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Annexation of Crimea by the Russian

Federation
The Crimean Peninsula was annexed by the
Crimean Crisis
Russian Federation in February–March 2014 and
since then has been administered as two Russian Annexation of Crimea
federal subjects—the Republic of Crimea and the Part of the Ukrainian crisis, 2014 pro-Russian unrest in
federal city of Sevastopol.[38] The annexation from Ukraine and Russian military intervention in Ukraine
Ukraine followed a Russian military intervention
in Crimea that took place in the aftermath of the
2014 Ukrainian revolution and was part of wider
unrest across southern and eastern Ukraine.[39][40]

On 22–23 February 2014, Russian president


Vladimir Putin convened an all-night meeting with
security service chiefs to discuss the extrication of
the deposed Ukrainian president, Viktor
Russian President Vladimir Putin signs the treaty of
Yanukovych. At the end of the meeting Putin
accession with Crimean leaders in Moscow, 18 March
remarked that "we must start working on returning
Crimea to Russia".[4] On 23 February, pro-Russian Date 20 February[nb 1] – 26 March 2014[6] (1 month
demonstrations were held in the Crimean city of and 6 days)
Sevastopol. On 27 February, masked Russian Location Crimea Peninsula
troops without insignia[7] took over the Supreme
Result
Council (parliament) of Crimea,[41][42] and Russian masked troops invade and occupy
captured strategic sites across Crimea, which led to key Crimean locations, including airports
the installation of the pro-Russian Aksyonov and military bases, following Putin's
government in Crimea, the conducting of the orders.[7][8]
Crimean status referendum and the declaration of The head of Ukrainian Navy, Admiral
Crimea's independence on 16 March 2014.[43][44] Berezovsky, defects, followed later by half of
Russia formally incorporated Crimea as two the Ukrainian military stationed in the
federal subjects of the Russian Federation with region.[9][10][11]
effect from 18 March 2014.[45] Russian forces seize the Supreme Council
Ukraine and many world leaders condemned the
(Crimean parliament). The Council of
annexation and consider it to be a violation of
Ministers of Crimea is dissolved and a new
international law and Russian-signed agreements
pro-Russian Prime Minister installed.[12][13]
safeguarding the territorial integrity of Ukraine, The Supreme Council declares the Republic
including the Belavezha Accords establishing the of Crimea to be an independent, self-
Commonwealth of Independent States in 1991, the governing entity, then holds a referendum on
Helsinki Accords, the Budapest Memorandum on the status of Crimea on 16 March, which
Security Assurances of 1994 and the Treaty on results in a majority vote to join the Russian
friendship, cooperation and partnership between Federation.[14]
the Russian Federation and Ukraine.[46][47] It led Treaty signed between the Republic of
to the other members of the then G8 suspending Crimea and the Russian Federation at the
Russia from the group,[48] then introducing the Kremlin on 18 March to formally initiate
first round of sanctions against the country. The Crimea's accession to the Russian
United Nations General Assembly also rejected the Federation.[15]
vote and annexation, adopting a non-binding The Ukrainian Armed Forces are evicted
resolution affirming the "territorial integrity of from their bases on 19 March by Crimean
Ukraine within its internationally recognised protesters and Russian troops. Ukraine
borders".[49][50] The UN resolution also subsequently announces the withdrawal of
"underscores that the referendum having no its forces from Crimea.[16]
validity, cannot form the basis for any alteration of
Russia suspended from G8.[17]
the status of [Crimea]" and calls upon all States
International sanctions introduced on
and international organizations not to recognize or
Russia.
to imply the recognition of Russia's annexation.[50]
In 2016, UN General Assembly reaffirmed non- Belligerents
recognition of the annexation and condemned "the Russia Ukraine
temporary occupation of part of the territory of
Strength
Ukraine—the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
and the city of Sevastopol".[51][52] Protesters Protesters

The Russian Federation opposes the "annexation" 20,000 (Sevastopol)[18][19] 4,000–10,000


label,[53] with Putin defending the referendum as (Simferopol)[24][25]
10,000 (Simferopol)[20]
complying with the principle of self-determination
Volunteer units[19][21] Ukrainian military forces
of peoples.[54][55] In July 2015, Russian prime
minister Dmitry Medvedev said that Crimea had 5,000–22,000 troops[26][27]
5,000 (Sevastopol)
been fully integrated into Russia.[56]
1,700 (Simferopol) 40,000 reservists, partly
mobilised (outside
Russian military forces
Crimea)[28]
Contents 20,000–30,000 troops[22]
Background Ukrainian Armed Forces
Euromaidan and the Ukrainian defectors
revolution
History 15,000[23]
Crimean crisis begins
Legal issues surrounding Crimean
Casualties and losses
annexation 1 Crimean SDF trooper 2 soldiers killed[30]
Crimean status referendum killed[29] 60–80 soldiers detained[31]
Breakaway republic
Accession treaty and finalisation of 15,000 soldiers
the annexation defected[32][33]
Subsequent events
3 civilian deaths (2 pro-Russian and 1 pro-
Transition and aftermath
Ukrainian)[34][35][36][37]
Economic implications
Human rights situation
Crimean public opinion
Ukrainian response
Russian response
International response
United Nations resolutions
International recognition
Sanctions
Mapping
Economic impact
See also
Notes
References
Further reading
External links

Background
Crimea became part of the Russian Empire in 1783, when the Crimean
Khanate was annexed, then became part of the Russian Soviet Federative
Socialist Republic until 1954.[57] During the first stages of the Russian
Civil War there were a series of short-lived independent governments
(Crimean People's Republic, Crimean Regional Government, Crimean
SSR) but they were followed by White Russian governments (General
Command of the Armed Forces of South Russia and later South Russian
Government). In October 1921, the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist
Republic of the Russian SFSR was instituted. After the Second World War
and the subsequent deportation of all of the indigenous Crimean Tatars, the
Crimean ASSR was stripped of its autonomy in 1946 and was downgraded
to the status of an oblast of the Russian SFSR.
Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme
Soviet "About the transfer of the Crimean In 1954, the Crimean Oblast was transferred from the Russian SFSR to the
Oblast". Supreme Council Herald, 9 March Ukrainian SSR by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the
1954. Soviet Union.[58]

In 1989, under perestroika, the Supreme Soviet declared that the


deportation of the Crimean Tatars under Stalin had been illegal,[59] and the mostly Muslim ethnic group was allowed to return to
Crimea.[60]

In 1990, the Soviet of the Crimean Oblast proposed the restoration of the Crimean ASSR.[61] The oblast conducted a referendum
in 1991, which asked whether Crimea should be elevated into a signatory of the New Union Treaty (that is, became a union
republic on its own). By that time, though, the dissolution of the Soviet Union was well underway. The Crimean ASSR was
restored for less than a year as part of Soviet Ukraine before Ukrainian independence. Newly independent Ukraine maintained
Crimea's autonomous status,[62] while the Supreme Council of Crimea affirmed the peninsula's "sovereignty" as a part of
Ukraine.[63][64] The autonomous status of Crimea was limited by Ukrainian authorities in 1995.[65][66]

In September 2008, the Ukrainian Foreign Minister Volodymyr Ohryzko accused Russia of giving out Russian passports to the
population in Crimea and described it as a "real problem" given Russia's declared policy of military intervention abroad to protect
Russian citizens.[67]

On 24 August 2009, anti-Ukrainian demonstrations were held in Crimea by ethnic Russian residents. Sergei Tsekov (of the
Russian Bloc[68] and then deputy speaker of the Crimean parliament[69]) said then that he hoped that Russia would treat Crimea
the same way as it had treated South Ossetia and Abkhazia.[70] Crimea is populated by an ethnic Russian majority and a minority
of both ethnic Ukrainians and Crimean Tatars, and thus demographically possessed one of Ukraine's largest ethnic Russian
populations.[71]
Already in 2011, some analysts speculated that the Russian government had irredentist plans:

...Russia wants to annex Crimea and is merely waiting for the right opportunity, most likely under the pretense of
defending Russian brethren abroad.

— William Varettoni, 2011[72]

Euromaidan and the Ukrainian revolution


The Euromaidan protest movement began in Kiev in late November 2013
after President Viktor Yanukovych, of the Party of Regions, suspended the
signing of the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement.[73][74][75]
Yanukovych won the 2010 presidential election with strong support from
voters in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and southern and eastern
Ukraine. The Crimean autonomous government strongly supported
Yanukovych and condemned the protests, saying they were "threatening
political stability in the country". The Crimean autonomous parliament said
that it supported the government's decision to suspend negotiations on the
Percentage of people that indicated pending association agreement and urged Crimeans to "strengthen friendly
Russian as their native language in the ties with Russian regions".[76][77][78]
2001 Ukraine census. Sevastopol
identifies itself as the highest at 90.6% On 4 February 2014, the Presidium of the Supreme Council considered
followed immediately by Crimea at holding a referendum on the peninsula's status, and asked the Russian
77.0%.
government to guarantee the vote.[79][80] The Security Service of Ukraine
(SBU) responded by opening a criminal case to investigate the possible
"subversion" of Ukraine's territorial integrity.[81] On 20 February 2014,
during a visit to Moscow, Chairman of the Supreme Council of Crimea Vladimir Konstantinov stated that the 1954 transfer of
Crimea from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic had been a mistake.[79]

The Euromaidan protests came to a head in late February 2014, and Yanukovych
and many of his ministers fled the capital on 22 February.[82] After his flight,
opposition parties and defectors from the Party of Regions put together a
parliamentary quorum in the Verkhovna Rada (the Ukrainian parliament), and
voted on 22 February to remove Yanukovych from his post on the grounds that
he was unable to fulfill his duties,[83] although this legislative removal lacked
the required three-quarter vote of sitting Rada members according to the
constitution in effect at the time, which the Rada also voted to
Euromaidan in Kiev, 11 December
suspend.[84][85][86] Arseniy Yatsenyuk was appointed by the Rada to serve as the 2013
head of a caretaker government until new presidential and parliament elections
could be held. This new government was recognised internationally, though the
Russian government said that these events had been a "coup d'état", and that the caretaker government was illegitimate.[87][88]

History

Crimean crisis begins


The February 2014 revolution that ousted Ukrainian president Viktor
Yanukovych sparked a political crisis in Crimea, which initially manifested
as demonstrations against the new interim Ukrainian government, but
rapidly escalated. In January 2014 the Sevastopol city council had already
called for formation of "people's militia" units to "ensure firm defence" of
the city from "extremism".[89][90]

Crimean parliament members called for an extraordinary meeting on 21


February. Crimean Tatar Mejlis chairman Mustafa Dzhemilev said that he
suspected that the meeting was arranged to call for Russian military "Crimean self-defence" members, 2 March
intervention in Crimea.[91] In response to this, the Security Service of 2014
Ukraine (SBU) said that it would "use severe measures to prevent any
action taken against diminishing the territorial integrity and sovereignty of
Ukraine".[nb 2] The party with the largest number of seats in the Crimean
parliament (80 of 100), the Party of Regions of Ukrainian president Viktor
Yanukovych, did not discuss Crimean secession, and were supportive of an
agreement between President Yanukovych and Euromaidan activists to end the
unrest that was struck on the same day in Kiev.[93][94]

On 22–23 February, Russian President Vladimir Putin convened an all-night


meeting with security services chiefs to discuss extrication of the deposed
Ukrainian president, Viktor Yanukovych, and at the end of that meeting Putin
had remarked that "we must start working on returning Crimea to Russia."[4] On
23 February pro-Russian demonstrations were held in the Crimean city of
Sevastopol.

Crimean prime minister Anatolii Mohyliov said that his government recognised Medal of the Russian Defense
the new provisional government in Kiev, and that the Crimean autonomous Ministry "For the return of Crimea"
(Russian: За возвращение Крыма),
government would carry out all laws passed by the Ukrainian parliament.[95] In
20 February – 18 March 2014
Simferopol, a pro-Euromaidan rally of between 5,000–15,000 was held in
support of the new government, and demanding the resignation of the Crimean
parliament; attendees waved Ukrainian, Tatar, and European Union flags.[96] Meanwhile, in Sevastopol, thousands protested
against the new Ukrainian government, voted to establish a parallel administration, and created civil defence squads with the
support of the Russian Night Wolves motorcycle club. Protesters waved Russian flags, chanted "Putin is our president!", and said
they would refuse to further pay taxes to the Ukrainian state.[97][98] Russian military convoys were also alleged to be seen in the
area.[98] In Kerch, pro-Russian protesters attempted to remove the Ukrainian flag from atop city hall and replace it with the flag
of Russia. Over 200 attended, waving Russian, orange-and-black St. George, and the Russian Unity party flags. Mayor Oleh
Osadchy attempted to disperse the crowd and police eventually arrived to defend the flag. The mayor said "This is the territory of
Ukraine, Crimea. Here's a flag of Crimea", but was accused of treason and a fight ensued over the flagpole.[99] On 24 February,
more rallied outside the Sevastopol city state administration.[100] Pro-Russian demonstrators accompanied by neo-Cossacks
demanded the election of a Russian citizen as mayor and hoisted Russian flags around the city administration; they also handed
out leaflets to sign up for a self-defence militia, warning that the "Blue-Brown Europlague is knocking."[101] Volodymyr Yatsuba,
head of Sevastopol administration, announced resignation, citing "decision of the city's inhabitants" made at pro-Russian rally,
and while caretaker city administration initially leaned towards recognition of new Ukrainian government,[102] continued
pressure from pro-Russian activists forced local authorities to concede.[103] Consequently, Sevastopol City Council illegally
elected Alexei Chaly, a Russian citizen, as mayor. Under the law of Ukraine, it was not possible for Sevastopol to elect a mayor,
as the Chairman of the Sevastopol City State Administration, appointed by the President of Ukraine, functions as its mayor.[104]
A thousand protesters present chanted "A Russian mayor for a Russian city."[105]
On 25 February, several hundred pro-Russian protesters blocked the Crimean parliament demanding non-recognition of the
central government of Ukraine and a referendum on Crimea's status.[106][107][108] On the same day, crowds gathered again
outside Sevastopol's city hall on Tuesday as rumours spread that security forces could arrest Chaly, but police chief Alexander
Goncharov said that his officers would refuse to carry out "criminal orders" issued by Kiev. Viktor Neganov, a Sevastopol-based
adviser to the Internal Affairs Minister, condemned the events in the city as a coup. "Chaly represents the interests of the Kremlin
which likely gave its tacit approval," he said. Sevastopol City State Administration chairman Vladimir Yatsuba was booed and
heckled on 23 February, when he told a pro-Russian rally that Crimea was part of Ukraine. He resigned the next day.[105] In
Simferopol, the Regional State Administration building was blockaded with hundreds of protesters, including neo-Cossacks,
demanding a referendum of separation; the rally was organized by the Crimean Front.[109]

On 26 February, thousands clashed during opposing rallies in Simferopol.[110] Near the Supreme Council of Crimea building
4,000 and 5,000 Crimean Tatars and supporters of the Euromaidan-Crimea movement faced 600–700 supporters of pro-Russian
organizations and the Russian Unity Party.[111] Supreme Council Chairman Vladimir Konstantinov said that the Crimean
parliament would not consider separation from Ukraine, and that earlier reports that parliament would hold a debate on the matter
were provocations.[112] Tatars created self-defence groups, encouraged collaboration with Russians, Ukrainians, and people of
other nationalities, and called for the protection of churches, mosques, synagogues, and other important sites.[113] By nightfall the
Crimean Tatars had left; several hundred Russian Unity supporters rallied on.[114] The new Ukrainian government's acting
Internal Affairs Minister Arsen Avakov tasked Crimean law enforcement agencies not to provoke conflicts and to do whatever
necessary to prevent clashes with pro-Russian forces; and he added "I think, that way – through a dialogue – we shall achieve
much more than with standoffs".[115] New Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) chief Valentyn Nalyvaichenko requested that the
United Nations provide around-the-clock monitoring of the security situation in Crimea.[116] Russian troops took control of the
main route to Sevastopol on orders from Russian president Vladimir Putin. A military checkpoint, with a Russian flag and
Russian military vehicles, was set up on the main highway between the city and Simferopol.[117]

On 27 February, Russian special forces [118] seized the building of the Supreme Council of Crimea and the building of the
Council of Ministers in Simferopol.[119][120] Russian flags were raised over these buildings,[121] and barricades were erected
outside them.[122] Whilst the "little green men" were occupying the Crimean parliament building, the parliament held an
emergency session.[123][124] It voted to terminate the Crimean government, and replace Prime Minister Anatolii Mohyliov with
Sergey Aksyonov.[125] Aksyonov belonged to the Russian Unity party, which received 4% of the vote in the last election.[124]
According to the Constitution of Ukraine, the Prime Minister of Crimea is appointed by the Supreme Council of Crimea in
consultation with the President of Ukraine.[126][127] Both Aksyonov and speaker Vladimir Konstantinov stated that they viewed
Viktor Yanukovych as the de jure president of Ukraine, through whom they were able to ask Russia for assistance.[128]

The parliament also voted to hold a referendum on greater autonomy set for 25 May. The troops had cut all of the building's
communications, and took MPs' phones as they entered.[123][124] No independent journalists were allowed inside the building
while the votes were taking place.[124] Some MPs said they were being threatened and that votes were cast for them and other
MPs, even though they were not in the chamber.[124] Interfax-Ukraine reported "it is impossible to find out whether all the 64
members of the 100-member legislature who were registered as present at when the two decisions were voted on or whether
someone else used the plastic voting cards of some of them" because due to the armed occupation of parliament it was unclear
how many MPs were present.[129] The head of parliament's information and analysis department, Olha Sulnikova, had phoned
from inside the parliamentary building to journalists and had told them 61 of the registered 64 deputies had voted for the
referendum resolution and 55 for the resolution to dismiss the government.[129] Donetsk People's Republic separatist Igor Girkin
said in January 2015 that Crimean members of parliament were held at gunpoint, and were forced to support the annexation.[130]
These actions were immediately declared illegal by the Ukrainian interim government.[131]

On the same day, more troops in unmarked uniforms, assisted this time by what appeared to be local Berkut riot police (as well as
Russian troops from the 31st Separate Airborne Assault Brigade dressed in Berkut uniforms),[132] established security
checkpoints on the Isthmus of Perekop and the Chonhar Peninsula, which separate Crimea from the Ukrainian
mainland.[122][133][134][135][136] Within hours, Ukraine had effectively been cut off from Crimea.
On 1 March 2014, Aksyonov declared Crimea's new de facto authorities would exercise control of all Ukrainian military and
security installations on the peninsula. He also asked Russian President Vladimir Putin, who had been Yanukovych's primary
international backer and guarantor, for "assistance in ensuring peace and public order" in Crimea.[137] Putin promptly received
authorisation from the Federation Council of Russia for a Russian military intervention in Ukraine "until normalization of a
socio-political environment in the country".[138][139] Putin's swift manoeuvre prompted protests of intelligentsia and
demonstrations in Moscow against a Russian military campaign in Crimea. By 2 March, Russian troops moving from the
country's naval base in Sevastopol and reinforced by troops, armour, and helicopters from mainland Russia exercised complete
control over the Crimean Peninsula.[140][141][142] Russian troops operated in Crimea without insignia. On 4 March, Ukrainian
General Staff claimed there were units of the 18th Motor Rifle Brigade, 31st Air Assault Brigade and 22nd Spetsnaz Brigade
deployed and operating in Crimea, instead of Russian Black Sea Fleet personnel, which violated international agreements signed
by Ukraine and Russia.[143][144] Despite numerous media reports and statements by the Ukrainian and foreign governments
describing the unmarked troops as Russian soldiers, government officials concealed the identity of their forces, claiming they
were local "self-defence" units over whom they had no authority.[145] As late as 17 April, Russian foreign minister Lavrov said
that there were no spare armed forces in the territory of Crimea.[146]

Russian officials eventually admitted to their troops' presence. On 17 April 2014, Putin acknowledged the Russian military
backed Crimean separatist militias, stating that Russia's intervention was necessary "to ensure proper conditions for the people of
Crimea to be able to freely express their will".[39] Defence Minister Sergey Shoygu said the country's military actions in Crimea
were undertaken by forces of the Black Sea Fleet and were justified by "threat to lives of Crimean civilians" and danger of
"takeover of Russian military infrastructure by extremists".[147] Ukraine complained that by increasing its troop presence in
Crimea, Russia violated the agreement under which it headquartered its Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol[148] and violated the
country's sovereignty.[149] The United States and United Kingdom also accused Russia of breaking the terms of the Budapest
Memorandum on Security Assurances, by which Russia, the US, and the UK had reaffirmed their obligation to refrain from the
threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine.[150] The Russian government said the
Budapest Memorandum did not apply due to "complicated internal processes" in Crimea.[151][152] In March 2015, retired
Russian Admiral Igor Kasatonov stated that according to his information the Russian troop deployment in Crimea included six
helicopter landings and three landings of IL-76 with 500 people.[153]

Legal issues surrounding Crimean annexation


The Russian–Ukrainian Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea Fleet[a] signed in 1997 and prolonged in
2010, determined the status of the military bases and vessels in Crimea prior to the crisis. Russia was allowed to maintain up to
25,000 troops, 24 artillery systems (with a calibre smaller than 100 mm), 132 armoured vehicles, and 22 military planes, on
military base in Sevastopol and related infrastructure on the Crimean Peninsula. The Russian Black Sea fleet had basing rights in
Crimea until 2042. Usage of navigation stations and troop movements were improperly covered by the treaty and were violated
many times as well as related court decisions. February's troop movements were in "complete disregard" of the treaty.[155]

Both Russia and Ukraine are signatories to the Charter of the United Nations. The ratification of said charter has several
ramifications in terms of international law, particularly those that cover the subjects of declarations of independence, sovereignty,
self-determination, acts of aggression, and humanitarian emergencies. Vladimir Putin said that Russian troops in the Crimean
peninsula were aimed "to ensure proper conditions for the people of Crimea to be able to freely express their will",[156] whilst
Ukraine and other nations argue that such intervention is a violation of Ukraine's sovereignty.[149]

Russia, United States, United Kingdom and Ukraine also signed the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances, by which
all these countries reaffirmed their obligation to respect the territorial integrity of Ukraine (including Crimea) and to refrain from
the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine.[157]
According to the Constitution of Russia, the admission of new federal
subjects is governed by federal constitutional law (art. 65.2).[158] Such a
law was adopted in 2001, and it postulates that admission of a foreign state
or its part into Russia shall be based on a mutual accord between the
Russian Federation and the relevant state and shall take place pursuant to
an international treaty between the two countries; moreover, it must be
initiated by the state in question, not by its subdivision or by Russia.[159]

On 28 February 2014, Russian MP Sergey Mironov, along with other


"Little green men" and lorries after the members of the Duma, introduced a bill to alter Russia's procedure for
seizure of Perevalne military base, 9 adding federal subjects. According to the bill, accession could be initiated
March 2014 by a subdivision of a country, provided that there is "absence of efficient
sovereign state government in foreign state"; the request could be made
either by subdivision bodies on their own or on the basis of a referendum
held in the subdivision in accordance with corresponding national legislation.[160]

On 11 March 2014, both the Supreme Council of Crimea and the Sevastopol City Council adopted a declaration of independence,
which stated their intent to declare independence and request full accession to Russia should the pro-Russian option receive the
most votes during the scheduled status referendum. The declaration directly referred to the Kosovo independence precedent, by
which the Albanian-populated Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija declared independence from Russia's ally Serbia as
the Republic of Kosovo in 2008—a unilateral action Russia staunchly opposed. Many analysts saw the Crimean declaration as an
overt effort to pave the way for Crimea's annexation by Russia.[161]

Crimean authorities' stated plans to declare independence from Ukraine made the Mironov bill unnecessary. On 20 March 2014,
two days after the treaty of accession was signed, the bill was withdrawn by its initiators.[162]

At its meeting on 21–22 March, the Venice Commission stated that the Mironov bill violated "in particular, the principles of
territorial integrity, national sovereignty, non-intervention in the internal affairs of another state and pacta sunt servanda" and was
therefore incompatible with international law.[163]

Crimean status referendum


On 27 February 2014, following the takeover of its building by Russian special forces, the Supreme Council of Crimea voted to
hold a referendum on 25 May, with the initial question as to whether Crimea should upgrade its autonomy within Ukraine.[164]
The referendum date was later moved from 25 May to 30 March.[165] A Ukrainian court declared the referendum to be
illegal.[166]

On 4 March, Russian President Vladimir Putin said Russia was not considering annexing Crimea. He said of the peninsula that
"only citizens themselves, in conditions of free expression of will and their security can determine their future".[167] Putin later
acknowledged that he had ordered "work to bring Crimea back into Russia" as early as February.[168] He also acknowledged that
in early March there were "secret opinion polls" held in Crimea, which, according to him, reported overwhelming popular support
for Crimea's incorporation into Russia.[169]

On 6 March, the Supreme Council moved the referendum date to 16 March and changed its scope to ask a new question: whether
Crimea should accede to Russia or restore the 1992 constitution within Ukraine, which the Ukrainian government had previously
invalidated. This referendum, unlike one announced earlier, contained no option to maintain the status quo of governance under
the 1998 constitution.[170] Ukraine's then-acting President, Oleksander Turchinov, stated that "The authorities in Crimea are
totally illegitimate, both the parliament and the government. They are forced to work under the barrel of a gun and all their
decisions are dictated by fear and are illegal."[171]
On 14 March, the Crimean status referendum was deemed unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court of Ukraine,[172] and a day
later, the Verkhovna Rada formally dissolved the Crimean parliament.[44]

The referendum was held despite the opposition from the Ukrainian government. Official results reported about 95% of
participating voters in Crimea were in favour of seceding from Ukraine and joining Russia.[173] The results of referendum were
questioned;[174] another report by Evgeny Bobrov, a member of the Russian President's Human Rights Council, suggested the
official results were inflated and only 15% to 30% of Crimeans eligible to vote actually voted for the Russian option.[43][175]

The means by which the referendum was conducted were widely criticised by foreign governments and in the Ukrainian and
international press, with reports that anyone holding a Russian passport regardless of residency in Crimea was allowed to
vote.[176] After the OSCE refused to send observers Russia invited a group of observers from various European far-right political
parties aligned with Putin, who stated the referendum was conducted in a free and fair manner.[177][178]

Breakaway republic
On 17 March, following the official announcement of the referendum results, the Supreme Council of Crimea declared the formal
independence of the Republic of Crimea, comprising the territories of both the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of
Sevastopol, which was granted special status within the breakaway republic.[179] The Crimean parliament declared the "partial
repeal" of Ukrainian laws and began nationalising private and Ukrainian state property located on the Crimean Peninsula,
including Ukrainian ports[180] and property of Chornomornaftogaz.[181] Parliament also formally requested that the Russian
government admit the breakaway republic into Russia.[182] On same day, the de facto Supreme Council renamed itself the State
Council of Crimea,[183] declared the Russian ruble an official currency alongside the hryvnia,[184] and announced that Crimea
would switch to Moscow Time (UTC+4) on 30 March.[185]

Putin officially recognised the Republic of Crimea 'as a sovereign and independent state' by decree[186] and approved the
admission of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol as separate federal subjects of Russia.[187]

Accession treaty and finalisation of the annexation


The Treaty on Accession of the Republic of Crimea to Russia was signed between representatives of the Republic of Crimea
(including Sevastopol, with which the rest of Crimea briefly unified) and the Russian Federation on 18 March 2014 to lay out
terms for the immediate admission of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol as federal subjects of Russia and part of the Russian
Federation.[188][189] It was ratified by the Federal Assembly by 21 March.[190]

During a controversial incident in Simferopol on 18 March, some Ukrainian sources said that armed gunmen that were reported
to be Russian special forces allegedly stormed the base. This was contested by Russian authorities, who subsequently announced
the arrest of an alleged Ukrainian sniper in connection with the killings,[191][192] but later denied the arrest had occurred.[193]

The two casualties had a joint funeral attended by both the Crimean and Ukrainian authorities, and both the Ukrainian soldier and
Russian paramilitary "self-defence volunteer" were mourned together.[194] The incident is now under investigation by both the
Crimean authorities and the Ukrainian military.[195][196]

In response to shooting, Ukraine's then acting defense minister Tenyukh authorised Ukrainian troops stationed in Crimea to use
deadly force in life-threatening situations. This increased the risk of bloodshed during any takeover of Ukrainian military
installations, yet the ensuing Russian operations to seize the remaining Ukrainian military bases and ships in Crimea did not bring
new fatalities, although weapons were used and several people were injured. The Russian units involved in such operations were
ordered to avoid usage of deadly force when possible. Morale among the Ukrainian troops, which for three weeks were blockaded
inside their compounds without any assistance from the Ukrainian government, was very low, and the vast majority of them did
not offer any real resistance.[197]
On 19 March, President Putin submitted a treaty on Crimea's annexation by Russia and a constitutional amendment to set up two
new federal subjects of the Russian Federation to the State Duma.[198] The Russian Constitutional Court found that treaty is in
compliance with the Constitution of Russia. The court sat in an emergency session following a formal request by President
Vladimir Putin to assess the constitutionality of the treaty.[199][200]

After the Russian Constitutional Court upheld the constitutionality of the treaty, the State Duma ratified it on 20 March.[201][202]
The Duma also approved the draft federal constitutional law admitting Crimea and Sevastopol and establishing them as federal
subjects.[203][204] A Just Russia's Ilya Ponomarev was the only State Duma member to vote against the measures. A day later, the
treaty itself and the required amendment to article 65 of the Russian Constitution (which lists the federal subjects of Russia) were
ratified by the Federation Council[205] and almost immediately signed into law by Putin.[206] Crimea's admission to the Russian
Federation was considered retroactive to 18 March, when Putin and Crimean leaders signed the draft treaty.[207]

On 24 March, the Ukrainian government ordered the full withdrawal of all of its armed forces from Crimea.[208] In addition, the
Ministry of Defense announced that approximately 50% of the Ukrainian soldiers in Crimea had defected to the Russian
military.[209][210] On 26 March the last Ukrainian military bases and Ukrainian navy ships were captured by Russian troops.[211]

Subsequent events
On 27 March, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a non-binding resolution, which declared the Crimean referendum
and subsequent status change invalid, by a vote of 100 to 11, with 58 abstentions and 24 absent.[212][213]

Crimea and Sevastopol switched to Moscow Time at the end of March.[214][215]

On 2 April, Russia formally denounced the 2010 Kharkiv Pact and Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea
Fleet.[216] Putin cited "the accession of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol into Russia" and resulting "practical end of
renting relationships" as his reason for the denunciation.[217] On the same day, he signed a decree formally rehabilitating the
Crimean Tatars, who were ousted from their lands in 1944, and the Armenian, German, Greek, and Bulgarian minority
communities in the region that Stalin also ordered removed in the 1940s.

On 11 April, the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea and City Charter of Sevastopol were adopted,[218] in addition the new
federal subjects were enumerated in a newly published revision of the Russian Constitution.[219]

On 14 April, Vladimir Putin announced that he would open a ruble-only account with Bank Rossiya and would make it the
primary bank in the newly annexed Crimea as well as giving the right to service payments on Russia's $36 billion wholesale
electricity market – which gave the bank $112 million annually from commission charges alone.[220]

In July 2015, Russian Prime Minister, Dmitry Medvedev, declared that Crimea had been fully integrated into Russia.[221] Until
2016 these new subjects were grouped in the Crimean Federal District.

On 8 August 2016, Ukraine reported that Russia had increased its military presence along the demarcation line.[222] In response
to this military buildup Ukraine also deployed more troops and resources closer to the border with Crimea.[223] The Pentagon has
downplayed a Russian invasion of Ukraine, calling Russian troops along the border a regular military exercise.[224] On 10
August, Russia claimed two servicemen were killed in clashes with Ukrainian commandos, and that Ukrainian servicemen had
been captured with a total of 40 kg of explosives in their possession.[225] Ukraine denied that the incident took place.[226]
Russian accounts claimed that Russian FSB detained "Ukrainian saboteurs" and "terrorists" near Armyansk. The ensuing gunfight
left one FSB officer and a suspect dead. A number of individuals were detained, including Yevhen Panov, who is described by
Russian sources as a Ukrainian military intelligence officer and leader of the sabotage group. The group was allegedly planning
terror attacks on important infrastructure in Armyansk, Crimea. Ukrainian media reported that Panov was a military volunteer
fighting in the east of the country, however he has more recently been associated with a charitable organization. Russia also
claimed that the alleged border infiltration was accompanied by "heavy fire" from Ukrainian territory, resulting in the death of a
Russian soldier.[227][228] Ukrainian government called the Russian accusations
"cynical" and "senseless" and argued that since Crimea was Ukrainian territory, it
was Russia which "has been generously financing and actively supporting terrorism
on Ukrainian territory".[229]

In 2017, a survey performed by the Centre for East European and International
Studies showed that 85% of the non-Crimean Tatar respondents believed that if the
referendum would be held again it would lead to the same or "only marginally
different" results. Crimea was fully integrated into the Russian media sphere, and
links with the rest of Ukraine were hardly existent.[230][231]

On 26 November 2018, lawmakers in the Ukraine Parliament overwhelmingly


backed the imposition of martial law along Ukraine's coastal regions and those
bordering Russia in response to the firing upon and seizure of Ukrainian naval ships
by Russia near the Crimean peninsula a day earlier. A total of 276 lawmakers in
Kiev backed the measure, which took effect on 28 November 2018 and was ended Federal Law on Ratifying the
on December 26th.[232][233] Agreement between the Russian
Federation and the Republic of
On 28 December 2018, Russia completed a high-tech security fence marking the de Crimea on Admitting to the
facto border between Crimea and Ukraine.[234] Russian Federation the Republic
of Crimea and Establishing within
the Russian Federation New
Transition and aftermath Constituent Entities.

Economic implications
The number of tourists visiting Crimea in the 2014 season was lower than in the
previous years due to a combination of Western sanctions, ethical objections by
Ukrainians, and the difficulty of getting there for Russians.[235][236] The Russian
government attempted to stimulate the flow of tourists by subsidizing holidays in
the peninsula for children and state workers from all Russia[237][238] which worked
mostly for state-owned hotels. In 2015, overall 3 million tourists visited Crimea
according to official data, while before annexation it was around 5.5 million on
average. The shortage is attributed mostly to stopped flow of tourists from Ukraine.
Hotels and restaurants are also experiencing problems with finding enough seasonal
workers, who were most arriving from Ukraine in the preceding years. Tourists
visiting state-owned hotels are complaining mostly about low standard of rooms and
facilities, some of them unrepaired from Soviet times.[239] Federal Constitutional Law on
Admitting to the Russian
According to the German newspaper Die Welt, the annexation of Crimea is Federation the Republic of
economically disadvantageous for the Russian Federation. Russia will have to spend Crimea and Establishing within
the Russian Federation the New
billions of euros a year to pay salaries and pensions. Moreover, Russia will have to
Constituent Entities of the
undertake costly projects to connect Crimea to the Russian water supply and power
Republic of Crimea and the City
system because Crimea has no land connection to Russia and at present (2014) gets of Federal Importance
water, gas and electricity from mainland Ukraine. This requires building a bridge Sevastopol.
and a pipeline across the Kerch Strait. Also, Novinite claims that a Ukrainian expert
told Die Welt that Crimea "will not be able to attract tourists".[240]
The first Deputy to Minister of Finance of Russian Federation Tatyana Nesterenko said in her interview to Forbes Woman that the
decision to annex Crimea was made by Russian President Vladimir Putin exclusively, without consulting Russia's Finance
Ministry.[241]

The Russian business newspaper Kommersant expresses an opinion that Russia will not acquire anything economically from
"accessing" Crimea, which is not very developed industrially, having just a few big factories, and whose yearly gross product is
only $4 billion. The newspaper also says that everything from Russia will have to be delivered by sea, higher costs of
transportation will result in higher prices for everything, and to avoid a decline in living standards Russia will have to subsidise
Crimean people for a few months. In total, Kommersant estimates the costs of integrating Crimea into Russia in $30 billion over
the next decade, i.e. $3 billion per year.[242]

On the other hand, western oil experts estimate that Russia's seizing of Crimea, and the associated control of an area of Black Sea
more than three times its land area gives it access to oil and gas reserves potentially worth trillions of dollars. It also deprives
Ukraine of its chances of energy independence. Most immediately however, analysts said, Moscow's acquisition may alter the
route along which the South Stream pipeline would be built, saving Russia money, time and engineering challenges. It would also
allow Russia to avoid building in Turkish territorial waters, which was necessary in the original route to avoid Ukrainian
territory.[243] This pipeline was later canceled in favour of TurkStream, however.

Russian/Chechen businessman Ruslan Baisarov announced he is ready to invest


12 billion rubles into the construction of a modern sea resort in Crimea, which is
expected to create about 1,300 jobs. Ramzan Kadyrov, the Head of Chechnya,
said that other Chechen businessmen are planning to invest into Crimea as
well.[244]

The Russian Federal Service for Communications (Roskomnadzor) warned


about a transition period as Russian operators have to change the numbering
Vladimir Putin and his close
capacity and subscribers. Country code will be replaced from the Ukrainian
confidant Arkady Rotenberg before
+380 to Russian +7. Codes in Crimea start with 65, but in the area of "7" the 6 is the opening of the Crimea Bridge in
given to Kazakhstan which shares former Soviet Union +7 with Russia, so city May 2018
codes have to change. The regulator assigned 869 dialling code to Sevastopol
and the rest of the peninsula received a 365 code.[245] At the time of the
unification with Russia, telephone operators and Internet service providers in Crimea and Sevastopol are connected to the outside
world through the territory of Ukraine.[246] Minister of Communications of Russia, Nikolai Nikiforov announced on his Twitter
account that postal codes in Crimea will now have six-figures: to the existing five-digit number the number two will be added at
the beginning. For example, the Simferopol postal code 95000 will become 295000.[247]

Regarding Crimea's borders, the head of Russian Federal Agency for the Development of the State Border Facilities (Rosgranitsa)
Konstantin Busygin, who was speaking at a meeting led by Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin in Simferopol, the
capital of Crimea said the Russian state border in the north of Crimea which, according to his claims, now forms part of the
Russian-Ukrainian border, will be fully equipped with the necessary facilities.[248] In the area that now forms the border between
Crimea and Ukraine mining the salt lake inlets from the sea that constitute the natural borders, and in the spit of land left over
stretches of no-man's-land with wire on either side was created.[249] On early June that year Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev
signed a Government resolution No.961[250] dated 5 June 2014 establishing air, sea, road and railway checkpoints. The adopted
decisions create a legal basis for the functioning of a checkpoint system at the Russian state border in the Republic of Crimea and
Sevastopol.[251]

In the year following the annexation, armed men seized various Crimean businesses, including banks, hotels, shipyards, farms,
gas stations, a bakery, a dairy, and Yalta Film Studio.[252][253][254] Russian media have noted this trend as "returning to the 90's",
which is perceived as a period of anarchy and rule of gangs in Russia.[255]
In 2015, the Investigative Committee of Russia announced a number of theft and corruption cases in infrastructure projects in
Crimea, for example; spending that exceeded the actual accounted costs three times. A number of Russian officials were also
arrested for corruption, including head of federal tax inspection.[256][257]

(According to February 2016 official Ukrainian figures) after Russia's annexation 10% of Security Service of Ukraine personnel
left Crimea; accompanied by 6,000 of the pre-annexation 20,300 people strong Ukrainian army.[258]

As result of the Crimea unsettled status Russian mobile operators never expanded their operations on its territory and all mobile
services are offered on the basis of "internal roaming", which caused significant controversy inside Russia. Telecoms however
argued that expanding coverage to Crimea will put them at risk of Western sanctions and, as result, they will lose access to key
equipment and software, none of which is produced locally.[259][260]

Human rights situation


In March 2014, Human Rights Watch reported that pro-Ukrainian activists and journalists had been attacked, abducted, and
tortured.[261] Some Crimeans were simply "disappeared" with no explanation.[262]

On 9 May 2014, the new "anti-extremist" amendment to the Criminal Code of Russia, passed in December 2013, came into force.
Article 280.1 designated incitement of violation of territorial integrity of the Russian Federation[263] (incl. calls for secession of
Crimea from Russia[264]) as a criminal offense in Russia, punishable by a fine of 300 thousand roubles or imprisonment up to 3
years. If such statements are made in public media or the internet, the punishment could be obligatory works up to 480 hours or
imprisonment up to five years.[263]

Following the annexation of Crimea, according to report released on the Russian government run President of Russia's Council
on Civil Society and Human Rights website, Tatars who were opposed to Russian rule have been persecuted, Russian law
restricting freedom of speech has been imposed, and the new pro-Russian authorities "liquidated" the Kiev Patriarchate Orthodox
church on the peninsula.[43] The Crimean Tatar television station was also shut down by the Russian authorities.[262]

After the annexation, on 16 May the new Russian authorities of Crimea issued a
ban on the annual commemorations of the anniversary of the Deportation of the
Crimean Tatars by Stalin in 1944, citing "possibility of provocation by
extremists" as a reason.[265] Previously, when Crimea was controlled by
Ukraine, these commemorations had taken place every year. The pro-Russian
Crimean authorities also banned Mustafa Dzhemilev, a human rights activist,
Soviet dissident, member of the Ukrainian parliament, and former Chairman of
the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatars from entering Crimea.[266] Additionally, Mejlis Russian President Putin meeting with
reported, that officers of Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB) raided Tatar representatives of the Crimean
homes in the same week, on the pretense of "suspicion of terrorist activity".[267] Tatars, 16 May 2014
The Tatar community eventually did hold commemorative rallies in defiance of
the ban.[266][267] In response Russian authorities flew helicopters over the rallies
in an attempt to disrupt them.[268]

In May 2015, a local activist, Alexander Kostenko, was sentenced to four years in a penal colony. His lawyer, Dmitry Sotnikov,
said that the case was fabricated and that his client had been beaten and starved. Crimean prosecutor Natalia Poklonskaya
announced that they were judging "not just [Kostenko], but the very idea of fascism and nazism, which are trying to raise their
head once again." Sotnikov responded that "There are fabricated cases in Russia, but rarely such humiliation and physical harm.
A living person is being tortured for a political idea, to be able to boast winning over fascism."[269] In June 2015, Razom released
a report compiling human rights abuses in Crimea.[270][271] In its 2016 annual report, the Council of Europe made no mention of
human rights abuses in Crimea because Russia had not allowed its monitors to enter.[272]
In December 2016, the United Nations General Assembly voted on a resolution on human rights in occupied Crimea. It called on
the Russian Federation "to take all measures necessary to bring an immediate end to all abuses against residents of Crimea, in
particular reported discriminatory measures and practices, arbitrary detentions, torture and other cruel, inhumane or degrading
treatment, and to revoke all discriminatory legislation." It also urged Russia to "immediately release Ukrainian citizens who were
unlawfully detained and judged without regard for elementary standards of justice." [273]

According to the United Nations and multiple NGOs, the Russian Federation is responsible for multiple human rights abuses,
including torture, arbitrary detention, forced disappearances and instances of discrimination, including persecution of Crimean
Tatars in Crimea since the illegal annexation.[274][275]

On June 12, 2018, Ukraine lodged a memorandum weighing about 90 kg, consisting of 17,500 pages of text in 29 volumes to the
UN's International Court of Justice about racial discrimination by Russian authorities in occupied Crimea and state financing of
terrorism by Russian Federation in Donbass.[276][277]

Between 2015 and 2019 over 134,000 people living in Crimea applied for and were issued Ukrainian passports.[278]

Crimean public opinion


A joint survey by American government agency Broadcasting Board of
Governors and polling firm Gallup was taken during April 2014.[279] It polled
500 residents of Crimea. The survey found that 82.8% of those polled believed
that the results of the Crimean status referendum reflected the views of most
Crimeans, whereas 6.7% said that it did not. 73.9% of those polled said that they
thought that the annexation would have a positive impact on their lives, whereas
5.5% said that it would not. 13.6% said that they did not know.[279]
Concert to mark the fifth anniversary
of annexation in Simferopol, Crimea,
A comprehensive poll released on 8 May 2014 by the Pew Research Centre
March 2019
surveyed Crimean opinions on the annexation.[280] Despite international
criticism of 16 March referendum on Crimean status, 91% of those Crimeans
polled thought that the vote was free and fair, and 88% said that the Ukrainian government should recognise the results.[280]

In a survey completed in 2019 by a Russian company FOM 72% of surveyed Crimeans said their lives have improved since
annexation. At the same time only 39% Russians living in the mainland said the annexation was beneficial for the country as a
whole which marks a significant drop from 67% in 2015.[281]

Ukrainian response
Immediately after the treaty of accession was signed in March, the Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs summoned the
Provisional Principal of Russia in Ukraine to present note verbale of protest against Russia's recognition of the Republic of
Crimea and its subsequent annexation.[282] Two days later, the Verkhovna Rada condemned the treaty[283] and called Russia's
actions "a gross violation of international law". The Rada called on the international community to avoid recognition of the "so-
called Republic of Crimea" or the annexation of Crimea and Sevastopol by Russia as new federal subjects.

On 15 April 2014, the Verkhovna Rada declared the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol to be under "provisional
occupation" by the Russian military[284] and imposed travel restrictions on Ukrainians visiting Crimea.[285] The territories were
also deemed "inalienable parts of Ukraine" subject to Ukrainian law. Among other things, the special law approved by the Rada
restricted foreign citizens' movements to and from the Crimean Peninsula and forbade certain types of entrepreneurship.[286] The
law also forbade activity of government bodies formed in violation of Ukrainian law and designated their acts as null and
void.[287] The law had little to no actual effect in Crimea itself due to the mutual non-recognition between Kiev and Simferopol.
Ukrainian authorities greatly reduced the volume of water flowing into Crimea via the North Crimean Canal due to huge debt for
water supplied in previous year, threatening the viability of the peninsula's agricultural crops, which are heavily dependent on
irrigation.[288]

The Ukrainian National Council for TV and Radio Broadcasting has instructed all cable operators on 11 March to stop
transmitting a number of Russian channels, including the international versions of the main state-controlled stations, Rossiya-1,
Channel One and NTV, as well as news channel Rossiya-cable operators on.[289] They said that this is because of Russian media
showing them in a negative light.

In March 2014, activists began organising flash mobs in supermarkets to urge customers not to buy Russian goods and to boycott
Russian gas stations, banks, and concerts. In April 2014, some cinemas in Kiev, Lviv, and Odessa began shunning Russian
films.[290]

On 2 December 2014, the Ministry of Information Policy was created with one of its goals being, according to first Minister of
Information, Yuriy Stets, to counteract "Russian information aggression".[291]

In December 2014, Ukraine halted all train and bus services to Crimea.[292]

On 16 September 2015 the Ukrainian parliament voted for the law that sets 20 February 2014 as the official date of the Russian
temporary occupation of Crimean peninsula.[293][294] On 7 October 2015 the President of Ukraine signed the law into force.[295]

The Ministry of Temporarily Occupied Territories and IDPs was established by Ukrainian government on 20 April 2016 to
manage occupied parts of Donetsk, Luhansk and Crimea regions affected by Russian military intervention of 2014.[296]

Russian response
In a poll published on 24 February 2014 by the state-owned Russian Public
Opinion Research Center, only 15% of those Russians polled said 'yes' to the
question: "Should Russia react to the overthrow of the legally elected authorities
in Ukraine?"[297]

The State Duma Committee on Commonwealth of Independent States Affairs,


headed by Leonid Slutsky, visited Simferopol on 25 February 2014 and said: "If
the parliament of the Crimean autonomy or its residents express the wish to join
the Russian Federation, Russia will be prepared to consider this sort of
application. We will be examining the situation and doing so fast."[298] They
also stated that in the event of a referendum for the Crimea region joining the
Russian Federation, they would consider its results "very fast".[299] Later
Slutsky announced that he was misunderstood by the Crimean press, and no
decision regarding simplifying the process of acquiring Russian citizenship for
people in Crimea had been made yet.[300] He also added that if "fellow Russian
citizens are in jeopardy, you understand that we do not stay away".[301] On 25
Request ("ultimatum") by Council of
February, in a meeting with Crimean politicians, he stated that Viktor Ministers of Crimea to Ukrainian 55th
Yanukovych was still the legitimate president of Ukraine.[302] That same day, Anti-Aircraft Artillery regiment in
the Russian Duma announced it was determining measures so that Russians in Yevpatoria to lay down arms under
Ukraine who "did not want to break from the Russian World" could acquire control of Russian Black Sea Fleet
Russian citizenship.[303] for the period of Crimean referendum
On 26 February, Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered the Russian Armed Forces to be "put on alert in the Western Military
District as well as units stationed with the 2nd Army Central Military District Command involved in aerospace defence, airborne
troops and long-range military transport." Despite media speculation that this was in reaction to the events in Ukraine, Russian
Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu said it was for reasons separate from the unrest in Ukraine.[304] On 27 February 2014, the
Russian government dismissed accusations that it was in violation of the basic agreements regarding the Black Sea Fleet: "All
movements of armored vehicles are undertaken in full compliance with the basic agreements and did not require any
approvals".[305][306][307]

On 27 February, the Russian governing agencies presented the new law project on granting citizenship.[308]

The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs called on the West and particularly NATO to "abandon the provocative statements and
respect the neutral status of Ukraine".[309] In its statement, the ministry claims that the agreement on settlement of the crisis,
which was signed on 21 February and was witnessed by foreign ministries from Germany, Poland and France had to this date, not
been implemented[309] (Vladimir Lukin from Russia had not signed it[310]).

On 28 February, according to ITAR-TASS, the Russian Ministry of Transport discontinued further talks with Ukraine in regards
to the Kerch Strait Bridge project.[311] However, on 3 March Dmitry Medvedev, the Prime Minister of Russia, signed a decree
creating a subsidiary of Russian Highways (Avtodor) to build a bridge at an unspecified location along the Kerch strait.[312][313]

On Russian social networks, there was a movement to gather volunteers who served in the
Russian army to go to Ukraine.[314]

On 28 February, President Putin stated in telephone calls with key EU leaders that it was
of "extreme importance of not allowing a further escalation of violence and the necessity
of a rapid normalisation of the situation in Ukraine".[315] Already on 19 February the
Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs had referred to the Euromaidan revolution as the
"Brown revolution".[316][317]

The Federation Council approved that Russia may introduce a limited contingent of
Russian troops in Crimea for the security of the Black Sea Fleet and the Russians.[318]

In Moscow, on 2 March, an estimated 27,000 rallied in support of the Russian


government's decision to intervene in Ukraine.[319] The rallies received considerable
At least 30,000 people at 15 attention on Russian state TV and were officially approved by the government.[319]
March protests, named
March of Peace, which took Meanwhile, on 1 March, five people who were picketing next to the Federation Council
place in Moscow a day building against the invasion of Ukraine were arrested.[320] The next day about 200
before the Crimean
people protested at the building of the Russian Ministry of Defence in Moscow against
referendum.
Russian military involvement.[321] About 500 people also gathered to protest on the
Manezhnaya Square in Moscow, and the same number of people on the Saint Isaac's
Square in Saint Petersburg.[322] On 2 March, about eleven protesters demonstrated in Yekaterinburg against Russian involvement,
with some wrapped in the Ukrainian flag.[323] Protests were also held in Chelyabinsk on the same day.[324] Opposition to the
military intervention was also expressed by rock musician Andrey Makarevich, who wrote in particular: "You want war with
Ukraine? It will not be the way it was with Abkhazia: the folks on the Maidan have been hardened and know what they are
fighting for – for their country, their independence. ... We have to live with them. Still neighborly. And preferably in friendship.
But it's up to them how they want to live".[325] The Professor of the Department of Philosophy at the Moscow State Institute of
International Relations Andrey Zubov was fired for his article in Vedomosti, criticising Russian military intervention.[326]

On 2 March, one Moscow resident protested against Russian intervention by holding a "Stop the war" banner, but he was
immediately harassed by passers-by, and when the police were arresting him, a woman offered them a serious, fabricated charge
against him, of beating up a child; however, her charge was rejected by the police.[327] Andrei Zubov, a professor at the Moscow
State Institute of International Relations, who compared Russian actions in Crimea to the Anschluss of Austria, was threatened.
Akexander Chuyev, the leader of the pro-Kremlin Spravedlivaya Rossiya party, also objected to Russian intervention in Ukraine.
Boris Akunin, popular Russian writer, predicted that Russia's moves would lead to political and economic isolation.[327]

President Putin's approval rating among the Russian public


increased by nearly 10% since the crisis began, up to 71.6%, the
highest in three years, according to a poll conducted by the All-
Russian Center for Public Opinion Research, released on 19
March.[329] Additionally, the same poll showed that more than
90% of Russians supported unification with the Crimean
Republic.[329]

On 4 March, at a press conference in Novo-Ogaryovo, President


Putin expressed his view on the situation that if a revolution took Russian President Vladimir Putin (seated,
place in Ukraine, it would be a new country with which Russia had middle) speaks to the press on 4 March 2014,
not concluded any treaties.[330] He offered an analogy with the denouncing the events in Kiev as an
events of 1917 in Russia, when as a result of the revolution the "unconstitutional coup", and insisting that
Moscow has a right to protect Russians in
Russian Empire fell apart and a new state was created.[330]
Ukraine.[328]
However, he stated Ukraine would still have to honour its debts.

Russian politicians speculated that there were already 143,000


Ukrainian refugees in Russia.[331] The Ukrainian Ministry of
Foreign Affairs refuted those claims of refugee increases in
Russia.[332] At a briefing on 4 March 2014, the director of the
department of information policy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
of Ukraine Yevhen Perebiynis said that Russia was misinforming
its own citizens as well as the entire international community to
justify its own actions in the Crimea.[333]

On 5 March, an anchor of the Russian-owned international news


channel RT America, Abby Martin, in an interview with Piers
Around 100,000 people gathered in Crimean
Morgan, said she "did not agree" with how her employer RT was
Sevastopol at Victory Day parade
covering the Ukrainian crisis, but claimed RT still supported her
despite her differences of opinion.[334] Also on 5 March 2014,
another RT America anchor, Liz Wahl, of the network's Washington, DC bureau, resigned on air, explaining that she could not be
"part of a network that whitewashes the actions of Putin" and citing her Hungarian ancestry and the memory of the Soviet
repression of the Hungarian Uprising as a factor in her decision.[335]

In early March, Igor Andreyev, a 75-year-old survivor of the Siege of Leningrad, attended an anti-war rally against the Russian
intervention in Crimea and was holding a sign that read "Peace to the World". The riot police arrested him, and a local pro-
government lawyer then accused him of being a supporter of "fascism". The retiree, who lived on a 6,500-ruble monthly pension,
was fined 10,000 rubles.[336]

Prominent dissident Mikhail Khodorkovsky said that Crimea should stay within Ukraine with broader autonomy.[337]

Tatarstan, a republic within Russia populated by Volga Tatars, has sought to alleviate concerns about treatment of Tatars by
Russia, as Tatarstan is a gas-rich and economically successful republic in Russia.[338] On 5 March, President of Tatarstan Rustam
Minnikhanov signed an agreement on co-operation between Tatarstan and the Aksyonov government in Crimea that implied
collaboration between ten government institutions as well as significant financial aid to Crimea from Tatarstan businesses.[338]
On 11 March, Minnikhanov was in Crimea on his second visit and attended as a guest in the Crimean parliament chamber during
the vote on the declaration of sovereignty pending the 16 March referendum.[338] The Tatarstan's Mufti Kamil Samigullin invited
Crimean Tatars to study in madrasas in Kazan, and declared support for their "brothers in faith and blood".[338] Mustafa
Dzhemilev, a former leader of the Crimean Tatar Majlis, believed that forces that were suspected to be Russian forces should
leave the Crimean peninsula,[338] and asked the UN Security Council to send peacekeepers into the region.[339]

On 13 March, Russian President Vladimir Putin made a comparison between Crimea and Kosovo in a phone call with US
President Barack Obama.[340]

On 15 March, thousands of protesters (estimates varying from 3,000 by official


sources up to 50,000 claimed by opposition) in Moscow marched against
Russian involvement in Ukraine, many waving Ukrainian flags.[341] At the same
time, a pro-government (and pro-referendum) rally occurred across the street,
counting in the thousands as well (officials claiming 27,000 with opposition
claiming about 10,000).

In February 2015, the leading independent Russian newspaper Novaya Gazeta


reported[342] that it obtained documents, allegedly written by oligarch Residential building in Kerch,
Konstantin Malofayev and others, which provided the Russian government with Crimea, 2015
a strategy in the event of Viktor Yanukovych's removal from power and the
break-up of Ukraine, which were considered likely. The documents outline plans
for annexation of Crimea and the eastern portions of the country, closely describing the events that actually followed after
Yanukovych's fall. The documents also describe plans for a public relations campaign which would seek to justify Russian
actions.[343][344][345]

In June 2015 Mikhail Kasyanov stated that all Russian Duma decisions on Crimea annexation were illegal from the international
point of view and the annexation was provoked by false accusations of discrimination of Russian nationals in Ukraine.[346]

International response
There have been a range of international reactions to the annexation. The UN General Assembly passed a non-binding resolution
100 in favour, 11 against and 58 abstentions in the 193-nation assembly that declared invalid Crimea's Moscow-backed
referendum.[347] In a move supported by the Lithuanian President,[348] the United States government imposed sanctions against
persons they deem to have violated or assisted in the violation of Ukraine's sovereignty.[349] The European Union suspended talks
with Russia on economic and visa-related matters, and is considering more stringent sanctions against Russia in the near future,
including asset freezes.[350][351] while Japan announced sanctions which include suspension of talks relating to military, space,
investment, and visa requirements.[352] The United Kingdom qualified the referendum vote in Crimea of being "farcical",
"illegal" and "illegitimate".[353]

The European Commission decided on 11 March to enter into a full free-trade agreement with Ukraine within the year.[354] On
12 March, the European Parliament rejected the upcoming referendum on independence in Crimea, which they saw as
manipulated and contrary to international and Ukrainian law.[355] The G7 bloc of developed nations (the G8 minus Russia) made
a joint statement condemning Russia and announced that they would suspend preparations for the planned G8 summit in Sochi in
June.[356][357] NATO condemned Russia's military escalation in Crimea and stated that it was breach of international law[358]
while the Council of Europe expressed its full support for the territorial integrity and national unity of Ukraine.[359] The Visegrád
Group has issued a joint statement urging Russia to respect Ukraine's territorial integrity and for Ukraine to take into account its
minority groups to not further break fragile relations. It has urged for Russia to respect Ukrainian and international law and in line
with the provisions of the 1994 Budapest Memorandum.[360]

China said "We respect the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine". A spokesman restated China's belief
of non-interference in the internal affairs of other nations and urged dialogue.[361][362]
National Security Advisor Shivshankar Menon of India stated
that Russia has legitimate interests in Crimea and called for
"sustained diplomatic efforts" and "constructive dialogue" to
resolve the crisis.[363] However, the National Security Advisor is
not a part of the Cabinet of India and, as such, Menon's statement
was not an official statement issued by the government of
India.[364] However, India subsequently made it clear that it will
not support any "unilateral measures" against Russian
International reaction to the 2014 Crimean crisis
government. "India has never supported unilateral sanctions according to official governmental statements.[b]
against any country. Therefore, we will also not support any Statements only voicing concern or hope for
unilateral measures by a country or a group of countries against peaceful resolution to the conflict
Russia."[365] Both Syria and Venezuela openly support Russian Support for Ukrainian territorial integrity
military action. Syrian President Bashar al-Assad said that he
Condemnation of Russian actions
supports Putin's efforts to "restore security and stability in the
Condemnation of Russian actions as a military
friendly country of Ukraine", while Venezuelan President Nicolas
intervention or invasion
Maduro condemned Ukraine's "ultra-nationalist" coup.[366][367]
Support for Russian actions and/or
Sri Lanka described Yanukovych's removal as unconstitutional
condemnation of the Ukrainian interim government
and considered Russia's concerns in Crimea as justified.[368]
Recognition of Russian interests
Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk called for change in EU
energy policy as Germany's dependence on Russian gas poses Ukraine
risks for Europe.[369] Russia
No official statements / No data available
On 13 March, German Chancellor Angela Merkel warned the
Russian government it risks massive damage to Russia,
economically and politically, if it refuses to change course on
Ukraine,[369] though close economic links between Germany and
Russia significantly reduce the scope for any sanctions.[370]

After Russia moved to formally incorporate Crimea, some


worried whether it may do the same in other regions.[371] US
deputy national security advisor Tony Blinken said that the
Russian troops massed on the eastern Ukrainian border may be Results of the United Nations General Assembly
preparing to enter the country's eastern regions. Russian officials vote about the territorial integrity of Ukraine.
stated that Russian troops would not enter other areas.[371] US In favour Against Abstentions
Air Force Gen. Philip M. Breedlove, NATO's supreme allied Absent Non-members
commander in Europe, warned that the same troops were in a
position to take over the separatist Russian-speaking Moldovan
province of Transnistria.[371]

On 9 April, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe deprived Russia of voting rights.[372]

On 14 August, while visiting Crimea, Vladimir Putin ruled out pushing beyond Crimea. He undertook to do everything he could
to end the conflict in Ukraine, saying Russia needed to build calmly and with dignity, not by confrontation and war which isolated
it from the rest of the world.[373]

United Nations resolutions


Security Council resolution
On 15 March 2014, a US-sponsored resolution that went to a
vote in the UN Security Council to reaffirm that council's
commitment to Ukraine's "sovereignty, independence, unity and
territorial integrity" was not approved. Though a total of 13
council members voted in favour of the resolution and China
abstained, Russia vetoed the resolution.[374]
UN Security Council vote on a draft resolution
condemning the 2014 Crimean referendum.
General Assembly resolution Voted in favour of the resolution
On 27 March 2014, the UN General Assembly approved a Abstained
resolution describing the referendum leading to annexation of Vetoed the resolution
Crimea by Russia as illegal.[375] The draft resolution, which was
titled "Territorial integrity of Ukraine", was co-sponsored by
Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine and
the US. It affirmed the council's commitment to the "sovereignty,
political independence, unity and territorial integrity of Ukraine
within its internationally recognised borders." The resolution
tried to underscore that the 16 March referendum held in Crimea
and the city of Sevastopol has no validity and cannot form the
basis for any alteration of the status of the Autonomous Republic UN General Assembly vote on the resolution
of Crimea or of the city of Sevastopol. The resolution got 100 condemning the 2014 Crimean referendum.
votes in its favour, while 11 nations voted against and 58 In favour of considering the referendum illegal
countries abstained from the vote. The resolution was non- Against adopting the resolution
binding and the vote was largely symbolic.[376] Abstained
Absent when the vote took place
International recognition
The vast majority of the international community has not
recognised the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol as part of Russia. Most nations in North America, Central America, Europe,
Oceania, and Africa, as well as Asia outside of the former Soviet republics, have openly rejected the referendum and the
accession, and instead consider Crimea and Sevastopol to be administrative divisions of Ukraine. The remainder have largely
remained neutral. The 27 March 2014 vote on United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262 (supporting the position that
Crimea and Sevastopol remain part of Ukraine) was 100 to 11 in favour, with 58 states abstaining and a further 24 of the 193
member states not voting through being absent when the vote took place.

Afghanistan, Cuba, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Nicaragua, Sudan, Syria, and Zimbabwe have
recognised the result of the 2014 referendum in Crimea.[377]

The position of Belarus is vague: it includes statements made by Alexander Lukashenko that, on the one hand, "Ukraine should
remain an integral, indivisible, non-aligned state", and "As for Crimea, I do not like it when the integrity and independence of a
country are broken"; and on the other hand, "Today Crimea is part of the Russian Federation. No matter whether you recognize it
or not, the fact remains", and "Whether Crimea will be recognised as a region of the Russian Federation de-jure does not really
matter."[378]

Three non-UN member states recognised the results of the referendum: Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Artsakh. A fourth,
Transnistria, sent a request on 18 March 2014 to join the Russian Federation following the Crimean example and in compliance
with the Admission Law provisions.[379][380][381] On 16 April 2014, Transnistria urged Russia and the United Nations to
recognise its independence.[382] Putin is aware of Transnistria's recognition request, according to Dmitry Peskov.[383] The
regional councils of Italy's northern regions Lombardy and Veneto have adopted a non-binding resolution on recognizing Crimea
as part of Russia. The document also calls on the central government to work out a plan to lift the sanctions from Moscow, local
news agency Il Giorno reports.[384]

Sanctions
Sanctions were imposed to prevent Russian and Crimean officials and politicians from travelling to Canada, the United States,
and the European Union. They were the most wide-ranging applied to Russia since the fall of the Soviet
Union.[385][386][387][388][389]

Japan announced milder sanctions than the US and EU. These include suspension of talks relating to military, space, investment,
and visa requirements.[390]

In response to the sanctions introduced by the US and EU, the Russian Duma unanimously passed a resolution asking for all
members of the Duma to be included on the sanctions list.[391] Head of the opposition A Just Russia party Sergei Mironov said he
was proud of being included on the sanctions list: "It is with pride that I have found myself on the black list, this means they have
noticed my stance on Crimea."[391] Russian companies started pulling billions of dollars out of Western banks to avoid any asset
freeze.[392]

Three days after the lists were published, the Russian Foreign Ministry published a reciprocal sanctions list of US citizens, which
consisted of 10 names, including House Speaker John Boehner, Senator John McCain, and two advisers to President Obama. The
ministry said in a statement: "Treating our country in such way, as Washington could have already ascertained, is inappropriate
and counterproductive," and reiterated that sanctions against Russia would have a boomerang effect.[393] Several of those
sanctioned responded with pride at their inclusion on the list, including John Boehner,[394] John McCain,[394] Bob
Menendez,[395] Dan Coats,[394] Mary Landrieu, and Harry Reid.[396]

On 24 March, Russia imposed retaliatory sanctions on 13 Canadian officials including members of the Parliament of Canada,[397]
banning them from entering Russia. Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird, said the sanctions were "a badge of honour."[398]
Former Minister of Justice Irwin Cotler also said that he considered the sanctions a badge of honour, not a mark of exclusion.[397]

In March 2014, The Christian Science Monitor reported, "The good news is that so far, Russia has shown no inclination to use the
NDN as leverage in the wake of US retaliation for its troop movements in Crimea."[399]

Expanded Western sanctions in mid-March coursed through financial markets, hitting the business interests of some of Russia's
richest people.[400] The Americans centred on the heart of Moscow's leadership,[401] though the EU's initial list shied from
targeting Putin's inner circle.[402] As ratings agencies Fitch and Standard & Poor's downgraded Russia's credit outlook,[403]
Russian banks warned of a sanctions-induced recession,[404] the country braced for capital outflows for the first three months of
2014 to reach $70 billion,[405] more than the entirety of outflows for 2013,[406] and Russian government-bond issues plummeted
by three-quarters compared with the same period the previous year.[407] Novatek, Russia's second-largest gas producer, saw
$2.5bn in market value wiped out when its shares sank by nearly 10%, rendering Putin's close friend Gennady Timchenko, who
has a 23% stake in the company, $575m poorer.[400] "I do hope that there is some serious diplomatic activity going on behind the
scenes," said one Russian banker,[408] though others were more sanguine on the question of whether the sanctions would have
any enduring effect,[403][409][410] and Russians, top and bottom, seemed defiant.[411] The official Russian response was
mixed.[412]

Minister of Economic Development of the Russian Federation Alexey Ulyukaev said that introduction of sectoral sanctions will
lead to a serious decline of the Russian economy: economic growth of Russia will become seriously negative, the growth of
volumes of investment will be even more negative, inflation will rise, and government revenues and reserves will go down.[413]
As well as differences between the United States and Europe as a whole as to how to respond to the Russian-backed incursion,
those same differences have played out among Eastern European countries.[414]

A number of Russian citizens reported that they have been denied European visas after they visited Crimea after annexation.[415]
A Russian consumer protection watchdog OZPP published a warning for Russian tourists about this risk, explaining that from the
international law point of view, Crimea is an occupied territory, after which Roskomnadzor blocked the OZPP website "for
threatening territorial integrity of Russian Federation".[416]

In response to having its voting rights revoked, Russia in June 2017 suspended its budget payments to the Council of Europe,
with Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov stating payments would not resume until all rights of Russia's delegation were fully
restored.[417] Council Secretary General Thorbjørn Jagland has suggested lifting the sanctions to avoid the impact of mounting
budgetary restraints. However, Council members such as Ukraine and its supporters have argued that readmitting Russia without
demanding concessions in return would amount to "caving to Russian 'blackmail'".[418][419]

Mapping
As of May 2019, the United Nations still maps Crimea as belonging to Ukraine.[420]
National Geographic Society stated that their policy is "to portray current reality" and "Crimea, if it is formally
annexed by Russia, would be shaded gray", but also further remarked that this step does not suggest
recognising legitimacy of such.[421] As of April 2014 Crimea is still displayed as part of Ukraine.[422]
As of April 2014, Google Maps displays Crimea as a disputed territory to most viewers.[422] For the Russian and
Ukrainian versions of website, Crimea is marked as belonging to corresponding country (Russia or Ukraine
respectively).[422][423] Google stated that it "work(s) with sources to get the best interpretation of the border or
claim lines".[424]
As of April 2014, Yandex displays Crimea as Russian, except for users entering from their Ukrainian site and
their Turkish site. Users visiting Yandex.ru from Russia will see Crimea displayed as Russian territory, users
visiting yandex.ua from Ukraine will see Crimea as Ukrainian and all other users (from other countries) will see
Crimea as Russian territory.[422] According to official statement, the company works with users from different
countries and "displays reality that surrounds them".[425]
As of March 2014, Bing Maps,[426] OpenStreetMap and HERE display Crimea as belonging to Ukraine.[422] In
particular, Open Street Map requested its users to refrain from editing borders and administrative relations of
subdivisions located in Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol until 31 May 2014.[422] On 5 June 2014
OpenStreetMap switched to a territorial dispute option, displaying Crimea as a disputed territory belonging to
both countries.[427]
In 2015, on the PepsiCo website a Russian-language map was visible for a few days that depicted Crimea as a
part of Russia.[428]
The 2016 edition of a French atlas published by Larousse shows Crimea as part of Russian territory: Oleh
Shamshur, Ukrainian Ambassador to France, expressed shock.[429] Shortly after, Larousse corrected the mistake
on the Atlas on their internet version,[430] and confirmed that Crimea is a region of Ukraine.[431]
The Italian-language magazine of geopolitics Limes maps Crimea as a part of Russia since December 2015.[432]
After protests by the Ukrainian embassy in Italy, the magazine editor Lucio Caracciolo wrote that "the map
reflects reality. When Crimea and Sevastopol will be back under effective Ukrainian sovereignty, we will produce
a map that reflects such reality".[433]

Economic impact
While initially (right after the annexation), salaries rose, especially those of government workers, this was soon offset by the
increase in prices caused by the depreciation of the ruble. Subsequently, after Russian authority became established, wages were
cut back again by 30% to 70%. Tourism, previously Crimea's main industry, suffered in particular; it was down by 50% from
2014 in 2015.[434][435] Crimean agricultural yields were also significantly impacted by the annexation. Ukraine cut off supplies
of water through the North Crimean Canal, causing the 2014 rice crop to fail, and greatly damaging the maize and soybean
crops.[436]
See also
1924 Estonian coup d'état attempt
Simferopol incident
Occupied territories of Georgia
Reaction of Russian intelligentsia to the 2014 annexation of Crimea
Russian irredentism
Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present)
Crimean crisis (1992–1994)
List of protests in the 21st century

Notes
a. Dilanian (2014) "CIA director John Brennan told a senior lawmaker Monday that a 1997 treaty between Russia
and Ukraine allows up to 25,000 Russia troops in the vital Crimea region, so Russia may not consider its recent
troop movements to be an invasion, U.S. officials said."[154]
b. If an official position can be sorted in more than one category, the "strongest" position was marked (from the "call
for a peaceful resolution" to "interpretation as a military intervention" consecutively). For the sources see the
image description.

1. There remain "some contradictions and inherent problems" regarding date on which the annexation began.[1]
Ukraine claims 20 February 2014 as the date of "the beginning of the temporary occupation of Crimea and
Sevastopol by Russia.", citing timeframe inscribed on the Russian medal "For the Return of Crimea",[2] and in
2015 the Ukrainian parliament officially designated the date as such.[3] In early March 2015, President Putin
stated in a Russian movie about annexation of Crimea that he ordered the operation to "restore" Crimea to
Russia following an all-night emergency meeting of 22–23 February 2014,[1][4] and in 2018 Russian Foreign
Minister claimed that earlier "start date" on the medal was due to "technical misunderstanding".[5]
2. It also noted that "certain politicians, local government officials, leaders of civil society organizations, and
radically inclined individuals have attempted to create grounds for escalating the civil conflict, and have spread
autonomous and separatist attitudes among the people, which could lead to the demise of our as a united nation
and loss of its national sovereignty." In addition, the statement said that certain lawmakers of every level have
begun separatist negotiations with representatives of foreign nations. "Open consultations are being held on the
possible division of the country into separate parts in violation of the Ukrainian constitution," read the statement.
"This could lead to an escalation of conflict between different sectors of society, inciting ethnic or religious hatred
and military conflict."[92]

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Further reading
Pynnöniemi, Katri; Rácz, András, eds. (2016). Fog of Falsehood: Russian Strategy of Deception and the Conflict
in Ukraine (https://web.archive.org/web/20171109024305/http://www.fiia.fi/fi/publication/588/fog_of_falsehood/).
FIIA Report, 45. Helsinki: Finnish Institute of International Affairs. ISBN 978-951-769-485-8. ISSN 2323-5454 (htt
ps://www.worldcat.org/issn/2323-5454). Archived from the original (http://www.fiia.fi/fi/publication/588/fog_of_fals
ehood/) on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2016.

External links
A treaty of accession of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol to the Russian Federation. Unofficial English
translation with commentary (https://www.academia.edu/6481091/A_treaty_on_accession_of_the_Republic_of_C
rimea_and_Sebastopol_to_the_Russian_Federation._Unofficial_English_translation_with_little_commentary)
Russia & Me: Former Post-Soviet Leaders' Views On Crimea's Annexation (http://www.rferl.org/media/video/russi
a-ukraine-crimea-interviews/27575495.html) (video 11:21), REF/RL, 26 February 2016 (in Russian, subtitles in
English)

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