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Kosygin Leishangthem
Concrete is the second most consumed material in the
world after water and it is used most widely in the
construction industry due to its high compressive
strength and other properties.
Concrete is good in resisting compression but is very weak in resisting tension. Hence
reinforcement is provided in the concrete wherever tensile stress is expected. The best
reinforcement is steel, since tensile strength of steel is quite high and the bond
between steel and concrete is good. As the elastic modulus of steel is high, for the
same extension the force resisted by steel is high compared to concrete.
The composite material of steel and concrete now called R.C.C. acts as a structural
member and can resist tensile as well as compressive stresses very well.
Properties of R.C.C./Requirement of Good R.C.C.
1. It should be capable of resisting expected tensile, compressive, bending and shear forces.
2. It should not show excessive deflection and spoil serviceability requirement.
3. There should be proper cover to the reinforcement, so that the corrossion is prevented.
4. The hair cracks developed should be within the permissible limit.
5. It is a good fire resistant material.
6. When it is fresh, it can be moulded to any desired shape and size.
7. Durability is very good.
8. R.C.C. structure can be designed to take any load.
Uses of R.C.C.
It is a widely used building material. Some of its important uses are listed below:
1. R.C.C. is used as a structural element, the common structural elements in a building
where R.C.C. is used are:
(a) Footings (b) Columns (c) Beams and lintels
(d) Chejjas, roofs and slabs. (e) Stairs.
2. R.C.C. is used for the construction of storage structures like
(a) Water tanks (b) Dams
(c) Bins (d) Silos and bunkers.
3. It is used for the construction of big structures like
(a) Bridges (b) Retaining walls (c) Docks and harbours
(d) Under water structures.
4. It is used for pre-casting
(a) Railway sleepers (b) Electric poles
5. R.C.C. is used for constructing tall structures like
(a) Multistorey buildings (b) Chimneys (c) Towers.
6. It is used for paving
(a) Roads (b) Airports.
7. R.C.C. is used in building atomic plants to prevent danger of radiation.
For this purpose R.C.C. walls built are 1.5 m to 2.0 m thick.
13 Types of Cement and their Uses in Concrete Construction
There are various types of cement used in concrete construction. Each type of cement has its
own properties, uses and advantages based on composition materials used during its
13 Types of Cement and their Uses
7. Blast Furnace Slag Cement
1.Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)
8. High Alumina Cement
2.Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC)
9. White Cement
3.Rapid Hardening Cement
10. Coloured cement
4.Quick setting cement
11. Air Entraining Cement
5.Low Heat Cement
12. Expansive cement
6.Sulphates resisting cement
13. Hydrographic cement
Properties of Concrete
Properties of concrete are influenced by many factors mainly due to mix proportion of
cement, sand, aggregates and water. Ratio of these materials control the various concrete
properties which are discussed below.

1. Grades (M20, M25, M30 etc.)

2. Compressive strength
3. Characteristic Strength
4. Tensile strength
5. Durability
6. Creep
7. Shrinkage
8. Unit weight
9. Modular Ratio
10. Poisson’s ratio
Grades of concrete
Concrete is known by its grade which is designated as M15, M20 etc. in which letter M
refers to concrete mix and number 15, 20 denotes the specified compressive strength (fck)
of 150mm cube at 28 days, expressed in N/mm2.
Thus, concrete is known by its compressive strength. M20 and M25 are the most common
grades of concrete, and higher grades of concrete should be used for severe, very severe
and extreme environments.
Compressive strength of concrete
Like load, the strength of the concrete is also a quality which varies considerably for the
same concrete mix. Therefore, a single representative value, known as characteristic
strength is used.
Characteristic strength of concrete
It is defined as the value of the strength below which not more then 5% of the test results
are expected to fall (i.e. there is 95% probability of achieving this value only 5% of not
achieving the same)
Characteristic strength of concrete in flexural member
The characteristic strength of concrete in flexural member is taken as 0.67 times the
strength of concrete cube.
Design strength (fd) and partial safety factor for material strength
The strength to be taken for the purpose of design is known is known as design strength and
is given by
Design strength (fd) = characteristic strength/ partial safety factor for material strength
The value of partial safety factor depends upon the type of material and upon the type of
limit state. According to IS code, partial safety factor is taken as 1.5 for concrete and 1.15
for steel.
Design strength of concrete in member = 0.45fck
Tensile strength of concrete
The estimate of flexural tensile strength or the modulus of rupture or the cracking strength
of concrete from cube compressive strength is obtained by the relations
fcr = 0.7 fck N/mm2
The tensile strength of concrete in direct tension is obtained experimentally by split
cylinder. It varies between 1/8 to 1/12 of cube compressive strength.
Creep in concrete
Creep is defined as the plastic deformation under sustain load. Creep strain depends
primarily on the duration of sustained loading. According to the code, the value of the
ultimate creep coefficient is taken as 1.6 at 28 days of loading.
Shrinkage of Concrete
The property of diminishing in volume during the process of drying and hardening is
termed Shrinkage. It depends mainly on the duration of exposure. If this strain is prevented,
it produces tensile stress in the concrete and hence concrete develops cracks.
Modular ratio
Short term modular ratio is the modulus of elasticity of steel to the modulus of elasticity of
Short term modular ratio = Es / Ec
Es = modulus of elasticity of steel (2×10 5 N/mm2)
Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete (5000 x SQRT(fck) N/mm2)

As the modulus of elasticity of concrete changes with time, age at loading etc the modular
ratio also changes accordingly. Taking into account the effects of creep and shrinkage
partially IS code gives the following expression for the long term modular ratio.

Long term modular ratio (m) = 280/ (3fcbc)

Where, fcbc = permissible compressive stress due to bending in concrete in N/mm2.

Poisson’s ratio
Poisson’s ratio varies between 0.1 for high strength concrete and 0.2 for weak mixes. It is
normally taken as 0.15 for strength design and 0.2 for serviceability criteria.

Durability of concrete
Durability of concrete is its ability to resist its disintegration and decay. One of the chief
characteristics influencing durability of concrete is its permeability to increase of water and
other potentially deleterious materials.
The desired low permeability in concrete is achieved by having adequate cement, sufficient
low water/cement ratio, by ensuring full compaction of concrete and by adequate curing.

Unit weight of concrete

The unit weight of concrete depends on percentage of reinforcement, type of aggregate,
amount of voids and varies from 23 to 26 kN/m2. The unit weight of plain and reinforced
concrete as specified by IS:456 are 24 and 25KN/m3 respectively.
Characteristic strength
Characteristic strength is defined as that
level of strength below which a specified
proportion of all valid test results is
expected to fail. Unless otherwise stated,
this proportion is taken to be 5%. Due to
the variability of constituent materials and
testing, the concrete must be designed to
meet a target mean strength, i.e. a margin
above the characteristic strength is
Therefore, characteristic strength = Mean strength – k S
required to give a 95% confidence in where S is the standard deviation, k=1.64,
achieving the characteristic. The margin is corresponding to 5% probability
based on 1.64 standard deviations (sd),
where a typical production sd may be
Characteristic Strength of Concrete Grades of Concrete,
The term characteristic strength means that value Characteristic Strength of Concrete
of strength of material below which not more than Compressive
Group Designation
5% of the test results are expected to fall. It is Strength,
fck (N/mm2)
denoted by fck is N/mm2. The value of fck for
M10 10
different grades of concrete are specified by IS Ordinary
M15 15
code 456:2000 Concrete
M20 20
M25 25
M30 30
M35 35
M40 40
M45 45
M50 50
M55 55
M60 60
High M65 65
Strength M70 70
Concrete M75 75
M80 80
Compressive Strength
Concrete Grade Mix Ratio
MPa (N/mm2) psi
Normal Grade of Concrete
M5 1 : 5 : 10 5 MPa 725 psi
M7.5 1 :4 :8 7.5 MPa 1087 psi
M10 1 :3 :6 10 MPa 1450 psi
M15 1 :2 :4 15 MPa 2175 psi
M20 1 : 1.5 : 3 20 MPa 2900 psi
Standard Grade of Concrete
M25 1 :1 :2 25 MPa 3625 psi
M30 Design Mix 30 MPa 4350 psi
M35 Design Mix 35 MPa 5075 psi
M40 Design Mix 40 MPa 5800 psi
M45 Design Mix 45 MPa 6525 psi
High Strength Concrete Grades
M50 Design Mix 50 MPa 7250 psi
M55 Design Mix 55 MPa 7975 psi
M60 Design Mix 60 MPa 8700 psi
M65 Design Mix 65 MPa 9425 psi
M70 Design Mix 70 MPa 10150 psi
Characteristic Load or ultimate load
The characteristic load is the ultimate load that is liable to come on structure
during its lifetime. The characteristic load or ultimate load is given as
Characteristic load or ultimate load = Mean load + 1.64 S

Characteristic load is that value of load which has a 95 percent probability of not being
exceeded during the life time of the structure. In absence of any data, loads given in
various standards shall be assumed as the characteristic loads. The following standards
may be used for this purpose.
IS 875 (Part 1) – for dead loads
IS 875 (Part 2) – for imposed loads
IS 875 (Part 3) – for wind loads
IS 875 (Part 4) – for snow loads
IS 1893 (Part 1) – for earthquake loads
Factor of safety
1.Definition: The factor by which the yield stress of the material of a member is divided to
arrive at the permissible stress in the material.
2.Purpose: to determine the permissible stress in the structure.
3.Application: Working Stress Method (WSM).
4.Example: Working stress(permissible stress in WSM)=Yield stress(fy)/FOS
5.FOS for steel =1.5 to 1.8, concrete=3, timber=3 to 5
Partial factor of safety
1.Definition: The factor normally greater than unity by which either the loads(actions)
are multiplied or the resistance are divided to obtain the design value.
2.Purpose: to determine design value of load and permissible value of stress.
3.Application: Limit State Design Method.
4.It is of two types: a) Partial FOS for load b) Partial FOS for material strength
5.Example: Design load= partial FOS for load *service load; Permissible
stress=Characteristic stress/partial FOS for material strength
6.Partial FOS for load ranges from 0.6 to 1.5 while partial FOS for material strength
ranges from 1.10 to 1.50.
Workability is one of the physical parameters of
concrete which affects the strength and durability
as well as the cost of labour and appearance of
the finished product. Concrete is said to be
workable when it is easily placed and
compacted homogeneously i.e without bleeding
or Segregation. Unworkable concrete needs
more work or effort to be compacted in place,
also honeycombs &/or pockets may also be
visible in finished concrete.
The property of fresh concrete which is indicated by the amount of useful internal
work required to fully compact the concrete without bleeding or segregation in the
finished product.
Factors affecting workability of concrete:
1.Water content in the concrete mix
2.Amount of cement & its Properties
3.Aggregate Grading (Size Distribution)
4.Nature of Aggregate Particles (Shape, Surface Texture, Porosity etc.)
5.Temperature of the concrete mix
6.Humidity of the environment
7.Mode of compaction
8.Method of placement of concrete
9.Method of transmission of concrete
Types of Workability of Concrete
Workability of concrete can be divided into following three types:
1.Unworkable Concrete
2.Medium Workable
3.Highly Workable Concrete

1. Unworkable Concrete – Harsh Concrete

An unworkable concrete can also be called as harsh concrete. It is a concrete with very little
amount of water. The hand mixing of such concrete is not easy.
Such type of concrete has high segregation of aggregates as cement paste is not lubricated
properly to stick to the aggregates. It is very difficult to maintain the homogeneity of
concrete mix and compaction of concrete requires much effort. Water cement ratio of such
concrete is below 0.4.
2. Medium Workable Concrete
This type of concrete workability is used in most of the construction works. This concrete is
relatively easy to mix, transport, place and compact without much segregation and loss of
This type of concrete workability is generally used in all concrete construction with light
reinforcement (spacing of reinforcement is which allows the concrete to be compacted
effectively). Water cement ratio for medium workable concrete is 0.4 to 0.55.
3. Highly Workable Concrete
A highly workable concrete is very easy to mix, transport, place and compact in structures.
Such concrete is used where effective compaction of concrete is not possible or in mass
concrete. Such concrete flow easily and settle down without much effort. But there is high
chances of segregation and loss of homogeneity in this case.
The coarse aggregates tend to settle at the bottom and the concrete paste comes up. Such
concrete is used in case of heavy reinforcement is used where vibration of concrete is not
possible. Example of highly workable concrete is self-compacting concrete. Water cement
ratio of such concrete is more than 0.55.
Workability Vs. Strength of Concrete
The following figure explains the relation between workability and compressive strength of

As you can see from figure, the strength of

concrete decreases with increase in water
cement ratio. The increase in water cement
ratio indicates increase in workability of
concrete. Thus, the strength of concrete
inversely proportional to the workability of
Depending upon the water cement ratio in the concrete mix, the workability may be
determined by the following three methods.
1.Slump Test
2.Compaction Factor Test
3.Vee-bee Consistometer Test
1.Slump Test
This test is carried out with a mould called slump cone
whose top diameter is 10 cm, bottom diameter is 20 cm
and height is 30 cm.

Recommend slump in
Type of Construction mm
Minimum Maximum
Pavements 25 50
Mass concrete structure 25 50
Unreinforced footings 25 75
Caissons and bridge decks 25 75
Reinforced foundation,
50 100
footings and walls
Reinforced slabs and beams 30 125
Columns 75 125
According to this test, the workability may be defined as
the amount of applied work required to compact the
concrete to its maximum density.
This method is adopted for determining the workability of
concrete mix in laboratories. It gives fairly good results for
concrete of low workability.
Conditions Degree Values of Workability

Concreting of shallow sections 20 – 10 seconds Vee-Bee time

Very low
with vibrations or 0.75 to 0.80 compacting factor

Concreting of lightly reinforced 10 – 5 seconds Vee-Bee time or

sections with vibrations 0.80 to 0.85 compacting factor

Concreting of lightly reinforced 5-2 seconds Vee-Bee time or

sections without vibrations or 0.85 to 0.92 compacting factor or
heavily reinforced sections with 25 – 75 mm slumps for 20 mm
vibrations aggregates

Above 0.92 compacting factor or 75

Concreting of heavily reinforced
High – 125 mm slump for 20 mm
sections without vibrations
The apparatus used in this method of test is shown below.
This method is suitable for dry concrete having very low

Workability Slump in Compacti
Time in
Description mm ng Factor
Extremely dry – 32 – 18
Very stiff – 18 – 10 0.70
Stiff 0 – 25 10 – 5 0.75
Stiff plastic 25 – 50 5–3 0.85
Plastic 75 – 100 3–0 0.90
Flowing 150 – 175 – 0.95
Creep Definition
Creep of concrete is the continued deformation with time under applied load. Sometimes it
is defined as increase in strain in concrete with time under sustained stress. This is also
known as plastic flow or time yield. The rate of creep decrease with time and the creep
strains at five years are taken as terminal values. Creep increases rapidly with the stress,
loading at an early age of concrete, broken ballast, soft and porous aggregate, poorly graded
and improperly compacted concrete.
Factors Affecting Creep
2.Mix Proportions
3.Age of concrete

The rate of creep is increased with increasing water cement ratio.
It is influenced by humidity and drying condition of the atmosphere.
The rate of creep rapidly decreases with time. The time taken by a concrete structure to attained creep
is 5 years.
Aggregates with moisture movement and low elastic modulus cause a large amount of creep. The rate
of creep generally decreases with the increase of the size of aggregates.
Some admixtures (mainly accelerators) are also responsible for causing creep in concrete.
1. Types of cement.
2. Entrained air.
3. Concrete strength.
4. Improper curing etc.
The volumetric changes of concrete structures due to the loss of moisture by evaporation is
known as concrete shrinkage or shrinkage of concrete. It is a time-dependent deformation
which reduces the volume of concrete without the impact of external forces.
The types of concrete shrinkage are listed below:
Plastic shrinkage occurs very soon after pouring the concrete in the forms. The hydration of cement
results in a reduction in the volume of concrete due to evaporation from the surface of concrete,
which leads to cracking.
The shrinkage that appears after the setting and hardening of the concrete mixture due to loss of
capillary water is known as drying shrinkage. Drying shrinkage generally occurs in the first few
months and decreases with time.
Carbonation shrinkage occurs due to the reaction of carbon dioxide (Co2) with the hydrated cement
minerals, carbonating Ca(Oh)2 to CaCo3. The carbonation slowly penetrates the outer surface of the
concrete. This type of shrinkage mainly occurs at medium humidities and results increased strength
and reduced permeability.
Autogenous shrinkage occurs due to no moisture movement from concrete paste under constant
temperature. It is a minor problem of concrete and can be ignored.
The shrinkage of concrete depends on several factors which are listed below.
1. WATER-CEMENT RATIO: shrinkage is mostly influenced by the water cement ratio of concrete. It increases with
the increases in the water-cement ratio.
2. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION: It is one of the major factors that affect the total volume of shrinkage.
Shrinkage is mostly occurred due to the drying condition of the atmosphere. It increases with the decrease in the
3. TIME: The rate of shrinkage rapidly decreases with time. It is found that 14-34% of the 20 years shrinkage occurs
in two weeks, 40-80% shrinkage occurs in three months and the rest 66-85% shrinkage occurs in one year.
4. TYPE OF AGGREGATE: Aggregates with moisture movement and low elastic modulus cause large shrinkage. The
rate of shrinkage generally decreases with the increase of the size of aggregates. It is found that concrete made
from sandstone shrinks twice than the concrete of limestone.
5. ADMIXTURES: The shrinkage increases with the addition of accelerating admixtures due to the presence of
calcium chloride (CaCl2) in it And it can be reduced by lime replacement.
Other Factors:
•The type and quantity of cement.
•Granular and microbiological composition of aggregates.
•The strength of concrete.
•The method of curing.
•The dimension of elements etc.
The factors which affect the properties of concrete (workability, bond strength, tensile strength,
creep, shrinkage, bleeding, segregation, etc) are described below.

Strength elasticity, durability, and impermeability of concrete are increased with the decrease in
water-cement ratio, provided the concrete is workable. Shrinkage is increased with greater w/c
With increases in cement content, w/c ratio decreased and consequently, strength, elasticity,
durability, and permeability is increased. More cement improves workability but it also increases
shrinkage which is undesirable.
The rate of setting and hardening of concrete is high at higher temperature. If the temperature of
concrete falls below 0°C, free water in concrete turns into ice crystals and since ice has greater
volume than the same quantity of water, the concrete is completely disrupted.
Such concrete on thawing will have no strength. If the temperature is more than the freezing
temperature, cool concreting gives better ultimate strength, durability and less shrinkage.
The strength of concrete goes on increasing with age, though the rate of increase becomes very
slow with the passage of time. The following table gives some ides of strength development with
Size, shape, and grading of aggregates, control concrete properties to a large extent. Rounded
aggregates give better workability than flaky and angular aggregates. Larger the size of the
aggregate, greater will be the strength, provided concrete mix is workable. Property graded
aggregates give better workability and strength.
Strength in percentage
Rapid hardening
Ordinary cement
7 days 35% 65%
28 days 60% 90%
3 months 85% 95%
1 year 100% 100%
Curing is the process of keeping the setting concrete damp so that complete hydration of
cement is brought about. Besides strength the curing affects following qualities:
a) It improves wear-resisting and weather resisting qualities.
b) It increases impermeability and durability.
c) It reduces shrinkage.
The frost causes disintegration of concrete and as such strength, durability and
impermeability are reduced. Resistance to frost action depends upon the structure of the
pores in the concrete.
The entrained air in concrete is due to incomplete compaction. It has the effect of reducing
the strength of concrete. With 1% of entrained air, the strength of concrete is reduced by
5%. It also increases permeability of concrete.
Bleeding can be defined as the tendency of
water to rise to the surface of freshly placed
concrete. It is another form of segregation
where some amount of water comes to the
concrete surface after placing and compacting,
before setting. The water content carries some
particles of sand and cementing materials.
Sometimes bleeding helps to reduce the plastic
shrinkage cracks in concrete.
1. Concrete loses its homogeneity which results in weak and porous concrete.
2. It makes the concrete permeable.
3. It delays the surface finishing in pavement construction.
4. Bleeding of concrete causes high water-cement ratio at the top surface.
5. The bond between two concrete layers become weaker.
6. Pumping ability of concrete is significantly reduced.
Bleeding in concrete can be reduced by taking following precautions:
1. Design the concrete mix properly.
2. Add minimum water content in the concrete mix.
3. Add more cement in the mix.
4. Increase the amount of fine particles in the sand.
5. Use a little amount of air entraining admixture.
6. Use more finely ground cement.
The stress-strain curve for hardened cement paste is almost linear as shown in the figure.
The aggregate is more rigid than the cement paste and will therefore deform less (i.e. have
a lower strain) under the same applied stress.
The stress strain curve of concrete lies between
those of the aggregate and the cement paste.
However this relationship is non-linear over the
most of the range. The reason for this non-linear
behaviour is that micro-cracks are formed-
(i) At the interface between aggregate particles
and cement paste as a result of the differential
movement between the two phases, and
(ii) Within the cement paste itself.
These cracks are formed as a result of changes in temperature and moisture and the
application of load. Concrete taken through a cycle of loading and unloading will exhibit a
stress-strain curve as shown in the figure below.

The concrete will not return to its original length

when unloading mainly due to creep and micro-
crackling, in other words, there will be a residual
strain at zero load. This is known as hysteresis
loop which is largely related to micro-cracking.
Providing the maximum applied load is not greater
than the normal working load, then further cycles
of loading and unloading will produce small size
hysteresis loops. This is because the majority of
the micro-cracks are formed on the first
application of the load.
Characteristic Strength of Steel S.No.
Type of
Relevant Indian
Reinforcement Standard
The characteristic strength of steel is taken
as the minimum yield stress or 0.2 percent (a) Cold worked
Mild steel plain mild steel bars IS 432-1996 (Part-I)
proof stress specified by various Indian 1.
bar (b) Hot rolled mild IS 1139-1966(Part-II)
standards. In the case of mild steel it is steel bars
(a) Cold worked
taken as equal to minimum yield strength deformed bars IS 1786-1979
High yield strength
and is the case of HYSD bars it is taken as 2. deformed bars
(i) Grade Fe 415
(ii) Grade Fe 500
equal to 0.2 percent proof stress the values (Tor steel)
(b) Hot rolled IS 1139-1966(Part-II)
of characteristic strength of various types deformed bars
Hard drawn steel
of steel 3.
wire fabric
Wire mesh IS 1566-1967

Angles, T-sections
Rolled steel
4. Joists, IS 226:1975
Channels etc.
(i) Thermo-
treated bars (TMT) Latest in use
(ii) Corrosion deformed bars
resistant steel
(CRS) bars
Different Types Of Steel Used In Construction

Types of Steel according to surface.

Steel bars are prepared in different shapes. Generally round. Shaped bars are used in R.C.C works. In
addition to this shape the bars of square shaped, pentagonal shaped, hexagonal shaped, octagonal shaped
bars are also prepared.
Types of Steel according to surface.
Generally round-shaped bars are used in R.C.C works. Its surface is prepared in two ways.
Plain Bars.This was used intensively in olden days but less these days. This is because there becomes weak
bond with concrete due to its plain surface.
Deformed Bars.The surface of such bars is make rough with some designs on it. Such bars are used
intensively these days. The quality of such bar is that a strong bond forms with concrete. There arises no need
of hooks at the ends of the bars.


•There are the following three types of bars according to materials.
Mild steel
•Medium steel
•High Carbon Steel
The mild steel bars are used in ordinary R.c.c works. The mild steel can be cut, bent and
bound easily, the quantity of carbon steel and high Carbon Steel are more strong. But these
cannot be cut, bent and bond early. These bars are used in pre-stressing. The quantity of
carbon in medium carbon steel is 0.3 to 0.6 percent. While the quantity of carbon in high
carbon steel is 0.6 to 1.5 percent. The steel become more strong and hard due to the
presence of carbon in it. But it is difficult to word on it and also that it gets corrosion
The reinforcement of concrete is used in the following forms.
• Tensile Steel
• Compression Steel
• Shear Reinforcement
• Bond Reinforcement
• Torsion Reinforcement
• Temperature steel


The reinforcement of concrete is done in the following two ways.
• Ordinary reinforcement
• Pre-stressed Reinforcement.
• Ordinary Reinforcement.
The stress in such reinforcement in the works of R.c.c is introduced before the action of the
load by tensioning the steel. Such structures can with stand more loads that ordinary type of
structures. This type of reinforcement is of three types. In the first type it consists of six
wires rounded about a central wire in the form of a coil... The distance between the wires in
the soil is called pitch. Its magnitude is set at 12 to 16 times that of the diameter of one
The diameter of a wire is 6mm to 12 mm (0.25 to 0.5 inch). The second type of
reinforcement is called Pres-stressed Wire. The dia meter of this wire is 2 mm to 4 mm
(0.192 to 0.276 inch). This is prepared from the cold drawn action of High Carbon Steel.
The third type of reinforcement is the bars prepared from the alloy steel. The diameter of
this wire is 1.8 mm to 3.6 mm (0.76 to 1 * 3/8 inch). There bars can with stand load more
compared to ordinary bars.

There are three methods of structural design, i.e. working stress,

limit state and ultimate load method of structural design. These
design methods are used for reinforced concrete as well as steel
structure design.
Methods of Structural Design
1. Working stress method (WSM)
2. Ultimate load method (ULM)
3. Limit state method (LSM)
1. Working stress method (WSM)
This was the traditional method of design not only for reinforced concrete, but also for
structural steel and timber design.
The method basically assumes that the structural material behaves as a linear elastic manner,
and that adequate safety can be ensured by suitably restricting the stresses in the material
induced by the expected “working loads” on the structure.
As the specified permissible stresses are kept well below the material strength, the
assumption of linear elastic behavior is considered justifiable. The ratio of the strength of the
material to the permissible stress is often referred to as the factor of safety.
However, the main assumption linear elastic behavior and the tacit assumption that the
stresses under working loads can be kept within the ‘permissible stresses’ are not found to be
Many factors are responsible for this such as a long term effort of creep and shrinkage, the
effects of stress concentrations, and other secondary effects. All such effects resulting
significant local increases in a redistribution of the calculated stresses.
The design usually results in relatively large sections of structural members, thereby
resulting in better serviceability performance under the usual working loads.
2. Ultimate load method (ULM)
With the growing realization of the shortcomings of WSM in reinforced concrete design,
and with increased understanding of the behavior of reinforced concrete at ultimate loads,
the ultimate load of design is evolved and became an alternative to WSM.
This method is sometimes also referred to as the load factor methods are the ultimate
strength. In this method, the stress condition at the site of impending collapse of the
structure is analyzed, and the nonlinear stress-strain curves of concrete and steel are made
use of.
The concept of ‘modular ratio’ and its associated problems are avoided entirely in this
method. The safety measure design is introduced by an appropriate choice of the load
factor, defined as the ratio of the ultimate load to the working load.
The ultimate load method makes it possible for different types of loads to be assigned
different load factors under combined loading conditions, thereby overcoming the related
shortcoming of WSM.
This method generally results in more slender sections, and often economical designs
of beams and columns, particularly when high strength reinforcing steel and concrete
are used. However, the satisfactory ‘strength’ performance at ultimate loads does not
guarantee satisfactory ‘serviceability’ performance at the normal service loads.
The designs sometimes result in excessive deflections and crack-widths under service
loads, owing to the slender sections resulting from the use of high strength reinforcing
steel and concrete.
The distribution of stress resultants at ultimate load is taken as the distribution at the
service loads, magnified by the load factor(s); in other words, analysis is still based on
linear elastic theory
3. Limit state method (LSM)
The philosophy of the limit state method of design represents a definite advancement over the
traditional design philosophies.
Unlike WSM which based calculations on service load conditions alone, and unlike ULM,
which based calculations on ultimate load conditions alone, LSM aims for a comprehensive
and rational solution to the design problem, by considering safety at ultimate loads
and serviceability at working loads.
The LSM philosophy uses a multiple safety factor format which attempts to provide adequate
safety at ultimate loads as well as adequate serviceability at service loads, by considering all
possible ‘Limit State’.
Limits States
A limit state is a state of impending failure, beyond which a structure ceases to perform its
intended function satisfactorily, in terms of either safety of serviceability i.e. it either
collapses or becomes unserviceable.There are two types of limit states:

Ultimate limit states (limit states of collapse):- which deal with strength, overturning,
sliding, buckling, fatigue fracture etc.

Serviceability limit states: – which deals with discomfort to occupancy and/ or

malfunction, caused by excessive deflection, crack width, vibration leakage etc., and also
loss of durability etc.