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technical guides

lighting guide

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Lighting Guide

1 Lighting Guide .......................................................................................................................... 3


2 Illuminance level ...................................................................................................................... 3
3 Glare prevention....................................................................................................................... 4
3.1 Shielding .............................................................................................................................. 4
3.2 Placing fixtures .................................................................................................................... 4
3.3 Rooms with computer displays ............................................................................................ 5
4 Types of Lumiance fixtures..................................................................................................... 5
4.1 General lighting ................................................................................................................... 5
4.2 Accent lighting ..................................................................................................................... 5
4.3 Wall washing ....................................................................................................................... 5
4.4 Local lighting ........................................................................................................................ 6
4.5 Decorative lighting ............................................................................................................... 6
4.6 Emergency lighting .............................................................................................................. 6
5 Fixture data ............................................................................................................................... 6
5.1 Polar diagram ...................................................................................................................... 6
5.2 Cartesian diagram ............................................................................................................... 7
5.3 Performance cone ............................................................................................................... 7
5.4 Isolux curve ......................................................................................................................... 7
5.5 Fast calculation table ........................................................................................................... 8
5.6 Utilization Factor (UF) .......................................................................................................... 8
5.7 Energy consumption per 100 lx per m2................................................................................ 9
5.8 Illuminance in standard grid ................................................................................................. 9
5.9 EULUMDAT ......................................................................................................................... 9
5.10 Unified Glare Rating (UGR) ............................................................................................ 10
5.11 Söllner Diagram .............................................................................................................. 11
6 Lighting of light-sensitive objects ........................................................................................ 11
6.1 Prevention of damage ....................................................................................................... 11
6.2 Light fastness .................................................................................................................... 11
6.3 Advised maximum illuminance .......................................................................................... 12
6.4 Filters ................................................................................................................................. 12
6.5 Calculation of the allowed illumination time ....................................................................... 12
6.6 Damage prevention with Lumiance products .................................................................... 12
7 Lighting terminology ............................................................................................................. 13
7.1 Light ................................................................................................................................... 13
7.2 Luminous flux .................................................................................................................... 13
7.3 Illuminance ........................................................................................................................ 14
7.4 Luminance ......................................................................................................................... 15
7.5 Colour temperature ............................................................................................................ 15
7.6 Colour rendering index ...................................................................................................... 16
7.7 Uniformity ratio .................................................................................................................. 16
7.8 SHR ................................................................................................................................... 16
7.9 Room index k ..................................................................................................................... 16
7.10 Maintenance factor ......................................................................................................... 16
7.11 Specific luminous flux ..................................................................................................... 17
7.12 Light Output Ratio (LOR) ................................................................................................ 17
7.13 Utilization Factor (UF) .................................................................................................... 17

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Lighting Guide

1 Lighting Guide
This guide provides background
information for the application of
Lumiance fixture data.

Lighting levels, glare values and other


photometric characteristics of lighting
projects can be assessed with graphs
and diagrams from data sheets or with
computer calculations.

Technical data of Lumiance fixtures is


available on paper in the form of tables
and graphs and also as files for use in
computer programs. A computer program
is also available.

Legal requirements are indicated for


guidance only. In some countries and in
specific projects, different regulations
may apply. If in doubt, consult an expert.

2 Illuminance level
To determine how much light is required, account must be taken of the type of visual task:
To be able to safely find the emergency exit in a building, 1 lx is sufficient
To be able to distinguish facial expressions, approx. 20 lx is required
For accent lighting in shop windows, 1500 – 2000 lx is usual
Operation tables must be illuminated with a minimum of 5000 lx

In rooms where people work, legal minima apply for the illuminance, depending on the room and
on the visual task.

Examples from European standard EN12464, Lighting of Indoor Work Places:


50 lx stable
75 lx parking area
100 lx storage space
200 lx canteen
300 lx classroom
500 lx professional kitchen
750 lx fine assembly work
2000 lx engraving installation
5000 lx operation table

These minima relate to the average illuminance in the working area. The uniformity in the working
area may not be less than 0.7, and not less than 0.5 In the immediate surroundings.

The initial illuminance values must be higher than the legal minima, because account must be
taken of light degradation caused by contamination and ageing of lamps and fixtures.

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Lighting Guide

3 Glare prevention
Glare occurs when one part of the visual field is much brighter than the average brightness to
which the visual system is adapted. Glare is divided into discomfort glare and disability glare.
Measures have to be taken to limit discomfort glare in lighting installations.

Disability glare impairs Discomfort glare causes symptoms


vision of visual fatigue

3.1 Shielding
A shielding angle can be stated for open fixtures and for fixtures that are supplied with a clear,
non-structured covering. The shielding angle is the angle from which the lamp or its reflection in
the reflector is no longer visible.

30°

30° 30°

The following minima apply according to the European standard EN 12461, Lighting of Indoor
Work Places.

Luminance (kcd/m2) Example Minimum shielding angle (º)


1 to 20 fluorescent tube 10
20 to 50 compact fluorescent lamp 15
50 to 500 discharge lamp (mat) 20
more than 500 discharge lamp (clear) 30

3.2 Placing fixtures


Reflections from fixtures on glossy paper can make it difficult to read printed matter. This type of
glare is called veiling glare. Fixtures must be placed in the room such that veiling glare is avoided

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Lighting Guide

3.3 Rooms with computer displays


The European standard EN 12464, Lighting of Indoor Work Places, contains regulations with
regard to the allowed luminance of fixtures of which the mirror image can be visible in computer
displays.

If light is emitted at an angle of 65º or more to the vertical axis of a fixture, the luminance above
this angle may not be more than 1000 cd/m2. When using displays with light characters on a dark
background, a maximum of 200 cd/m2 applies.

According to the British standard CIBSE LG3, fixtures can be subdivided into three categories:
Category 1 - 55º Suited for rooms where people work intensively with computer displays
Category 2 - 65º Suited for rooms where people work regularly with computer displays
Category 3 - 75º Suited for rooms where people now and then perform simple work with
computer displays

For all three categories, the luminance may not exceed 200 cd/m2 above the stated angles.

4 Types of Lumiance fixtures

4.1 General lighting


General artificial lighting is provided by ceiling fixtures that are installed in a regular pattern.
General lighting is mostly soft in nature with few shadows and differences in brightness.

4.2 Accent lighting


Accent lighting is used to emphasise the characteristic aspects of an interior or as an eye catcher
in shop windows, shops, galleries or in the living room. Accent lighting is achieved by locally
increasing the illuminance and by consciously introducing shadows to enhance the three-
dimensional effect. For the local increase of the illuminance, beamed light is required.

4.3 Wall washing


With wall washing, the walls are illuminated as evenly as possible. This can be done for functional
reasons, for esthetical purposes or to improve visual comfort. In rooms with general lighting the
contrast ratios in the field of vision improve if the walls are also illuminated. This can be done with
wall washers or with accent lighting fixtures.

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Lighting Guide

4.4 Local lighting


Extra fixtures are often placed in task areas. The necessary illuminance depends on the character
of the task that is being performed.

4.5 Decorative lighting


Certain types of lighting fixtures are used for beautification rather than for lighting purposes.

4.6 Emergency lighting


Emergency lighting should start automatically as soon as the mains voltage drops below 70% of its
rated value. See the Lumiance Emergency Lighting Guide for further details.

5 Fixture data
Technical data of Lumiance fixtures is available on paper in the form of tables and graphs and also
as files for use in computer programs. A computer program is also available.

For reflector lamps, the data from the lamp manufacturer must be used.

5.1 Polar diagram


The polar diagram is the graphic representation of the luminous intensity in different directions.
light distribution
105° 105° The value of the luminous intensity is indicated in candelas
90° 90°
per 1000 lumen (cd/klm). This value must be multiplied by
the luminous flux of the used lamp(s). Example: 1000 cd/klm
75° 75° corresponds with 400 cd with a 400 lm lamp and with 1100
100
cd with an 1100 lm lamp.
60° 60°

45° 200 45°

250

300

30° I ( cd/klm ) 30°


C0 C90

If two curves are plotted in one diagram, the intensity


distributions are different in two vertical planes or in all four
half planes: C0, C90, C180 and C270.

C0 is one of the two half planes perpendicular to the axis of


the lamp. The half plane in which the highest luminous
intensity has been measured is taken as C0 in Lumiance
data files.

Gamma ( ) is the angle between the optical axis of the


luminaire and the direction in which a particular luminous
intensity value has been measured.

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Lighting Guide

5.2 Cartesian diagram


The Cartesian diagram is the graphic representation of the luminous intensity in different
I ( cd/klm )
directions. The difference with the polar diagram is that rectangular
200
C0 coordinates are used in the Cartesian diagram instead of polar
coordinates. The scales are therefore easier to read, but the shape
160 of the light distribution is more difficult to assess.

120 The values are indicated in candelas per 1000 lumen (cd/klm). This
value must be multiplied by the luminous flux of the used lamps.
80 Example: 1000 cd/klm corresponds with 400 cd with a 400 lm lamp
and with 1100 cd with an 1100 lm lamp.
40

If two curves are plotted in one diagram, the distribution is different


0
180° 135° 90° 45° 0° 45° 90° 135° 180°
in two vertical planes.
Angle gamma

5.3 Performance cone


The performance cone gives an indication of whether the fixture
Cone angle 94 °
emits a narrow or a wide beam of light. The diagram also shows the
Lamp flux 3600 lm
illuminance at the centre of the beam Emax for different distances h
h Ø Emax between the fixture and an illuminated object.
(m) (m) (lx)
1 2,1 670 With accent lighting, the beam diameters give an impression of the
2 4,3 167 size of the light spot with different distances between the fixture and
3 6,4 74 an illuminated object. With downlights placed in a grid, the beam
4 8,6 42 diameter is also a means to broadly assess the degree of uniformity.
5 10,7 27
If two beam angles are indicated in one diagram, this concerns a fixture with a non-rotationally
symmetrical distribution. In this case, the data of two vertical planes are presented.

The illuminance can be expressed in lux (lx) and this illuminance then applies to a specific lamp.
However, the luminance can also be expressed in lux per 1000 lumens (lx/klm). These values
must be multiplied by the luminous flux of the used lamp. Example: 1000 lx/klm corresponds with
400 lx with a 400 lm lamp and with 1100 lx with an 1100 lm lamp.

5.4 Isolux curve


The isolux lines indicate the points of equal illuminances. These curves give an idea of the
illuminance on the reference plane if the fixture is suspended at a certain height.

Isolux diagram floor


5m
ceiling height 2.5 m
For uplighters and wall fixtures, the stated suspension height in a
C/W/F=80/50/30% room with the stated dimensions and the also-stated reflection
4
values of ceiling, walls and floor are assumed. The same standard
room is used each time to enable comparison between fixtures.
3
Different values will be obtained in other rooms.
6 lx
The illuminance can be expressed in lux (lx) and this illuminance
2 then applies to a specific lamp. However, the luminance can also be
12 lx
18 lx
expressed in lux per 1000 lumens (lx/klm). These values must be
1 24 lx multiplied by the luminous flux of the used lamp. Example: 1000
30 lx lx/klm corresponds with 400 lx with a 400 lm lamp and with 1100 lx
-2m -1m +1m +2m
0
h = 1m
with an 1100 lm lamp.
Wall mounted vertically

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Lighting Guide

5.5 Fast calculation table


fast calculation table (refl. : 80/ 80/ 30 )
E Lph 2 x TC-L 18W 2G11 / 2400 lm
in in room sizes in m²
lx m 20 30 40 50 70 80 90 100
1,65 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

20 2,15 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

2,65 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2

1,65 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5

50 2,15 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 5

2,65 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5

1,65 3 3 4 5 7 8 8 9

100 2,15 3 4 4 5 7 8 9 10

2,65 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
maintenance factor : 0,8

The fast calculation table is intended for a fast estimate of the required number of fixtures. No
account is taken of the shape of the room or the reflection factors of reflecting surfaces.
Mounting height Lph = room height – table height.

Examples: The average illuminance is E = 50 lx with 4 fixtures placed in a room of 70 m2 at


suspension height Lph = 2.65 m. With 8 fixtures the average illuminance is E = 100 lx. The
average illuminance increases almost proportionally with the number of fixtures, so 16 fixtures will
give about 200 lx.

5.6 Utilization Factor (UF)


utilization factors / TM5
reflection room index
C W F 0,75 1,0 1,25 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 4,0 5,0
70 50 20 66 70 73 75 78 80 81 83 84
70 30 20 63 67 70 73 76 78 79 81 83
70 10 20 61 65 68 70 74 76 78 80 81
50 50 20 65 69 72 74 76 78 79 80 81
50 30 20 62 67 69 71 74 76 77 79 80
50 10 20 60 64 67 69 72 74 76 78 79
30 50 20 64 68 70 72 74 75 76 78 78
30 30 20 62 66 68 70 72 74 75 76 77
30 10 20 60 64 67 68 71 73 74 76 77
0 0 0 59 62 65 66 69 70 71 72 73
BZ-class 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SHRnom : 0,50 SHRmax : -0,899

The Utilization Factor indicates which percentage of the light reaches the working surface. The UF
depends on the shape of the room (see room index) and on the reflection factors of reflecting
surfaces.

Example: From the table, we can read that UF = 78% with room index k = 2 and with reflection
factors Ceiling 70% Wall 50% Floor 20%.
With UF = 78%, the average illuminance is E = 998 lx if 10 fixtures with 4 lamps of 3200 lm are
placed in a room of 100 m2. (E = 0.78 x 10 x 4 x 3200/100 = 998 lx)

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Lighting Guide

5.7 Energy consumption per 100 lx per m2


Energy consumption Correction factors (%)
per 100 lux per m2

C/W/F = 70/50/20% k = 2.5 Reflectances (%)


Lamp flux = 3600 lm Ceiling 80 80 50 80 80 70 70 50 30 0
Wall 50 30 30 50 30 50 30 30 30 0
Low loss TC-D 26W G24d3 Floor 30 30 30 80 10 20 20 10 10 0
PLuminaire (W) 62 Room index k
P* (W/100lx.m2) 5.3 0.6 56 48 47 54 46 54 47 45 45 39
1 77 68 66 72 65 73 66 64 63 57
1.5 94 86 82 85 80 88 82 78 77 71
2.5 109 102 96 96 92 100 95 89 88 83
3 114 108 100 99 96 104 100 93 92 87

P* (W/100lx.m2) is the energy consumption per 100 lx per m2. This figure indicates the
relationship between energy consumption and light output.

PL (W) is the energy consumption per fixture (Luminaire), including ballast.

With these two facts, it can be determined how many fixtures are required to illuminate a certain
surface with a certain average illuminance and what the energy consumption will be.

The values are calculated for a room with room index of k = 2.5 and reflection factors Ceiling 70%
Wall 50% Floor 20% with a maintenance factor of 0.8. If k or the reflection values are different, the
stated values must be corrected with the correction percentage from the correction table.

5.8 Illuminance in standard grid


Lighting level in Correction factors (%)
standard grid

Grid (m) E (lx) Reflectances (%)


1.2 x 1.2 807 Ceiling 80 80 50 80 80 70 70 50 30 0
1.2 x 1.8 538 Wall 50 30 30 50 30 50 30 30 30 0
1.8 x 1.8 359 Floor 30 30 30 80 10 20 20 10 10 0
1.8 x 2.4 269 Room index k
1.8 x 3.0 215 0.6 56 48 47 54 46 54 47 45 45 39
2.4 x 2.4 202 1 77 68 66 72 65 73 66 64 63 57
2.4 x 3.0 161 1.5 94 86 82 85 80 88 82 78 77 71
3.0 x 3.0 129 2.5 109 102 96 96 92 100 95 89 88 83
3 114 108 100 99 96 104 100 93 92 87

The illuminance in a standard grid gives the illuminance when the fixtures are positioned in a
regular grid, for instance in a suspended ceiling.

The values are calculated for a room with a room index of k = 2.5 and reflection factors Ceiling
70% Wall 50% Floor 20% with a maintenance factor of 0.8. If k or the reflection values are
different, the stated values can be corrected with the correction percentage from the correction
table.

5.9 EULUMDAT
The photometric data of Lumiance fixtures is available as computer files in EULUMDAT format.
This makes it possible to perform calculations for lighting projects with your own software.
EULUMDAT data can be used in virtually any European lighting calculation software package and
also in many North-American lighting calculation software packages.

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Lighting Guide

5.10 Unified Glare Rating (UGR)

The UGR method relates to glare from ceiling fixtures that are placed in a regular pattern.

European standard EN 12461, Lighting of Indoor Work Places, contains a table in which the
maximum allowed UGR value is prescribed per type of room and per type of activity.

The UGR method produces a scale figure:


below 13 no glare
13 – 16 suited for accurate eye tasks
16 –19 suited for average eye tasks
19 –22 suited for moderate eye tasks
22 –28 suited for simple eye tasks
above 28 not suited for work lighting

glare rating according to UGR

-ceiling 70 70 50 50 30 70 70 50 50 30
-walls 50 30 50 30 30 50 30 50 30 30
-workplane 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
room dimensions viewed crosswise viewed endwise
X Y
2H 2H 15,3 16,7 15,6 16,9 17,1 15,3 16,7 15,6 16,9 17,1
3H 15,6 16,6 15,8 16,8 17,0 15,6 16,6 15,8 16,8 17,0
4H 16,1 17,1 16,4 17,3 17,5 16,1 17,1 16,4 17,3 17,5
6H 16,5 17,4 16,8 17,7 17,9 16,5 17,4 16,8 17,7 17,9
8H 16,7 17,6 17,0 17,9 18,1 16,7 17,6 17,0 17,9 18,1
12H 16,8 17,8 17,1 18,0 18,3 16,8 17,8 17,1 18,0 18,3
4H 2H 15,2 16,1 15,4 16,3 16,5 15,2 16,1 15,4 16,3 16,5
3H 16,5 17,4 16,8 17,7 17,9 16,5 17,4 16,8 17,7 17,9
4H 17,2 18,1 17,5 18,4 18,7 17,2 18,1 17,5 18,4 18,7
6H 17,5 18,2 17,8 18,6 18,9 17,5 18,2 17,8 18,6 18,9
8H 17,7 18,4 18,1 18,8 19,1 17,7 18,4 18,1 18,8 19,1
12H 18,0 18,7 18,5 19,1 19,5 18,0 18,7 18,5 19,1 19,5
8H 4H 17,3 18,0 17,7 18,3 18,7 17,3 18,0 17,7 18,3 18,7
6H 18,2 18,9 18,6 19,3 19,7 18,2 18,9 18,6 19,3 19,7
8H 18,6 19,2 19,0 19,6 20,1 18,6 19,2 19,0 19,6 20,1
12H 18,7 19,2 19,2 19,7 20,2 18,7 19,2 19,2 19,7 20,2
12H 4H 17,5 18,2 17,9 18,6 19,0 17,5 18,2 17,9 18,6 19,0
6H 18,4 19,0 18,8 19,4 19,9 18,4 19,0 18,8 19,4 19,9
8H 18,6 19,1 19,1 19,6 20,1 18,6 19,1 19,1 19,6 20,1
variation of observer position
S= 1,0H +0,2/ -0,2 +0,2/ -0,2
1,5H +0,4/ -0,6 +0,4/ -0,6
2,0H +0,8/ -1,0 +0,8/ -1,0
standard-
table BK04 BK04
correction
for luminaire -8,1 -8,1
correct glare indices for a total flux of 1200lm

When the dimensions and the reflection factors of a room are known, the uncorrected UGR value
can be read from the UGR table of a fixture.
The number found must be corrected for:
The position of the observer
The actual distance between the fixtures
The actual lamps used

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Lighting Guide

5.11 Söllner Diagram


class glare rating for service value of illuminance (lx)
A A 1000 750 500 -- 300
1 B 2000 1500 1000 750 500 300
2 D 2000 1000 500 300
3 E 2000 1000 500 300

85° 8
6
4 luminance curve(s)
75° C0-C180

65° 2 Lamp type


1 x QT-ax 12 50W GY6.35
1000 lm
55°

a
45° hs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 20 30 L (kcd/m²)
Type A
The Söllner Diagram is a graphical representation of the calculated luminance values in the area
between 45 and 85 degrees to the vertical. Measures to limit discomfort glare by downlights mainly
relate to this area. The slanted lines indicate the allowed limit values. The limit values depend on
the quality class of the eye task and on the rated value of the illuminance.

6 Lighting of light-sensitive objects

6.1 Prevention of damage


Light can damage objects. The risk of damage from interior lighting is less than from sunlight.
Sunlight can reach values of up to 100 000 lx, while the illuminance from interior lighting will mostly
be below 2000 lx.

Besides the amount of light produced, the spectral composition of the light is also a determining
factor. In particular, blue, violet and ultraviolet light are harmful.

The damage increases proportionally to the illumination time and the illuminance. A restriction of
the illuminance and the lighting time are therefore the most important measures to prevent
damage. Filters can be used as an additional measure.

6.2 Light fastness


The light fastness of an object can be established by subjecting samples of the materials to
accelerated ageing under a strong light source, and then comparing them with materials with a
known light fastness such as the „Light fastness scale‟ according to DIN 54004.

Permissible illumination time with 1000 lx unfiltered daylight


Class Illumination time
1 70 h
2 150 h
3 300 h
4 600 h
5 1200 h

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Lighting Guide

6 2 500 h
7 5 000 h
8 10 000 h

The following are highly light sensitive:


Watercolours, postage stamps, prints, parchment, manuscripts, tapestries, feathers and wax.
The following are fairly light sensitive:
Oil paintings, wood, cork, untanned leather, bone, ivory, horn, mother of pearl and natural rubber.
The following are insensitive to light:
Glass, enamel, glazing and all types of stone and metal, jewellery.
With some materials, the light sensitivity of specific types and qualities can differ considerably. The
following are light sensitive to varying degrees:
Paint, lacquer, ink, plastic, paper, textile and photographic products.

6.3 Advised maximum illuminance


Highly light sensitive 50 lx
Fairly light sensitive 150 lx
Slightly light sensitive 300 lx

6.4 Filters
UV radiation can be filtered out with UV filters. This reduces the harm caused by light sources.
To make a comparison between different lighting systems possible, the operation of light source +
filter is given with respect to unfiltered daylight.
An extension factor of roughly 4 with respect to unfiltered daylight is the highest achievable value
with an artificial light source in combination with a UV filter.
A higher extension factor can only be achieved by also filtering out the blue part of the visible light.
This naturally has an unfavourable effect on the colour reproduction and the light output.

6.5 Calculation of the allowed illumination time


T = k.t.1000/E

Where:
T = the allowed illumination time in hours
k = extension factor
t = permissible time in hours at 1000 lx, unfiltered daylight
E = illuminance (lx)

Example: newsprint in light fastness class I

In sunlight (100 000 lx) and extension factor 1, the permissible illumination time is
1 x 70 x 1000/100 000 = 0.7 hour.

In halogen light (200 lux) and extension factor 2.3, the permissible illumination time is
2.3 x 70 x 1000/200 = 805 hours.

In UV-filtered halogen light (200 lux) and extension factor 3.5, the permissible illumination time is
3.5 x 70 x 1000/200 = 1225 hours.

6.6 Damage prevention with Lumiance products


Fixtures for incandescent lamps, extension factor 2.7 – 3.5
The extension factor of incandescent lamps with respect to unfiltered daylight is 2.7. By dimming,
this factor can be increased to 3.5. Here, the light colour changes from warm white to yellow. If
there is further dimming, the light colour goes to orange and then to red. From a conservation
viewpoint, lighting with red light is preferred.

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Lighting Guide

Fixtures for halogen reflector lamps, extension factor 2.5 – 3.5


Lumiance recommends that only halogen reflector lamps with a front glass be used. With lamps
with a front glass of borosilicate glass, the extension factor is 2.5 with respect to unfiltered daylight.
QR-CB “UV-stop” lamps can be used in all Lumiance fixtures for QR-CB. The extension factor is
approx. 3.5 with respect to unfiltered daylight.

Fixtures for halogen capsules, extension factor 2.5 – 3.5


Fixtures for QT halogen lamps are supplied as standard with a front glass. In this case, the
extension factor is 2.5 with respect to unfiltered daylight.
With “UV-stop” QT lamps, the same effect is achieved as with a normal QT lamp in combination
with a UV filter. The extension factor is approx. 3.5 with respect to unfiltered daylight.

Fixtures for high-pressure metal-halide, extension factor 1.1 - 2.1


Fixtures for high-pressure metal-halide lamps are supplied standard with a safety glass with an
extension factor of 1.1 with respect to unfiltered daylight.
UV filters can be supplied for these fixtures. The extension factor of these filters is 2.1 with respect
to unfiltered daylight.

Fixtures for high-pressure sodium lamps, extension factor 4


High-pressure sodium lamps do not produce UV radiation. These lamps can be used without a
filter. The extension factor is approx. 4 with respect to unfiltered daylight.

Fixtures for fluorescent lamps, extension factor 1.9 - 2.7


With fluorescent lamps, the extension factor depends on the light colour (cool white approx. 1.9,
warm white approx. 2.7).

7 Lighting terminology

7.1 Light
The human eye is sensitive for electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength between 380 and 720
nm. If the wavelength is less than 380 nm, it is called ultraviolet light; if the wavelength is higher
than 720 nm, it is called infra-red light (thermal radiation).

7.2 Luminous flux


Phi (lm)
The luminous flux is the amount of visible electromagnetic radiation, measured in lumens (lm). The
lamp manufacturers specify the rated luminous flux of their lamps. The luminous flux is expressed
in lumens (lm).

Luminous flux is measured in an Ulbricht sphere.

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Lighting Guide

Luminous intensity
I = Phi/sr (cd)
The luminous intensity always relates to a certain direction and is connected with the operation of
reflectors and diffusers. The luminous intensity is the luminous flux radiated in a certain solid angle
(sr), divided by this solid angle. The luminous intensity is expressed in candelas (cd).

light distribution
105° 105°

90° 90°

75° 75°

100
60° 60°

45° 200 45°

250

300

30° I ( cd/klm ) 30°


C0 C90

Luminous intensity distributions of luminaires are measured in a photometer.

7.3 Illuminance
E = Phi/A (lx)
The illuminance refers to the incidence of the light flux on a surface, per unit of surface. The
illuminance is expressed in lux (lx).

Full moon 0.1 lx


Emergency lighting 1 lx
Street lighting 10 lx
Winter day 10 000 lx
Summer day 100 000 lx

lluminance is measured with a lux meter.

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Lighting Guide

7.4 Luminance
L = E/A (cd/m2)
Luminance indicates the degree of brightness with which the human eye perceives a light source
or an illuminated surface. The luminance is expressed in candela per square meter (cd/m2).

1 000 000 000 cd/m2 10 000 000 cd/m2 10 000 cd/m2

Luminance is measured with a luminance meter.

7.5 Colour temperature


Tc (K)
Temperature of a certain object (black body) that radiates light of the same type of colour as the
given light source. Incandescent lamps have a colour temperature of 2700 K, but halogen lamps
have a higher colour temperature. A higher colour temperature is perceived as a „cooler‟ light
(more blue). The colour temperature is expressed in Kelvin (K).

Candle 1 900 K
Incandescent lamp 2 700 K
Halogen lamp 3 000 K
Direct sunlight 6 000 K
Daylight with cloudy sky 7 000 K
Daylight with clear sky 20 000 K

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Lighting Guide

7.6 Colour rendering index


Ra (%)
The colour rendering index indicates to what degree the colour rendering of a light source deviates
from that of an incandescent lamp.
With Ra(8), the colour shift of eight reference colours is measured as a percentage. The Ra is the
average of these eight values. A colour rendering index of 100 to 90 is good, 90 to 80 are less
good and lamps with an Ra below 80 are unsuited for applications where colour rendering is
important.

Lamps are divided into quality classes:


Class Ra
1a 90 to 100
1b 80 to 89
2a 70 to 79
2b 60 to 69
3 40 to 50
4 20 to 39

7.7 Uniformity ratio


G = Emin/Egem (%)
The uniformity ratio is the ratio between the minimum illuminance and the average illuminance on
a surface. This figure indicates the degree of “eveness”. E = 1 indicates complete uniformity.

7.8 SHR
The SHR (Spacing to Height Ratio) is the number that indicates the maximum that the fixtures may
be apart to still achieve sufficient uniformity. The number is given as the ratio between the distance
between the fixtures and the height between the fixtures and the working plane. As a result, the
same number applies to every suspension height.

7.9 Room index k


The room index is the ratio between the surface of the working plane and the half surface of the
adjacent walls. This indicates whether a room is narrow and high, or low and wide. This influences
the amount of light that is reflected to the working plane from the walls.

k = a . b / ( h . (a + b))

a = length of the room


b = width of the room
h = height between the lighting fixtures and the working plane.

7.10 Maintenance factor


As a result of contamination of the lamp and fixture, plus degradation of the lamp, the illuminance
reduces in the course of time. This must be taken into account during the lighting design. With
normal maintenance, the maintenance factor should be 0.8 or higher.

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Lighting Guide

7.11 Specific luminous flux


The specific luminous flux indicates how efficiently a lamp converts electrical energy to light that is
visible for human beings. This is indicated in lumens per Watt (lm/W).

7.12 Light Output Ratio (LOR)


LOR (%)
The luminaire efficiency indicates how well a fixture uses the luminous flux of the lamp. This is
indicated as the ratio between the luminous flux of a fixture and the light source of the „bare‟ lamp,
expressed as a percentage.

7.13 Utilization Factor (UF)


UF (%)
The utilization factor indicates how well a lighting installation uses the luminous flux of the lamps.
This is indicated as the ratio between the luminous flux that reaches the working plane and the
light source of the „bare‟ lamps, expressed as a percentage.

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