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Brief notes on the improved stoves

1. background to the fuel wood problem in Sudan:

One of the main causes of the rapid deforestation


that’s occurring in many developing countries, has been
the excessive use of wood-fuel.In Sudan, wood-fuel
provides7.5 million tonne equivilant of the total energy of
the country. The household sector consume about 5.7
million tonne equivilant. The Sudan consumption of fuel
wood is estimated to lead to clearance of 12.9 million
feddans of forests per year
As a result of this irrational consumption, forest
resources are greatly affected.
The majority of the households in the urban area
prefer to cook only with charcoal in low efficiency metal
stoves. In rural area dwellers cook mostly with firewood &
agricultural residues in 3- stone stoves. Recently some of
them began to switch from firewood to charcoal according
to many reasons.
Unfortunately, the inefficiencies inherent to the
production & use of charcoal place a heavy strain on local
wood resources.
The rapid disappearance of forest cover has a great
impact, not only on the supply of wood based fuel for the
rural people, but also on the countries’ environment.
2. Type of stoves promoted by AZZA workshop
2.1 charcoal stoves
2.1.1 AZZA stove:
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The Bio-mass Energy Conservation Section of the


FAO Fuel-wood Development for Energy in Sudan [FDES],
promoted the manufacture and dissemination of a simple
bucket stove, based on the Thi-bucket design which also
consisted of a metal casing and a fired clay liner. The new
design is named AZZA. The stove is suitable for rural and
urban areas.
The workshop produces this stove with different sizes
and diameters.
- Efficiency: 25% - 35% [ Lab. Test- Energy Research
institute- ERI]
- Savings: In the field test saving up to 50% was
recorded.
- Lifetime: 2-6 years

Small Azza stove for Tea & coffee

2.1.2 BUTANA charcoal stove:


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It’s a brick –ceramic stove – the stove was designed, tested, introduced
and disseminated by AZZA workshop in collaboration with the Irish Aid project
since 1996. It was designed to satisfy the users need; and to eliminate the
metal casing, which was the main limiting factor for producing AZZA stove.
The stove consists of two or three liners with different sizes.
The stove is suitable for urban and suburban regions and even in the
rural areas in places where people began to shift from firewood to charcoal.
The stove also is unique for restaurateurs and tea makers.
Lab test carried out for this stove by ERI showed 30%-40% efficiency and
saving up to 55% was reported by users in DAR EL SALAM – OMDURMAN
[GOAL energy saving project Jan. 2000]. The ceramic liner retains heat and
thus reduces consumption at the end or simmering phase of cooking.

Workshops have been carried out to train women group and local
builders on the construction of the stove as well as poduction of the liners and
distribution of Azza stove in collaboration with many organizations.
i) FNC and Irish Aid in GEZIRA state
ii) FNC, Plan-Sudan and IFAD in white Nile state
iii) ACORD in DAR EL SALAM displaced camp

iv) UNHCR in the refugee camps in Eastern Sudan

v) GOAL- IRELAND in DAR EL SALAM OMDURMAN for the REFLECT


program beneficiaries. Jan. 1999 and in Kassala IDP’s camps
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Mobkhar stove:
This stove is fabricated by certain women in many areas( in particular,
rural ones) usually for sale. It is made from an un-fired mixture of clay and
donkey dung.. it consists of a dish shaped fuel chamber on top of conical
base have an air inlet in the side . a grate is afforded by the use of wire metal
strands built into the base of the fuel chamber two factors restrict its used
• It is not afford heavy pots
• It is difficult to transport long distances
The workshop is traing the women in the IDP’s camps on the fabrication and
use of this types of stoves
-efficiency 38% - tested by FDES
-savings up to 60% was reported
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4. Institutional stove:
It is a brick stove promoted by FAO biomass energy conservation
officer in 1995. The stove was design especially for cooking meals in large
institutions and catering establishment.it can burn firewood or charcoal but
different designs are needed. It can be used inside kitchen or out of doors.
The stove can accommodate large cylindrical aluminium pots, or pot with
curved bases and they are made locally out of metal.
This stoves was constucted by the workshop in many parts of Sudan in
collaboration with many NGO’s. The targeted institutions are Schools,
Khalwas, prisons, hospitals and restuarants
The results gained are so impressive. Saving up to 83 % was recorded.
Other important advantage is the general convenience of use.

3. domestic firewood stoves


3.1 Mud – ceramic stove
It is a simple pottery cylinder, which is built in the mud surround in the
kitchen [fixed stove]. It is designed to burn wood, although it can also burn
crop waste, and animal dung. The stove was developed in the mid –1980s, as
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part of the Special Energy Project that was run by the Kenyan Ministry of
Energy and the German government agency, GTZ. The stove is named
[UPPESI – quick]
At the request of AZZA workshop – RUFA`A and the cooperation of
the Irish Aid Project, and practical action; the household Energy Regional
Project in East Africa has sold us an UPPESI mold. The workshop started to
produce the stove in 1998. since then, many organisation participated in the
promotion of this stove in many parts of Sudan the stove was promoted firstly
distributed successfully for the benefit of HAWATA environmental model
project. In 1999, [refugee camp] we have modified the stove to increase its
durability against heavy tasks, and to make it more efficient. The new design
is named BADIA [rural area]
The stove consistently used over 40 percent less fuel and reduces
smoke by up to 60 percent in compare with 3- stone stove.
Fitting the liner in a metal cladding could make the portable design but it is
quite expensive.
To install the stove in the kitchen, the women need to be trained
practically in the proper method of installation.
- Lifetime: more than 3 years if the stove

3.3 Improved INJERA [KISRA] stove [figure VII]


3.3.1 History and field experience
The stove was developed by AZZA work shop Project. The new design
is based on the institutional stove idea, as a response to the need for smoke
removal and fuel saving, and at the request of UNHCR- environmental
coordinator, to replace the traditional INJERA stove used in the feeding
center, and hospitals, in SHAGARAB and Kilo 26 camps.
3.3.2 Description:
It is a wood-burning stove; constructed out of bricks & mortar. It’s not
more than 0.45 meters High. It has a chimney to produce draught for
combustion & to remove the smoke from the kitchen, assisted with a baffle for
blocking the flue gas and adjusting the draught. There are two inlets, the
upper one through which the fuel is fed & the bottom one to draw the pre-
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heated air into the chamber. The fuel inlet has a door to block the cool air
intake. A circular grate is used to improve the efficiency of the stove as it
allows for the recovery of the energy contained in both the flame and the
glowing embers. The stove is long lasting and easy to maintain because it is
constructed from bricks, metal sheet and iron bar
In this stove, the consumption is reduced to 0.14kg of firewood to bake
1kg of INJERA dough [65% saving]. On the other hand the overall kW
generated under the pan is only 18kw and it is enough to bake good INJERA.
3.3.3 definitions:
• INJERA: Ethiopian name for KISRA but thicker than it, baked on a fired
clay plate or a heavy gauge metal one
• KISRA: sorghum pancakes eaten by most of the Sudanese and baked
on a fired clay plate or a light gauge metal one. The stove used is the in-
efficient 3-stone
3.3.4 Benefits of the stove
• Saving firewood
• Protecting from excess heat
• Reduced baking time
• Improved general cleanliness of the kitchen
• Lowering the total overall emission of pollutants
3.3.5 Experience to date:
• The stove was firstly constructed in hospitals and feeding centers in the
refugee hosting areas in eastern Sudan 1997- funded by UNHCR.
• For households use the stove was constructed in HAWATA- July 1998,
MAFAZA and SHAGARAB II –March 1999,refugee camps [one stove /
household], - funded by UNHCR
• Plan Sudan in collaboration with FNC in White Nile State has
constructed the stove as a group cooking [10families/ one stove] in the
resident houses.
• The exited experience was implemented by GOAL in LAFA refugee
camp-July to October. In that program 120 stoves were constructed in a
separate shelters, each stove is used by at least 10 families, cooking in
sequence through out the morning. A fuel saving of about 65% has been
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achieved. 1200 small AZZA stoves were distributed for the preparation of
tea &coffee
• 40 stoves of the same type were constructed, in AMARA and
ADERMAN displaced camps-KASSALA State- GOAL stoves’ program
2001. beside the distribution of 400 AZZA stoves
• For the people of RAJA, GOAL constructed-100 stoves in UM
HAIRONA and EL FIRDOUS-South DARFOUR, as well as 1000 mud-
ceramic stoves,–as we mentioned previously. 1000 AZZA stoves were
also distributed
• Twenty stoves were constructed in FATU camp- KASSALA State
besides the distribution of 200 AZZA stoves- GOAL stoves’ program
October 2002.
#The stoves’ elements are prepared at AZZA workshop.

4. Institutional stove: [figure VIII, IX]


4.1 introduction
It is a brick stove promoted by FAO biomass energy conservation
officer in 1995. The stove was design especially for cooking meals in large
institutions and catering establishment, it can burn firewood or charcoal but
different designs are needed. It can be used inside kitchen or out of doors.
The stove can accommodate large cylindrical aluminium pots, or pot with
curved bases and they are made locally out of metal.
4.2 Experience to date:
1. Stoves of this type are firstly constructed by the Irish Aid expert in
GEZIRA and White Nile States [Plan- Sudan]. The targeted institutions
are schools, Khalwas, prisons, boarding houses hospitals and
restaurants. The results gained are so impressive. Saving up to 83 %
was recorded. Other important advantage is the general convenience of
use.
1. The UNHCR promoted these types of stoves in the refugees camps
[WADSHARIFAI, SHAGARAB, GIRBA, KARKURA, KILO 26 and UMGARGURE]-
feeding centers hospitals, and selected restaurants in collaboration with
the Irish Aid project in1998 –2000.
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2. In December 2001 GOAL in collaboration with WFP has constructed 8


stoves in different schools in south Darfour.

Fig. V
Liner for BADIA stove
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Fig. VII

KISRA stove

Fig. VIIII
Fig. VIII
Institutional charcoal stove
Institutional firewood stove