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Successful and effective learning in students, is a process that requires a wide

range of understanding in terms of instructional strategies and techniques that

should be used in educating learners. Providing them sufficient knowledge and

training is a crucial factor that is always considered in determining the

student’s capacity in accomplishing success in the learning process. Serin,

Serin and Muhammedzade (2009) pointed out that educators should be

knowledgeable of the fact that every student has a different preference and

style in learning, which means there is no definite technique in educating

learners. It is important to further discover and recognize the educational

needs of students in various scales and reevaluate the methods of teaching,

to provide students the appropriate knowledge and skills they need

(Sellars,2008). On that account, multiple intelligence theory is a guide to help

teachers in educating and aiding the different educational needs of students.

II. GROUP BASED LEARNING METHODOLOGIES

A. COOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH

This method of learning engages students in different group-based

techniques for them to learn how to work as a team. By facilitating and

providing them varied exercises and tasks, students execute their tasks

with uniformity and interconnection with each of the member of the

group. With this type of progress, the teams are able to observe unity

and accomplish a similar goal that would be beneficial to all, as

elaborated by Gilllies, R., 2007. Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, F.P. further
explains that continuous involvements of learners in group tasks enable

them to recognize their responsibility as a member such as providing

aid or support for a fellow member, leading and working towards the

same goal and establishing trust towards each other.

Key Elements of Cooperative Learning

1. Students participating using this type of learning strategy recognizes

and further understands the sense of integrity and uniformity as a

group. They develop an apprehension regarding the importance of

facilitating coordination to be able to finish the exercise more

effectively.

2. Determining one’s role as a member of the team aids the students in

realizing their responsibilities and assigned parts to perform as a

group. This method of learning gives students certainty and

awareness of the importance of each role.

3. Cooperative learning specifically entails the development of students

when it comes to social interaction as well. It is very important to

consider this component as a deciding factor on how each member

would work as a team and as a better individual towards other

students. In this learning process, cooperation within the group

progressively improves ensuring a better output after the task is

done.
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING

Fowler (2006) exemplified experiential learning as ‘the learning which results

from coming together of experience, of a certain quality, with meaningful

reflection’. This type of learning is contemplated as strategic and integral

because of it being subjective to an individual’s personal experiences. An idea

very relevant to David A. Kolb and Roger Fry’s representation of experiential

learning. Kolb and Fry based their illustration on four components. Arranging

them into a learning circle which explains how individuals are supposed to

learn from their past experiences. Corresponding to the diagram, observation

and experience comes after the learner has experienced a detailed previous

encounter or situation, and the conceptualization of hypothetical theories

follows next, then the last step is to test it in certain situations. Although, they

both debated regarding on which point should the learning circle really start.

This example of evidence regarding experiential learning concludes that it has

been a good technique as a method of learning, a philosophy that entails how

learning could be accomplished through experiences unlike what has been

commonly used in discussions. However, it is contrary to the fact that it

comprises general learning theories because it doesn’t determine how that

certain experience is able to encourage learning in students.


III. CLASSROOM-BASED TEACHING STRATEGIES

A. Constructive Approach

Teaching strategies have changed through years because of constant

integration on how to improve learning amongst students by utilizing

various competent approaches (Fer,2009). Most educators and teachers

from this century now depend on newly developed procedures created

around this approach. Constructive approach is a broad and complex

technique that helps students make learning easier and more

convenient for their liking. The learning process in students have been

quite difficult for those who have a different style in learning, which is

why educators nowadays conform on finding new approaches. This

methodology lets the learners discover new things by engaging

themselves to the environment and reflect on those experiences.

Students contemplate and gain knowledge from their encounters and

social interactions which is a great contributor to their intellectual

progress. Constructive approach provides real-world experiences that

positively changes the perception and point of view of learners.

Although, the user of this approach should still be mindful of how it

would be carried out and executed in the classroom as a means to an

end, not an end in itself (Ahmed,2012).