Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 21

REDOX AND ELECTROCHEMICAL

I. PURPOSE
1. To understanding some redoks reaction
2. To understanding the electrolycic process of KI solution and CuSO2

II. THEORITICAL BASIS


Electrochemistry is the study of electronic aspects of chemical reactions. The elements
used in electrochemical reactions are characterized by the number of electrons they have.
Electrochemistry is generally divided into two groups, namely galvani cells and
electrolysis cells. An electrochemical cell is able to produce electrical energy from
chemical reactions or use electrical energy to carry out chemical reactions. An
electrochemical cell consists of two electrodes, called a cathode and anode in an
electrolyte solution. In the cathode electrode a reduction reaction occurs, while the
oxidation reaction occurs at the anode. Electrochemical cells can be divided into:
1. Voltaic cells / galvani cells: chemical energy  electrical energy
(electrochemical cells that obtain electrical energy from spontaneous redox
reactions that occur within cells)
Example: battery (dry cell) and battery
2. Electrolysis cell: electrical energy  chemical energy (an
electrochemical cell that encourages non-spontaneous redox reactions through
the application of electrical energy)
Example: gilding, metal refining.
Voltaic cells are electrochemical cells that convert chemical energy into
electrical energy. Voltaic cells can cause electrical energy from a spontaneous
redox reaction. Galvani (voltaic) cell series as follows:

Consists of several parts, namely:


• Voltmeter, to determine the amount of cell potential.
• The salt bridge, to maintain the neutrality of the electric charge in the solution
• Anode, negative electrode, where oxidation reactions occur. In the figure, what acts
as an anode is the Zn / zinc electrode
• Cathode, positive electrode, site of the reduction reaction. In the picture which acts
as a cathode is a Cu / copper electrode.
Reaction in Galvani Cells
The chemical reaction that occurs in the right vessel is the reduction reaction of the
copper ion (positive oxidation number) to the copper metal. This causes the mass of
copper electrodes to increase. The lack of a positive charge to a negative charge due to
copper reduction is immediately balanced by the positive charge of the salt bridge.
Thus the electrolyte remains neutral. Conversely, the electrolyte in the left vessel will
be the addition of cations as a result of the oxidation of zinc metal. This can be known
due to the reduced mass of the zinc electrode. Cell reactions that occur are:
Zn(s) + Cu2+ ⇌ Zn2+ + Cu(s)
Salt Bridge
Tool used to connect the reduction and oxidation reactions of half cells from voltaic
cells. The salt bridge is shaped like an inverted U which contains a KCl electrolyte
solution (in gelatin) which is both ends clogged with cotton to prevent mechanical
flow. Besides KCl, you can also use KNO3, NaCl, and K2SO4 electrolytes. The
condition for a substance used for a salt bridge is that it must not react with the
electrolytes used in cell potential measurement
Galvani Cell Electrodes
The electrodes in the Galvani cell are reversed with the electrolysis cell electrodes
where:
• Anode is an electrode where an oxidation reaction occurs
(loss of electrons). Anode pulls anion
• The cathode is the electrode where the reduction reaction (accepting electrons)
occurs. Cathode draw cation.
Standard Potential Calculations
The standard electrical potential can be determined using a standard half-cell potential
table. The first step is to find out what metals react in the cell. Then look for the
standard electrode potential (E0) in volts, from each of the two half reactions.
Examples of voltaic cell calculations are as follows: in gambmarv above ZnSO4 and
CuSO4 solutions are connected by salt bridges. The electrodes used are zinc and
copper. Then the standard potential produced is:
Cu2+ + 2e ⇌ Cu E= +0,34 V

Zn2+ + 2e ⇌ Zn E= -0,74 V

The potential is obtained by calculating the larger E minus the smaller E. So,
E= +0,34 V – (- 0,74 V) = 1,10 V
 The electrical energy produced by these cells is the same as the reduction of free
energy, -G from the reaction

Electrical energy = n . F . E
n = the equivalent amount of substance that reacts
F = Faraday constant (96500 C)
E = electrical conductivity or cell potential
Electrolysis is the occurrence of chemical reactions by an electric current. The electrolysis
circuit contains solution / fused electrolyte and two electrodes, anode and cathode. Example
reaction:
Zn2+ + Cu ⇌ Zn + Cu2+

The positive (+) electrode of the cell is connected to the positive (+) pole of the electric
current source
The negative electrode (-) of the cell is connected to the negative pole (-) of the electric
current source
At the positive electrode (+) / anode because it is connected with a positive pole (+) which is
potentially greater causes an oxidation reaction and electrons flow from this electrode to the
source of electric current. Electrons move from the negative pole (-) the source of the electric
current to the negative electrode (-) / cathode, causing a reduction reaction.
In 1833, Faraday showed that the amount of the substance reacting to the electrodes of the
electrolysis cell was directly proportional to the amount of current passing through the cell. In
addition to a certain amount of current flowing through several electrolysis cells, an
equivalent amount of each substance will be producedat.
m = mass of substance
Q = the amount of electricity
Ar = relative atomic mass Q. Ar
m=
n.F
N = number of electrons involved
F= tetapan Faraday (96500)
III. TOOLS AND MATERIALS
TOOLS
1. Test racks & test tubes
2. 10 ml measuring cup
3. emery paper
4. methylated burner
5. filter paper
6. 100 ml and 50 ml beaker
7. drop pipette
8. funnel
9. electrodes / Cu plates
10. salt bridge
11. carbon electrode
12. PH meter
13. U tube
14. direct current source 6 V
MATERIALS
1. metals Al, Cu, Mg, Pb, Zn
2. Pb solution (NO 3) 2 0.1 M
3. Zn (NO 3) 2 0.1 M solution
4. 0.1 M AgNO3 solution
5. NaNO3 0.1 M solution
6. 6 M HCl solution
7. a 0.1 M FeCl3 solution
8. KI of 0.1 M and 0.25 M
9. H2 SO 4 1 M solution and concentrated
10. H2 O2 0.1 M solution
11. starch solution
12. a solution of 0.5 M CuSO4 and 0.1 M
13. ZnSO4 solution of 0.5 M and 0.1 M
14. PP indicator
15. CHCl3 / CCl4

IV. PROCEDURE
1. Redox Reaction
d). Observe the rate of c). Insert into 5 test tube 2
formation
a). Insert a of gas of
piece bubbles
metal mLb).
of Record
HCl 3 M theand
Aland record
in each the of
2 mL immerse Cu,Fe,Mg,Pbsteps
observations. Repeat and
observations.
Pb(NO3) 2, Zn(NO3)2, 1 using Cuwith
Zn respectively . the
AgNO3 and NaNO3. same surface area
e). Add 5 drops of 0.1 M f). Mix 5 drops of 0.1 M
H2O2 and 1 M H2SO4 FeCl3, 10 drops of 1 M
into test tube and 10 drops H2SO4 and 10 drops of
0.1 M KI and 1 drop of 0.1 M KI and 1 drop of
starch solution. Observe starch solution
and write down what

h). Insert 2 mL of 0.5 M g). Heat briefly and add a


CuSO4 solution into a test drop of starch solution.
tube and insert the Zn Observe and write down
metal. what happened
same surface area

i). Allow a few minutes


and record what
happened.

2. Electrolysis of KI Solution

a).
e).
h). Put
d).
Add 0.25
Insert
Take
the M of
22first
mL
mL ofKI
tube
of 1into
0.5
eachM
mL b).
g).
c). f).
AddPut
Remove
Takeelectrodes
the 2first
the c aand
mLelectrodes
tube
of each few
CuSO4 ansolution
solution
of CHCl3 Ufromtype tube
andthe
solution.
into
anode
a test connect
solution
drops
carefully tosame
of from
PP the
samesource
thesurface
cathodeof
surface
Observe
tube
into
and2and
test
insert
write
tubes.
thedown
Zn direct current
into 2 test area 6 V for
tubes. Add the 5
whatmetal.
happened. minutes
first tube, then
a fewdisconnect
drops of
PPtheandcurrent.
shake it.Write
Whilethein
changes
the secondin tube
the cathode
, add 2
3. Electrolysis of Cu2SO4

a). Arrange the b). Record the changes


Electrolysis of 0.5 M that occur.
CuSO4 using C electrode
the same way to the
electrolysis KI above.
Record the changes that

d). By using iron as a c). Clean iron metal and


electrode and record the arrange the electrolysis of
changes. CuSO4 0.5 M by using
iron as a electrode and
record the changes.

V. DATA EXPERIMENT

1. Redox Reaction
a. Reaction of metal and metal nitrat solution

Metal Pb(NO3)2 Zn(NO3)2 NaNO3 AgNO3


No reaction / No reaction / No reaction /
No reaction /
Al change change change
change occurred
occurred occurred occurred
No reaction / -\ No reaction / Cu become
There is a
Cu change change black, there are
bubble
occurred occurred many bubbles

b. Reaction of metal and HCl solution

Metal Observation
Cu No reaction, nothing happened, not dissolved
Many bubbles around metal, not dissolved, and the metal turns
Pb
black
Fast reaction, and many bubble than Fe, dissolved in HCl solution,
Mg
and the test tube feels hot
Zn Many bubble, not dissolved

c. H2O2 +H2SO4+KI+starch

Observation :Clear  Light pink  Light purple, Looks like dewy,


Temperature change.

Reaction : H2O2(aq) +H2SO4(aq)+KI(aq)+starch(aq)  2H2O(l) + I2(aq) + K2SO4(aq)


 H2O2 + 2 KI + H2SO4 K2SO4 +I2 +2H2O

Oksidation : 2I-  I2 + 2e- Eo = -0,536 V


+ -
Reduction : H2O2 + 2H + 2e  2 H2O Eo = +0,770 V
2I- + H2O2 + 2H+ I2 + 2H2O o
E cell = +0,7134 V

d. FeCl3 + H2SO4 + KI heated + starch

Observation :Yellow  Clear Yellow  Dark Yellow after heating the color
like tea, after adding amylum produce black precipitate and brown redish, test
tube becomes warm

Reaction :4FeCl3 + 6H2SO4 + 2KI + starch 2FeCl3+ K2SO4+6HCl+I2


4FeCl3 + 4 KI + 6H2SO4 2Fe2(SO4)3 +2I2 +4KCl +6H2
Oksidation : I-  ½ I2 + e- Eo = -0,536 V
Reduction : Fe + e  Fe2+
3+ -
Eo = +0,771 V
I- + Fe3+  ½ I2 + Fe2+ Eo cell = +0,235
e. Zn + CuSO4 :Zn become black and few bubble

Reaction :Zn + CuSO4 ZnSO4 + Zn


Cu + ZnSO4 : No Change, No reaction

Reaction :Cu + ZnSO4 CuSO4 + Zn

2. Electrolysis of KI solution

Observation Solution on Anode Solution on Cathode


Don't change color, there
Yellow, a little bubble
are many bubbles
+ starch solution
Agglomeration, black +PP solution
Visual/changes color Pink
precipitate
+ CHCl3 (2 layers)
+ FeCl3 solution
Above : Yellow,
Brownish
Below : Pink
Smell Iodine smell No smell
Reaction 2I- I2 + 2e- 2H2O + 2e- H2 + 2OH-

3. Electrolysis of CuSO4

Observation Anode Cathode


Yellow color, Bubble,
Muddy, No bubble, No
1. Using C electrode more iron smell
smell

There are many bubbles There are no bubbles, there


Occured change and the color remains blue are red Cu deposits

Reaction 2H2O  4H+ + O2 +4e- Cu2+ + 2e- Cu

More rusty, More iron Lower rusty, a little iron


2. Using Fe electrode
smell smell
Cu is deposited on the
There are no Cu deposits
Occured change anode
Reaction Cu2+  Cu + 2e- 4H2O  O2 + 4H +4e-
VI. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

RESULT

1. Redox Reaction
 Reaction of metal and metal nitrat solution

a. 2Al + 3 Pb (NO3)2

Oksidation : Al  Al3+ +3e- (x2) Eo = +1.662 V


2+ -
Reduction : Pb +2e  Pb (x3) Eo = -0.126 V
2+ 3+ o
2Al + 3Pb  2Al + 3 Pb E cell = +1.536 V

b. 2Al + 3 Zn(NO3)2 2Al(NO3)3 + 3 Zn

Oksidation : Al  Al3+ +3e- (x2) Eo = +1.662 V


Reduction : Zn2+ +2e-  Zn (x3) Eo = -0.763 V
2Al + 3Zn2+ 2Al 3+ + 3 Zn Eo cell = +0.899 V

c. Al + NaNO3

Oksidation : Al  Al3+ +3e- (x1) Eo = +1.662 V


+ -
Reduction : Na +e  Na (x3) Eo = -2.714 V
+ 3+
Al + 3Na  Al + 3 Na Eo cell = -1.052 V

d. Al + AgNO3

Oksidation : Al  Al3+ +3e- (x1) Eo = +1,662 V


Reduction : Ag+ +e-  Ag (x3) Eo = +0,799V
2Al + 3Ag+ Al 3+ + 3 Ag Eo cell = +2,441 V

e. Cu + Pb (NO3)2

Oksidation : Cu Cu2+ +2e- Eo = -0,337 V


2+ -
Reduction : Pb +2e  Pb Eo = -0,126 V
2+ 2+ o
Cu + Pb Cu + Pb E cell = -0,463 V

f. Cu + Zn(NO3)2 Cu(NO3)2 + Zn

Oksidation : Cu  Cu2+ +2e- Eo = -0,337 V


Reduction : Zn2+ +2e-  Zn Eo
= -0,763V
Cu + Zn2+ Cu2+ + Zn Eo cell = -1,100 V

g. Cu + NaNO3

Oksidation : Cu  Cu2+ +2e- (x1)Eo = -0,337 V


Reduction : Na+ +e-  Na (x2)Eo = -2,714 V
+ 2+
Cu + 2Na  Cu + 2Na Eo cell = -3,051 V

h. Cu + 2AgNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + 2 Ag

Oksidation : Cu  Cu2+ +2e- (x1)Eo = -0,337 V


Reduction : Ag+ +e-  Ag (x2)Eo = +0,799V
Cu +2Ag+ Cu2+ + 2 Ag Eo cell = +0,462 V

 Reaction of metal and HCl solution

a. Cu + HCl

Oksidation : Cu Cu2+ +2e- Eo = -0.337 V


+ -
Reduction : 2H +2e  H2 Eo = +0.000 V
+ 2+ o
Cu + 2H  Cu + H2 E cell = -0.337 V

b. Fe + HCl  FeCl2 + H2

Oksidation : Fe Fe2+ +2e- Eo = +0,440 V


+ - o
Reduction : 2H +2e  H2 E = +0,000 V
Fe + 2H+Fe2+ + H2 Eo cell = +0,440 V

c. Mg + 2HCl  MgCl2 + H2

Oksidation : Mg Mg2+ +2e- Eo = +2,363 V


+ -
Reduction : 2H +2e  H2 Eo = +0,000 V
+ 2+ o
Mg + 2H  Mg + H2 E cell = +2,362 V

d. Zn+ 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H2

Oksidation : Zn Zn2+ +2e- Eo = +0,763 V


+ - o
Reduction : 2 H +2e  H2 E = +0,000 V
Zn + 2H+ Zn2+ + H2 Eo cell = +0,763 V

e. Pb + 2HCl  PbCl2 + H2

Oksidation : Pb Pb2+ +2e- Eo = +0,126 V


+ -
Reduction : 2H +2e  H2 Eo = +0,000 V
+ 2+ o
Pb + 2H  Pb + H2 E cell = +0,126 V

 H2O2 +H2SO4+KI+starch
Observation :Clear  Light pink  Light purple, Looks like dewy,
Temperature change.

Reaction : H2O2(aq) +H2SO4(aq)+KI(aq)+starch(aq)  2H2O(l) + I2(aq) + K2SO4(aq)


H2O2 + 2 KI + H2SO4 K2SO4 +I2 +2H2O

Oksidation : 2I-  I2 + 2e- Eo = -0,536 V


+ -
Reduction : H2O2 + 2H + 2e  2 H2O Eo = +0,770 V
2I- + H2O2 + 2H+ I2 + 2H2O Eo cell = +0,7134 V

 FeCl3 + H2SO4 + KI heated + starch

Observation :Yellow  Clear Yellow  Dark Yellow after heating the color
like tea, after adding amylum produce black precipitate and brown redish, test
tube becomes warm

Reaction :4FeCl3 + 6H2SO4 + 2KI + starch 2FeCl3+ K2SO4+6HCl+I2


4FeCl3 + 4 KI + 6H2SO4 2Fe2(SO4)3 +2I2 +4KCl +6H2
Oksidation : I-  ½ I2 + e- Eo = -0,536 V
Reduction : Fe + e  Fe2+
3+ -
Eo = +0,771 V
I- + Fe3+  ½ I2 + Fe2+ Eo cell = +0,235

 Zn + CuSO4 ZnSO4 + Cu

Oksidation : Zn Zn2++ 2e- Eo = +0,763 V


2+ -
Reduction : Cu + 2e Cu Eo = +0,337 V
2+ 2+ o
Zn + Cu  Zn + Cu E cell = +1,100 V

 Cu+ ZnSO4

Oksidation : Cu  Cu2+ + 2e- Eo = -0,337 V


Reduction : Zn2+ + 2e-  Zn Eo = -0,763 V
Cu+ Zn2+ Cu2++ Zn o
E cell = -1,100 V

2. Electrolysis of KI solution

KI  K+ + I- (x2)
Anode : 2H2O + 2e- 2OH- + H2 (x1)

Cathode : 2I- I2 + 2e- (x1)

2KI  2K+ + 2I-


2H2O + 2e-  2OH- + H2
2I-  I2 + 2e-
2KI + 2H2O  2K+ + 2OH- + I2 + H2
2KI + 2H2O  2KOH + I2 + H2

3. Electrolysis of CuSO4 solution

CuSO4 Cu2+ + SO42- (x2)


Anode : 2H2O  4H+ + O2 + 4e (x1)

Cathode : Cu2+ + 2e  Cu (x2)

2CuSO4  2Cu2+ + 2SO42-


2H2O  4H+ + O2 + 4e-
2+ -
2Cu + 4e  2Cu
CuSO4 + 2H2O  2SO42- + 2Cu + 4H+ + O2
CuSO4 + 2H2O  2H2SO4 + 2Cu +O2

DISCUSSION

1. Redox reaction

a. Reaction of metal and metal nitrat solution

For the first time when Al metal inserted into some solutions like
Pb(NO3)2, Zn(NO3)2, NaNO3 and AgNO3, Al metal just can react with
Zn(NO3)2 solution. Whereas according tothe theory, Al metal can react with
the solution except NaNO3 solution. It causes by volta series, Na-Al-Zn-
Pb-Ag. Al metal position in volta series is Na’s right. It means E 0 of Al
metal is bigger than E0 of Na, so that Al metal cannot reduct Na and it
causes the reaction is not occurs. On the other hand, when Al metal inserted
into Pb(NO3)2, Zn(NO3)2 and AgNO3 the reaction is occurs. It causes E0 of
Al metal is fewer than E0 of Pb metal, Zn metal, and Ag metal, so that Al
metal can reduct the ion. Basedcalculations, thepriceof E0cell is (+). Sign
indicate that it is spontaneous reaction. According to the volta series, it
reaction occur because the metals to be reducted than Al. This correspond
to the data obtained, because at the time of practicum.
And then, when Cu metal inserted to some solutions like Pb(NO3)2,
Zn(NO3)2, NaNO3 and AgNO3, Cu metal can react with AgNO 3and
Zn(NO3)2solution. It causes by volta series Na-Al-Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag. Cu metal
position in volta series is Ag’s metal left and Zn’s metal right. Its mean E0
of Cu metal is fewer than E0of Ag so that Cu can reduct Ag metal. But, the
E0 of Zn metal is fewer than E0 of Cu. This practicum does not correspond
to the theory.This does not correspond to the data obtained, because at the
time of practicum, the metal used was less sanding so less shiny and too
small changes so we could not see it.

b. Reaction of metal and HCI solution

In this experiment, we inserted some metals like Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn, and
Pb into HCI solution. From the experiment, there are two metals that
cannot react with HCI solution. They are Cu metal and Pb metal. Cu metal
cannot react with HCI solution because Cu metal position in volta series is
H’s right. Basedcalculations, thepriceof E0cell is (-). Sign indicate that it is
not spontaneous reaction. It means that reaction not occur. According to the
volta series, Cu is easier to be reducted than H because Cu has more
potential reduction than H and for Pb metal, based on theory, Pb metal
cannot react with HCI solution. But, based calculation, get thepriceof E0cell
is (+).Sign indicate that it is spontaneous reaction. According to the volta
series, it reaction occur. But, this does not correspond to the data
obtained.It maybe causes by our observation. Maybe, in the surface of Pb
metal, there is few of bubble but we cannot see it. Mg metal is faster than
Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb metal because Mg has more reductor properties, so the
reaction is fast.Tend more reductor, the reaction tend to fast.

c. Reaction H2O2 + H2SO4 + KI + starch

In this experiment did to know the redox reaction. In the experiment,


H2O2 solution was reacted with H2SO4 solution and KI. H2SO4 is used to
make acid condition. The initialing color of H 2O2 is colorless. After added
with H2SO4 and KI it become light pink and finally after added starch
solution, it become light purple color. The reaction occur is :
H2O2(aq) + 2KI(aq) +H2SO4(aq) I2 (g)+ K2SO4(g) + 2H2O(l)
Redox reaction is :

2I-(aq) + H2O2(aq) +2H+(aq) I2 (g)+ 2 H2O(l) E0cell=+1,240 v

In this reaction, H2O2 is used as oxidator. The sign (+) of E0cell indicate
that it is spontaneous reaction. It is suitable with the experiment that we
have did.

d. Reaction between FeCI3 + H2SO4 + KI heated + starch solution

The reaction also shown redox reaction. In this case, FeCI 3 is reacted
with H2SO4 to form acid situation and then reacted with KI solution.
Because this reaction cannot react in room temperature, so that the solution
is heating. After heating, the color of solution is like a tea color and there
are black precipite. The reaction is :
FeCI3(aq) + 6H2SO4(aq) + 4KI(aq) 2I2(g) + 4kCI(aq) + 2Fe2(SO4)3(aq)+
6H2
Redox reaction :
2I-(aq) + Fe3+(aq) I2(g) + Fe2+(aq) E0cell=+0,234 v

The sign (+) of E0cell indicate that it is spontaneous reaction. It is suitable


with the experiment that we have did.

e. Reaction Zn metal with CuSO4 and Cu metal with ZnSO4 solution

In the first experiment, Zn metal was react with CuSO 4 solution. We


could see that Zn metal change become black color. The reaction is :
Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)
Redox reaction :
Cu2+(aq) + Zn (s) Cu (s)+Zn 2+(aq) E0 cell = +1,103 v
0
The sign (+) of E cell indicate that it is spontaneous reaction. It means that
reaction above can occur. Change color of Zn metal occur because Cu is
reducted by Zn, so, Cu move and covered Zn metal.
The second experiment, Cu metal was reacted with ZnSO 4 solution.
There are not reaction. It causes E0 of Zn metal is fewer than E0 of Cu
metal. The reaction is :
Cu + ZnSO4(aq)
Redox reaction :
Zn 2+(aq)+ Cu (s) Zn(s)+ Cu2+(aq) E0 = -1,100 volt
0
The sign (-) of E cell indicate that it is not spontaneous reaction.
2. Electrolysis of KI solution

In this experiment, we will know electrolysis process of KI with


electrode carbon. In the experiment, KI solution entered to the tube with U
type then we entered electrode C and relat to the current electric. After 5
minutes electrode C was taken. In the room of anode, the solution change color
from colorless into yellow color and it has smell iodium. The solution from
anode add amylum solution, it produce black precipitate and. When the
solution was added CHCI3 solution, it form 2 color that yellow in the top and
pink in the bottom. CHCI3 is the pink color because I2 is distributed to CHCI3.
CHCI3 was in the bottom of it solution because density of CHCI 3 is higher than
H2O. I2 is dissolved in polar and non polar solvent. But it is difficult to
dissolved in water. So, it must be added KI. CHCI 3 is non polar because it has
simetric geometrical formula. So, I2 can dissolve in CHCI3. The reaction occur
in anode is :

2I-(aq) I2(g) + 2e-

In the room cathode, the solution was not change, but there are bubbles
produced. That bubbles is H2 that product reduction of H2O. It also there is no
smell. The solution from cathode was added PP solution, the color change from
colorless into pink. It indicate that there is OH- in the that solution. When the
solution from cathode was added FeCI3 solution, the color change from
colorless to brownish. The reaction occur in cathode is :

2H2O(I) + 2e- 2OH-(aq) + H2(g)


So, the electrolysis occur in KI solution is :
KI(aq) K+(aq) + I-(aq)
Cathode (-) : 2H2O(I) + 2e- 2OH-(aq) + H2(g)
-
Anode (+) : 2I (aq) I2(g) + 2e-
-
R.cell : 2H2O (I) + 2I (aq) 2OH-(aq) + I2(g) + H2(g)
3. Electrolysis of CuSO4 solution (using Electrode C )
In this experiment, we know that Electrolysis CuSO4 solution with electrode C
produce bubbles in the anode. The color of solution is not change, blue color,
more iron smell, more rusted in anode. The bubbles of it is O2as product of
oxidation of water. The reaction occur in anode is :

2H2O(I) 4H++ O2(g)+ 4e


In the room cathode, there is no change color like in anode. But there is solid
of Cu in the electrode carbon, lower iron smell and low rusted. It is product
reduction of Cu2+. The reaction occur in cathode is :

Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu (s)

So, the electrolysis occur in CuSO4 solution with electrode C is :

CuSO4 Cu2+(aq) + SO42-(aq)


Cathode (-): Cu2+(aq) + 2e-  Cu (s) (x2)
Anode (+): 2H2O(I)  4H++ O2(g)+ 4e (x1)

Cathode (-): 2Cu2+(aq) + 4e- 2Cu (s)


+
Anode (+): 2H2O(I) 4H + O2(g)+ 4e

R. cell : 2Cu2+(aq) + 2H2O(I)  2Cu (s) + 4H++ O2(g)

VII. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

1. Conclusion

a. 1. Electrolysis of the potassium iodide (KI) solution at the cathode produces an I 2


substance while at anode produces H2 gas and OH- ion
b. Electrolysis of copper (II) sullfate (CuSO4) solution on the sediment produced Cu.
At the anode produces O2 + H+
c. From the results of observations on the practicum this time it can be concluded
that in the redox reaction oxidation and reduction and the electron exchange of the
reacting substances will occur.

2. Suggestion
When sanding the metal must be clean so that the reaction takes place properly, and if
measuring the volume of the solution must be observed properly

VIII. REFERENCES

Chang, Raymond. Kimia Dasar Konsep-Konsep Inti Jilid II. Jakarta:Erlangga.2005


Oxtoby, David W. Kimia Modern Jilid I. Jakarta : Erlangga. 2001
H.A.M, Mulyono. 2008. Kamus Kimia. Jakarta : Bumi Aksara
Petrucci, Ralph H. Kimia Dasar Prinsip dan Terapan Modern Jilid III. Jakarta:Erlangga.
1985
IX. QUESTION AND ANSWER
1. PROBLEM
a. Redox reaction

1. Write down all of the occured reaction in this experiment.

2. Sort of seven metals ( Al, Pb, Zn, Ag, Na, Cu, Fe ) by diminishing the power reduction
and give explanation

3. Where is the position of hydrogen in the series above ?

b. Electrolysis of KI solution

1. Write equation for all reaction that occur in each electrode !

2. What is the function of PP ?

3. What is the function of CHCI3 ?

4. What is the function of the salt bridge ?

5. Explain why the reaction can take place spontaneously in terms of free energy ?

c. Electrolysis of CuSO4

1. In the electrolysis using C electrode, what happens at each electrode (C and Cu)?

2. Write the equation that occur in electrolisis in each electrode!

Answer :
a. Redox reaction

1. a. Reaction of metal and metal nitrat solution

Al(s) + Pb(NO3)2 (aq)


Al (s) +Zn(NO3)2 (aq)
Al (s) + 3 NaNO3 (aq) Al(NO3)3 (aq) + 3 Na(s)
Al (s) + AgNO3 (aq)

Cu (s) + Pb(NO3)2 (aq)


Cu (s) + Zn(NO3)2 (aq) Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + Zn (s)
Cu (s) + NaNO3 (aq)
Cu (s) + 2 AgNO3 (aq) Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 Ag (s)

b. Reaction of metal and HCl solution


Cu (s) + HCl (aq)
Fe (s) + HCl (aq) FeCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)
Mg (s) + HCl (aq) MgCl2 (aq)+ H2 (g)
Pb (s) + HCl (aq)
Zn (s) + HCl (aq) ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

Based on the number of gas bubble that formed, the series of volta Mg Zn Fe
Pb H Cu

c. H2O2 + H2SO4 + KI + starch

Reaction: H2O2 + 2KI +H2SO4 I2 + K2SO4 + 2H2O

d. FeCI3 + H2SO4 + KI heated + starch

Reaction : FeCI3 + 6H2SO4 + 2KI I2 + K2SO4 + 3HCI +


FeSO4+ H+ + e-

e. Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)

Cathode : Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu (s) E0 = +0,337 volt


Anode : Zn (s) Zn 2+(aq) + 2e- E0 = +0,763 volt
2+ 2+ 0
R.cell : Cu (aq) + Zn (s) Cu (s)+Zn (aq) E cell = +1,103 volt

Cu + ZnSO4(aq)
Cathode : Zn 2+(aq) + 2e- Zn(s) E0 = -0,763 volt
2+ -
Anode : Cu (s) Cu (aq) + 2e E0 = -0.337 volt
R.cell : Zn 2+(aq)+ Cu (s) Zn(s)+ Cu2+(aq) E0 = -1,100 volt

2. Ag-Cu-Pb-Fe-Zn-Al-Na
The more reactive so that easier to be oxidized and more difficult to be
reducted.
3. Ag-Cu-H-Pb-Fe-Zn-Al-Na
b. Electrolisis KI solution

1. Electrolysis of KI solution (electrode C )

KI  K+ + I- (x2)
Anode : 2H2O + 2e- 2OH- + H2 (x1)

Cathode : 2I- I2 + 2e- (x1)


2KI  2K+ + 2I-
2H2O + 2e-  2OH- + H2
-
2I  I2 + 2e-
2KI + 2H2O  2K+ + 2OH- + I2 + H2
R. cell: 2KI(aq) + 2H2O(l) 2KOH(aq) + I2 (g) + H2 (g)
2. The function of PP is as indicator that determines the color change
3. The function of CHCI3 is as indicator
4. The function of the salt bridge is to neutralize the excess ions on cathode and
anode so the difference of its content isn’t too large.
5. A reaction can take place spontaneously if the value of free energy is less than zero
(negative), if the value of E0cell is positive.
∆G = -nF E0cell
∆G <0

c. Electrolisis CuSO4 Solution

1. Electrolysis CuSO4 solution with electrode C produce bubbles in the anode. The
color of solution is not change, blue color. The bubbles of it is O2 as product of
oxidation of water. The reaction occur in anode is :

2H2O(I) 4H++ O2(g)+ 4e

In the room cathode, there is no change color like in anode. But there is solid
of Cu in the electrode carbon. It is product reduction of Cu 2+. The reaction
occur in cathode is :

Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu (s)

2. The electrolysis occur in CuSO4 solution with electrode C is :

CuSO4 Cu2+(aq) + SO42-(aq)


2+ -
Cathode (-): Cu (aq) + 2e Cu (s) x2
+
Anode (+): 2H2O(I) 4H + O2(g)+ 4e x1

Cathode (-): 2Cu2+(aq) + 4e- 2Cu (s)


Anode (+): 2H2O(I) 4H++ O2(g)+ 4e

R. cell : 2Cu2+(aq) + 2H2O(I) 2Cu (s) + 4H++ O2(g)


2. THEORITICAL BASIS

1. a) Fe2- + Cr2O72-  Fe3+ + Cr3+


2+
6Fe + Cr2O7 2-
+ 14H+  2 Cr3+ + 6Fe3+ + 7H2O
b) Cl2  Cl- + ClO3-
6Cl2 +12OH-  10Cl- + 12 ClO3-+ 6H2O
2. H2S + KMnO4  K2SO4 + MnO2
H2SO4 + 2KMnO4  K2SO4+ 2MnO2 + H2
M H2S  ½ . 1,25 = 0,625
3. a) Cd| Cd2+|| H+ | H2
Anoda : Cd  Cd2+ + 2e
Katoda : 2H+ + 2e  H2
b) Reaction cell
Cd + 2 H+  Cd2+ + H2
C. E0sel = E0katoda – E0anoda
0,40= E0H2 –E0Cd
0,40= 0- E0Cd
E0Cd=0,40

The process of The result of


Electrolysis Redox reaction

X. DOCUMENTATION

The result of The process of


KI and CuSO4 electroysis CuSO4 electroysis