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Dépôt Institutionnel de l’Université libre de Bruxelles / Université libre de Bruxelles Institutional Repository Thèse de doctorat/ PhD Thesis

Citation APA:

Kourakos, V. (2011). Experimental study and modeling of single- and two-phase flow in singular geometries and safety relief valves (Unpublished

doctoral dissertation). Université libre de Bruxelles, Ecole polytechnique de Bruxelles – Physicien, Bruxelles.

(English version below)

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D

03850

fcrsité

Libre de Bruxelles

Faculté des sciences appliquées

PhD. Dissertation

to obtain the title of

Doctorate of Science in Engineering

of the Université Libre de Bruxelles

Specialty: Sciences appliquées

Defended by

Vasilios K ourakos

Experimental study and modeling of single- and two-phase flow in singular geometries and safety relief valves

Thesis Supervisors:

Jean-Marie B uchlin Patrick R ambaud

Said C habane

prepared at Bruxelles, B elgium

defended on October 28, 2011

Jury:

Jean-Marie Buchlin, Patrick Rambaud, Saïd Chabane, Jürgen

Schmidt, Pierre Colinet, Benoît H aut, Pascal Souquet

Université Libre de Bruxelles

--'mental study and n.„c

^^^urakos, Vasriios - m i

QO

Promotor:

Jean-Marie Buchlin

-

VKI&ULB

President:

Pierre Colinet

-

ULB

Secretary:

Benoît H aut

-

ULB

Reviewers:

Jean-Marie Buchlin

-

VKI&ULB

Patrick Rambaud

-

VKI

Saïd C hABANE

-

CETIM

Pierre Colinet

-

ULB

Benoît H aut

-

ULB

Invited:

Jürgen Schmidt

-

KIT

Pascal SouQUET

-

CETIM

Contact information:

Vasilios Kourakos von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics Chaussée de Waterloo 72 B-1640, Rhode-Saint-Genèse BELGIUM email: kourakos@vki .ac.be

Dedication

To my familly

"A man goes to knowledge as he goes to war:

wide-awake, withfear, with respect, and with absolute assurance. Going to knowledge or going to war in any other manner is a mistake, and whoever makes it might never live to regret it. " Carlos Castaneda (1925-1998), Peruvian anthropologist and author

Consultation

Signature :

AUTORISEE

(biffez la mention inutile)

INTERBfFE

OXDüliou

Acknowledgements

It bas been a very long path for me to reach this point and, as in every long, painful but fruitful step in life, the help and support from colleagues, friends and family was indispensable to accomplish this PhD thesis.

First of ail, I would like to thank the von Karman Institute (VKI) which has been

the place that offered me the chance to carry out such an interesting research project and learn so many things. The ambiance of VKI will always stay in my mind with the

best memories. I am extremely grateful as well to the Centre Technique des Industries Mécaniques (CETIM) for financing the whole project and integrating me in their team providing at the same time a very friendly working environment.

I am deeply indebted to the three persons that hâve always supported me and helped

me with their technical and personal advices; Dr. Saïd Chabane from CETIM and Pro- fessors Patrick Rambaud and Jean-Marie Buchlin from VKI. I am also really gratified for the great moments we hâve shared out of working hours during the numerous business trips which helped me to relax from the stress of work and feel much more comfortable. I would like to express my gratitude to Pascal Souquet, Pascal François, Muriel Maque- nnehan and Daniel Pierrat from CETIM for their great support. Furthermore, I want to acknowledge Professor Jürgen Schmidt from Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and

Professor Pierre Colinet and Benoît Haut from Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) for accepting to become members of my PhD jury and for reading in detail my thesis and providing constructive advices for its improvement.

A Word of thanks to the technical team of VKI (Guillaume Diquas, Didier Welter) and

of CETIM (Alain Pilorge, Luc Laundry and François Corbin); the latter has to be par-

ticularly acknowledged since he performed an important part of the SRV measurements. Both teams hâve put great effort on the experimental part of the thesis. Numerous students hâve been working in the frame of this project and their contribution should be certainly recognized hereunder: Vaggelis Bacharoudis, Rosario Delgado-Tardâguila, Emrah Deniz, Bugra Kilinç, Vitor Fernandez. Likewise, the help of Remi Berger (in preliminary PIV tests) and Flora Tomasoni (for probe processing) should be mentioned.

A spécial considération should be given to my friends from VKI for showing me every

moment their true friendship: my real friend Mémo (Mehmet Mersilingil), Fabio Pinna and Delphine Laboureur. The time in VKI has become much more pleasant due to their presence. The long discussions with my VKI colleagues helping to relax from work hâve been so helpful for me, hence I want to thank Benoît, Kostas, Boris, Jan (also for being a so quite office mate) and the other very good friends I made in VKI. A big word of thanks to ail my friends from Brussels but mainly; Adelaida, Margaritis, Dimitris, Merve, Yannis, Vaggelis for making me love and miss so much such a rainy country as Belgium. I should not forget to mention my true friends from Greece who, although I don’t

see them so often any more, never stopped caring for me and hâve always been close to me; Giwrgos, Eftuxia, Vaggelis and Dimitris (regardless of his long absence); I hope that soon I will be back home close to them. I want also to thank so much Katerina for her support and patience and for being always there for me in this difficult period for both of us. Moreover, a word of thanks to my professor from Greece Professor D. P. Margaris from University of Patras who, few years ago, has triggered my interest for the wonderful World of fluid dynamics. Je voudrais spécialement dédier ce paragraph à Said Chabane et François Corbin. Je serais toujours ravis pour l ’intimité qu’ils m’ont offert aussi généreusement. Je garde et je ne garderai que des excellents souvenirs de leur accueil à Nantes et au CETIM. Je suis sûr que notre amitié restera impacte.

Finally, most of ail I want to thank, with a few words in Greek, my family who has always been my major inspiration in life;

0a T|0EXa, téXoç, va euxapiatif|a(o ti|v oiKoyéveiâ pou n:ou pe é/ei oriipilei TÔoo JtoXv OE Kà0E pou ajtôq)a<ni pé^pi Twpa* pE Ka0E tpôjio Kai pE épjipaKti] Kai EiXiKpiviî ayâ^tTi

Abstract

This research project was carried out at the von Karman Instîtute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI), in Belgium, in collaboration and with the funding of Centre Technique des Indus­ tries Mécaniques (CETIM) in France.

The flow of a mixture of two fluids in pipes can be frequently encountered in nuclear, Chemical or mechanical engineering, where gas-liquid reactors, boilers, condensers, evap- orators and combustion Systems can be used. The presence of section changes or more generally geometrical singularities in pipes may affect significantly the behavior of two- phase flow and subsequently the resulting pressure drop and mass flow rate. Therefore, it is an important subject of investigation in particular when the application concems indus­ trial safety valves.

This thesis is intended to provide a thorough research on two-phase (air-water) flow phenomena under varions circumstances. The project is split in the following steps. At first, experiments are carried out in simple geometries such as smooth and sudden diver­ gence and convergence singularities. Two experimental facilities are built; one in smaller scale in von Karman Institute and one in larger scale in CETIM. During the first part of the study, relatively simple geometrical discontinuities are investigated. The characteri- zation and modeling of contraction and expansion nozzles (sudden and smooth change of section) is carried out. The pressure évolution is measured and pressure drop corrélations are deduced. Flow visualization is also performed with a high-speed caméra; the different flow patterns are identified and flow régime maps are established for a spécifie configura­ tion. A dual optical probe is used to détermine the void fraction, bubble size and velocity upstream and downstream the singularities.

In the second part of the project, a more complex device, i.e. a Safety Relief Valve (SRV), mainly used in nuclear and chemistry industry, is thoroughly studied. A transpar-

Il

M

ent model of a spécifie type of safety valve (1 1/2 G 3 ) is built and investigated in terms of pressure évolution. Additionally, flow rate measurements for several volumétrie quali­ fies and valve openings are carried out for air, water and two-phase mixtures. Full optical access allowed identification of the structure of the flow. The results are compared with measurements performed at the original industrial valve. Flowforce analysis is performed revealing that compressible and incompressible flowforces in SRV are inversed above a certain value of valve lift. This value varies with critical pressure ratio, therefore is di- rectly linked to the position at which chocked flow occurs during air valve operation. In two-phase flow, for volumétrie quality of air /3-20%, pure compressible flow behavior, in terms of flowforce, is remarked at full lift. Numerical simulations with commercial CFD code are carried out for air and water in axisymmetric 2D model of the valve in order to verify experimental findings.

The subject of modeling the discharge through a throttling device in two-phase flow is an important industrial problem. The proper design and sizing of this apparatus is a crucial issue which would prevent its wrong function or accidentai operation failurê that could cause a hazardous situation. So far reliability of existing models predicting the pressure drop and flow discharge in two-phase flow through the valve for various flow conditions is questionable. Nowadays, a common practice is widely adopted (standard ISO 4126-10 (2010), API RP 520 (2000)); the Homogeneous Equilibrium Method with the so-called ru-method, although it still needs further validation. Additionally, based on ru-methodology, Homogeneous Non-Equilibrium model has been proposed by Diener and Schmidt (2004) (HNE-DS), introducing a boiling delay coeflicient. The accuracy of the aforementioned models is checked against experimental data both for transparent model and industrial SRV. The HNE-DS methodology is proved to be the most précisé among the others. Finally, after application of HNE-DS method for air-water flow with cavitation, it is concluded that the behavior of flashing liquid is simulated in such case. Hence, for the spécifie tested conditions, this type of flow can be modeled with modified method of Diener and Schmidt (CF-HNE-DS) although further validation of this observation is required.

Contents

List of figures

vii

List of tables

xv

List of symbols

xvii

Abbreviations

xxi

I Préfacé

1

1 Fundamentals of the study

3

1.1 Introduction

3

1.1.1 Basics of two-phase flows

3

1.1.2 Two-phase flow occurring in industrial devices and safety valves .

4

1.2 Objectives-Achievements / Motivation

7

1.3 Methodology

11

1.4 OverView of the thesis

12

2 Theoretical background-Literature review

15

2.1 Two-phase flows general ities

15

2.1.1 Parameters describing gas-liquid flows

15

2.1.2 Description of flow régimes and flow régime maps

18

 

2.1.2.1 Horizontal flow régimes

19

2.1.2.2 Flow pattern charts

20

2.2 Pressure head loss and modeling in straight pipes

22

2.2.1

Pressure drop and modeling in two-phase flow

23

2.2.1.1 Different types of two-phase flow models

24

2.2.1.2 Homogeneous flow model

24

2.2.1.3 Separated flow models

24

2.3 Flow in geometrical singularities

26

2.3.1 Description of different types of singularities

26

2.3.2 Modeling of pressure change in singularities

27

 

2.3.2.1 Sudden enlargement

27

2.3.2.2 Sudden contraction

30

2.3.2.3 Smooth change of cross-section

30

2.3.3 Literature survey on geometrical singularities

31

ii

Table of contents

2.3.3.1 Expansion géométries

31

2.3.3.2 Contraction géométries

32

2.4 Industrial valves

32

2.4.1 Description of different types of valves

32

2.4.2 Introduction to Pressure Relief Valves (PRV)

33

2.4.3 Relief Devices (RD)-detailed analysis

35

2.4.3.1 Safety Relief Valve (SRV) important parameters

35

2.4.3.2 Pilot Operated Relief Valve (PORV)

38

2.4.3.3 Balanced Bellows Valve

38

2.4.4 Single-phase flow aspect of SRV

39

2.4.4.1

Incompressible fluid-Liquid

40

2.4.4.2

Compressible fluid-Gas

40

2.4.5 Cavitation

41

2.4.6 Critical flows

42

2.4.7 Existing methodology for two-phase flow in SRV

44

2.4.7.1 Homogeneous Equilibrium Model

45

2.4.7.2 The Oméga method

48

2.4.7.3 HNE-DS method

50

2.4.7.4 Modified CF-HNE-DS method

52

2.4.7.5 API 520 method

53

2.4.7.6 Comparison of models

53

2.4.8 Literature review on SRV

55

2.4.8.1 Experimental studies-Modeling

55

2.4.8.2 Numerical studies in single-phase flow

58

2.5 Conclusions for Chapter 2

60

II Measurement campaign

63

3

Experimental techniques-facilities

65

3.1 Characterization of facilities for singularities

65

3.1.1 Small scale

66

3.1.1.1 Pressure measurements

68

3.1.1.2 Optical probe-visualization

68

3.1.1.3 Test conditions small scale

68

3.1.2 Large scale

70

3.1.2.1 Pressure

70

3.1.2.2 Test conditions large scale

3.1.3 Summarizing tests and flow conditions

3.2 Characterization of facilities for SRV

72

73

73

3.2.1 SRV pressure study

75

3.2.1.1 SRV transparent facility

75

3.2.1.2 Industrial SRV facility

78

3.2.1.3 Test conditions SRV

82

3.2.2 SRV optical probe and visualization study (LUCY III)

83

3.3 Measurement techniques

84

Table of contents

iii

3.3.1 Flow meters

85

3.3.2 Pressure measurements

86

3.3.3 Optical probe

87

3.3.3.1 Void fraction

87

3.3.3.2 Bubble velocity and bubble diameter

3.4 Conclusions for Chapter 3

III Geometrical singularities

88

91

93

4 Expansion singularities

95

4.1 Pressure measurements

95

4.1.1 Détermination of pressure drop coefficient

96

4.1.2 Sudden expansion

97

4.1.3 Comparison smooth-sudden expansion

99

4.1.4 Summary of expansion pressure measurements

102

4.1.4.1 3D comparative plots in expansion geometries

104

4.1.4.2 Developing length in expansion geometry

106

4.2 Flow visualization in expansion singularities

108

4.3 Optical probe measurements in divergent section

111

4.4 Comparison with existing models

120

4.5 New corrélations proposed

122

4.6 Conclusions for Chapter 4

124

5 Contraction singularities

127

5.1 Pressure results

127

5.1.1 Sudden-smooth contraction

127

5.1.2 Summary of contraction pressure results

132

5.2 Visualization in contraction singularities

134

5.3 Comparison with literature models

135

5.4 Application of Omega-method in contraction geometry

136

5.5 New corrélation

137

5.6 Conclusions for Chapter 5

139

IV Safety Relief Valve

141

6

Safety Relief Valve

143

6.1 Pressure and flow rate measurements

143

6.1.1 Industrial valve-transparent model discrepancies

143

6.1.2 Single and two-phase air-water flow

144

6.2 Flow visualization in SRV

144

6.3 Optical probe measurements in SRV

147

6.4 Flowforce in SRV

151

6.4.1 Axisymmetric theoretical analysis of flowforce in SRV

152

6.4.2 Experimental investigation

155

6.4.3 CFD simulations

160

iv

Table of contents

6.4.3.1 CFD results

6.4.3.2 Comparison flowforce experiments-CFD

161

164

 

6.4.3.3 Influence of adjustment ring position

166

6.5

Pressure drop in SRV

167

6.6

Mass flux through SRV-discharge coefficient

168

6.6.1 Non-flashing-“Frozen” two-phase flow

171

6.6.2 Flashing two-phase flow

6.7 Corrélation for pressure drop in SRV

6.8 Conclusions for Chapter 6

174

177

178

V

Conclusions and future recommendations

181

7

Discussion

 

183

7.1 Conclusions

183

7.2 Future works-recommendations

186

Bibliography

 

187

Appendices

 

197

Appendix A

Uncertainty analysis

199

 

A.l

Pressure drop coefficient formula

199

Appendix

B

Design of experimental facilities

203

Appendix C

Disasters caused by PRV failures

209

Appendix D

PED Annex II diagrams

213

Appendix E

PRV orifice sizes

217

Appendix F

Vapor-liquid flow

219

Appendix G

Additional flow régime charts

221

 

G.l

Vertical upward cocurrent flow

221

 

G.

1.1

Flow régimes

221

G.

1.2

Flow maps

222

 

G.2

Vertical downward cocurrent flow

223

 

G.2.1 Flow patterns

224

G.2.2

Flow régime maps 225

 

G.3

Slightly inclined pipe flow

225

Appendix H

Pressure drop in straigbt pipe SP flow

229

Table of contents

V

Appendix I

Straight pipe two-phase flow models

233

1.1 Martinelli-Nelson [1948] model

233

1.2 Drift-flux model

235

1.3 Thom [1964] model

236

1.4 Baroczy model

237

1.5 Chisholm [1976] model

238

1.6 Evaluation of the models

239

1.7 Flow pattern dépendent models

240

Appendix J

Single-phase pressure change in singularities

243

J.

1 Abrupt area changes

244

J.

2

Calculations in geometries with change of section

244

J.2.1 Single-phase pressure drop

246

J.2.2 Two-phase pressure drop

247

J.2.3

Pressure drop coefficient in contractions

247

Appendix K

Pressure drop database

249

K. 1

Expansion singularities

249

K.2

Contraction singularities

257

K.

3 SRV pressure drop database

261

Appendix L

Matlab codes

265

L.

l Singularities

265

L.2

SRV

270

List of Figures

1.1

Different types of pipe fittings-geometrical singularities (SS Engineers & Consultants (2010))

 

5

1.2

Detailed sketch of nuclear reactor core

6

1.3

Schematic of the steam System and components typical of a large turbine unit (Taken by Bereznai (2005))

6

1.4

Safety Relief Valves tested under cryogénie conditions in Kennedy Space Center

7

1.5

Cutaway of PRV

9

1.6

Schematic of the problem

 

9

1.7

Deepwater Horizon oil spill accident (2010)

9

1.8

Methodology steps for geometrical singularities study

11

1.9

Plan of transparent modified SRV (1 V2" G 3” )

12

1.10

Methodology steps

for Safety Relief Valve study

13

2.1

Flow patterns in horizontal flow in a pipe. Adapted byWeisman (1983).

.

21

2.2

Images of flow régimes in horizontal flow in a pipe (taken from Ghajar

 

(2004))

21

2.3

Horizontal flow map of Baker modified by Bell et al. (1970)

 

22

2.4

Two-phase flow multiplier

function of the Lockhart and Martinelli

 

(1949) parameter

26

2.5

Different types of singular geometries

 

28

2.6

Sudden contraction geometry

30

2.7

Different types of valves

33

2.8

Conventional spring loaded SRV

34

2.9

Pilot operated valve (PORV)

38

2.10

Balanced bellows (left) and balanced piston RV (right)Tyco (2008).

39

2.11

Critical point diagram of water. Cavitation and boilingphenomena

42

2.12

Examples of cavitation

43

2.13

Speed of Sound in two-phase flow medium

 

44

2.14

Nozzle flow

47

2.15

Comparison of discharged relief area calculated with different two-phase flow models (from Tran and Reynolds (2007))

 

55

2.16

Flowforce characteristic of a PRV taken from Fôllmer and Schnettler

 

(2003)

57

2.17

Results obtained by Song et al. (2010)

 

59

2.18

Velocity iso-surfaces for water flow in PRV taken fromVallet et al. (2010).

60

vüi

List of figures

 

3.1

A)

Progressive expansion of different opening angles-reattachment length

 
 

L/d.

B)

Sudden expansion-reattachment length L/d

67

 

3.2

Experimental small scale LUC Y

II facility

 

67

3.3

Gas injectors used in small scale setup

68

3.4

Convergence test section for pressure measurements in small scale.

 

69

3.5

Test section for optical probe measurements in small scale

 

69

3.6

Gas injectors used in large scale facility

71

3.7

Experimental large scale AGATHE facility

72

3.8

Test section (AGATHE)

73

3.9

Experimental setup to study SRV model (AGATHE II)

76

3.10

Gas injector DN40 (with more holes)

76

3.11

Schematic of the test section AGATHE II (left) and comparison of indus­ trial safety valve with the transparent model (right)

 

77

3.12

Picture of the test section AGATHE II and its different

77

3.13

Transparent valve body (left) valve disk with three pressure taps (right).

 

.

78

3.14

Transparent SRV and position of pressure taps

 

79

3.15

Experimental setup for SRV water study (taken from Corbin et al. (2009a)).

 
 

80

 

3.16

Experimental installation for compressible fluid SRV study (taken from Chabane et al. (2009))

 

80

3.17

Modified industrial water SRV facility for flowforce measurements in two-phase flow

81

3.18

Gas injector DN80 for industrial SRV facility

 

81

3.19

Relative position of valve seat and adjustment ring

82

3.20

Transparent SRV setup for optical probe measurements and flow visual- ization (LUCY III)

 

84

3.21

Test section of LUCY III with detailed view of the optical probe position- ing

84

3.22

Working principle of electromagnetic flow meter (from Copa-XE DE43F).

 
 

86

 

3.23

Variable réluctance differential pressure transducer(Validyne (2005)).

.

.

87

3.24

Working principle of optical probe

 

88

3.25

Probe tips inside flow

89

4.1

Explanation of the way to détermine the singular pressure change in ex­ pansion geometry

 

96

4.2

Single-phase static pressure change versus axial position for sudden en- largement of tr=0.43 and for Rei,i=8.4 10^. Comparison of experimental results with Idel’Cik (1986) calculation

98

4.3

Two-phase static pressure change versus axial position for sudden en- largement of cr=0.43 and for Rez,] = 1.82- 10^-comparison with experimen­ tal single-phase and with models of Jannsen and Kervinen (1966) and

 
 

Chisholm(1969)

 

98

vüi

List of figures

ix

4.4 Dimensionless singular pressure change versus volumétrie quality. Comparison with models of Jannsen and Kervinen (1966) and Chisholm

(1969)

99

4.5 àPsing for several Re^,] from 0-18% of air for sudden enlargement of sur­

face areas o-=0.43 and cr=0.65

100

4.6 Comparison of pressure distribution for different expansion géométries in single and two-phase flow

101

4.7 Pressure évolution along expansion geometries; the position of recircula­ tion eddy can be identified

102

4.8 Pressure drop coefficient ^ versus volumétrie quality for different Re/,i in sudden expansion cr=0.43

103

4.9 Pressure drop coefficient ^ versus volumétrie quality for different Re^ in smooth expansion cr=0.43, 15 °

103

4.10 Pressure drop coefficient ^ versus volumétrie quality for different Re^ in smooth expansion cr=0.43, «=8 °

104

4.11 Pressure drop coefficient ^ versus volumétrie quality for different Re^,! in smooth expansion cr=0.43, a-5 °

104

4.12 Two-phase multiplier d)/. versus y8 for varions expansion

105

4.13 3D comparison plot of expansion singularities

106

4.14 Effect of opening expansion angle on the pressure drop coefficient for varions upstream mass fluxes

107

4.15 Pressure drop coefficient for different opening angles of a diffuser (left), flow inside diffuser (right)-taken from Comolet (1963)

107

4.16 Developing length versus opening angle for enlargement

108

4.17 Experimentally determined developing length in sudden expansion for different cr-comparison with Ahmed et al. (2008) corrélation

108

4.18 Developing length in expansion singularity versus surface area ratio pro- posed by different authors (taken from Ahmed et al. (2008))

108

4.19 Flow patterns identified downstream of the divergence geometry of a —9 °

andtr=0.64

109

4.20 Visualization in enlargement geometries for Re^,! = 1.85-10^ and 7% volu­ métrie quality of

110

4.21 Modified Baker (1954) map for progressive and sudden expansion of cr=0.43 and 0.65

111

4.22 Flow map for progressive expansion of cr=0.64 and o'=9 °

112

4.23 Horizontal and vertical profiles upstream and downstream divergence sec­ tion

113

4.24 Flow visualization upstream and downstream divergence section-comparison with void fraction profiles

114

4.25 Example of bubble size distribution diagram with log-normal fit, peak diameter Dpeak identified

115

4.26 Bubble size distribution at the horizontal plane for /3=6% and 9% at up­ stream and downstream positions for different locations in the

116

4.27 Influence of volumétrie quality on bubble size distribution at the center of the pipe upstream and downstream the singularity

117

X

List of figures

4.28

Comparison of void fraction profiles obtained for two different gas injec- tors (taken from Deniz et al. (2009))

118

4.29

Bubble and liquid movement in the pipe

118

4.30

Comparison of horizontal and vertical bubble velocity profiles upstream

and downstream the singularity for P-9% and

14%

119

4.31

Explanation of blockage effect in upper part of the duct and bubble veloc­ ity versus chord length diagram

119

4.32

Déviation of Jannsen and Kervinen (1966) model from experimental results. 121

4.33

Déviation of Chisholm (1969) model from experimental

results

121

4.34

Déviation of predicted-measured pressure drop coefficient for expansion singularities of <t=0.43

123

4.35

Déviation of predicted-measured pressure drop coefficient for expansion singularities of <t=0.65

123

4.36

Corrélation for ail expansion geometries

124

5.1

Explanation of the way to détermine the singular pressure change in con­ traction geometry

128

5.2

Experimental and numerical single and two-phase static pressure change versus axial position for convergence of cr= 1.56 and 9 ° angle for several Re^i

129

5.3

Single-phase static àPsi„g obtained experimentally and numerically for several Qwater in progressive convergence geometry of cr-\.56 and 9° angle. 130

5.4

Experimental and numerical dimensionless singular static pressure change versus volumétrie quality. Comparison to literature (Guglielmini et al.

 

(1997)) and to adapted (C=0.81) Jannsen and Kervinen (1966)

130

5.5

Comparison of experimental single-phase water results with Idel’Cik (1986) calculation for sudden and smooth contraction of cr=2.34, 15 ° angle and Rez.i=2.2-10^ 131

5.6

Two-phase flow results in for sudden and smooth contraction of cr=2.34 and 15 ° angle for 9% of air and Reti=2.210^. Comparison with experi­

 

mental single-phase and Comolet (1963) formula

 

132

5.7

Pressure drop coefficient in contraction singularities

134

5.8

Two-phase multiplier for various Re^i in sudden and smooth contraction. 135

5.9

3D plots of Re^i-yS-^ for sudden contraction cr=2.34, smooth contraction cr=2.34 and a=15 ° and smooth contraction cr=1.56 and a-9 °

136

5.10

Visualization in contraction geometries for Rez,i = 1.85-10^ and 7% volu­ métrie quality of

137

5.11

Predicted with ai-method versus experimental pressure drop coefficient against mass quality in sudden contraction of cr=2.34

138

5.12

Corrélation for contraction (T=2.34

139

5.13

Corrélation for smooth contraction of cr= 1.56 and 9 ° angle

140

5.14

Comparison of prédiction of ^ with overall corrélation for contraction geometries with experimental measurements

140

6.1

Volume flow rate of water versus valve opening for transparent and indus­ trial valve

144

List of figures

xi

6.2 Mass flow rate versus yS and L in industrial valve at P;je,=0.3 MPa

145

6.3 Cavitation in SRV for P^e,=0.3 MPa at valve openings L=2, 4.5 and 7.3

 

mm

145

6.4 Flow visualization in the safety valve model-upstream (left) and down- stream of the valve (right)

146

6.5 Flow visualization in the core of the safety

valve

 

147

6.6

Possible location of cavitation appearance predicted by CFD for varions

lifts at P,«=0.3 MPa

 

147

6.7

Direction of upstream-downstream SRV optical probe profiles

148

6.8

Upstream

horizontal void fraction profile

in SRV for y8=2%

149

6.9 Upstream vertical void fraction profile in SRV for fi-2%

149

6.10 Upstream

horizontal void fraction profile

in SRV for P-9%

150

6. 11 Upstream

vertical void fraction profile in SRV for fi-9%

151

6.12

Downstream vertical

void fraction profile in

SRV for ^-2%

151

6.13

Downstream vertical

void fraction profile in

SRV

for /3=9%

152

6.14

Simplified schematic of valve disk wlth nozzle

153

6.15

Comparison of experimental and theoretical hydrodynamic force of SRV

versus valve

opening for Pi =0.3 MPa in water flow

 

154

6.16

Comparison of experimental and theoretical hydrodynamic force of SRV versus valve opening Pi =0.3 MPa in two-phase flow conditions (yS=20%). 155

6.17

Force applied on the valve disk versus valve opening for transparent and

 

industrial valve

 

156

6.18

Influence of adjustment ring position on flowforce for P^e,= 1.21

156

6.19

3D

Flowforce characteristic (P, L, F) plots in industrial SRV.

157

6.20

Force applied on the valve disk versus valve opening for water, air and varions air-water mixtures

159

6.21

Relative discrepancy between flowforce of air and two-phase and single- phase water at P^ei=0.3 MPa

160

6.22

Comparison of inverse flowforce position for different set pressures in industrial

161

6.23

Axisymmetric grid of industrial SRV for CFD computations

162

6.24

Total pressure contours for water flow at Psef=0.6 MPa

163

6.25

Influence of cavitation on flowforce versus valve opening

164

6.26

Density contours for air flow at P^g,=0.6 MPa. Solid white thick line

indicated sonie position

 

165

6.27

Experimental-CFD flowforce for air and water at P^g,=0.3 MPa

166

6.28

Influence of adjustment ring location on disk flowforce

167

6.29

Pressure drop coefficient ^ at full lift and L=5.5 mm versus volumétrie quality for P^ef^O. 15 MPaG

169

6.30

Vérification of independence of pressure drop coefficient on set

169

6.31

Dimensionless pressure drop function of volumétrie quality of air at

full

lift for P^e,=0.15 and 0.3 MPaG. Comparison with Chisholm (1971)

corrélation

 

170

6.32

3D

plot of y8-L-^ of transparent SRV at P,eï=0.15 MPaG

170

6.33

Critical mass flux measured and calculated with w-method for non-flashing

conditions in transparent SRV

 

171

xii

List of figures

6.34

Measured and calculated mass flux with û^-method for non-flashing con­ ditions under varions set pressures in metallic valve

 

172

6.35

Two-phase discharge coefficient versus volumétrie quality of air for trans­ parent and industrial valve. Comparison with Lenzing et al. (1998) formula. 175

6.36

Two-phase discharge coefficient versus valve lift in single and two-phase

 

flow

176

6.37

Experimental and predicted from iu-method, API520 and HNE-DS dis- charged mass flux at full lift for Pjg,=0.15 MPa in transparent

 

176

6.38

Experimental and predicted from o»-method, API520 and HNE-DS dis-

 

charged mass flux

at full lift for P^e,=0.3 MPa in transparent valve

177

6.39

Calculated versus measured mass flux for different set pressures in indus­ trial valve

 

178

6.40

Relative discrepancy between predicted and measured pressure drop co­ efficient in

179

B.l

Detailed optical probe test section

204

B.2

Transparent SRV test section AGATHE II

205

B.3

LUCY III test section drawing

206

B.

4

Force

sensor mounted in safety valve WEIR of type 1yî' G 3”

207

C. 1

Three

Mile Island nuclear power plant

210

C.

2 Accident mainly caused by missing safety valves (Mexico City 1984).

.

.

211

D.

l Diagrams 1-4 of Annex II

in

in

PED

214

D.2

Diagrams 5-8 of Annex II

PED

215

D.3

Diagram 9 of Annex II in PED; Piping referred to in Article 3, Section 1.3(b), second indent

 

216

R1

Vertical and horizontal evaporation-condensation in a tube (from Collier and Thome (1994))

220

G.l

Flow patterns in vertical upward flow in a pipe. Adapted from Weisman

 

(1983)

222

G.2

Vertical upward flow map of Hewitt and Roberts (1969)

 

224

G.3

Flow régimes identified in vertical downward cocurrent flow taken from

 

Kourakos et al. (2007)

 

225

G.4

Vertical downward flow map of Golan and Stenning(1969)

226

G.

5

Flow map in horizontal and sUghtly inclined pipe proposed by Taitel and Dukler (1977) with the characteristic numbers K, F and T as a function of the Lockhart and Martinelli (1949) parameter

227

H.

l Moody (1944) diagram

 

231

I.

l

Two-phase multiplier

for different mass qualities and pressures given

 

by Martinelli

and Nelson (1948)

 

234

1.2

Void fraction versus mass quality for different pressures by Martinelli and Nelson (1948)

 

235

List of figures

^

1.3

Accélération multiplier r2 (left), gravitational multiplier r4 (right up) and frictional multiplier (right down) function of the operating pressure for different mass qualities given by Thom (1964)

237

1.4

Baroczy (1966) two-phase flow multiplier 238

1.5

Baroczy (1966) curves for mass flux correctionfactor

239

1.6

Comparison of different two-phase flow models (Todreas and Kazami

(1989))

240

J.

1

Different types of singularities and the proposed pressure drop coefficients

 

by (Idel’Cik(1986))

243

J.2

Démonstration of the pressure changes in incompressible fluid at abrupt contraction and expansion geometries (taken from Todreas and Kazami

(1989))

245

J.3

Simplified schematic of pressure drop in LUCY II

245

List of Tables

2.1

Classification of relief devices Tyco (2008)

37

2.2

Units for two-phase SRV methodology

46

2.3

Summarizing matrix of two-phase flow methodology in SRV.

54

2.4

Discharge coefficient

proposed by Boccardi et al. (2005)

56

3.1

Présentation of the four main experimental facilities

65

3.2

Summarizing matrix of experimental tests

66

3.3

Test matrix for pressure, optical probe measurements and flow visualiza- tion

70

3.4

Summarizing matrix

of different test cases studied

74

3.5

Upstream conditions for pressure measurements

74

3.6

Upstream conditions for optical probe measurements and flow visualization.

74

3.7

Position of different pressure taps along the radius of the valve disk.

77

3.8

Test matrix for SRV study

83

3.9

Optical probe and flow visualization tests in AGATHE II setup

85

4.1

Repeatability test for optical probe measurement (taken from Fernandes étal. (2010))

120

4.2

Proposed corrélation for different expansion singularities-regression pa- rameters and average déviation from experimental measurements

122

5.1

Proposed corrélation for different contraction singularities-regression pa- rameters and average déviation from experimental measurements

138

6.1

Flow conditions for SRV tests

161

E.l

Relief Valve Orifice Sizes

217

1.1

Values of coefficient K and Cq for drift flux model proposed by several authors

236

1.2

Comparison of two-phase pressure drop corrélations for steam-water mix­ tures by Idsinga et al. (1977)

240

1.3

Comparison of flow régime dépendent models by Beattie (1973) (taken frrom Delhaye et al. (1980))

241

J.l

Pressure loss coefficient range for different singularities (taken from To- dreas and Kazami (1989))

244

xvi

List of tables

J. 2

Pressure changes in abrupt contraction and expansion géométries in in­ compressible and compressible fluid (taken from Todreas and Kazami

 

(1989))

246

K.

l

Results in sudden expansion cr=0.43

249

K.2

Results in

sudden expansion £t=0.65

250

K.3

Results

in

smooth

expansion

<t=0.43, a-5 °

251

K.4

Results in smooth expansion cr=0.43, or=8 °

252

K.5 Results in smooth expansion cr=0.43, or= 15 ° 253

K.6 Déviation experimental-literature corrélation for expansion

254

K.7

Results

in

sudden contraction of cr=2.34

 

257

K.8

Results

in

smooth

contraction

of cr=2.34, or= 15°

258

K.9

Results

in

smooth

contraction

of cr= 1.56,

a-9 °

259

K.

10

Déviation

experimental-literature corrélation for contraction

260

K.l 1

Results in

transparent SRV at Pje,=0.15 MPa

261

List of Symbols

Q

Volumétrie flow rate [1/s]

15

A

Area [m^]

15

M

Mass flow rate [kg/s]

15

X

Phase density function [-]

16

t

Time [s]

16

aiocai

Local void fraction [-]

16

a

Void fraction [-]

16

P

Volumétrie quality of air[-]

16

G

Mass flux [kgm“ ^s“ ^]

17

X

Mass quality of air [-]

17

J

Superficial velocity [ms“ ']

17

Ul

Average liquid velocity [ms“ ']

; .

17

UG

Average gas velocity [ms~']

17

01slip

Void fraction with slip velocity [-]

17

U*

Two-phase average velocity of the mixture [ms“ *]

18

P*

Homogeneous flow density [kgm“^]

18

Pmix

Separated flow mixture density [kgm“ ^]

18

cr

Surface tension [kgs“^]

21

P

Dynamic viscosity [kg (ms)~*]

21

P

Pressure [Pa]

23

O

Two-phase flow multiplier [-]

25

k

Pressure loss coefficient [-]

27

G

Mass flux [kgm“^cr~']

28

vi

Liquid spécifie volume [m^kg“ ']

28

vg

Gas spécifie volume [m^kg“ ']

28

Ce

Contraction coefficient [-]

30

T

Wall shear stress [Pa]

30

B

Parameter of Chisholm (1971) [-]

33

P^e,

Set pressure [MPa]

36

Pc

Closing pressure [MPa]

36

Pft

Built-up back pressure [MPa]

36

Discharge coefficient [-]

36

Experimental discharged flow rate [kg/h]

39

Qm

Theoretical discharged flow rate [kg/h]

39

Kje

Discharge coefficient after exhaustion [-]

40

k

Ratio of spécifie beats [-]

40

xviii

List of symbols

Cp

Spécifie beat capacity of a gas for constant pressure [-J

 

40

Cy

Spécifie

beat capacity

of a gas

for constant volume [-]

40

M

Molar mass [kgkmor’]

40

Z

Compressibility factor [-]

40

(/

Cavitation number [-]

41

c

Speed of sound [m/s]

42

K

Bulk modulus of elasticity of tbe fluid [Pa]

 

42

Speed of sound in mixture medium [ms“ ']

43

q

Heat absorbed by surrounding in tbermodynamic System

[J]

47

H

Entbalpy of vaporization [J]

47

W5

Work donc on tbe surrounding of tbermodynamic System [J]

47

S

Entropy [JK->]

 

47

Po

Stagnation pressure [Pa]

 

47

Pi

Tbroating pressure [Pa]

47

L

Latent beat of vaporization [Jmor*]

 

48

C/>^

Liquid spécifie beat at constant pressure [JKg“ 'K “ ’]

48

V

Spécifie volume [m^kg“ *]

50

rient

Critical pressure ratio Pcrd/Pi [-]

50

«1

Back pressure ratio Pi/Po [-]

50

N

Boiling delay factor Diener and Schmidt (2004) [-]

50

u)ds

parameter of Diener and Schmidt (2004) [-]

52

a

Diener and Schmidt (2004) parameter [-]

52

Kb

Correction factor due to back pressure forgas [-]

53

R

Gas constant [Pa m^K“ 'kg“ 'mor']

53

Z

Compressibility factor (Z= 1 for idéal gas)[-]

53

Kw

Correction factor due to back pressure forliquid [-]

53

Ky

Correction factor due

to

viscosity [-]

53

m, q, r^

Régression parameters of corrélation by Boccardi et al. (2005) [-] .

56

h

Valve lift [mm]

 

57

L„ozz/e

Length of inlet nozzle of PRV [m]

 

57

k

Turbulent kinetic energy [kgm“ 's“^]

58

U)

Spécifie turbulence dissipation rate [kgm"^s “ ^]

58

Cv/

Flow coetficient [-]

 

58

di

Upstream diameter [mm]

 

69

D2

Downstream diameter [mm]

69

fsamp

Sampling frequency [Hz]

73

tacq

Acquisition time [s]

 

73

Li

Length of singularity [mm]

 

74

F

Force on valve disk [N]

76

R

Radius of tbe valve disk [mm]

 

76

P (r)

Pressure along valve disk radius [MPa]

77

B

Magnetic flux density [T]

 

85

E

Signal voltage [V]

 

86

n

Refractive index [-]

87

Tgas

Time

of gas meeting tbe probe [s]

 

88

Tacq

Time

of probe acquisition [s]

 

88

List of symbols

xix

Tfiight

Transient time between primary and secondary sensor [ms]

89

Vb

Bubble velocity [ms“ ']

89

h(l)

Chord length distribution [-]

90

g(l)

Bubble diameter distribution [-]

90

fi„,

Bubble interférence frequency [s”']

90

Nb

Total number of bubbles passing from the probe [-]

90

Ai

Interfacial area concentration [m“']

90

Dsm

Sauter mean diameter [mm]

90

^Psing

Singular pressure change [kPa]

95

àPreg-meas

Regular measured pressure change [kPa]

95

APsing-meas

SingulaT measured pressure change [kPa]

95

àPreg-caïc

Regular calculated pressure change [kPa]

95

L/d

Reattachment length [-]

95

Dimensionless static singular pressure change [-]

97

a'

Expansion opening angle corresponding to the strongest pressure

recovery for a diffuser (Comolet (1963))

100

Oi,

Two-phase multiplier [-]

103

Liquid pressure drop coefficient [-]

103

^rp

Two-phase mixture pressure drop coefficient [-]

103

D 32

Sauter mean diameter [mm]

114

P^peak

Peak diameter in the bubble size distribution diagram [mm]

115

mft

Mass of bubble [kg]

117

Wb

Bubble volume [m^]

117

Co

Drag coefficient [-]

117

5

Dimensionless slip velocity [-]

150

m

Mass of plate [kg]

152

AF

Discrepancy between flowforce in two-phase flow and water for

SRV [%]

158

Ftp

Flowforce

in

two-phase flow for SRV [N]

158

Fspv/ater

Flowforce

in

single-phase water flow for SRV [N]

158

Ma

Mach number [-]

163

thexp

Experimental mass flow rate through SRV [kg/s]

172

>n„ozzie

Mass flow rate through isentropic idéal nozzle [kg/s]

172

or

Boiling delay exponent [-]

174

P

Density [kgm“^]

 

223

F

Taitel and Dukler (1977) non-dimensional parameter (wavy annu- lar & wavy-intermittent transition) [-]

226

K

Taitel and Dukler (1977) non-dimensional parameter (stratified to wavy flow transition) [-]

226

0

Inclination angle of the pipe in respect to the horizontal plane and with a positive orientation the vertical descending flow (Taitel and Dukler (1977))[°]

226

T

Taitel and Dukler (1977) non-dimensional parameter (bubbly to intermittent/plug transition) [-]

226

À

Darcy friction factor [-]

229

L

Pipe length [m]

 

229

XX

List of symbols

Q

Large pipe diameter [m]

229

Velocity [ms~']

229

Re

Reynolds number [-]

230

V

Kinematic viscosity [m^s“ ']

230

k

Roughness of the pipe [m]

230

^4

Length-averaged two-phase gravitationalpressure dropmultiplier

[-]

234

ri

Length-averaged two-phase pressure drop multiplier due toaccél­ ération [-]

234

^3

Length-averaged two-phase frictionalpressuredrop multiplier [-] . 234

Co

Concentration parameter [-]

235

e

Roughness of the pipe [mm]

241

We

Weber number [-]

241

g

Gravitational accélération [ms“^]

245

d

Small pipe diameter [m]

246

y,i

Total upstream velocity [ms“ *]

249

Abbreviations

LM

Lockhart and Martinelli (1949) parameter

SP

Single-Phase

TP

Two-Phase

BWR

Boiling-Water Reactor

PWR

Pressurized-Water Reactor

LWR

Light-Water Reactor (PWR or BWR)

LOCA

Loss of Coolant Accident

RD

Relief Device

RV

Relief Valve

SV

Safety Valve

PRV

Pressure Relief Valve

SRV

Safety Relief Valve

PORV

Pilot Operated Relief Valve

LPG

Liquefied Petroleum Gas

LNG

Liquefied Natural Gas

HP

High Pressure

HEM

Homogeneous Equilibrium Model

HNE

Homogeneous Non-Equilibrium Model

HNE-DS

HNE Diener and Schmidt (2004) model

VKI

von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics

CETIM

Centre Technique des Industries Mécaniques

ULB

Université Libre de Bruxelles

KIT

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

API

American Petroleum Institute

RP

Recommended Practice

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

NE

Norme Française

DIN

Deutsches Institut für Normung

AIChE

American Institute of Chemical Engineers

DIERS

Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems

ASME

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

NRC

Nuclear Regulatory Commission

BLEVE

Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion

ID

Inner Diameter

DN

Nominal Diameter

PN

Nominal

Pressure rating

xxii

Abbreviations

ECT

Electrical Capacitance Tomography

WMS

Wire Mesh Sensor Tomography

FEM

Finite Elément Method

CFD

Computational Fluid Dynamics

RANS

Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes

SST

Shear Stress Transport

MSWP

Maximum Safe Working Pressure

FS

Full Scale

PMMA

Polymethyl Méthacrylate

BEP

Best Efficiency Point

PDF

Probability Density Function

PED

Pressure Equipment Directive

EU

European Union

EC

European Commission

PS

Maximum Working Pressure

BP

British Petroleum

CF

Cavitating Flow

Part I

Préfacé

1 Fundamentals of the study

1.1

Introduction

1.1.1 Basics of two-phase flows

Two-phase flow is the area of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of mixtures consist- ing of two or more immiscible phases. This type of flow is the simplest case of multiphase flow. The different phases of multiphase flow are liquid, gas and solid. Two-phase flow

is constantly met in our daily practice. Sandstorm, fog, snow and rain are some natural

examples. In industrial processes, several examples of such flow can also be found. Over half of ail Chemical engineering is concemed with multiphase flow. Air and water two- phase flow is used in water treatment processes. Well known examples are the water-air backwashing of rapid sand filters and the air-water scouring of pipelines in the distribution

network.

Gas-liquid flows hâve been studied extensively for many years, largely because of their immense frequency of occurrence throughout industry. Two-phase flow arises when the averaged motion of one material (or phase, field, fluid or component) is distinctly different from that of another. The goal is to predict the averaged behavior of a two- phase flow field with a theory or model that is rather general and useful. This type of

flow involves the combined flow of a liquid and a gas or vapor phase. It is a difïicult subject to investigate principally because of the complexity of the form in which the two fluids exist inside the pipe different components, known as the flow régime. Building

a model from first principles in ail but the most elementary situations is a complicated

issue. Dimensional analysis is used to establish the relevant groups to aid in designing the suitable experiments. Most available empirical results are applicable only to gas-liquid two-phase flow.

For several industrial purposes, it is important to predict the pressure loss occurring in two-phase flow, as well as the void fraction, which Controls the effective density of the mixture of gas and liquid. Since the gas and liquid may move with different average velocities in a channel, the void fraction (or hold-up) dépends on the flow rates of each phase as well as on the relative velocity between the phases. The liquid hold-up for instance is not necessarily equal to the relative fraction of that phase in the entering fluid mixture. As the average velocity of the gas increases compared to the liquid, the void fraction decreases due to the shorter average résidence time of the gas phase. The velocity différence between phases dépends on how well the phases are coupled, which dépends in turn on the amount of surface area available for the transfer of momentum between them. The différence in the velocity of the two phases is called slip ratio, or simpler just slip and

4

1

Fundamentals of the study

in the case of their homogeneous mixing this ratio is equal to unity.

Analysis of two-phase flows involves prédiction of the flow pattern, the liquid-vapor density, pressure drop across a given channel length, flow stability, maximum flow rates, and beat transfer rates. The behavior of two-phase flows can be quite complicated and can strongly dépend on the relative flow rates of the two-phases, channel orientation, singularities, fluid properties and inlet conditions. The orientation of the pipe makes

a différence in the flow régime because of the rôle played by gravity and the density

différence between the two fluids. The usual question for the engineer is that of calculating the pressure drop required to achieve specified flow rates of the gas and the liquid through

a pipe of a given diameter. In many applications, self-vaporization of liquid can occur due to pressure or tempér­ ature change (such as for pressurized water). In this occurrence, vapor-liquid mixture is created and it is very important to recognize and be able to calculate when these phases

are in equilibrium with each other and the fraction of the circuit occupied by each phase.

A typical example of vapor-liquid incidence is in core of nuclear reactors where water un-

der high pressure is used as coolant to increase the boiling point. Hence, often two-phase mixtures are accidentally or deliberately produced. Thus, controlling the flow in this cir- cumstances is of vital importance for nuclear safety. Two-phase flow can also take place when sudden depressurization of liquid happens and vapor bubbles are generated; when this phenomenon happens partially is called cavitation while when there is a complété

transformation from liquid to gas is called flashing flow. This research project is devoted to air-water flow investigation simulating the behavior of liquid-vapor although such mixtures are not considered. Geometrical singularities are tested in the horizontal plane in single and two-phase flow. During the study of a safety relief valve, in addition to single and two-phase flow, cavitation phenomena are observed. Combined vertical-horizontal flow (change of flow direction) takes place in safety valve configuration.

1.1.2 Two-phase flow occurring in industrial devices and safety valves

The use of singular geometries is found in pipings and fittings with large and restricted flow area and their combination. As for example the case at the inlet and exit of the fuel assemblies. Additionally, most boiling reactors include régions where sudden expansions occur. Moreover, the design of many beat exchangers using horizontal tubular éléments nécessitâtes that these éléments be interconnected using multiple retum bends design to form a serpentine arrangement. Frequently, two-phase flow can occur either accidentally or on purpose and the geometrical discontinuity enhances the complexity of the phenom­ ena. Examples of pipe fittings are illustrated in Fig. 1.1. Pressure safety valves are used in the oil and gas production,petrochemical and fine Chemical industries as well as in nuclear reactor protection. Additionally, use of such devices is mandatory in water supply networks. Applications involving two-phase flows range from straightforward transfer Systems, such as pumping, to those involving beat and/or mass transfer, such as beat exchangers, boilers, cooling towers, bubble columns, fluidized beds and nuclear reactors. The combined flow of a liquid and a gas or va­ por phase occurs in the normal operation of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs), as well as on the secondary loop of the steam generators of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs).

1.1

Introduction

5

^

^

i,

O ® ^

Figure 1.1: Different types of pipe fittings-geometrical singularities (SS Engineers & Con­ sultants (2010)).

Two-phase flow also plays a major rôle in many light-water reactor (LWR) transients and accidents as for instance the loss of coolant accident (LOCA). An example of a nuclear reactor core is shown in Fig. 1.2. Flereunder varions applications of safety valves are summarized:

Nuclear applications:

Figure 1.3 shows a simplified schematic of the steam generator and components typi- cal of a large turbine unit. The position at which the pressure relief, control and emergency stop valves are placed is indicated. Safety valves installed on top of the boiler protect the steam System components from over pressure. The pressure from the boilers drives the steam to the high pressure (HP) turbine. On route to the turbine the steam travels through several valves. Two of interest are the emergency stop valves and the governor valves. The governor valve Controls the quantity of steam flowing to the turbine, and therefore Controls the speed of the turbine when not connected to the grid, and when the generator is synchronized to the grid, it détermines the electrical output of the unit. Before reaching the governor valve the steam passes through the emergency stop valve. The emergency stop valve quickly stops the steam flow to the turbine in the event of an emergency that could damage the turbine (Bereznai (2005)). Chemical applications:

Two-phase flow can be met in réfrigérant Systems, beat pumps and polymerization reactors. Pressure relief valves are used in petroleum refining, petrochemical and Chem­ ical manufacturing, natural gas processing and power génération industries. This device is also used in the Bayer process; the principal industrial means of refining bauxite to

6

1

Fundamentals of the study

Reactor

coolant

ofSI

Steamout

Conïol rods

drive

Steam

generatof

Figure 1.2: Detailed sketch of nuclear reactor core.

TO

ATMOSPHERE

EMERQENCY

STOP VALVE

CSDV

k(At loateMUioos)

ÛOVERNOR

VALVE

r

LP TURBINE

CONDENSER.

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woj

GENERATOR

Figure 1.3: Schematic of the steam System and components typical of a large turbine unit (Taken by Bereznai (2005)).

produce alumina. Cryogénie applications:

Within a cryogénie System, adéquate relief valves must be installed for ail vacuum and cryogénie vessels, and also for any cryogénie lines that hâve the potential to trap cryogénie fluids. Relief valves must be sized so that under worst-case failure conditions, the maximum pressure reached in any vessel is below the maximum safe working pressure (MSWP) for the vessel. No fixed prescription can be given to détermine valve sizing for

1.2

Objectives-Achievements / Motivation

7

ail, or even most cases. Each System must be analyzed in detail to properly détermine worst-case failure modes and the required relief valve sizing. Chemical reactors containing compressed liquefied gases such as Chlorine, Ammonia, Propane, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Propane in large pressure vessels are protected from overpressure with Pressure Relief Valves. Processing, storage and transportation of theses réservoirs should be handled with care to avoid accidents. Examples of safety valves manufactured by FLOW SAFE, Inc. in cryogénie instal­ lations are shown in Fig 1.4. These valves were tested at the Cryogénies Testbed at the Kennedy Space Center, operated by the Dynacs Engineering Co.

(a) Pilot Operated Safety Relief Valve during (b) Spring Operated Safety Relief Valve during cryogénie flow testing at Kennedy Space Center cryogénie flow testing at Kennedy Space Center

Figure 1.4: Safety Relief Valves tested under cryogénie conditions in Kennedy Space Center.

1.2 Obj ectives-Achievements / Motivation

In many Chemical and nuclear processes pressure relief valves (PRV) are used. A PRV is a device used to prevent the excessive rising of the pressure in the pressurized réservoir, process or System in general. This is accomplished by discharging a certain amount of fluid. The use of these devices is very crucial for the industry. Indeed, these simple and robust in their design valves are the ultimate protection when ail other Systems are insufficient. The poor design of these devices can be disastrous for the environment or even, in the worst case, it can cause injuries or deaths (Chabane et al. (2009)). A cutaway drawing of a PRV commonly met in the industry is presented in Fig. 1.5. The nozzle, valve body, spring, valve disk and downstream section can be distinguished. Further analysis and more details on the rôle of each component of the valve is given in the next chapters. For illustration purposes, a schematic of the problem to be investigated is depicted in Fig. 1.6; a pressurized tank, fed from a primary circuit through a control valve, is protected with a safety relief valve. When a predetermined pressure is reached, fluid is discharged through the valve with the aim of dropping the pressure to acceptable levels. The purpose for engineers is to size correctly the valve. The question that arises is whether the design of the valve has to be modified for the use of the same valve when the latter fonctions in two-phase flow régime.

8

1

Fundamentals of the study

Therefore, the main objective of this study is to détermine whether a two- phase mixture passing through a PRV approaches more to compressible or incompressible fluid behavior and for which range of conditions this happens. The latter information could be useful for PRV manufacturers to improve valve modeling in two-phase flow operation.

After a thorough literature survey, a relatively pronounced research lack in this par- ticular field can be stated. In the présent study, injected air-water mixture with cavitating flow through SRV is investigated. Most references are focused in water-vapor mixtures with flashing or non-flashing flow, the latter proving the originality of this thesis. A ho- mogeneous mixture approach with extension of Omega-methodology is applied by mod­ ification of (j) parameter for the case of air-water flow with cavitation. Additionally, in the frame of this project an innovative transparent SRV facility has been built allowing for flow visualization in single-phase flow (cavitation bubbles) and injected air-water flow (for very low air fractions). Moreover, one of the most important contributions of this project was the study of the valve opening characteristics by mea- suring the flowforce (especially at the lowest disk lifts) in SRV for incompressible and compressible flow. The former hâve been compared with two-phase flow revealing the compressible behavior of these mixtures above certain flow conditions and geometrical stipulation. Furthermore, a relatively simple 2D CFD model that could predict with good accuracy the flowforce applied in SRV for compressible or incompressible flow has been developed. For this model, locally (close to the valve disk) axisymmetric flow is assumed. With the use of these results, the rôle of adjustment ring on flowforce has been quantified. Finally, several geometrical singularities hâve been studied in order to obtain infor­ mation about possible simplified modeling of SRV with as a sériés of expansion and/or contraction. Pressure évolution along each singularity permitted establishing the pressure drop. Flow visualization in selected divergence section was performed and a flow pattern map for this spécifie geometry is specified. The uniqueness of this map is found in its form since the input is the flow condition before divergence while output is the flow régime af­ ter the expansion. Pressure drop corrélations are deduced for the case of dispersed bubbly flow and no flow régime transition in each geometry. Thus, due to unknown flow pattern transition in the valve, these results could not be exploited for SRV modeling. Likewise, an exclusivity in this study is the discussion of the influence of opening angle on two- phase pressure drop in divergence sections. Summarizing the main goals and original achievements of the thesis:

► Flow régime dépendent AP corrélations for each singularity studied are pro- posed.

► Flow pattern map with inlet upstream conditions and outlet downstream flow régime are established; flow structure is also identified with optical probe measurements.

► Transparent SRV facility on selected SRV is built allowing flow visualization of cavitation and/or injected air-water flow.

► Study of air-water flow with cavitation in SRV and modification of HNE-DS applied to cavitating flows (CF).