 4-9
Frequency Change

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Figure 4-10
Phase Change

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Figure 4-11

Time and Frequency Domain

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Figure 4-12
Examples

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Figure 4-13
Signal with DC Component

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Figure 4-14
Complex Waveform

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Figure 4-15
Bandwidth

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Figure 4-16
Digital Signal

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Figure 4-17
Amplitude, Period, and Phase
for a Digital Signal

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Figure 4-18
Bit Rate and Bit Interval

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Figure 4-19
Harmonics of a Digital Signal

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Figure 4-20
Exact and Significant Spectrums

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Figure 4-21
Bit Rates and Significant Spectrums

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Figure 4-22

Corruption Due to Insufficient Bandwidth

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Figure 4-23
Bandwidth and Data Rate

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Figure 4-24
Example

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Figure 4-25
Example

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Figure 4-26
Example

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Chapter 5

Encoding

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Figure 5-1

Different Conversion Schemes

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Figure 5-2

Digital to Digital Encoding

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Figure 5-3

Types of Digital to Digital Encoding

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Figure 5-4

Unipolar Encoding

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Figure 5-5

Types of Polar Encoding

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Figure 5-6
NRZ-L and NRZ-I Encoding

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Figure 5-7

RZ Encoding

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Figure 5-8
Manchester and Diff. Manchester Encoding

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Figure 5-9

Types of Bipolar Encoding

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Figure 5-10

Bipolar AMI Encoding

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Figure 5-11

B8ZS Encoding

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Figure 5-12

HDB3 Encoding

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Figure 5-13

Solution to Example 5.1

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Figure 5-14

Solution to Example 5.2

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Figure 5-15

Analog to Digital Encoding

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Figure 5-16

PAM

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Figure 5-17

Quantized PAM Signal

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Figure 5-18

Quantizing Using
Sign and Magnitude

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Figure 5-19

PCM

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Figure 5-20

From Analog to PCM

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Figure 5-20-continued

From Analog to PCM

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Figure 5-20-continued

From Analog to PCM

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Figure 5-20-continued

From Analog to PCM

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Figure 5-21

Nyquist Theorem

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Figure 5-22

Digital to Analog Encoding

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Figure 5-23

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Figure 5-24
ASK

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Figure 5-25

Bandwidth for ASK

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Figure 5-27

FSK

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Figure 5-28

Bandwidth for FSK

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Figure 5-29
PSK

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Figure 5-30

PSK
Constellation

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Figure 5-31
4-PSK

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Figure 5-32

4-PSK
Characteristics

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Figure 5-33
8-PSK
Characteristics

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Figure 5-34
PSK
Bandwidth

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Figure 5-35
4-QAM and 8-QAM
Constellations

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Figure 5-36
8-QAM Signal

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Figure 5-37

16-QAM
Constellation

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Figure 5-38

Bit Rate and Baud Rate

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Figure 5-38-continued

Bit Rate and Baud Rate

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Figure 5-39

Analog to Analog Modulation

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Figure 5-40

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Figure 5-41
Amplitude Modulation

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Figure 5-42
AM Bandwidth

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Figure 5-43
AM Band Allocation

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Figure 5-44
Frequency Modulation

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Figure 5-45

FM Bandwidth

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Figure 5-46

FM Band Allocation

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Chapter 6
Transmission of
Digital Data
Interfaces and Modems
• Digital Data Transmission
• DTE-DCE Interface
• Other Interface Standards
• Modems

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Figure 6-1

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Figure 6-2

Parallel Transmission

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Figure 6-3

Serial Transmission

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Figure 6-4

Asynchronous Transmission

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Figure 6-5

Synchronous Transmission

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Figure 6-6

DTEs and DCEs

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Figure 6-7

DTE-DCE interface

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Figure 6-8

Sending Data

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Figure 6-9

Control

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Figure 6-10

EIA-232

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Figure 6-10-continued
Data Pins

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Figure 6-10-continued
Control Pins

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Figure 6-10-continued

Timing Pins

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Figure 6-10-continued
Other Pins

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Figure 6-11
Synchronous Full-Duplex Transmission

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Figure 6-11-continued
Synchronous Full-Duplex Transmission

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Figure 6-12

Pin Connection With and Without DCEs

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Figure 6-12-continued

Pin Connection With and Without DCEs

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Figure 6-13
Null Modem

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Figure 6-14

DB-37 and DB-9 Connectors

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Figure 6-15

RS-423: Unbalanced Mode

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Figure 6-16

RS-422: Balanced Mode

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Figure 6-17
Canceling Noise

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Figure 6-18

DB-15 Connector

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Figure 6-19

Modem

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Figure 6-20
Bandwidth for Telephone Line

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Figure 6-21

Baud Rate for Half-Duplex ASK

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Figure 6-22

Baud Rate for Full-Duplex ASK

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Figure 6-23

Baud Rate for Half-Duplex FSK

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Figure 6-24

Baud Rate for Full-Duplex FSK

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Figure 6-25
Bell Modems

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Figure 6-25-continued
Bell Modems

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Figure 6-26
ITU Modems

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Figure 6-26-continued
ITU Modems

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Figure 6-27
V.22bis 16-QAM Constellation

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Figure 6-28

V.32 Constellation

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Figure 6-29
V.33 Constellation

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Chapter 7
Transmission Media
• Guided Media

• Unguided Media

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Figure 7-1

Electromagnetic Spectrum

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Figure 7-2

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Figure 7-3

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Figure 7-4 and 7-5
Twisted-Pair Cable

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Figure 7-6

Effect of Noise on Parallel Lines

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Figure 7-7
Noise on Twisted-Pair Lines

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Figure 7-8

Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cable

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Figure 7-9
UTP Connectors

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Figure 7-10

Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable

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Figure 7-11 and 7-12
Coaxial Cable

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Figure 7-13

Refraction

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Figure 7-14

Critical Angle

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Figure 7-15

Reflection

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Figure 7-16

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Figure 7-17

Multimode Step-Index

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Figure 7-18

Multimode Graded-Index

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Figure 7-19

Single Mode

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Figure 7-20

Fiber Construction

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Figure 7-21
Radio Communication Band

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Figure 7-22
Propagation Types

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Figure 7-23, 24

VLF

LF

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Figure 7-25, 26

MF

HF

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Figure 7-27, 28
VHF

UHF

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Figure 7-29, 30

SHF

EHF

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Figure 7-31

Terrestrial Microwave

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Figure 7-32

Parabolic Dish Antenna

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Figure 7-33
Horn Antenna

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Figure 7-34
Satellite Communication

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Figure 7-35
Geosynchronous Orbit

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Figure 7-36
Cellular System

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Figure 7-37

Cellular Bands

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Chapter 8
Multiplexing

• Many to one/one to many


• Types of multiplexing
• Telephone system

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Figure 8-1
Multiplexing vs. No Multiplexing

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Figure 8-2

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Figure 8-3

FDM

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Figure 8-4
FDM, Time Domain

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Figure 8-5
Multiplexing, Frequency Domain

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Figure 8-6
Demultiplexing, Time Domain

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Figure 8-7
Demultiplexing, Frequency Domain

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Figure 8-8
TDM

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Figure 8-9
Synchronous TDM

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Figure 8-10
TDM, Multiplexing

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Figure 8-11
TDM, Demultiplexing

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Figure 8-12
Framing Bits

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Figure 8-13
Data Rate

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Figure 8-14
Asynchronous TDM

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Figure 8-15
Frames and Addresses

a. Only three lines sending data

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Figure 8-15-continued
Frames and Addresses

b. Only four lines sending data

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Figure 8-15-continued
Frames and Addresses

c. All five lines sending data

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Figure 8-16
Multiplexing and Inverse Multiplexing

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Figure 8-17
Telephone Network

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Figure 8-18

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Figure 8-19

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Figure 8-20
Analog Switched Service

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Figure 8-21
Analog Leased Service

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Figure 8-22
Analog Hierarchy

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Figure 8-23

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Figure 8-24
Switched/56 Service

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Figure 8-25
DDS

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Figure 8-26
DS Hierarchy

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Figure 8-27
T-1 Line

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Figure 8-28
T-1 Frame

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Figure 8-29

Fractional T-1 Line

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Chapter 9
Error Detection
and Correction

• Types of Errors
• Detection
• Correction

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Figure 9-1

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Figure 9-2

Single-bit error

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Figure 9-3

Multiple-bit error

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Figure 9-4

Burst error

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Figure 9-5
Redundancy

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Figure 9-6

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Figure 9-7
VRC

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Figure 9-8

LRC

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Figure 9-9
VRC and LRC

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Figure 9-10

CRC

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Figure 9-11

Binary Division

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Figure 9-12

Polynomial

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Figure 9-13
Polynomial and Divisor

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Figure 9-14

Standard Polynomials

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Figure 9-15
Checksum

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Figure 9-16

Data Unit and Checksum

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Figure 9-17
Error Correction

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Figure 9-18
Hamming Code

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Figure 9-19
Hamming Code

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Figure 9-19-continued
Hamming Code

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Figure 9-20
Example of Hamming Code

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Figure 9-21

Single-bit error

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Figure 9-22

Error
Detection

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Chapter 10
Data Link Control

• Line Discipline
• Flow Control
• Error Control

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Figure 10-1

Data Link Layer

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Figure 10-2

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Figure 10-3

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Figure 10-4

ENQ/ACK

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Figure 10-5
ENQ/ACK

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Figure 10-6
Multipoint Discipline

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Figure 10-7
Select

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Figure 10-8
Poll

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Figure 10-9

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Figure 10-10
Stop and Wait

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Figure 10-11

Sliding Window

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Figure 10-12

Sender Sliding Window

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Figure 10-13

Receiver Sliding Window

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Figure 10-14
Sliding Window Example

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Figure 10-14-continued
Sender

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Figure 10-14-continued
Receiver

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Figure 10-15

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Figure 10-16

Damaged Frame

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Figure 10-17

Lost Frame

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Figure 10-18
Lost ACK

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Figure 10-19
Damaged Frame

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Figure 10-20

Lost Frame

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Figure 10-21
Lost ACK

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Figure 10-22
Selective Reject

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Chapter 11
Data Link Protocols

• Asynchronous Protocols
• Synchronous Protocols
• Character-Oriented Protocols
• Bit-Oriented Protocols

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Figure 11-1

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Figure 11-2

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Figure 11-3

XMODEM

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Figure 11-4

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Figure 11-5

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Figure 11-6

Simple Frame

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Figure 11-7

A Frame with Header

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Figure 11-8

Multiblock Frame

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Figure 11-9
Multiframe Transmission

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Figure 11-10

Control Frame

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Figure 11-11

Control Frames

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Figure 11-11-continued

Control Frames

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Figure 11-11-continued

Control Frames

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Figure 11-12
Byte Stuffing

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Figure 11-13

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Figure 11-14

HDLC Configuration

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Figure 11-14-continued
HDLC Configuration

Asmatullah Khan @ Maven Academe, Secunderabad.


Figure 11-14-continued

HDLC Configuration

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Figure 11-15

HDLC Modes

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Figure 11-16

HDLC Frame Types

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Figure 11-16-continued

HDLC Frame Types

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Figure 11-16-continued

HDLC Frame Types

Asmatullah Khan @ Maven Academe, Secunderabad.


Figure 11-17

HDLC Flag Field

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Figure 11-18
Bit Stuffing

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Figure 11-19
HDLC Address Field

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Figure 11-20

HDLC Control Field

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Figure 11-21

Poll/Final

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Figure 11-22

HDLC Information Field

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Figure 11-23

HDLC FCS Field

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Figure 11-24

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Figure 11-25

Use of P/F Field

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Figure 11-25-continued

Use of P/F Field

Asmatullah Khan @ Maven Academe, Secunderabad.


Figure 11-25-continued

Use of P/F Field

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Figure 11-25-continued

Use of P/F Field

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Figure 11-25-continued
Use of P/F Field

Asmatullah Khan @ Maven Academe, Secunderabad.


Figure 11-26

U-Frame Control Field

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Figure 11-26-continued
U-Frame Control Field

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Figure 11-27
Polling Example

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Figure 11-28
Selecting Example

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Figure 11-29
Peer-to-Peer Example

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Figure 11-29-continued
Peer-to-Peer Example

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Chapter 12
Local Area Networks

• Project 802
• Ethernet
• Token Ring
• FDDI

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Figure 12-1
OSI Model and Project 802

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Figure 12-2
Project 802

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Figure 12-3
PDU Format

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Figure 12-4
PDU Control Field

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Figure 12-5

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Figure 12-6
Evolution of CSMA/CD

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Figure 12-7
MAC Frame

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Figure 12-8
Ethernet Segments

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Figure 12-9

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Figure 12-9-continued
10BASE5

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Figure 12-10
Transceiver

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Figure 12-11

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Figure 12-11-continued
10BASE2

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Figure 12-12

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Figure 12-12-continued
10BASET

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Figure 12-13

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Figure 12-13-continued
1BASE5

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Figure 12-14

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Figure 12-15
Token Passing

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Figure 12-15-continued
Token Passing

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Figure 12-15-continued
Token Passing

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Figure 12-15-continued
Token Passing

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Figure 12-16
Token Ring Frame

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Figure 12-17
Data Frame Fields

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Figure 12-17-continued
Data Frame Fields

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Figure 12-18
Token Ring

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Figure 12-19
Token Ring Switch

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Figure 12-20
MAU

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Figure 12-21
FDDI

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Figure 12-22
FDDI Example

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Figure 12-22-continued
FDDI Example

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Figure 12-23
FDDI Encoding

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Figure 12-24
FDDI Layers

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Figure 12-25
FDDI Frames

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Figure 12-26
FDDI Rings

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Figure 12-27
FDDI Ring Failure

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Figure 12-28
FDDI Nodes

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Chapter 13
Metropolitan Area
Networks

• IEEE 802.6
• DQDB (Distributed Queues, Dual Bus)
• SMDS (Switched Megabit Data Services)
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Figure 13-1
DQDB Buses and Nodes

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Figure 13-2
DQDB Data Transmission

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Figure 13-3
Queues

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Figure 13-4
Distributed Queues

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Figure 13-5
Reservation Token

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Figure 13-6
DQDB Rings

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Figure 13-6-continued
DQDB Rings

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Figure 13-7
DQDB Layers

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Figure 13-8
Connecting LANs using T-Lines

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Figure 13-9

Switched Multimegabit Data Services

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Figure 13-10

Use of DQDB, Single LAN

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Figure 13-11

Use of DQDB, Multiple LANs

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Chapter 14
Switching

• Circuit Switching
• Packet Switching
• Message Switching

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Figure 14-1
Switched Network

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Figure 14-2

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Figure 14-3

Circuit-Switched Network

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Figure 14-4

Switch

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Figure 14-5
Folded Switch

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Figure 14-6

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Figure 14-7

Crossbar Switch

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Figure 14-8

Multistage Switch

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Figure 14-9

Switching Path

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Figure 14-9-continued

Switching Path

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Figure 14-10

TDM without TSI

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Figure 14-10-continued

TDM with TSI

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Figure 14-11
Time-Slot Interchange

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Figure 14-12
TST Switch

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Figure 14-13

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Figure 14-14

Datagram Approach

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Figure 14-15

Datagram Approach, Multiple Channels

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Figure 14-16

Switched Virtual Circuit

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Figure 14-16-continued

Switched Virtual Circuit

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Figure 14-16-continued

Switched Virtual Circuit

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Figure 14-17

Message Switching

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Chapter 15

Point-to-Point
Protocol

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Figure 15-1

Point-to-Point Link

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Figure 15-2
Transition States

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Figure 15-3

PPP Layers

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Figure 15-4

PPP Frames

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Figure 15-5

LCP Packet Encapsulated in a Frame

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Figure 15-6

PAP

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Figure 15-7

PAP Packets

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Figure 15-8
CHAP

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Figure 15-9
CHAP Packets

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Figure 15-10

IPCP Packet Encapsulated in PPP Frame

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Figure 15-11

An Example

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Chapter 16

Integrated
Services
Digital Network
(ISDN)
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Figure 16-1

ISDN Services

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Figure 16-2

Voice Communication over an


Analog Telephone Network

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Figure 16-3

Voice and Data Communication


over an Analog Telephone Network

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Figure 16-4
Analog and Digital Services
over the Telephone Network

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Figure 16-5
IDN

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Figure 16-6
ISDN

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Figure 16-7
BRI

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Figure 16-8
PRI

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Figure 16-9
Functional Grouping

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Figure 16-10
Reference Points

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Figure 16-11
ISDN Layers

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Figure 16-12
Simplified Layers of ISDN

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Figure 16-13
BRI Interfaces

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Figure 16-14

S Interface

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Figure 16-15
2B/1Q Encoding

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Figure 16-16
BRI Frame

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Figure 16-17

BRI
Topology

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Figure 16-18
PRI Interfaces

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Figure 16-19
PRI Frame

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Figure 16-20
LAPD Address Field

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Figure 16-21
Network Layer Packet Format

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Figure 16-22
Call Reference Field

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Figure 16-23
Information Elements

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Figure 16-24
Information Element Types

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Figure 16-25
Addressing in ISDN

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Figure 16-26
Bit Rates for Different Applications

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Figure 16-27
B-ISDN Services

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Figure 16-28
B-ISDN Accesses

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Chapter 17

X.25

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Figure 17-1

X.25

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Figure 17-2

X.25 Layers in Relation to the OSI Layers

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Figure 17-3

Format of a Frame

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Figure 17-4

Addressing at the Frame Layer

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Figure 17-5

Three Phases
of the
Frame Layer

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Figure 17-6

Frame Layer and Packet Layer Domains

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Figure 17-7

Virtual Circuits
in X.25

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Figure 17-8

LCNs in X.25

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Figure 17-9

LCN Assignments

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Figure 17-10

PLP Packet Format

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Figure 17-11

Categories of PLP Packets

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Figure 17-12

Data Packets in the PLP Layer

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Figure 17-13

RR, RNR, and REJ Packets

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Figure 17-14

Other Control Packets

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Figure 17-15
Control Packet Formats

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Figure 17-16

X.25 Address Format

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Figure 17-17

Triple-X Protocols

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Chapter 18

Frame
Relay

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Figure 18-1
Frame Relay versus Pure
Mesh T-Line Network

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Figure 18-2
Fixed-Rate versus Bursty Data

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Figure 18-3
X.25 Traffic

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Figure 18-4
Frame Relay Traffic

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Figure 18-5
Frame Relay Network

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Figure 18-6
DLCIs

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Figure 18-7
PVC DLCIs

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Figure 18-8
SVC Setup and Release

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Figure 18-9
SVC DLCIs

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Figure 18-10
DLCIs Inside a Network

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Figure 18-11
Frame Relay Switch

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Figure 18-12
Frame Relay Layers

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Figure 18-13
Comparing Layers in
Frame Relay and X.25

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Figure 18-14
Frame Relay Frame

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Figure 18-15
BECN

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Figure 18-16
FECN

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Figure 18-17
Four Cases of Congestion

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Figure 18-18

Leaky
Bucket

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Figure 18-19
A Switch Controlling the Output Rate

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Figure 18-20

Flowchart for Leaky


Bucket Algorithm

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Figure 18-21
Example of Leaky Bucket Algorithm

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Figure 18-22
Relationship between Traffic
Control Attributes

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Figure 18-23

User Rate in Relation to Bc and Bc + Be

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Figure 18-24
Three Address Formats

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Figure 18-25
FRAD

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Chapter 19

ATM

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Figure 19-1

Multiplexing Using Different Packet Sizes

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Figure 19-2

Multiplexing Using Cells

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Figure 19-3

ATM Multiplexing

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Figure 19-4

Architecture of an ATM Network

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Figure 19-5

TP, VPs, and VCs

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Figure 19-6

Example of VPs and VCs

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Figure 19-7

Connection Identifiers

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Figure 19-8
Virtual Connection Identifiers
in UNIs and NNIs

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Figure 19-9

An ATM Cell

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Figure 19-10

SVC
Setup

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Figure 19-11

Routing with a VP Switch

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Figure 19-12

A Conceptual View of a VP Switch

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Figure 19-13

Routing with a VPC Switch

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Figure 19-14

A Conceptual View of a VPC Switch

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Figure 19-15

Crossbar Switch

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Figure 19-16
Knockout Switch

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Figure 19-17
A Banyan Switch

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Figure 19-18-Part I

Example of Routing in a Banyan Switch (a)

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Figure 19-18-Part II

Example of Routing in a Banyan Switch (b)

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Figure 19-19

Batcher-Banyan Switch

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Figure 19-20

ATM Layers

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Figure 19-21

ATM Layers in End-Point Devices and Switches

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Figure 19-22

AAL Types

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Figure 19-23

AAL1

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Figure 19-24

AAL2

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Figure 19-25
AAL3/4

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Figure 19-26
AAL5

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Figure 19-27

ATM Layer

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Figure 19-28
ATM Header

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Figure 19-29

PT Fields

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Figure 19-30

Service Classes

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Figure 19-31

Service Classes and Capacity of Network

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Figure 19-32

QoS

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Figure 19-33

ATM WAN

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Figure 19-34

Ethernet Switch and ATM Switch

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Figure 19-35

LANE Approach

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Figure 19-36
LEC, LES, and BUS

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Chapter 20

SONET/SDH

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Figure 20-1

A SONET System

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Figure 20-2

An Example of a SONET Network

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Figure 20-3

SONET Layers

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Figure 20-4

Device-Layer Relationship in SONET

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Figure 20-5

Data Encapsulation in SONET

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Figure 20-6

STS-1 Frame

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Figure 20-7
STS-1 Frame Overhead

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Figure 20-8

STS-1 Frame Section Overhead

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Figure 20-9
STS-1 Frame Line Overhead

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Figure 20-10

Payload Pointers

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Figure 20-11
STS-1 Frame Path Overhead

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Figure 20-12

Virtual Tributaries

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Figure 20-13

VT Types

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Figure 20-14

STS-n

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Figure 20-15

STS Multiplexing

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Figure 20-16

ATM in an STS-3 Envelope

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Chapter 21

Networking
and
Internetworking
Devices
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Figure 21-1

Connecting Devices

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Figure 21-2

Connecting Devices and the OSI Model

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Figure 21-3

A Repeater in the OSI Model

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Figure 21-4

A Repeater

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Figure 21-5

Function of a Repeater

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Figure 21-6

A Bridge in the OSI Model

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Figure 21-7

A Bridge

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Figure 21-8

Function of a Bridge

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Figure 21-9

Multiport Bridge

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Figure 21-10

A Router in the OSI Model

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Figure 21-11

Routers in an Internet

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Figure 21-12

A Gateway in the OSI Model

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Figure 21-13

A Gateway

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Figure 21-14
Single-Protocol versus
Multiprotocol Router

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Figure 21-15
Brouter

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Figure 21-16
Switch

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Figure 21-17
Example of an Internet

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Figure 21-18
The Concept of Distance
Vector Routing

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Figure 21-19

Distance Vector Routing Table

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Figure 21-20

Routing Table Distribution

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Figure 21-21

Updating Routing Table for Router A

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Figure 21-22
Final Routing Tables

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Figure 21-23
Example 21.1

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Figure 21-24
Concept of Link State Routing

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Figure 21-25
Cost in Link State Routing

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Figure 21-26

Link State Packet

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Figure 21-27
Flooding of A’s LSP

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Figure 21-28
Link State Database

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Figure 21-29

Costs in the Dijkstra Algorithm

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Figure 21-30, Part I

Shortest Path Calculation, Part I

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Figure 21-30, Part II

Shortest Path Calculation, Part II

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Figure 21-30, Part III

Shortest Path Calculation, Part III

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Figure 21-30, Part IV

Shortest Path Calculation, Part IV

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Figure 21-30, Part V

Shortest Path Calculation, Part V

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Figure 21-30, Part VI

Shortest Path Calculation, Part VI

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Figure 21-31, Part VII

Shortest Path Calculation, Part VII

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Figure 21-31, Part I

Shortest Path Calculation, Part VIII

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Figure 21-31, Part II

Shortest Path Calculation, Part IX

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Figure 21-31, Part III

Shortest Path Calculation, Part X

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Figure 21-31, Part IV
Shortest Path Calculation, Part XI

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Figure 21-31, Part V

Shortest Path Calculation, Part XII

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Figure 21-31, Part VI

Shortest Path Calculation, Part XIII

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Figure 21-32
Routing Table for Router A

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Chapter 22
Network Layer:
Delivery, Forwarding,
and Routing

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Introduction
• This chapter describes the delivery,
forwarding, and routing of IP packets to their
final destinations.
– Delivery - the way a packet is handled by the underlying networks
network layer.
– Forwarding - the way a packet is delivered to the next station.
– Routing - the way routing tables are created to help in forwarding.
• Routing protocols - continuously update - are consulted for
forwarding and routing.

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22-1 DELIVERY

The network layer supervises the handling of the


packets by the underlying physical networks. We define
this handling as the delivery of a packet.

Topics discussed in this section:


Direct Versus Indirect Delivery

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2
• Occurs when the Direct Delivery
source and destination
of the packet are
located on the same
physical network or
when the delivery is
between the last
router and the
destination host.
• How to determine if
the delivery is direct?
• extract the network address of
the destination (using the mask)
and compare this address with
the addresses of the networks to
which it is connected. If a match
is found, the delivery is direct.
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2
Indirect Delivery
• If the destination host is
not on the same
network as the
deliverer, the packet is
delivered indirectly.
• The packet goes from
router to router until it
reaches the one
connected to the same
physical network as its
final destination.
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2
22-2 FORWARDING

Forwarding means to place the packet in its route to its


destination. Forwarding requires a host or a router to
have a routing table. When a host has a packet to send
or when a router has received a packet to be forwarded,
it looks at this table to find the route to the final
destination.

Topics discussed in this section:


Forwarding Techniques
Forwarding Process
Routing Table

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2
Next-Hop Method Versus Route Method
• One technique to reduce the contents of a routing table is called the next-hop
method.
• In this technique, the routing table holds only the address of the next hop instead of
information about the complete route (route method).
• The entries of a routing table must be consistent with one another.
• Figure 22.2 shows how routing tables can be simplified by using this technique.

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2
Network-Specific Method Versus Host-Specific Method

• A second technique to reduce the routing table


and simplify the searching process is called the
network-specific method.
• instead of having an entry for every destination host connected to the same
physical network (host-specific method), we have only one entry that defines
the address of the destination network itself.
• In other words, we treat all hosts connected to the same network as one single
entity.
• For example, if 1000 hosts are attached to the same network, only one entry
exists in the routing table instead of 1000.

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2
Default Method
• Another technique to simplify
routing is called the default
method.
• Figure shows host A is
connected to a network with two
routers.
• Router Rl routes the packets to
hosts connected to network N2.
• However, for the rest of the
Internet, router R2 is used.
• So instead of listing all networks
in the entire Internet, host A can
just have one entry called the
default (normally defined as
network address 0.0.0.0).

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2
Simplified forwarding
module in classless
address

• Let us discuss the forwarding process.


• We assume that hosts and routers use classless addressing because classful
addressing can be treated as a special case of classless addressing.
• In classless addressing, the routing table needs to have one row of
information for each block involved.
• The table needs to be searched based on the network address (first address
in the block).
• Unfortunately, the destination address in the packet gives no clue about the
network address.
• To solve the problem, we need to include the mask (In) in the table; we
need to have an extra column that includes the mask for the corresponding
block.

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2
Example 22.1
Make a routing table for router R1, using the configuration
in figure below.

m
3

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2
Solution Routing table for router R1

m
3

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2
Figure 22.6
Configuration for Example 22.1

Example 22.2
Show the forwarding process if a packet
arrives at R1 in Figure 22.6 with the
destination address 180.70.65.140.

Solution
The router performs the following steps:
1. The first mask (/26) is applied to the destination address.
The result is 180.70.65.128, which does not match the
corresponding network address.
2. The second mask (/25) is applied to the destination
address. The result is 180.70.65.128, which matches the
corresponding network address. The next-hop address
and the interface number m0 are passed to ARP for
further processing.
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2
Figure 22.6
Configuration for Example 22.1

Example 22.3
Show the forwarding process if a packet arrives
at R1 in Figure 22.6 with the destination
address 201.4.22.35.

Solution
The router performs the following steps:
1. The first mask (/26) is applied to the destination
address. The result is 201.4.22.0, which does not
match the corresponding network address.

2. The second mask (/25) is applied to the destination address. The result is
201.4.22.0, which does not match the corresponding network address (row 2).

3. The third mask (/24) is applied to the destination address. The result is
201.4.22.0, which matches the corresponding network address. The destination
address of the packet and the interface number m3 are passed to ARP.
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2
Figure 22.6
Configuration for Example 22.1

Example 22.4

Show the forwarding process if a packet arrives


at R1 in Figure 22.6 with the destination
address 18.24.32.78.

Solution

This time all masks are applied, one by one, to the destination address, but no
matching network address is found.

When it reaches the end of the table, the module gives the next-hop address
180.70.65.200 and interface number m2 to ARP.

This is probably an outgoing package that needs to be sent, via the default router,
to someplace else in the Internet.
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2
22-3 UNICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS
A routing table can be either static or dynamic. A static
table is one with manual entries. A dynamic table is one
that is updated automatically when there is a change
somewhere in the Internet. A routing protocol is a
combination of rules and procedures that lets routers in
the Internet inform each other of changes.
Topics discussed in this section:
Optimization
Intra- and Interdomain Routing
Distance Vector Routing and RIP
Link State Routing and OSPF
Path Vector Routing and BGP
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2
Intra- and Interdomain Routing
• One routing protocol cannot handle the
task of updating the routing tables of all
routers in Internet is so large that. For
this reason, an internet is divided into
autonomous systems.

• An autonomous system (AS) is a group


of networks and routers under the
authority of a single administration.

• Routing inside an autonomous system is referred to as intradomain routing.

• Routing between autonomous systems is referred to as interdomain routing.

• Each autonomous system can choose one or more intradomain routing protocols to
handle routing inside the autonomous system. However, only one interdomain routing
protocol handles routing between autonomous systems (see Figure 22.12).

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2
Example of Routing Protocols

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2
Distance vector routing tables

• In distance vector routing, each node shares its routing table


with its immediate neighbors periodically and when there is a
change.
• The chosen route is with minimum distance.

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2
Updating in distance vector routing

• Process:
i. Initialization
• Each node can know only distance with its immediate
neighbors.
• Not neighbor; entry in table is mark as infinite(unreachable)
ii. Sharing
• Sharing table with neighbors.
iii. Updating
• Update the routing table: calculate the distance, add new
node, modify the existing record if needed.
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2
Link state routing
Link state routing has a different philosophy from distance
vector routing. Each node in the domain has the entire
topology of the domain- the list of nodes and links, how
they are connected including the type, cost (metric), and
condition of the links (up or down)-the node can use
Dijkstra's algorithm to build a routing table.

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2
22-4 MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS

In this section, we discuss multicasting and multicast


routing protocols.

Topics discussed in this section:


Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast
Applications
Multicast Routing
Routing Protocols
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2
Unicasting

- In unicast communication, there is one


source and one destination.
- A unicast packet starts from the source
S1 and passes through routers to reach
the destination D1.
- In unicasting, when a router receives a
packet,Asmatullah
it forwards
Khan @ Maventhe packet
Academe, through 2
Secunderabad.
Multicasting

- One source & a group of destinations.


- The relationship is one-to-many.
- In this type of communication, the
source address is a unicast address,
but the destination address is a group
address, which defines one or more
destinations.
- The group address identifies the members
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2
Broadcasting
- In broadcast communication, the
relationship between the
source and the destination is one-to-all.
- There is only one source, but all the
other hosts are the
destinations.
- The Internet does not explicitly support
broadcasting
because of the
Asmatullah huge
Khan @ amount
Maven Academe, of traffic it2
Secunderabad.
Multicasting versus multiple unicasting

Multicasting starts with one


single packet from the source
that is duplicated by the
routers. The destination
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2
Multicasting versus multiple unicasting

In multiple unicasting, several packets


start from the source. If there are five
destinations, for example, the source
sends five packets, each with a different
unicast destination address. Note that
there may be multiple copies traveling
between twoKhan
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2
Chapter 23

Upper
OSI
Layers

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Figure 23-1

Session Layer Dialog

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Figure 23-2

Session-to-Transport Layer Communication

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Figure 23-3

Synchronization Points

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Figure 23-4

SPDU

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Figure 23-5

Presentation Layer Functions

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Figure 23-6

Direct and Indirect Methods of Translation

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Figure 23-7

Concept of Encryption and Decryption

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Figure 23-8

Encryption/Decryption Methods

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Figure 23-9

Monoalphabetic Substitution

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Figure 23-10

Polyalphabetic Substitution

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Figure 23-11

Transpositional Encryption

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Figure 23-12

Encoding/Decoding

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Figure 23-13

Permutation

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Figure 23-14
Substitution

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Figure 23-15
Product

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Figure 23-16
Exclusive OR

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Figure 23-17

Rotation

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Figure 23-18

DES

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Figure 23-19
Subkey Generation in DES

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Figure 23-20
One of the 16
Steps in DES

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Figure 23-21
Public Key Encryption

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Figure 23-22

RSA

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Figure 23-23

RSA Encryption and Decryption

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Figure 23-24

Security of RSA

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Figure 23-25

Signature Authentication

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Figure 23-26

Data Compression Methods

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Figure 23-27

Run-Length Encoding

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Figure 23-28

MHS

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Figure 23-29

Message Format in MHS

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Figure 23-30
Virtual File Storage

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Figure 23-31

Local Access

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Figure 23-32

Remote Access

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Figure 23-33

Virtual Terminal

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Chapter 24

TCP/IP

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Figure 24-1

An Internet According to TCP/IP

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Figure 24-2
TCP/IP and the OSI Model

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Figure 24-3
IP Datagram

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Figure 24-4

Internet Address

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Figure 24-5

Internet Classes

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Figure 24-6

IP Addresses in Decimal Notation

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Figure 24-7
Class Ranges of Internet Addresses

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Figure 24-8
Network and Host Addresses

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Figure 24-9

A Network with Two Levels of Hierarchy

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Figure 24-10

A Network with Three Levels of Hierarchy

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Figure 24-11

Addresses with and without Subnetting

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Figure 24-12
Masking

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Figure 24-13
ARP

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Figure 24-14
Port Addresses

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Figure 24-15

UDP Datagram Format

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Figure 24-16

TCP Segment Format

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Chapter 25

TCP/IP
Protocol Suite:
Part 2,
Application Layer
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Figure 25-1

Comparison between OSI and TCP/IP

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Figure 25-2

Client-Server Model

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Figure 25-3

DNS in the Internet

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Figure 25-4

Generic Domains

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Figure 25-5

Country Domains

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Figure 25-6
Inverse Domain

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Figure 25-7
Local Login

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Figure 25-8

Remote Login

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Figure 25-9
Concept of NVT

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Figure 25-10

FTP

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Figure 25-11

SMTP Concept

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Figure 25-12

UAs and MTs

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Figure 25-13

Relay MTAs

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Figure 25-14

Mail Gateways

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Figure 25-15

E-mail Address

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Figure 25-16
The Entire E-mail System

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Figure 25-17

MIME

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Figure 25-18
POP3 and SMTP

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Figure 25-19

SNMP Concept

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Figure 25-20

Internet Management Components

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Figure 25-21

MIB

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Figure 25-22
SNMP Messages

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Figure 25-23

HTTP Transaction

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Figure 25-24

Message Categories

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Figure 25-25
Request Message

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Figure 25-26

Response Message

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Figure 25-27

URL

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Figure 25-28
Distributed Services

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Figure 25-29

Hypertext

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Figure 25-30

Browser Architecture

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Figure 25-31

Categories of Web Documents

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Figure 25-32
Static Document

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Figure 25-33

Boldface Tags

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Figure 25-34

Effect of Boldface Tags

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Figure 25-35

Beginning and Ending Tags

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Figure 25-36

Dynamic
Document

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Figure 25-37

Active
Document

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