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# SENIOR- MATHEMATICS II-A

## 01. Form quadratic equation whose roots are :

p−q  p+q
,−  ( p ≠ ±q )
p+q  p−q
02. Find the nature of the roots of the following equation without finding the roots.
9 x 2 − 30 x + 25 = 0
03. If α , β are the roots of the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0, find the values of the following expression in
terms of a, b, c.
α2 + β2
,if c ≠ 0
α −2 + β −2
04. If x 2 − 6 x + 5 = 0 and x 2 − 12 x + p = 0 have a common root, then find p.
05. Find the maximum or minimum of the following expressions as x varies over R.
ax 2 + bx + a ( a, b,∈ R and a ≠ 0 )
06. Solve the following in equations by algebraic method
x 2 − 4 x − 21 ≥ 0
07. Solve the following in equations by graphical method
x 2 − 4 x − 21 ≥ 0
08. For what values of m, the equation x 2 − 2 (1 + 3m ) x + 7 ( 3 + 2m ) = 0 will have equal roots ?
09. Suppose that the quadratic equations ax 2 + bx + c = 0 and bx 2 + cx + a = 0
have a common root. Then show that a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc

01 Find the condition that one root of the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 shall be n times the other,
where n is a positive integer.

 1   1
02. Solve the following equation  x 2 + 2  − 5  x +  + 6 = 0, when x ≠ 0
 x   x
x 1
03. If x is real, prove that 2 lies between − and 1.
x − 5x + 9 11
x− p
04. If the expression 2 takes all real values for x ∈ R, then find the bounds for p.
x − 3x + 2
05. If α and β are the roots of ax 2 + bx + c = 0 , find the values of α 2 + β 2 and α 3 + β 3 in terms of a, b, c.
06. Solve the equation x 4 − 2 x3 − x 2 − 2 x + 1 = 0

## 07. Solve 71+ x + 71− x = 50 for real x .

x 1 − x 13
08. Solve + =
1− x x 6
09. The cost of a piece of cable wire is R. 35/-. If the length of the piece of wire is 4 meters more and each
meter costs Rs. 1/- less, the cost would remain unchanged. What is the length of the wire ?

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10. In a cricket match Anil took one wicket less than twice the number of wickets taken by Ravi. If the
product of the number of wickets taken by them is 15, find the number of wickets taken by each of
them.
11. Let a, b, c ∈ R and a ≠ 0 . Then the roots of ax 2 + bx + c = 0 are non real complex numbers if and only if
ax 2 + bx + c and a have the same sign for all x ∈ R
12. Let a, b, c ∈ R and a ≠ 0 such that the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has real roots α and β with α < β .
Then
13. Suppose that a, b, c ∈ R, a ≠ 0 and f ( x ) = ax 2 + bx + c
b 4ac − b 2
i) If a > 0, then f(x) has absolute minimum at x = − and the minimum value is
2a 4a
b 4ac − b2
ii) If a < 0 , then f(x) has absolute maximum at x = − and the maximum value is
2a 4a
2
14. Find the changes in the sign of 4 x − 5 x + 2 for x ∈ R and find the extreme value
x 2 + 34 x − 71
15. Show that none of the values of the function 2 over R lies between 5 and 9.
x + 2x − 7
THEORY OF EQUATIONS

## VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

01. Form the polynomial equation, whose roots are (i) 1 + i,1 − i, −1 + i, −1 − i (ii) − 3 + i 2
02. Find the algebraic equation whose roots are 3 times the roots of x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x + 1 = 0
03. Find the transformed equation whose roots are the negatives of the roots of
x 7 + 3 x5 + x3 − x 2 + 7 x + 2 = 0

## 01. Given that the roots of x 3 + 3 px 2 + 3qx + r = 0 are in

(i)A.P., show that 2 p3 − 3qp + r = 0 (ii)G.P., show that p3r = q3 (iii)H.P., show that 2q 3 = r ( 3 pq − r )
02. Find the polynomial equation whose roots are the squares of the roots of x 3 + 3x 2 + 7 x + 6 = 0
03. Form the polynomial equation whose roots are the cubes of the roots of x 3 + 3x 2 + 2 = 0
04. Transform each of the following equations into ones in which the coefficients of the second highest
power of x is zero and also find their transformed equations.
x 3 − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 3 = 0
05. Let α , β , γ be the roots of x 3 + px 2 + qx + r = 0 . Then find
∑α 2

## 01. If α , β and γ are the roots of x 3 + px 2 + qx + r = 0 , then find

1 β 2 +γ 2 γ 2 +α2 α2 + β 2
(i) ∑ 2 2
(ii) + + (iii) ( β + γ − 3α )( γ + α − 3β )(α + β − 3γ )
α β βγ γα αβ
02. If α , β , γ are the roots of x 3 − 7 x + 6 = 0 , then find the equation whose roots are
(α − β ) , ( β − γ ) , (γ − α )
2 2 2

## 03. Solve the equation x 4 − 9 x 3 + 27 x 2 − 29 x + 6 = 0, given that one root is 2 − 3 .

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04. If α , β , γ are the roots of x 3 + px 2 + qx + c = 0 , then form the cubic equation, whose roots are
α ( β + γ ) , β ( γ + α ) , γ (α + β )
05. Solve x 3 − 7 x 2 + 14 x − 8 = 0 . Given that the roots are in geometric progression
06. Solve 4 x 2 − 24 x 2 + 23x + 18 = 0 , given that the roots of this equations are in arithmetic progression
07. Solve x 4 + 4 x3 − 2 x 2 − 12 x + 9 = 0 , given that it has two pairs of equation roots.
08. We find the roots of 27 x3 − 36 x − 16 = 0 given that there is a multiple root.
09. Form the monic polynomial equation of degree 4 whose roots are 4 + 3, 4 − 3, 2 + i and 2 − i
10. Form the equation whose roots are m times the roots of the equation
1 1 1
x3 + x2 − x + = 0 and deduce the case when m = 12
4 16 72
11. Solve the equation x 5 − 5x 4 + 9 x3 − 9 x 2 + 5x − 1 = 0
12. Solve the equation 6 x 6 − 25 x5 + 31x 4 − 31x 2 + 25x − 6 = 0

MATRICES

## VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

 x − 3 2 y − 8  5 2 
1) If  = then find the values of x, y, z and a
z + 2 6   −2 a − 4

1 3 −5 
02. Find the trace of  2 −1 5 
 2 0 1 
03. Find the following products wherever possible
 2 2 1   −2 −3 4 
 1 0 2   2 2 −3 
  
 2 1 2   1 2 −2 
3 4 9 
04.  0 −1 5  13 −2 0 
  0 4 1 
 2 6 12   

 −1 2 3 
05. If A =  2 5 6  is a symmetric matrix, then find x.
 
 3 x 7 
 a + ib c + id  2
06. If A =   , a + b2 + c 2 + d 2 = 1then find the inverse of A
 −c + id a − b 
 x − 1 2 y − 5 1 − x 2 − y 
07. If  z 0 2  =  2 0 2  then find the values of x, y, z and a.

 1 −1 1 + a   1 −1 1 
2 3 1  1 2 −1
08. If A =   and B=  the find the matrix X such that A + B – X = 0 What is the
 6 −1 5  0 −1 3
order of the matrix X ?
1 2 3 8
09. If A =   ,B =  and 2X + A = B then find X.
3 4  7 2

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1 0 0 1  3
01. If I   and E =   then show that ( aI + bE ) = a 3 I + 3a 2bE.
0 1  0 0 

0 2 1
02. If A =  −2 0 −2  is a skew symmetric matrix, then find x.

 −1 x 0 
1 5 3  2 −1 0 
03. FI A =  2 4 0  and B = 0 −2 5  then find 3 A − 4 B '

 3 −1 −5 1 2 0 
 −1 −2 −2 
04. If A =  2 1 −2  then show that the adjoint of A is 3A’. Find A−1

 2 −2 1 
3 −3 4 
05. If A =  2 −3 4  then show that A−1 = A3

 0 −1 1 
1 2 3 
06. 2 3 4
 
 0 1 2 
 cos θsin θ   cos nθ sin nθ 
07. If A =   then show that for all the positive integers n, An = 
 − sin θ
cos θ   − sin nθ cos nθ 
 1 −2 
 2 −1 2   
08. If A =   and B =  −3 0  then verify that (AB)’ = B’A’
1 3 − 4   5 4 

a a 2 1 + a3  a a2 1
   
01. If  b b 2 1 + b3  = 0 and  b b 2 1 ≠ 0 then show that abc = -1
 c c 2 1 + c3   c c2 1
  
 a + b + 2c a b 
  = 2 a +b+c 3
02. Show that  c b + c + 2a b  ( )
 c a c + a + 2b 
2
a b c  2bc − a 2 c2 b2 
  2
03. Show that b c a =  c 2 2ac − b 2 a 2  = ( a 3 + b 3 + c3 − 3abc )
c a b  b2 a2 2ab − c 2 

 −2 a a + b c + a 
04. Show that  a + b −2b b + c  = 4 ( a + b )( b + c )( c + a )
 c + a c + b −2c 

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1 a2 a3
05. 1 b2 b3 = ( a − b )( b − c )( c − a )( ab + bc = ca )
1 c2 c3

06. x+ y+z=9
2 x + 5 y + 7 z = 52
2x + y − z = 0
07. 2 x − y + 8 z = 13
3x + 4 y + 5 z = 18
5x − 2 y + 7 z = 20
08. x+ y+z=9
2 x + 5 y + 7 z = 52
2x + y − z = 0
09. x+ y−z =0
x − 2y + z = 0
3x + 6 y − 5 z = 0
b + c c + a a + b a b c 
10. Show that  c + a a + b b + c  = 2  b c a 
 
 a + b b + c c + a   c a b 
a − b − c 2a 2a 
11. 
Show that  2b b−c−a 2b  = ( a + b + c )
3

 2c 2c c − a − b 
 x − 2 2 x − 3 3x − 4 
12. Find the value of x if  x − 4 2 x − 9 3 x − 16  = 0
 x − 8 2 x − 27 3 x − 64 
 a1 b1 c1 
If A =  a2 b2 c2  is a non-singular matrix then A is invertible and A−1 =
13.
det A
 a3 b3 c3 
x+ y+z=3
14. Show that the following system of equations is consistent and solve it completely: 2 x + 2 y − z = 3
x + y − z =1

15. Solve the following simultaneous linear equations by using ‘Cramer’s rule.
3 x + 4 y + 5 z = 18
2 x − y + 8 z = 13
5 x − 2 y + 7 z = 20
16. Solve the following equations by Gauss – Jordan method
3 x + 4 y + 5 z = 18
2 x − y + 8 z = 13
5 x − 2 y + 7 z = 20
17. Let A and B are invertible matrices. Then A−1 , A ' and AB are invertible further.
−1 −1 1
i) ( A−1 ) = A ii) ( A1 ) = ( A−1 )
−1
iii) ( AB ) = B −1 A−1

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PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS

## VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

01. Find the number of 4-digit numbers that can be formed using the digits 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 when repetition is
allowed.
02. Find the number of 5 letter words that can be formed using the letters of the word RHYME if each letter
can be used any number of times.
03. Find the number of 5-digit numbers that can be formed using the digits, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 if each digit can
be used any number of times.
04. Find the number of ways of arranging 7 persons around a circle.
05. Find the number of ways of preparing a chain with 6 different coloured beads.
06. Find the number of ways of arranging the letters of the word
(i) INDEPENDENCE (ii) MATHEMATICS (iii) INTERMEDIATE
07. Find the number of different words that can be formed using 4 A’s, 3 B’s, 2 C’s and one D.
08. Find the number of 7-digit numbers that can be formed using 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4.
09. A book store has ‘m’ copies each ‘n’ different books. Find the number of ways of arranging these books
in a shelf in a single row.
10. If n C4 = 210 , find n.
11. If n Pr = 5040 and n Cr = 210 , find n and r.
12. If 15 C2 r −1 =15 C2r + 4 , find r.
13. If 9 C3 +9 C5 =10 Cr , then find r.
14. Find the number of ways of forming a committee of 5 members from 6 men and 3 ladies.
15. In question no. 10, how many committees contain atleast two ladies.
4
16. Simplify 34
C5 + ∑ ( 38 − r )C4
r =0
17. In a class there are 30 students. If each student plays a chess game with each of the other student, then
find the total number of chess games played by them.
18. Find the number of ways of selecting 11 member cricket team from 7 bats men, 6 bowler and 2 wicket
keepers so that the team contains atleast 4 bowlers and two wicket keepers.
19. Find the number of 4 digit telephone numbers that can be formed using the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 with
atleast one light repeated.
20. Find the number of functions from a let A containing 5 elements into a Set B containing 4 elements
(4 (b) I – 3a)

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01. Find the number of 5-digit numbers divisible by 5 that can be formed using the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
when repetition is allowed.9 different letters of an alphabet are given. Find the number of 4 letter words
that can be formed using these 9 letters which have (i)no letter is repeated(ii)atleast one letter is
repeated.
04. Find the number of ways of preparing a garland with 3 yellow, 4 white and 2 red roses of different sizes
such that the two red roses come together.
05. Find the number of ways of arranging the letters of the word MISSING so that the two S’s are together
and the two I’s are together.
06. How many ways can the letters of the word BANANA be arranged so that
i) all the A’s come together ?
ii) no two A’s come together ?
07. Find the number of ways of giving always 4 similar coins to 5 boys if each boy can be given any
number (less than or equal to 4) of coins.
08. Find the number of 4 letter words that can be formed using the letters of the word MIXTURE which
i) Contain the letter X
ii) Do not contain the letter X
n
09. If P4 = 1680, find n.
10. And the number of ways of arranging 7 gents & 4 ladies around a circular table if no two ladies wish to
sit together.

1. Find the number of 4-digit numbers that can be formed using the digitals 1, 2, 5, 6, 7. How many of
them are divisible by
(i) 2 (ii) 3 (iii) 4 (iv) 5 (v) 25
2. Find the number of ways of arranging 6 boys and 6 girls around a circular table so that
i) all the girls sit together.
ii) No two girls sit together.
iii) Boys and girls sit alternately
4n
C 1.3.5... ( 4n − 1)
3. Prove that 2n 2n =
Cn {1.3.5... ( 2n − 1)}2
4. If a set A has 12 elements. Find the number of subsets of A having.
Atleast 3 elements
5. A double decker minibus has 13 seats in the lower deck and 12 seats in the upper deck. In how many
ways can a marriage party of 25 persons be arranged if 4 old people refuse to go to the upper deck and 3
children wish to travel only in the upper deck ?
6. Find the number of ways of seating 5 Indians, 4 Americans and 3 Russians at a round table so that
(i) All inliers sit together (ii) no two russians fit together (iii) persons of some nationality sit together.
7. Find the no. of ways of selecting a cricket team of 11 players from 7 batsmen & 6 bowlers such that
there will be alteast 5 bowlers in the team.
8. 5th question (i) REMAST (ii) MASTER
9. Find the number of ways of selecting 11 member cricket team from 7 bats men, 6 bowlers and 2 wicket
keepers so that the team contains atleast 4 bowlers and two wicket keepers.

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BIONOMIAL THEOREM

## 01. Expand the following using binomial theorem

5
2 7  2 4
(i)  x + y  (ii) ( 3 + x − x )
3 4 
14
 3p 
02. Find the 10th term in  − 5q 
 4 
8
th  3a 5b 
03. Find the r term in  +  (1 ≤ r ≤ 9 )
 5 7 
04. Find the number of term in the expansion of
9
 3a b  7
(i)  +  (ii) (2x + 3 y + z )
 4 2
10 9
 4  2
05. Find the coefficient of (i) x −6in  3x −  (ii) x 2in  7 x3 − 2 
 x  x 
10
 12  14
 x 4  7 
06. Find the term independent of x in the expansion of (i) − 2 (ii)  4x3 + 2 
 3 x   x 
 
 
11
 3  17
07. Find the middle term in the expansion of (i)  4a + b  (ii) ( 4 x 2 + 5 x3 )
 2 
08. Find the numerically greatest terms in the expansion of
12 1 4
(i) ( 3 x + 5 y ) when x = , y =
2 3
n 4
(ii) ( 3 + 7 x ) when x = , n = 15
5
09. Prove the C0 + 2.C1 + 4.C2 + 8.C3 + .... + 2n.Cn = 3n
n
10. If (1 + x + x 2 ) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + ...a2n x 2n , then prove that
3n + 1
a0 + a2 + a4 + ... + a2 n =
2
11. Find the range of x for which the binomial expansions of the following are valid
−2
−5
(i) ( 2 + 3x ) 3 (ii) ( 7 + 3x )
7
−5
 x  8y 4
12. Find the expansion of (i)6th term of 1 +  (ii)5th term of 7 + 
 2  3 
−3
13. Write down the first 3 terms in the expansion of (i) ( 2 − 7 x )
4
−3
−3
 5x 
14. Find the general term (r + 1)th term in the expansion of (i) ( 4 + 5x ) 2 (ii) 1 − 
 3 

Prove the following
1. 2.C0 + 5.C1 + 8.C2 + ... + ( 3n + 2 ) Cn = ( 3n + 4 ) 2 n −1
2. C0 − 4.C1 + 7.C2 − 10.C3 + ... = 0

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th th 21
3. If the coefficients of ( 2r + 4 ) term and ( 3r + 4 ) term in the expansion of (1 + x ) are equal. Find r.
4. If P and Q are the sum of odd terms and the sum of even terms respectively in the expansion of
n
( x + a ) then prove that
n
i) P 2 − Q 2 = ( x 2 − a 2 )
2n 2n
ii) 4 PQ = ( x + a ) − ( x − a )
10
5. If (1 + 3 x − 2 x 2 ) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + ... + a20 x 20 then prove that
i) a0 + a1 + a2 + ... + a20 = 210 ii) a0 − a1 + a2 − a3 + ... + a20 = 410
1 + 2x
6. Find the coefficient of x10 in the expansion of 2
(1 − 2 x )
7. Find the sum of the infinite series
1 1.3 1.3.5
1+ + + + ...
3 3.6 .36.9
8. Find the sum of the infinite series
n 2 − ( 4r + 1) n + 4r 2 − 2 = 0
9. Find an approximate value of the following corrected to 4 decimal places.
7
199
10. If x is so small that x 2 and higher powers of x may be neglected then find approximate values of the
following.
1
( 4 + 3x ) 2
2
(3 − 2x )
2
11. Expand 3 3 in increasing powers of
3
10
 x 3 
12. Find the term independent of x (that is, the constant term) in the expansion of  + 2 
 3 2x 

1. Using binomial theorem prove that 50 n − 49n − 1 is divisible by 49 2 for all positive integers n.
n
2. If the coefficients of rth, (r + 1)th and ( r + 2) terms in the expansion of (1 + x ) are in A.P., then show
that. n 2 − ( 4r + 1) n + 4r 2 − 2 = 0
n

## 3. Prove that ( C0 + C1 )( C1 + C2 )( C2 + C3 ) .... ( Cn−1 + Cn ) =

( n + 1) .C0 .C1 .C2 ......Cn
n!
n
4. (
If I, n are positive integers, 0 < f < 1 and if 7 + 4 3 ) = 1 + f , then show that
i) I is an odd integer and
ii) ( I + f )(1 − f ) = 1
5. Show that for any non zero rational number x.
x x ( x − 1) x ( x − 1)( x − 2 )
1+ + + + ...
2 2.4 2.4.6
x x ( x + 1) x ( x + 1)( x + 2 )
1+ + + + ...
3 3.6 3.6.9
6. Prove that C0 + 3.C1 + 5.C2 + ... + ( 2n + 1) .Cn = ( 2n + 2 ) .2 n−1

## Prove the following

7. i) C0 + 3.C1 + 32.C2 + .... + 3n.Cn = 4 n

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C1 C C C n ( n + 1)
ii) + 2. 2 + 3. 3 + .... + n. n =
C0 C1 C2 Cn −1 2
8. For r = 0, 1, 2, …, n, prove that
C0 .Cr + C1.Cr +1 + C2 .Cr + 2 + ... + Cn −r .Cn =2 n Cn+ r
and hence deduce that
2 2 2 2
i) C0 + C1 + C2 + ... + Cn =2 n Cn
ii) C0 .C1 + C1.C2 + C2 .C3 + ... + Cn−1 .Cn = 2 n Cn+1
9. If n is a positive integer and x is any nonzero real number, then prove that
n +1
x x2 x3
C0 + C1. + C2 . + C3 . + ... + Cn .
xn
=
(1 + x ) − 1
2 3 4 n +1 ( n + 1) x

PARTIAL FRACTIONS

## 1. Resolve the following fractions into partial fractions.

2x + 3 5x + 6 x+4 2x2 + 2 x + 1 2x + 3
(i) (ii) (iii) 2 (iv) (v)
( x + 1)( x − 3) ( 2 + x )(1 − x ) ( x − 4 ) ( x + 1) 3
x +x 2
( x − 1)
3

## Resolve the following factions into partial fractions.

x −1
1. 2
( x + 1)( x − 2 )
1
2.
x (x + a)
3

x2 − 3
3.
( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 1)
x+3
4.
(1 − x )
2
(1 + x )
2

x2
5.
( x − 1)( x − 2 )
x3
6. 2
( 2 x − 1)( x − 1)
x3
7.
( x − a )( x − b )( x − c )

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x−4
1. Find the coefficient of x n in the power series expansion of 2
specifying the region in which the
x − 5x + 6
expansion is valid.

## 1. Find the coefficient of x 2 in the series expansion of e3 x + 4

2 4 6 8 1
2. Show that + + + + ..... =
3! 5! 7! 9! e
22 32 42
3. Show that 1 + + + + ..... = 2e
2! 3! 4!
1 1 1
4. Show that + + + .... = 1 − log e 2
2.3 4.5 6.7
1 2 3
5. Show that + 3+ + .... = 1 − log e 2
2.2 3.2 4.24
2

1 1 + 2 1 + 2 + 22 1 2
1. Show that + + + .... = ( e − 1)
2! 3! 3! 2
1 1 + 5 1 + 5 + 5 1 + 5 + 52 + 53
3
e5 − e
2. Show that + + + + .... =
1! 2! 3! 4! 4
1 + 2 x + 3x 2
3. Find the coefficient of x n in the series expansion of in powers of x
ex
23 33 43
4. Find the sum of the infinite series 1 + + + + ....
2! 3! 4!

1 1+ 2 1+ 2 + 3
5. Find the sum of the infinite series + + + ....
1! 2! 3!
12 + 22 12 + 22 + 32
6. Find the sum of the infinite series 1 + + + ....
2! 3!
3 5
2x 1  2x  1  2 x   x +1
7. Show that 2 +  2  +  2  + ..... = log e  
x + 1 3  x +1  5  x +1   x −1 
1 1 1 1 1
8. Show that + 3 + 5 + 7 + ... = log e 2
3 3.3 5.3 7.3 2
1 1 1
9. Show that 1 + + + + .... = log e 3
3.2 2 5.2 4 7.26
x 3 x3 x 4 y 2 y3 y 4
10. If y = x + + + + ...., then show that x = y − + − + ...
2 3 4 2! 3! 4!

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PROBABILITY

## 1. In the experiment of throwing a die, consider the following events :

A = {1, 3,5} , B = {2, 4, 6} , C = {1, 2,3} . Are these events equally likely ?
2. In the experiment of throwing a die, consider the following events :
A = {1,3,5} , B = {2, 4} , C = {6} . Are these events mutually exclusive ?
3. In the experiment of throwing a die, consider the events
A = {2, 4, 6} , B = {3, 6} , C = {1,5, 6} . Are these events exhaustive ?
4. Give two examples of mutually exclusive and exhaustive events.
5. If 4 fair coins are tossed simultaneously, then find the probability that 2 heads and 2 tails appear.
6. Find the probability that a non-leap year contains (i) 53 Sundays (ii) 52 Sundays only.
7. For any two events A and B, show that P ( Ac ∩ B c ) = 1 + P ( A ∩ B ) − P ( A) − P ( B ) .
8. If two numbers are selected randomly from 20 consecutive natural numbers, find the probability that the
sum of the two numbers is (i) an even number (ii) an odd number.
9. If A, B, C are three events in a random experiment, prove the following
(i) P ( A | A) = 1 (ii) P (φ | A ) = 0
(iii) A ⊆ B ⇒ P ( A | C ) ≤ P ( B | C )
(iv) P ( A − B ) = P ( A) − P ( A ∩ B )
10. If A, B are mutually exclusive and P(B) > 0 then P(A|B) = 0
P ( A)
11. IF A, B are mutually exclusive then P ( A | B c ) = when P ( B ) ≠ 1
1− P ( B)
P ( A)
12. If A and B are mutually exclusive P ( A ∪ B ) ≠ 0, then P ( A | A ∪ B ) =
P ( A) + P ( B )

1. Two persons A and B are rolling two dice on the condition that the person who gets 3 will win the
game. If A starts the game, then find the probabilities of A and B respectively to win the game.
2. If P is probability function, then show that for any two events A and B,
P ( A ∩ B ) ≤ P ( A ) ≤ ( A ∪ B ) ≤ P ( A) + P ( B ) .
2 5
3. The probability for a contractor to get a road contract is and to get a building contract . The
3 9
4
probability to get at least one contract is . Find the probability that he gets both the contracts.
5
4. A, B, C are three horses in a race. The probability of A to win the race is twice that of B, and probability
of B is twice that of C. What are the probabilities of A, B and C to win the race ?
5. Three screws are drawn at random from a lot of 50 screws, 5 of which are defective. Find the
probability of the event that all 3 screws are non-defective, assuming that the drawing is
a) with replacement b) without replacement
6. If A, B, C are three independent events of an experiment such that
1 1 1
P ( A ∩ B c ∩ C c ) = , P ( Ac ∩ B ∩ C c ) = , P ( Ac ∩ Bc ∩ C c ) = , then find P(A), P(B) and P(C).
4 8 4
7. If A, B are two events, then show that P ( A | B ) P ( B ) + ( A | B ) P ( B c ) = P ( A)
c

P ( A) − P ( A ∩ B )
8. If A, B are any two events in an experiment and P ( B ) ≠ 1 . Show that P ( A | B c ) =
1− P ( B)
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9. A single die is rolled twice in succession. What is the probability that the number on the second toss is
greater than that on the first rolling ?
10. If A, B are two events with P ( A ∪ B ) = 0.65, P ( A ∩ B ) = 0.15 , then find the value of P ( Ac ) + P ( Bc )
11. A fair Die is rolled. Consider the events
A = {1,3,5} , B = {2, 3} and C = {2,3, 4,5} . Find
i) P ( A ∩ B ) , P ( A ∪ B ) ii) P ( A | B ) , P ( B | A)
iii) P ( A | C ) , P ( C | A ) iv) P ( B | C ) , P ( C | B )
12. Suppose A and B are independent events with P(A) = 0.6, P(B) = 0.7 then compute
(i) P ( A ∩ B ) ii) P ( A ∪ B ) iii) P ( B / A ) iv) P ( Ac ∩ B c )
1
13. The probability that Australia wins a match against India in a cricket game is given to be . If India and
3
Australia play 3 matches, what is the probability that (i) Australia will loose all the three matches? (ii)
Australia will win at least one match?
14 If A and B are two events of a random experiment with P(A) > 0 and P(B)>0, then
P( A ∩ B) = P ( A ) P ( B | A) = P ( B ) P ( A | B )
15. Suppose E1 , E2 ,..., En are n mutually exclusive and exhaustive events of a random experiment with
P ( Ei ) ≠ 0, for I = 1, 2, …., n. Then for any event A of the random.

1. Three urns have the following composition of balls
Urn I : 1 white, 2 black
Urn II : 2 white, 1 black
Urn III : 2 white, 2 black
One of the urns is selected at random and a ball is drawn. It turns out to be white. Find the probability
that it came from urn III.
1 2 3
2. In a shooting test the probability of A, B, C hitting the targets are , and respectively. If all of
2 3 4
them fire at the same target, Find the probability that (i) only one of them hits the target, (ii) atleast one
of them hits the target.
3. In a certain colleges, 25% of the boys and 10% of the girls are studying mathematics. The girls
constitute 60% of the student strength. If a student selected at random is found studying mathematics,
find the probability that the student is a girl.
4. Statement : If E1 , E2 are any two events of a random experiment and P is a probability function, then
P ( E1 ∪ E2 ) = P ( E1 ) + P ( E2 ) − P ( E1 ∩ E2 )
5. If A, B , C are three events show that
∴ P ( A ∪ B ∪ C ) = P ( A ) + P ( B ) + P ( C ) − P ( A ∩ B ) − P ( B ∩ C ) − P ( C ∩ A) + P( A ∩ B ∩ C )

## RANDOM VARIABLES AND PROBAILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

1. If X − B ( n, p ) , µ = 20, σ 2 = 10, then find n and p.
2. When a coin is tossed n times, the probability of getting 8 heads is equal to the probability of getting 6
heads then, find the value of n.

1. For a binomial distribution with mean 6 and variance 2, find the first two terms of the distribution.

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2. For the random experiment of tossing two coins simultaneously, the sample space
S = { HH , HT , TH , TT } . For every x, define X(x) as the number of heads. Then X(x) is a random
variable. Range of X = {0,1, 2}

1. A p.d.f. of a discrete random variable is zero except at the points x = 0, 1, 2. At these points it has the
value P ( 0 ) = 3c3 , P (1) = 4c − 10c 2 , P ( 2 ) = 5c − 1 for some c > 0. Find the value of c.
x
2
2. Find the constant c, so that F ( x ) = c   .x = 1.2.3,.... is the p.d.f. of a discrete random variable X.
3
3.
X= x -2 -1 0 1 2 3
P(X = x) 0.1 k 0.2 2k 0.3 k
Is the probability distribution of a random variable X. find the value of k and the variance of X.
4. A random variable X has the following probability distribution.

X= x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

P(X = x) 0 k 2k 2k 3k k2 2 k2 7k2 + k
Find (i) k (ii) then mean and (iii) P (0 < X < 5)
5. The range of a random variable X is {0, 1, 2}. Given that
P ( X = 0 ) = 3c 3 , P ( X = 1) = 4c − 10c 2 , P ( X = 2 ) = 5c − 1
(i) Find the value of c ii) P ( X < 1) , P (1 < X ≤ 2 ) and ( P (0 < X ≤ 3)
ck
6. The range of a random variable X is {1, 2, 3, ….} and P ( X = k ) = ; ( k = 1, 2, 3,....) .
k!
Find the value of c and P(0 < X < 3)
7. In the experiment of tossing a coin n times, if the variable X denotes the number of heads and P(X = 4),
P(X = 5), P(X = 6) are in arithmetic progression then find n.
8. Find the maximum number of times a fair coin must be tossed so that the probability of getting atleast
one head is at least 0.8.
9. If the mean and variance of a binomial variable X are 2.4 and 1.44 respectively, find P (1 < X ≤ 4 ) .
10. In a city 10 accidents take place in a span of 50 days. Assuming that the number of accidents follows the
Poisson distribution, find the probability that there will be 3 or more accidents in a day.
11. Find the probability of guessing at least 6 out of 10 of answers in (i) True or false type examination (ii)
multiple choice with 4 possible answers.
12. A Poisson variable satisfies P(X = 1) = P(X = 2). Find P(X = 5)

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