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other devices or systems using control loops. It can range from a single home

heating controller using a thermostat controlling a domestic boiler to large

Industrial control systems which are used for controlling processes or machines.

automatically control a process or operation. The control system compares the

value or status of the process variable (PV) being controlled with the desired

value or setpoint (SP), and applies the difference as a control signal to bring the

process variable output of the plant to the same value as the setpoint.

programmable logic controller, is used.

proportional control mechanism.

Open-loop and closed-loop control

Feedback control systems

Logic control

On–off control

Linear control

Proportional control

Furnace example

PID control

Derivative action

Integral action

Ramp up % per minute

Other techniques

Fuzzy logic

Physical implementation

See also

References

External links

There are two common classes of control action: open loop and closed loop. In an open-loop control system, the control action

from the controller is independent of the process variable. An example of this is a central heating boiler controlled only by a

timer. The control action is the switching on or off of the boiler. The process variable is the building temperature.This controller

operates the heating system for a constant time regardless of the temperature of the building.

In a closed-loop control system, the control action from the controller is dependent on the desired and actual process variable. In

the case of the boiler analogy, this would utilise a thermostat to monitor the building temperature, and feed back a signal to ensure

the controller output maintains the building temperature close to that set on the thermostat. A closed loop controller has a

feedback loop which ensures the controller exerts a control action to control a process variable at the same value as the setpoint.

For this reason, closed-loop controllers are also called feedback controllers.[1]

In the case of linear feedback systems, a control loop including

sensors, control algorithms, and actuators is arranged in an

attempt to regulate a variable at a setpoint (SP). An everyday

example is the cruise control on a road vehicle; where external

influences such as hills would cause speed changes, and the

driver has the ability to alter the desired set speed. The PID

algorithm in the controller restores the actual speed to the desired

speed in the optimum way, with minimal delay or overshoot, by

controlling the power output of the vehicle's engine.

Control systems that include some sensing of the results they are

trying to achieve are making use of feedback and can adapt to

varying circumstances to some extent. Open-loop control systems Example of a single industrial control loop; showing

continuously modulated control of process flow.

do not make use of feedback, and run only in pre-arranged ways.

Logic control

Logic control systems for industrial and commercial machinery were historically

implemented by interconnected electrical relays and cam timers using ladder

logic. Today, most such systems are constructed with microcontrollers or more

specialized programmable logic controllers (PLCs). The notation of ladder logic A basic feedback loop

is still in use as a programming method for PLCs.[2]

Logic controllers may respond to switches and sensors, and can cause the machinery to start and stop various operations through

the use of actuators. Logic controllers are used to sequence mechanical operations in many applications. Examples include

elevators, washing machines and other systems with interrelated operations. An automatic sequential control system may trigger a

series of mechanical actuators in the correct sequence to perform a task. For example, various electric and pneumatic transducers

may fold and glue a cardboard box, fill it with product and then seal it in an automatic packaging machine.

PLC software can be written in many different ways – ladder diagrams, SFC (sequential function charts) or statement lists.[3]

On–off control

On–off control uses a feedback controller that switches abruptly between two states. A simple bi-metallic domestic thermostat

can be described as an on-off controller. When the temperature in the room (PV) goes below the user setting (SP), the heater is

switched on. Another example is a pressure switch on an air compressor. When the pressure (PV) drops below the setpoint (SP)

the compressor is powered. Refrigerators and vacuum pumps contain similar mechanisms. Simple on–off control systems like

these can be cheap and effective.

Linear control

Linear control systems use negative feedback to produce a control signal to maintain the controlled PV at the desired SP. There

are several types of linear control systems with different capabilities.

Proportional control

Proportional control is a type of linear feedback control system in

which a correction is applied to the controlled variable which is

proportional to the difference between the desired value (SP) and

the measured value (PV). Two classic mechanical examples are

the toilet bowl float proportioning valve and the fly-ball

governor.

control system, but simpler than a proportional-integral-

derivative (PID) control system used, for instance, in an Step responses for a second order system defined

automobile cruise control. On–off control will work for systems by the transfer function ,

that do not require high accuracy or responsiveness, but is not

where is the damping ratio and is the

effective for rapid and timely corrections and responses.

undamped natural frequency.

Proportional control overcomes this by modulating the

manipulated variable (MV), such as a control valve, at a gain

level which avoids instability, but applies correction as fast as practicable by applying the optimum quantity of proportional

correction.

A drawback of proportional control is that it cannot eliminate the residual SP–PV error, as it requires an error to generate a

proportional output. A PI controller can be used to overcome this. The PI controller uses a proportional term (P) to remove the

gross error, and an integral term (I) to eliminate the residual offset error by integrating the error over time.

In some systems there are practical limits to the range of the MV. For example, a heater has a limit to how much heat it can

produce and a valve can open only so far. Adjustments to the gain simultaneously alter the range of error values over which the

MV is between these limits. The width of this range, in units of the error variable and therefore of the PV, is called the

proportional band (PB).

Furnace example

When controlling the temperature of an industrial furnace, it is usually better to control the opening of the fuel valve in

proportion to the current needs of the furnace. This helps avoid thermal shocks and applies heat more effectively.

At low gains, only a small corrective action is applied when errors are detected. The system may be safe and stable, but may be

sluggish in response to changing conditions. Errors will remain uncorrected for relatively long periods of time and the system is

overdamped. If the proportional gain is increased, such systems become more responsive and errors are dealt with more quickly.

There is an optimal value for the gain setting when the overall system is said to be critically damped. Increases in loop gain

beyond this point lead to oscillations in the PV and such a system is underdamped. Adjusting gain to achieve critically damped

behavior is known as tuning the control system.

In the underdamped case, the furnace heats quickly. Once the setpoint is reached, stored heat within the heater sub-system and in

the walls of the furnace will keep the measured temperature rising beyond what is required. After rising above the setpoint, the

temperature falls back and eventually heat is applied again. Any delay in reheating the heater sub-system allows the furnace

temperature to fall further below setpoint and the cycle repeats. The temperature oscillations that an underdamped furnace control

system produces are undesirable.

In a critically damped system, as the temperature approaches the setpoint, the heat input begins to be reduced, the rate of heating

of the furnace has time to slow and the system avoids overshoot. Overshoot is also avoided in an underdamped system but an

underdamped system is unnecessarily slow to initially reach setpoint respond to external changes to the system, e.g. opening the

furnace door.

PID control

Apart from sluggish performance to avoid oscillations, another

problem with proportional-only control is that power application

is always in direct proportion to the error. In the example above

we assumed that the set temperature could be maintained with

50% power. What happens if the furnace is required in a different

application where a higher set temperature will require 80%

power to maintain it? If the gain was finally set to a 50° PB, then

80% power will not be applied unless the furnace is 15° below

setpoint, so for this other application the operators will have to

remember always to set the setpoint temperature 15° higher than

actually needed. This 15° figure is not completely constant either: A block diagram of a PID controller

it will depend on the surrounding ambient temperature, as well as

other factors that affect heat loss from or absorption within the

furnace.

include mathematical extensions to improve performance. The

most common extensions lead to proportional-integral-derivative

control, or PID control.

Derivative action

The derivative part is concerned with the rate-of-change of the

error with time: If the measured variable approaches the setpoint

rapidly, then the actuator is backed off early to allow it to coast to

Effects of varying PID parameters (Kp,Ki,Kd) on the

the required level; conversely if the measured value begins to step response of a system.

move rapidly away from the setpoint, extra effort is applied—in

proportion to that rapidity—to try to maintain it.

Derivative action makes a control system behave much more intelligently. On control systems like the tuning of the temperature

of a furnace, or perhaps the motion-control of a heavy item like a gun or camera on a moving vehicle, the derivative action of a

well-tuned PID controller can allow it to reach and maintain a setpoint better than most skilled human operators could.

If derivative action is over-applied, it can lead to oscillations too. An example would be a PV that increased rapidly towards SP,

then halted early and seemed to "shy away" from the setpoint before rising towards it again.

Integral action

The integral term magnifies the effect of long-term steady-state errors, applying ever-increasing effort until they reduce to zero.

In the example of the furnace above working at various temperatures, if the heat being applied does not bring the furnace up to

setpoint, for whatever reason, integral action increasingly moves the proportional band relative to the setpoint until the PV error is

reduced to zero and the setpoint is achieved.

Ramp up % per minute

Some controllers include the option to limit the "ramp up % per

minute". This option can be very helpful in stabilizing small

boilers (3 MBTUH), especially during the summer, during light

loads. A utility boiler "unit may be required to change load at a

rate of as much as 5% per minute (IEA Coal Online - 2,

2007)".[4]

Other techniques

It is possible to filter the PV or error signal. Doing so can reduce

the response of the system to undesirable frequencies, to help

reduce instability or oscillations. Some feedback systems will Change of response of second order system to a

oscillate at just one frequency. By filtering out that frequency, step input for varying Ki values.

responsive without shaking itself apart.

Feedback systems can be combined. In cascade control, one control loop applies control algorithms to a measured variable

against a setpoint, but then provides a varying setpoint to another control loop rather than affecting process variables directly. If a

system has several different measured variables to be controlled, separate control systems will be present for each of them.

Control engineering in many applications produces control systems that are more complex than PID control. Examples of such

fields include fly-by-wire aircraft control systems, chemical plants, and oil refineries. Model predictive control systems are

designed using specialized computer-aided-design software and empirical mathematical models of the system to be controlled.

Hybrid systems of PID and logic control are widely used. The output from a linear controller may be interlocked by logic for

instance.

Fuzzy logic

Fuzzy logic is an attempt to apply the easy design of logic controllers to the control of complex continuously varying systems.

Basically, a measurement in a fuzzy logic system can be partly true, that is if yes is 1 and no is 0, a fuzzy measurement can be

between 0 and 1.

The rules of the system are written in natural language and translated into fuzzy logic. For example, the design for a furnace

would start with: "If the temperature is too high, reduce the fuel to the furnace. If the temperature is too low, increase the fuel to

the furnace."

Measurements from the real world (such as the temperature of a furnace) are converted to values between 0 and 1 by seeing

where they fall on a triangle. Usually, the tip of the triangle is the maximum possible value which translates to 1.

Fuzzy logic, then, modifies Boolean logic to be arithmetical. Usually the "not" operation is "output = 1 - input," the "and"

operation is "output = input.1 multiplied by input.2," and "or" is "output = 1 - ((1 - input.1) multiplied by (1 - input.2))". This

reduces to Boolean arithmetic if values are restricted to 0 and 1, instead of allowed to range in the unit interval [0,1].

The last step is to "defuzzify" an output. Basically, the fuzzy calculations make a value between zero and one. That number is

used to select a value on a line whose slope and height converts the fuzzy value to a real-world output number. The number then

controls real machinery.

If the triangles are defined correctly and rules are right the result can be a good control system.

When a robust fuzzy design is reduced into a single, quick calculation, it begins to resemble a conventional feedback loop

solution and it might appear that the fuzzy design was unnecessary. However, the fuzzy logic paradigm may provide scalability

for large control systems where conventional methods become unwieldy or costly to derive.

Fuzzy electronics is an electronic technology that uses fuzzy logic instead of the two-value logic more commonly used in digital

electronics.

Physical implementation

The range of implementation is from compact controllers often with dedicated

software for a particular machine or device, to distributed control systems for

industrial process control.

programmable logic controllers.

See also information and controls are

Behavior trees (artificial intelligence, robotics and control) displayed on computer graphics

screens. The operators are seated

Building automation

as they can view and control any part

Coefficient diagram method

of the process from their screens,

Control engineering

whilst retaining a plant overview.

Control theory

Cybernetics

Distributed control system

Droop speed control

Education and training of electrical and electronics engineers

EPICS

Good regulator

Hierarchical control system

HVAC control system

Industrial control systems

Motion control A control panel of a hydraulic heat

Networked control system press machine with dedicated

Numerical control software for that function

Perceptual control theory

PID controller

Process control

Process optimization

Programmable logic controller

Sampled data systems

SCADA

VisSim

References

1. "Feedback and control systems" - JJ Di Steffano, AR Stubberud, IJ Williams. Schaums outline series, McGraw-

Hill 1967

2. Kuphaldt, Tony R. "Chapter 6 LADDER LOGIC" (http://www.ibiblio.org/kuphaldt/electricCircuits/Digital/DIGI_6.htm

l). Lessons In Electric Circuits -- Volume IV. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20100912090415/http://www.i

biblio.org/kuphaldt/electricCircuits/Digital/DIGI_6.html) from the original on 12 September 2010. Retrieved

22 September 2010.

3. Brady, Ian. "Programmable logic controllers - benefits and applications" (http://www.optimacs.com/wp-content/upl

oads/2012/03/PLC-report.pdf) (PDF). PLCs. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20140202000040/http://www.

optimacs.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/PLC-report.pdf) (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2014.

Retrieved 5 December 2011.

4. "Archived copy" (http://www.seeei.org.il/prdFiles/2702_desc3.pdf) (PDF). Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/2

0140805131600/http://www.seeei.org.il/prdFiles/2702_desc3.pdf) (PDF) from the original on 2014-08-05.

Retrieved 2014-04-07. ABB: Power Generation Energy Efficient Design of Auxiliary Systems in Fossil-Fuel

Power Plants, Page 262, Section: Load Following

External links

Semiautonomous Flight Direction - Reference unmannedaircraft.org (http://www.unmannedaircraft.org/f/pat64608

10.pdf)

Control System Toolbox (http://www.mathworks.com/products/control/) for design and analysis of control

systems.

Control Systems Manufacturer (http://www.trminternational.com/) Design and Manufacture of control systems.

Mathematica functions for the analysis, design, and simulation of control systems (http://reference.wolfram.com/

mathematica/guide/ControlSystems.html)

Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using

this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia

Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

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