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HARDWARE ASSIGNMENT

BY:
NAME: NIKHIL S V
ROLL NUMBER: 09CO60
DATE OF SUBMISSION: 1th November 2010
MOTHER BOARD
Manufacutrer : ASUS TeK Computer INC

Model : P5KPL – AM/PS

Chipset : Intel P35/G33/G31

Southbridge : Intel 82801GB (ICH7/R)

LPCIO : Winbond W83627DHG

BIOS
1. Brand : American Megatrends Inc.
2. Version : 0411

RAM : DDR2 SDRAM

Module Size: 2048 Mbytes

Max Bandwidth: PC2- 6400 (400 MHz)

Manufacturer: Transcend

Part Number: JM800QLU – 2G

Serial Number: 000861B

Memory Frequency 399.9 MHz (2:3)

CAS# latency (CL) 6.0

RAS# to CAS# delay (tRCD) 6

RAS# Precharge (tRP) 6

Cycle Time (tRAS) 18

Row Refresh Cycle Time (tRFC) 52


Command Rate (CR) 2T

MCHBAR I/O Base address 0x0FED14000

MCHBAR I/O Size 4096

DDR2 SDRAM is a double data rate synchronous dynamic random access memory interface. It supersedes
the original DDR SDRAM specification and the two are not compatible. In addition to double pumping the
data bus as in DDR SDRAM (transferring data on the rising and falling edges of the bus clock signal),
DDR2 allows higher bus speed and requires lower power by running the internal clock at one quarter the
speed of the data bus. The two factors combine to require a total of 4 data transfers per internal clock
cycle.

With data being transferred 64 bits at a time, DDR2 SDRAM gives a transfer rate of (memory clock
rate) × 2 (for bus clock multiplier) × 2 (for dual rate) × 64 (number of bits transferred) / 8 (number of
bits/byte). Thus with a memory clock frequency of 100 MHz, DDR2 SDRAM gives a maximum transfer
rate of 3200MB/s.

Since the DDR2 internal clock runs at half the DDR internal clock rate, DDR2 memory operating at the
same external data bus clock rate as DDR results in DDR2 being able to provide the same bandwidth but
with higher latency. Consequently, DDR2 RAM possesses inferior performance. Alternatively, DDR2
memory operating at twice the external data bus clock rate as DDR may provide twice the bandwidth with
the same latency. The best-rated DDR2 memory modules are at least twice as fast as the best-rated
DDR memory modules.

Chipset: Intel® P35 Express Chipset

The Intel P35 Express Chipset continues the Intel® chipset legacy and extends it to new levels
with purpose-built capabilities designed specifically to address the key needs of the enthusiast
home user. The Intel P35 Express Chipset supports new technologies such as 1333 MHz system
bus speed, next-generation 45nm dual- and quad-core processors, and DDR3 memory to deliver
increased system bandwidth and improved performance. With built-in design headroom, Intel®
Fast Memory Access and Intel® Turbo Memory, platforms based on the Intel P35 Express
Chipset enable best-of-class performance and offer the best value for performance desktop
computing.
Faster System Performance

With the growing imbalance between CPU and memory performance, it is critical to optimize the
memory controller design to obtain the maximum possible performance from the memory
subsystem. The redesigned Intel® P35 Memory Controller Hub (MCH) architecture significantly
increases overall system performance through the optimization of available bandwidth with the
new 1333 MHz system bus and reduction of memory access latency with Intel Fast Memory
Access. These technology breakthroughs result in optimized system architecture with built-in
intelligence, greatly improving system memory performance. The updated MCH also includes
support for 45nm next-generation Intel® Core™2 processor family and wider internal data
buses that support dual-channel DDR3 memory technology at 1066 MHz.

Intel® I/O Controller Hub (Intel® ICH9/R/DH)

The Intel® ICH9 I/O controller hub of the Intel P35 Express Chipset integrates several
capabilities to provide flexibility for connecting I/O devices.

• Intel® Matrix Storage Technology3 (when configured with ICH9R I/O controller): Native
support of external SATA* ports (eSATA), combined with Intel® Matrix Storage Technology
(Intel® MST), provides the flexibility to add an external drive for increased data storage with
up to 6 times faster performance than USB* 2.0 or Firewire* 400.4 Support for eSATA enables
the full SATA interface speed of up to 3 Gb/s outside the chassis. The Advanced Host
Controller Interface (AHCI) provides easier expandability with support for eSATA devices and
native hot plug, while boosting boot and multi-tasking performance with Native Command
Queuing (NCQ). In addition, support for Command Based Port Multipliers, and RAID levels 0, 1,
5, and 10 enable greater reliability for personal data, or maximum storage performance for
intensive applications.

• Intel® Rapid Recover Technology: With the ability to instantly boot off a clone, Intel®
Rapid Recover Technology (part of Intel Matrix Storage Technology) provides a fast, easy-to-
use method for the end user to recover their data and return their system to an operational
status.
• Intel® Turbo Memory: The Intel P35 Express Chipset also supports Intel Turbo Memory
(when configured with ICH9R I/O controller), an innovative flash memory-based overall system
performance and boot time accelerator. This feature is easily implemented using a PCI-Express
x1 module and can be used with any SATA Hard Drive to improve system responsiveness. Intel
Turbo memory enables faster application loading and concurrent performance enhancements
when used in conjunction with Intel Matrix Storage Technology.3
• Intel® Quiet System Technology (Intel® QST): Integrated into all the different SKUs of
the Intel® ICH9, Intel QST can help reduce system noise and heat through more intelligent fan
speed control algorithms.

Ports
Serial ATA (SATA) Yes
Serial ATA 2 (SATA Yes
II)
Serial ATA 2 (SATA 4
II) ports
IDE Ports 1
IDE Speed 33/66/100 MB/sec MB/sec
Built in SCSI No
controller
Built in RAID Yes
controller
Built in graphics card Yes
Built in sound card Yes
Built in network card Yes
RoHS Compliant Yes
PCI-E 2.0 No
AGP interface No
AGP-slots
PCI-e (PCI-express) Yes
PCI-e slots 2
PCI-e type 16x/1x
PCI slots 2
eSATA No
Bluetooth No
WiFi No
FireWire (IEEE1394) No
USB type USB 1.1/USB 2.0
Number of USB-ports 4
Number of parallel 1
ports
Number of serial ports
RJ-45 (Ethernet) 1
PS/2 Keyboard 1
PS/2 Mouse 1
Line-out 1
Line-in 1
Microphone Yes
Bios 8 Mb Flash ROM, DMI 2.0, AMI BIOS, PnP, WfM 2.0, SM BIOS
2.5, ACPI 2.0
Miscellaneous Audio: VIA VT1708B 8 -Channel High-Definition Audio CODEC,
Lan: Realtek RTL8102EL 100/10 LAN

BIOS
The BIOS of a PC software is built into the PC, and is the first code run by a PC when powered on ('boot
firmware'). The primary function of the BIOS is to load and start an operating system. When the PC starts up,
the first job for the BIOS is to initialize and identify system devices such as the video display card, keyboard
and mouse, hard disk, CD/DVD drive and other hardware. The BIOS then locates software held on a peripheral
device (designated as a 'boot device'), such as a hard disk or a CD, and loads and executes that software, giving
it control of the PC.[2] This process is known as booting, or booting up, which is short for bootstrapping.

BIOS software is stored on a non-volatile ROM chip built into the system on the mother board. The BIOS
software is specifically designed to work with the particular type of system in question, including having a
knowledge of the workings of various devices that make up the complementary chipset of the system. In
modern computer systems, the BIOS chip's contents can be rewritten allowing BIOS software to be upgraded.

A BIOS will also have a user interface (or UI for short). Typically this is a menu system accessed by pressing a
certain key on the keyboard when the PC starts. In the BIOS UI, a user can:

 configure hardware

 set the system clock

 enable or disable system components

 select which devices are eligible to be a potential boot device

 set various password prompts, such as a password for securing access to the BIOS UI functions itself and
preventing malicious users from booting the system from unauthorized peripheral devices.

The BIOS provides a small library of basic input/output functions used to operate and control the peripherals
such as the keyboard, text display functions and so forth, and these software library functions are callable by
external software. In the IBM PC and AT, certain peripheral cards such as hard-drive controllers and video
display adapters carried their own BIOS extension ROM, which provided additional functionality. Operating
systems and executive software, designed to supersede this basic firmware functionality, will provide
replacement software interfaces to applications.

The role of the BIOS has changed over time; today BIOS is a legacy system, superseded by the more
complex Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI), but BIOS remains in widespread use, and EFI booting has only
been supported in x86 Windows since 2008. BIOS is primarily associated with the 16-bit and 32-bit
architecture eras (x86-32), while EFI is used for some 32-bit and most 64-bit architectures. Today BIOS is
primarily used for booting a system, and for certain additional features such as power management (ACPI) and
video initialization (in X.org), but otherwise is not used during the ordinary running of a system, while in early
systems (particularly in the 16-bit era), BIOS was used for hardware access – operating systems (notably MS-
DOS) would call the BIOS rather than directly accessing the hardware. In the 32-bit era and later, operating
systems instead generally directly accessed the hardware using their own device drivers. However, the
distinction between BIOS and EFI is rarely made in terminology by the average computer user, making BIOS a
catch-all term for both systems.

PROCESSOR: INTEL CORE 2 DUO E7400

SPECIFICATIONS
Essentials

Status Launched

Launch Date Q1'08

Processor Number E7400

# of Cores 2

# of Threads 2

Clock Speed 2.8 GHz

L2 Cache 3 MB

Bus/Core Ratio 10.5

FSB Speed 1066 MHz

FSB Parity No

Instruction Set 64-bit


Embedded Options Available
Yes

Supplemental SKU No

Lithography 45 nm

Max TDP 65 W

VID Voltage Range 0.8500V-1.3625V

Tray 1ku Budgetary Price $113.00

BLOCK DIAGRAMS

Product Overview of INTEL CORE 2 DUO E7400


Intel® Core™2 Duo processors are members of Intel’s growing product line of multi-core processors

based on Intel® Core™ microarchitecture. This innovative process technology makes it possible to

integrate two complete execution cores in one physi-cal package, providing advancements in

simultaneous computing for multi-threaded applications and multi-tasking environments.

Processors meet the needs of a wide range of performance-intensive, low-power embedded applications

in smaller form factors such as retail and transaction terminals (i.e., point-of-service terminals and

ATMs), gaming platforms, industrial control and automation, digital security surveillance and medical
imaging. While incorporating advanced processor technology, they

remain software-compatible with previous IA-32 processors.

Intel’s hafnium-based 45nm Hi-k silicon process technology (E8400,∆ E7400∆) enables excellent

processor performance by doubling transistor density and increasing cache size by up to

50 percent. The result is improved speed and efficiency relative to previous-generation dual-core

Intel® processors.

INTEL CORE 2 DUO E7400 Microarchitecture


Intel Core microarchitecture provides enhanced energy-efficient performance to help equipment

manufacturers optimally balance processing capabilities within power and space constraints.

• Intel® Wide Dynamic Execution executes four instructions per clock cycle to improve execution speed

and efficiency. Each core can complete up to four full instructions simultaneously using

an efficient 14-stage pipeline.

• Intel® Advanced Smart Cache improves system performance by significantly reducing memory
latency to frequently used data through dynamic allocation of shared L2 cache to each of the
processor cores.
• Intel® Smart Memory Access optimizes use of available data bandwidth from the memory

subsystem to accelerate

out-of-order execution. The prediction mechanism reduces the time in-flight instructions must wait

for data, while pre-fetch algorithms move data from system memory into fast L2 cache in advance of

execution. 45nm process technology further

improves these features with more efficient methods of loading and storing data in main memory. These

functions keep the pipe-line full, improving instruction throughput and performance.

• Intel® Advanced Digital Media Boost accelerates execution of SSE/2/3 instructions to significantly

improve multimedia performance. 128-bit SSE instructions are issued at a throughput rate of one per-

clock cycle, effectively doubling the speed of execution on a per-clock basis over previous-generation

processors.

45nm process technology delivers a new super shuffle engine, which improves existing SSE instructions

while enabling significant gains on the latest SSE4 instruction set. As a result, SSE4-optimized

applications such as video editing and encoding in high-definition resolution will see additional

performance improvements.
HIGHLIGHTS OF INTEL CORE 2 DUO E7400
• Intel® Virtualization Technology1,3 (E8400,∆ E7400,∆ and E6400∆) allows one hardware platform

to function as multiple “virtual” platforms. It offers improved manageability, limiting downtime

and maintaining worker productivity by isolating computing activities into separate partitions. It

also provides greater isolation and security between different applications and operating

• systems for added protection against corruption.

• Intel® Trusted Execution Technology2,3 (E8400∆) for safer computing is a versatile set of
hardware extensions to Intel® platforms, enabling security capabilities such as measured
launch and protected execution. Hardware-based mechanisms help protect against software-
based attacks to safeguard the confidentiality and integrity of data stored or created on
embedded devices.
• Intel® 64 Architecture4 supports 64-bit instructions, providing flexibility for 64-bit and 32-bit
applications and operating sys-tems. Access to larger physical memory space reduces load on the
system and allows faster access to data from RAM instead of the hard drive.

• Execute Disable Bit5 allows memory to be marked as executable or non-executable when

combined with a supporting operating system. If code attempts to run in non-executable

memory, the processor raises an error to the operating system. This prevents some classes of

viruses or worms that exploit buffer overrun vulnerabilities and helps improve system security.

• Digital Thermal Sensor (DTS) measures maximum temperature on the die at any given time.

• Embedded Lifecycle Support protects system investment by enabling extended product

availability for embedded customers.

• A strong ecosystem of hardware and software vendors, including members of the Intel®

Embedded and Communications, helps developers cost-effectively meet design challenges and

shorten time-to-market.