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Kosygin Leishangthem

CONCRETE

Concrete is the second most consumed material in the

world after water and it is used most widely in the

construction industry due to its high compressive

strength and other properties.

Concrete is good in resisting compression but is very weak in resisting tension. Hence

reinforcement is provided in the concrete wherever tensile stress is expected. The best

reinforcement is steel, since tensile strength of steel is quite high and the bond

between steel and concrete is good. As the elastic modulus of steel is high, for the

same extension the force resisted by steel is high compared to concrete.

The composite material of steel and concrete now called R.C.C. acts as a structural

member and can resist tensile as well as compressive stresses very well.

Properties of R.C.C./Requirement of Good R.C.C.

1. It should be capable of resisting expected tensile, compressive, bending and shear forces.

2. It should not show excessive deflection and spoil serviceability requirement.

3. There should be proper cover to the reinforcement, so that the corrossion is prevented.

4. The hair cracks developed should be within the permissible limit.

5. It is a good fire resistant material.

6. When it is fresh, it can be moulded to any desired shape and size.

7. Durability is very good.

8. R.C.C. structure can be designed to take any load.

Uses of R.C.C.

It is a widely used building material. Some of its important uses are listed below:

1. R.C.C. is used as a structural element, the common structural elements in a building

where R.C.C. is used are:

(a) Footings (b) Columns (c) Beams and lintels

(d) Chejjas, roofs and slabs. (e) Stairs.

2. R.C.C. is used for the construction of storage structures like

(a) Water tanks (b) Dams

(c) Bins (d) Silos and bunkers.

3. It is used for the construction of big structures like

(a) Bridges (b) Retaining walls (c) Docks and harbours

(d) Under water structures.

4. It is used for pre-casting

(a) Railway sleepers (b) Electric poles

5. R.C.C. is used for constructing tall structures like

(a) Multistorey buildings (b) Chimneys (c) Towers.

6. It is used for paving

(a) Roads (b) Airports.

7. R.C.C. is used in building atomic plants to prevent danger of radiation.

For this purpose R.C.C. walls built are 1.5 m to 2.0 m thick.

CEMENT

13 Types of Cement and their Uses in Concrete Construction

There are various types of cement used in concrete construction. Each type of cement has its

own properties, uses and advantages based on composition materials used during its

manufacture.

13 Types of Cement and their Uses

7. Blast Furnace Slag Cement

1.Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)

8. High Alumina Cement

2.Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC)

9. White Cement

3.Rapid Hardening Cement

10. Coloured cement

4.Quick setting cement

11. Air Entraining Cement

5.Low Heat Cement

12. Expansive cement

6.Sulphates resisting cement

13. Hydrographic cement

Properties of Concrete

Properties of concrete are influenced by many factors mainly due to mix proportion of

cement, sand, aggregates and water. Ratio of these materials control the various concrete

properties which are discussed below.

2. Compressive strength

3. Characteristic Strength

4. Tensile strength

5. Durability

6. Creep

7. Shrinkage

8. Unit weight

9. Modular Ratio

10. Poisson’s ratio

Grades of concrete

Concrete is known by its grade which is designated as M15, M20 etc. in which letter M

refers to concrete mix and number 15, 20 denotes the specified compressive strength (fck)

of 150mm cube at 28 days, expressed in N/mm2.

Thus, concrete is known by its compressive strength. M20 and M25 are the most common

grades of concrete, and higher grades of concrete should be used for severe, very severe

and extreme environments.

Compressive strength of concrete

Like load, the strength of the concrete is also a quality which varies considerably for the

same concrete mix. Therefore, a single representative value, known as characteristic

strength is used.

Characteristic strength of concrete

It is defined as the value of the strength below which not more then 5% of the test results

are expected to fall (i.e. there is 95% probability of achieving this value only 5% of not

achieving the same)

Characteristic strength of concrete in flexural member

The characteristic strength of concrete in flexural member is taken as 0.67 times the

strength of concrete cube.

Design strength (fd) and partial safety factor for material strength

The strength to be taken for the purpose of design is known is known as design strength and

is given by

Design strength (fd) = characteristic strength/ partial safety factor for material strength

The value of partial safety factor depends upon the type of material and upon the type of

limit state. According to IS code, partial safety factor is taken as 1.5 for concrete and 1.15

for steel.

Design strength of concrete in member = 0.45fck

Tensile strength of concrete

The estimate of flexural tensile strength or the modulus of rupture or the cracking strength

of concrete from cube compressive strength is obtained by the relations

fcr = 0.7 fck N/mm2

The tensile strength of concrete in direct tension is obtained experimentally by split

cylinder. It varies between 1/8 to 1/12 of cube compressive strength.

Creep in concrete

Creep is defined as the plastic deformation under sustain load. Creep strain depends

primarily on the duration of sustained loading. According to the code, the value of the

ultimate creep coefficient is taken as 1.6 at 28 days of loading.

Shrinkage of Concrete

The property of diminishing in volume during the process of drying and hardening is

termed Shrinkage. It depends mainly on the duration of exposure. If this strain is prevented,

it produces tensile stress in the concrete and hence concrete develops cracks.

Modular ratio

Short term modular ratio is the modulus of elasticity of steel to the modulus of elasticity of

concrete.

Short term modular ratio = Es / Ec

Es = modulus of elasticity of steel (2×10 5 N/mm2)

Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete (5000 x SQRT(fck) N/mm2)

As the modulus of elasticity of concrete changes with time, age at loading etc the modular

ratio also changes accordingly. Taking into account the effects of creep and shrinkage

partially IS code gives the following expression for the long term modular ratio.

Poisson’s ratio

Poisson’s ratio varies between 0.1 for high strength concrete and 0.2 for weak mixes. It is

normally taken as 0.15 for strength design and 0.2 for serviceability criteria.

Durability of concrete

Durability of concrete is its ability to resist its disintegration and decay. One of the chief

characteristics influencing durability of concrete is its permeability to increase of water and

other potentially deleterious materials.

The desired low permeability in concrete is achieved by having adequate cement, sufficient

low water/cement ratio, by ensuring full compaction of concrete and by adequate curing.

The unit weight of concrete depends on percentage of reinforcement, type of aggregate,

amount of voids and varies from 23 to 26 kN/m2. The unit weight of plain and reinforced

concrete as specified by IS:456 are 24 and 25KN/m3 respectively.

Characteristic strength

Characteristic strength is defined as that

level of strength below which a specified

proportion of all valid test results is

expected to fail. Unless otherwise stated,

this proportion is taken to be 5%. Due to

the variability of constituent materials and

testing, the concrete must be designed to

meet a target mean strength, i.e. a margin

above the characteristic strength is

Therefore, characteristic strength = Mean strength – k S

required to give a 95% confidence in where S is the standard deviation, k=1.64,

achieving the characteristic. The margin is corresponding to 5% probability

based on 1.64 standard deviations (sd),

where a typical production sd may be

6MPa

Characteristic Strength of Concrete Grades of Concrete,

The term characteristic strength means that value Characteristic Strength of Concrete

Characteristic

of strength of material below which not more than Compressive

Group Designation

5% of the test results are expected to fall. It is Strength,

fck (N/mm2)

denoted by fck is N/mm2. The value of fck for

M10 10

different grades of concrete are specified by IS Ordinary

M15 15

code 456:2000 Concrete

M20 20

M25 25

M30 30

M35 35

Standard

M40 40

Concrete

M45 45

M50 50

M55 55

M60 60

High M65 65

Strength M70 70

Concrete M75 75

M80 80

Compressive Strength

Concrete Grade Mix Ratio

MPa (N/mm2) psi

Normal Grade of Concrete

M5 1 : 5 : 10 5 MPa 725 psi

M7.5 1 :4 :8 7.5 MPa 1087 psi

M10 1 :3 :6 10 MPa 1450 psi

M15 1 :2 :4 15 MPa 2175 psi

M20 1 : 1.5 : 3 20 MPa 2900 psi

Standard Grade of Concrete

M25 1 :1 :2 25 MPa 3625 psi

M30 Design Mix 30 MPa 4350 psi

M35 Design Mix 35 MPa 5075 psi

M40 Design Mix 40 MPa 5800 psi

M45 Design Mix 45 MPa 6525 psi

High Strength Concrete Grades

M50 Design Mix 50 MPa 7250 psi

M55 Design Mix 55 MPa 7975 psi

M60 Design Mix 60 MPa 8700 psi

M65 Design Mix 65 MPa 9425 psi

M70 Design Mix 70 MPa 10150 psi

Characteristic Load or ultimate load

The characteristic load is the ultimate load that is liable to come on structure

during its lifetime. The characteristic load or ultimate load is given as

Characteristic load or ultimate load = Mean load + 1.64 S

Characteristic load is that value of load which has a 95 percent probability of not being

exceeded during the life time of the structure. In absence of any data, loads given in

various standards shall be assumed as the characteristic loads. The following standards

may be used for this purpose.

IS 875 (Part 1) – for dead loads

IS 875 (Part 2) – for imposed loads

IS 875 (Part 3) – for wind loads

IS 875 (Part 4) – for snow loads

IS 1893 (Part 1) – for earthquake loads

Factor of safety

1.Definition: The factor by which the yield stress of the material of a member is divided to

arrive at the permissible stress in the material.

2.Purpose: to determine the permissible stress in the structure.

3.Application: Working Stress Method (WSM).

4.Example: Working stress(permissible stress in WSM)=Yield stress(fy)/FOS

5.FOS for steel =1.5 to 1.8, concrete=3, timber=3 to 5

Partial factor of safety

1.Definition: The factor normally greater than unity by which either the loads(actions)

are multiplied or the resistance are divided to obtain the design value.

2.Purpose: to determine design value of load and permissible value of stress.

3.Application: Limit State Design Method.

4.It is of two types: a) Partial FOS for load b) Partial FOS for material strength

5.Example: Design load= partial FOS for load *service load; Permissible

stress=Characteristic stress/partial FOS for material strength

6.Partial FOS for load ranges from 0.6 to 1.5 while partial FOS for material strength

ranges from 1.10 to 1.50.

WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE

&

FACTORS AFFECTING WORKABILITY

Workability is one of the physical parameters of

concrete which affects the strength and durability

as well as the cost of labour and appearance of

the finished product. Concrete is said to be

workable when it is easily placed and

compacted homogeneously i.e without bleeding

or Segregation. Unworkable concrete needs

more work or effort to be compacted in place,

also honeycombs &/or pockets may also be

visible in finished concrete.

The property of fresh concrete which is indicated by the amount of useful internal

work required to fully compact the concrete without bleeding or segregation in the

finished product.

Factors affecting workability of concrete:

1.Water content in the concrete mix

2.Amount of cement & its Properties

3.Aggregate Grading (Size Distribution)

4.Nature of Aggregate Particles (Shape, Surface Texture, Porosity etc.)

5.Temperature of the concrete mix

6.Humidity of the environment

7.Mode of compaction

8.Method of placement of concrete

9.Method of transmission of concrete

Types of Workability of Concrete

Workability of concrete can be divided into following three types:

1.Unworkable Concrete

2.Medium Workable

3.Highly Workable Concrete

An unworkable concrete can also be called as harsh concrete. It is a concrete with very little

amount of water. The hand mixing of such concrete is not easy.

Such type of concrete has high segregation of aggregates as cement paste is not lubricated

properly to stick to the aggregates. It is very difficult to maintain the homogeneity of

concrete mix and compaction of concrete requires much effort. Water cement ratio of such

concrete is below 0.4.

2. Medium Workable Concrete

This type of concrete workability is used in most of the construction works. This concrete is

relatively easy to mix, transport, place and compact without much segregation and loss of

homogeneity.

This type of concrete workability is generally used in all concrete construction with light

reinforcement (spacing of reinforcement is which allows the concrete to be compacted

effectively). Water cement ratio for medium workable concrete is 0.4 to 0.55.

3. Highly Workable Concrete

A highly workable concrete is very easy to mix, transport, place and compact in structures.

Such concrete is used where effective compaction of concrete is not possible or in mass

concrete. Such concrete flow easily and settle down without much effort. But there is high

chances of segregation and loss of homogeneity in this case.

The coarse aggregates tend to settle at the bottom and the concrete paste comes up. Such

concrete is used in case of heavy reinforcement is used where vibration of concrete is not

possible. Example of highly workable concrete is self-compacting concrete. Water cement

ratio of such concrete is more than 0.55.

Workability Vs. Strength of Concrete

The following figure explains the relation between workability and compressive strength of

concrete:

concrete decreases with increase in water

cement ratio. The increase in water cement

ratio indicates increase in workability of

concrete. Thus, the strength of concrete

inversely proportional to the workability of

concrete.

METHODS OF DETERMINING WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE

DIFFERENT TEST METHODS FOR WORKABILITY MEASUREMENT

Depending upon the water cement ratio in the concrete mix, the workability may be

determined by the following three methods.

1.Slump Test

2.Compaction Factor Test

3.Vee-bee Consistometer Test

1.Slump Test

This test is carried out with a mould called slump cone

whose top diameter is 10 cm, bottom diameter is 20 cm

and height is 30 cm.

RECOMMENDED SLUMP VALUES FOR VARIOUS CONCRETE WORKS

Recommend slump in

Type of Construction mm

Minimum Maximum

Pavements 25 50

Mass concrete structure 25 50

Unreinforced footings 25 75

Caissons and bridge decks 25 75

Reinforced foundation,

50 100

footings and walls

Reinforced slabs and beams 30 125

Columns 75 125

2. COMPACTION FACTOR TEST

According to this test, the workability may be defined as

the amount of applied work required to compact the

concrete to its maximum density.

This method is adopted for determining the workability of

concrete mix in laboratories. It gives fairly good results for

concrete of low workability.

RECOMMENDED VALUES OF WORKABILITY FOR VARIOUS PLACING CONDITIONS

Conditions Degree Values of Workability

Very low

with vibrations or 0.75 to 0.80 compacting factor

Low

sections with vibrations 0.80 to 0.85 compacting factor

sections without vibrations or 0.85 to 0.92 compacting factor or

Medium

heavily reinforced sections with 25 – 75 mm slumps for 20 mm

vibrations aggregates

Concreting of heavily reinforced

High – 125 mm slump for 20 mm

sections without vibrations

aggregates.

3. VEE-BEE CONSISTOMETER TEST

The apparatus used in this method of test is shown below.

SUITABILITY

This method is suitable for dry concrete having very low

workability

Vee-bee

Workability Slump in Compacti

Time in

Description mm ng Factor

Seconds

Extremely dry – 32 – 18

Very stiff – 18 – 10 0.70

Stiff 0 – 25 10 – 5 0.75

Stiff plastic 25 – 50 5–3 0.85

Plastic 75 – 100 3–0 0.90

Flowing 150 – 175 – 0.95

Creep Definition

Creep of concrete is the continued deformation with time under applied load. Sometimes it

is defined as increase in strain in concrete with time under sustained stress. This is also

known as plastic flow or time yield. The rate of creep decrease with time and the creep

strains at five years are taken as terminal values. Creep increases rapidly with the stress,

loading at an early age of concrete, broken ballast, soft and porous aggregate, poorly graded

and improperly compacted concrete.

Factors Affecting Creep

1.Aggregate

2.Mix Proportions

3.Age of concrete

FACTORS AFFECTING CREEP OF CONCRETE:

1. WATER-CEMENT RATIO:

The rate of creep is increased with increasing water cement ratio.

2. HUMIDITY:

It is influenced by humidity and drying condition of the atmosphere.

3. AGE OF CONCRETE:

The rate of creep rapidly decreases with time. The time taken by a concrete structure to attained creep

is 5 years.

4. AGGREGATE:

Aggregates with moisture movement and low elastic modulus cause a large amount of creep. The rate

of creep generally decreases with the increase of the size of aggregates.

5. ADMIXTURES:

Some admixtures (mainly accelerators) are also responsible for causing creep in concrete.

OTHER FACTORS:

1. Types of cement.

2. Entrained air.

3. Concrete strength.

4. Improper curing etc.

CONCRETE SHRINKAGE OR SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE:

The volumetric changes of concrete structures due to the loss of moisture by evaporation is

known as concrete shrinkage or shrinkage of concrete. It is a time-dependent deformation

which reduces the volume of concrete without the impact of external forces.

TYPES OF SHRINKAGE:

The types of concrete shrinkage are listed below:

1. PLASTIC SHRINKAGE:

Plastic shrinkage occurs very soon after pouring the concrete in the forms. The hydration of cement

results in a reduction in the volume of concrete due to evaporation from the surface of concrete,

which leads to cracking.

2. DRYING SHRINKAGE:

The shrinkage that appears after the setting and hardening of the concrete mixture due to loss of

capillary water is known as drying shrinkage. Drying shrinkage generally occurs in the first few

months and decreases with time.

3. CARBONATION SHRINKAGE:

Carbonation shrinkage occurs due to the reaction of carbon dioxide (Co2) with the hydrated cement

minerals, carbonating Ca(Oh)2 to CaCo3. The carbonation slowly penetrates the outer surface of the

concrete. This type of shrinkage mainly occurs at medium humidities and results increased strength

and reduced permeability.

4. AUTOGENOUS SHRINKAGE:

Autogenous shrinkage occurs due to no moisture movement from concrete paste under constant

temperature. It is a minor problem of concrete and can be ignored.

FACTORS AFFECTING SHRINKAGE:

The shrinkage of concrete depends on several factors which are listed below.

1. WATER-CEMENT RATIO: shrinkage is mostly influenced by the water cement ratio of concrete. It increases with

the increases in the water-cement ratio.

2. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION: It is one of the major factors that affect the total volume of shrinkage.

Shrinkage is mostly occurred due to the drying condition of the atmosphere. It increases with the decrease in the

humidity.

3. TIME: The rate of shrinkage rapidly decreases with time. It is found that 14-34% of the 20 years shrinkage occurs

in two weeks, 40-80% shrinkage occurs in three months and the rest 66-85% shrinkage occurs in one year.

4. TYPE OF AGGREGATE: Aggregates with moisture movement and low elastic modulus cause large shrinkage. The

rate of shrinkage generally decreases with the increase of the size of aggregates. It is found that concrete made

from sandstone shrinks twice than the concrete of limestone.

5. ADMIXTURES: The shrinkage increases with the addition of accelerating admixtures due to the presence of

calcium chloride (CaCl2) in it And it can be reduced by lime replacement.

Other Factors:

•The type and quantity of cement.

•Granular and microbiological composition of aggregates.

•The strength of concrete.

•The method of curing.

•The dimension of elements etc.

FACTORS AFFECTING PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE:

The factors which affect the properties of concrete (workability, bond strength, tensile strength,

creep, shrinkage, bleeding, segregation, etc) are described below.

1. WATER-CEMENT RATIO:

Strength elasticity, durability, and impermeability of concrete are increased with the decrease in

water-cement ratio, provided the concrete is workable. Shrinkage is increased with greater w/c

ratio.

2. CEMENT CONTENT:

With increases in cement content, w/c ratio decreased and consequently, strength, elasticity,

durability, and permeability is increased. More cement improves workability but it also increases

shrinkage which is undesirable.

3. TEMPERATURE:

The rate of setting and hardening of concrete is high at higher temperature. If the temperature of

concrete falls below 0°C, free water in concrete turns into ice crystals and since ice has greater

volume than the same quantity of water, the concrete is completely disrupted.

Such concrete on thawing will have no strength. If the temperature is more than the freezing

temperature, cool concreting gives better ultimate strength, durability and less shrinkage.

4. AGE OF CONCRETE:

The strength of concrete goes on increasing with age, though the rate of increase becomes very

slow with the passage of time. The following table gives some ides of strength development with

age:

5. AGGREGATE:

Size, shape, and grading of aggregates, control concrete properties to a large extent. Rounded

aggregates give better workability than flaky and angular aggregates. Larger the size of the

aggregate, greater will be the strength, provided concrete mix is workable. Property graded

aggregates give better workability and strength.

Strength in percentage

Age

Rapid hardening

Ordinary cement

cement

7 days 35% 65%

28 days 60% 90%

3 months 85% 95%

1 year 100% 100%

6. CURING:

Curing is the process of keeping the setting concrete damp so that complete hydration of

cement is brought about. Besides strength the curing affects following qualities:

a) It improves wear-resisting and weather resisting qualities.

b) It increases impermeability and durability.

c) It reduces shrinkage.

7. FROST:

The frost causes disintegration of concrete and as such strength, durability and

impermeability are reduced. Resistance to frost action depends upon the structure of the

pores in the concrete.

8. ENTRAINED AIR:

The entrained air in concrete is due to incomplete compaction. It has the effect of reducing

the strength of concrete. With 1% of entrained air, the strength of concrete is reduced by

5%. It also increases permeability of concrete.

BLEEDING OF CONCRETE:

Bleeding can be defined as the tendency of

water to rise to the surface of freshly placed

concrete. It is another form of segregation

where some amount of water comes to the

concrete surface after placing and compacting,

before setting. The water content carries some

particles of sand and cementing materials.

Sometimes bleeding helps to reduce the plastic

shrinkage cracks in concrete.

EFFECTS OF BLEEDING IN CONCRETE:

1. Concrete loses its homogeneity which results in weak and porous concrete.

2. It makes the concrete permeable.

3. It delays the surface finishing in pavement construction.

4. Bleeding of concrete causes high water-cement ratio at the top surface.

5. The bond between two concrete layers become weaker.

6. Pumping ability of concrete is significantly reduced.

HOW TO REDUCE BLEEDING IN CONCRETE:

Bleeding in concrete can be reduced by taking following precautions:

1. Design the concrete mix properly.

2. Add minimum water content in the concrete mix.

3. Add more cement in the mix.

4. Increase the amount of fine particles in the sand.

5. Use a little amount of air entraining admixture.

6. Use more finely ground cement.

STRESS-STRAIN CURVE FOR CONCRETE

The stress-strain curve for hardened cement paste is almost linear as shown in the figure.

The aggregate is more rigid than the cement paste and will therefore deform less (i.e. have

a lower strain) under the same applied stress.

The stress strain curve of concrete lies between

those of the aggregate and the cement paste.

However this relationship is non-linear over the

most of the range. The reason for this non-linear

behaviour is that micro-cracks are formed-

(i) At the interface between aggregate particles

and cement paste as a result of the differential

movement between the two phases, and

(ii) Within the cement paste itself.

These cracks are formed as a result of changes in temperature and moisture and the

application of load. Concrete taken through a cycle of loading and unloading will exhibit a

stress-strain curve as shown in the figure below.

when unloading mainly due to creep and micro-

crackling, in other words, there will be a residual

strain at zero load. This is known as hysteresis

loop which is largely related to micro-cracking.

Providing the maximum applied load is not greater

than the normal working load, then further cycles

of loading and unloading will produce small size

hysteresis loops. This is because the majority of

the micro-cracks are formed on the first

application of the load.

STEEL

Characteristic Strength of Steel S.No.

Type of

Sub-Type

Relevant Indian

Reinforcement Standard

The characteristic strength of steel is taken

as the minimum yield stress or 0.2 percent (a) Cold worked

Mild steel plain mild steel bars IS 432-1996 (Part-I)

proof stress specified by various Indian 1.

bar (b) Hot rolled mild IS 1139-1966(Part-II)

standards. In the case of mild steel it is steel bars

(a) Cold worked

taken as equal to minimum yield strength deformed bars IS 1786-1979

High yield strength

and is the case of HYSD bars it is taken as 2. deformed bars

(i) Grade Fe 415

(ii) Grade Fe 500

equal to 0.2 percent proof stress the values (Tor steel)

(b) Hot rolled IS 1139-1966(Part-II)

of characteristic strength of various types deformed bars

Hard drawn steel

of steel 3.

wire fabric

Wire mesh IS 1566-1967

Angles, T-sections

Rolled steel

4. Joists, IS 226:1975

members

Channels etc.

(i) Thermo-

mechanically

treated bars (TMT) Latest in use

5.

(ii) Corrosion deformed bars

resistant steel

(CRS) bars

Different Types Of Steel Used In Construction

Steel bars are prepared in different shapes. Generally round. Shaped bars are used in R.C.C works. In

addition to this shape the bars of square shaped, pentagonal shaped, hexagonal shaped, octagonal shaped

bars are also prepared.

Types of Steel according to surface.

Generally round-shaped bars are used in R.C.C works. Its surface is prepared in two ways.

Plain Bars.This was used intensively in olden days but less these days. This is because there becomes weak

bond with concrete due to its plain surface.

Deformed Bars.The surface of such bars is make rough with some designs on it. Such bars are used

intensively these days. The quality of such bar is that a strong bond forms with concrete. There arises no need

of hooks at the ends of the bars.

TYPES OF STEEL ACCORDING TO MATERIALS. PRE-STRESSED REINFORCEMENT

TYPES OF STEEL ACCORDING TO MATERIALS.

TYPES OF STEEL ACCORDING TO MATERIALS.

•There are the following three types of bars according to materials.

Mild steel

•Medium steel

•High Carbon Steel

The mild steel bars are used in ordinary R.c.c works. The mild steel can be cut, bent and

bound easily, the quantity of carbon steel and high Carbon Steel are more strong. But these

cannot be cut, bent and bond early. These bars are used in pre-stressing. The quantity of

carbon in medium carbon steel is 0.3 to 0.6 percent. While the quantity of carbon in high

carbon steel is 0.6 to 1.5 percent. The steel become more strong and hard due to the

presence of carbon in it. But it is difficult to word on it and also that it gets corrosion

easily.

TYPES OF STEEL ACCORDING TO MATERIALS.

The reinforcement of concrete is used in the following forms.

• Tensile Steel

• Compression Steel

• Shear Reinforcement

• Bond Reinforcement

• Torsion Reinforcement

• Temperature steel

The reinforcement of concrete is done in the following two ways.

• Ordinary reinforcement

• Pre-stressed Reinforcement.

• Ordinary Reinforcement.

PRE-STRESSED REINFORCEMENT

The stress in such reinforcement in the works of R.c.c is introduced before the action of the

load by tensioning the steel. Such structures can with stand more loads that ordinary type of

structures. This type of reinforcement is of three types. In the first type it consists of six

wires rounded about a central wire in the form of a coil... The distance between the wires in

the soil is called pitch. Its magnitude is set at 12 to 16 times that of the diameter of one

wire.

The diameter of a wire is 6mm to 12 mm (0.25 to 0.5 inch). The second type of

reinforcement is called Pres-stressed Wire. The dia meter of this wire is 2 mm to 4 mm

(0.192 to 0.276 inch). This is prepared from the cold drawn action of High Carbon Steel.

The third type of reinforcement is the bars prepared from the alloy steel. The diameter of

this wire is 1.8 mm to 3.6 mm (0.76 to 1 * 3/8 inch). There bars can with stand load more

compared to ordinary bars.

LIMIT STATE, WORKING STRESS AND ULTIMATE

LOAD METHOD OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN

limit state and ultimate load method of structural design. These

design methods are used for reinforced concrete as well as steel

structure design.

Methods of Structural Design

1. Working stress method (WSM)

2. Ultimate load method (ULM)

3. Limit state method (LSM)

1. Working stress method (WSM)

This was the traditional method of design not only for reinforced concrete, but also for

structural steel and timber design.

The method basically assumes that the structural material behaves as a linear elastic manner,

and that adequate safety can be ensured by suitably restricting the stresses in the material

induced by the expected “working loads” on the structure.

As the specified permissible stresses are kept well below the material strength, the

assumption of linear elastic behavior is considered justifiable. The ratio of the strength of the

material to the permissible stress is often referred to as the factor of safety.

However, the main assumption linear elastic behavior and the tacit assumption that the

stresses under working loads can be kept within the ‘permissible stresses’ are not found to be

realistic.

Many factors are responsible for this such as a long term effort of creep and shrinkage, the

effects of stress concentrations, and other secondary effects. All such effects resulting

significant local increases in a redistribution of the calculated stresses.

The design usually results in relatively large sections of structural members, thereby

resulting in better serviceability performance under the usual working loads.

2. Ultimate load method (ULM)

With the growing realization of the shortcomings of WSM in reinforced concrete design,

and with increased understanding of the behavior of reinforced concrete at ultimate loads,

the ultimate load of design is evolved and became an alternative to WSM.

This method is sometimes also referred to as the load factor methods are the ultimate

strength. In this method, the stress condition at the site of impending collapse of the

structure is analyzed, and the nonlinear stress-strain curves of concrete and steel are made

use of.

The concept of ‘modular ratio’ and its associated problems are avoided entirely in this

method. The safety measure design is introduced by an appropriate choice of the load

factor, defined as the ratio of the ultimate load to the working load.

The ultimate load method makes it possible for different types of loads to be assigned

different load factors under combined loading conditions, thereby overcoming the related

shortcoming of WSM.

This method generally results in more slender sections, and often economical designs

of beams and columns, particularly when high strength reinforcing steel and concrete

are used. However, the satisfactory ‘strength’ performance at ultimate loads does not

guarantee satisfactory ‘serviceability’ performance at the normal service loads.

The designs sometimes result in excessive deflections and crack-widths under service

loads, owing to the slender sections resulting from the use of high strength reinforcing

steel and concrete.

The distribution of stress resultants at ultimate load is taken as the distribution at the

service loads, magnified by the load factor(s); in other words, analysis is still based on

linear elastic theory

3. Limit state method (LSM)

The philosophy of the limit state method of design represents a definite advancement over the

traditional design philosophies.

Unlike WSM which based calculations on service load conditions alone, and unlike ULM,

which based calculations on ultimate load conditions alone, LSM aims for a comprehensive

and rational solution to the design problem, by considering safety at ultimate loads

and serviceability at working loads.

The LSM philosophy uses a multiple safety factor format which attempts to provide adequate

safety at ultimate loads as well as adequate serviceability at service loads, by considering all

possible ‘Limit State’.

Limits States

A limit state is a state of impending failure, beyond which a structure ceases to perform its

intended function satisfactorily, in terms of either safety of serviceability i.e. it either

collapses or becomes unserviceable.There are two types of limit states:

Ultimate limit states (limit states of collapse):- which deal with strength, overturning,

sliding, buckling, fatigue fracture etc.

malfunction, caused by excessive deflection, crack width, vibration leakage etc., and also

loss of durability etc.

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