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Coordination
Compounds
BONDING
in
CO-ORDINATION COMPOUNDS
Syllabus Content
1. Werner's Theory
2. Valence Bond Theory
3. Crystal Field Theory
Werner's Theory
• Werner mixed simple salt + simple molecule &
found that more than one coordination
compounds are formed.
In general kya hota hai ??
Ek hi product banta hai !!!
Werner's example
CoCl3 + NH3 CoCl36NH3
(Simple Salt) (Simple Molecule) CoCl35NH3
CoCl34NH3
CoCl33NH3
Werner's Theory
After formation of several compounds, he proposed a theory
Each coordination compound has two type of valency.

(a) Primary Valency


(b) Secondary Valency
Primary Valency Secondary Valency
(i) Primary valency represent (i) Secondary valency represent
oxidation number of coordination number of
central metal atom central metal atom

(ii) Primary valency is satisfied (ii) Secondary valency is


by –ve ligands. satisfied either by –ve ligand or
neutral ligand
STUDY OF STRUCTURES OF COMPOUNDS
CoCl3 + NH3  CoCl3  6NH3
CoCl3  5NH3
CoCl3  4NH3
CoCl3  3NH3
We all know that coordination number of Co+3 is 6.
Werner's Theory
CoCl3  6NH3 [Co(NH3)6] Cl3
NH3
NH3 NH3
+3
Co
NH3 NH3
NH3
Werner's Theory
Cl
NHNH
3 3
NHNH
3 3 NHNH
3 3
+3
Co +3
Cl Co Cl
NH3 NH3
NH3NH3 NH3
NH3
Werner's Theory Question

+3 –
[Co(NH3)6] Cl3 + H2O [Co(NH3)6] 3Cl

4 ions formed
Difference b/w Primary & Secondary Valency

P.V. is ionisable S.V. is non-ionisable


No role in geometry Provides geometry to comp

Represented by dash line Represented by solid line


Werner's Theory
3
CoCl35NH3 [Co (NH 3 ) 5 Cl]Cl 2
NH3
NH3 NH3
+3
Cl Co Cl
NH3 NH3
Cl
Werner's Theory Question
+2 –
[Co(NH3)5Cl] Cl2 + H2O [Co(NH3)5Cl] 2Cl

3 ions are formed


Werner's Theory
CoCl34NH3 [Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl
Cl
NH3 NH3
+3
Cl Co
NH3 NH3
Cl
Werner's Theory Question
H2O +1 –
[Co(NH3)4Cl2] Cl [Co(NH3)4Cl2] Cl

2 ions are formed


Werner's Theory
CoCl33NH3 [Co(NH3)3Cl3]
Cl
NH3 NH3
+3
Co
NH3 Cl
Cl
Werner's Theory Question
Check electrical conductivity in following
coordination compounds :
(A) CoCl3  6 NH3
(B) CoCl3  5 NH3
(C) CoCl3  4 NH3
(D) CoCl3  3 NH3

more no. of ions  more electrical conductivity


Solution:
(i) [Co(NH3)6] Cl3  4 ions
(ii) [Co(NH3)5Cl] Cl2  3 ions
(iii) [Co(NH3)4] Cl  2 ions
(iv) [Co(NH3)3 Cl3]  0 ion

EC order : (i) > (ii) > (iii) > (iv)


Type 2 Question
• Precipitate wale questions
For halogens like Chlorine Bromine, Iodine
AgNO3 is added to make precipitate.
AgCl  White precipitate
AgBr  Light yellow ppt.
AgI  Dark yellow ppt.
Type 2 Question
• For SO4, BaCl2 is added to make precipitate.
BaSO4  (White ppt)
Super Question:
• In previous question, on adding excess AgNO3 how
many moles of is formed.
Examples
CoCl3  6 NH3  [Co(NH3)6]Cl3  3 mol AgCl
CoCl3  5 NH3  [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2  2 mol AgCl
CoCl3  4 NH3  [Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl  1 mol AgCl
CoCl3  3 NH3  [Co(NH3)3Cl3]  0 mol AgCl

precipitate
VBT
(Valance Bond Theory)
V.B.T
Intermixing of orbitals + Overlapping of orbitals
CMA will provide vacant orbitals
These vacant orbitals will be hybridized.
These hybrid orbitals of central metal atom will
overlap with lone-pair orbitals of ligands to
form coordinate bond
V.B.T

M L
Ligands are classified into two types :
(i) Strong field ligand
(ii) Weak field ligand
Spectrochemical Series
– – – – –2 –
I Br SCN Cl S F
– –2 –
OH C2O 4 H 2O NCS
Oxalato

EDTA NH 3
Ammonia
enCN CO –
Strength of Ligands :
Carbon > Nitrogen > Oxygen > Halogen
donor donor donor donor
SFL WFL
Good bye Guys !!!

Vishal Tiwari