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Title: Bending in beam

Abstract

This experiment was conducted to obtain the value of modulus elasticity of three different beams
which are mild steel, aluminum and brass by method of deflection. Various loads were applied
on both ends of the beams. These loads were applied on three different distances from the centre
of the beam. Graph of load versus distance were plotted based on the recorded results. The value
of modulus of elasticity for each beam was obtained by obtaining the slope of the graph and by
using the given formulas. These values were compared with each other. It can be concluded that
as load increases, deflection will also increases.

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List of figure

No Table Page

1 Figure 1: The figure simulate how the experiment was set up

2 Figure 2: The apparatus that are used during the experiment

3 Figure 3: The apparatus that has been set up

4 Figure 5: The student measuring the selected beam

5 Figure 6: The student placed the load to the hanger

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List of table and graph

No Table Page

1 Table 4: The table of the apparatus that has been used during the setup
of the experiment

2 Table 7: The result obtained with the length x = 10 cm

3 Table 8: The result obtained with the length x = 15 cm

4 Table 9: The result obtained with the length x = 20 cm

5 Graph 10: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load
(N) for mild steel with x=15cm

6 Graph 11: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load
(N) for mild steel with x=20cm

7 Graph 12: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load
(N) for mild steel with x=10cm

8 Graph 13: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load
(N) for aluminum with x=15cm

9 Graph 14: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load
(N) for aluminum with x=20cm

10 Graph 15: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load
(N) for aluminum with x=10cm

11 Graph 16: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load
(N) for brass with x=15cm

12 Graph 17: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load
(N) for brass with x=20cm

13 Graph 18: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load
(N) for mild brass with x=10cm

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Objective

1. Determine the elastic modulus (E) of beam specimen by method of deflection of Mild
Steel, Aluminum and Brass.
2. Validate the data between experimental and theoretical values.

Introduction

Beams are structural members, which are most commonly used in buildings. Beams have
numerous other applications in case of bridges, automobiles or in mechanical systems. In a beam
transverse load is acted, which in fact comes from the slabs to the column or walls. Beams are
integral part of a building structure. In beams, load acted is transverse. So for design purpose of
beams, analysis of shear force and bending moment induced are of the at most importance.

The purpose of conducting this experiment is to determine the elastic modulus (E) of beam
specimen (mild steel, aluminum and brass) by method of deflection. The value for modulus of
elasticity can either be obtain by means of obtaining the slope of graph of load versus deflection
and the general formula shown under the theory section.

The bending moment of a beam is a description of its relative ability to withstand bending forces.
This value is often referred to by manufacturers as moment of inertia though it is generally
described as an object’s resistance to rotational forces. A thicker beam or a beam with wider
flanges has higher bending moment and is better in terms of withstanding applied loads given.

Bending and deflection of a beam are the key elements in engineering field. A beam must be able
to withstand the forces being applied to it. This thing cannot be taken lightly especially for
engineers as it involves the lives of other human being.

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Theory

Finding the theory of the elastic modulus of rigidity, we have used this formula, through this
formula we can define the elastic modulus rigidity in theoretical value. So that, we can define the
error that occurred while doing this experiment.

𝐸 𝑀
=
𝑅 𝐼

E = Elastic modulus M= W(x)

𝑏ℎ3 𝐿2
I= R=
12 8𝑦

The value of R we can get from this equation, based on that we can get the true equation that use
to find the value of theory of Elastic modulus of elasticity.

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Pure Bending

𝐿
R2 = (R – y)2 + ( )2
2

𝐿²
R2 = R2 – 2Ry + y2 +
4

𝐿²
2Ry =
4

𝐿²
R = 8𝑦

R – Radius of Curve

B – The Base of the Beam

H – The Height of the Cross Sectional Area of the Beam

Y – Maximum Deflection

L– Length of the Beam from the Supporting Axis

M– The Moment

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Figure 1: The figure simulate how the experiment was set up

In addition, all this experiment is based on the figure above. Due to that we can calculate the
modulus of elasticity of the material that uses as a beam as shows in figure. From that we can
determine the error that occurred during an experiment.

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Apparatus and material

1
2
3
4
5

7
8
9

Figure 2: The apparatus that are used during the experiment

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Figure 3: The apparatus that has been set up

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Table 4: The table of the apparatus that has been used during the setup of the experiment

No Name of apparatus

1 Mild steel beam

2 Aluminum beam

3 Brass beam

4 Ruler

5 Vernier caliper

6 Screwdriver

7 Hanger

8 Hook

9 Load (2N)

10 Deflection gauge

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Procedure

1. Measurement of the beam length L, thickness, t and wide, w was taken by the vernier
calliper.

Figure 5: The student measuring the selected beam

2. The beam was set up as in Figure 1


3. Length of each hanger from the support and the meter to the support was taken.
4. The needle of the Gauge was set at the middle (15cm from the end of each of the
support).
5. Length of the hanger from the support and the meter to the support was taken.
6. The Gauge was adjusted to zero.

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7. Load was hanged from 2 N to 16 N with an increment of 2 N simultaneously.

Figure 6: The student placed the load to the hanger

8. The reading of the gauge was taken for every load.

9. Step 3 to 7 was repeated for each beam with the length of x = 20cm and x = 10cm

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Result

1. Mild steel beam


Length, L = 0.4 m
Width, w = 0.0204 m
Thickness, t = 0.00402 m

2. Aluminum beam
Length, L = 0.4 m
Width, w = 0.02004 m
Thickness, t = 0.00619

3. Brass beam
Length, L = 0.4 m
Width, w = 0.0205 m
Thickness, t = 0.00604 m

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Table 7: The result obtained with the length x = 10 cm

Beam maximum deflection (mm)


Load (N)
Mild steel Aluminum Brass

2 0.16 0.16 0.10

4 0.33 0.38 0.20

6 0.51 0.50 0.30

8 0.68 0.67 0.41

10 0.85 0.84 0.54

12 1.02 1.01 0.63

14 1.20 1.17 0.74

16 1.37 1.34 0.84

Table 8: The result obtained with the length x = 15 cm

Beam maximum deflection (mm)


Load (N)
Mild steel Aluminum Brass

2 0.24 0.25 0.16

4 0.49 0.50 0.33

6 0.74 0.74 0.49

8 0.98 1.00 0.64

10 1.23 1.24 0.81

12 1.48 1.49 0.98

14 1.73 1.74 1.14

16 1.96 1.98 1.30

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Table 9: The result obtained with the length x = 20 cm

Beam maximum deflection (mm)


Load (N)
Mild steel Aluminum Brass

2 0.34 0.33 0.20

4 0.69 0.66 0.41

6 1.04 1.00 0.64

8 1.30 1.35 0.86

10 1.73 1.67 1.08

12 2.02 2.01 1.29

14 2.41 2.34 1.51

16 2.76 2.66 1.73

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Graph 10: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load (N) for mild steel with
x=15cm

Graph 11: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load (N) for mild steel with
x=20cm

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Graph 12: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load (N) for mild steel with
x=10cm

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Graph 13: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load (N) for aluminum with
x=15cm

Graph 14: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load (N) for aluminum with
x=20cm

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Graph 15: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load (N) for aluminum with
x=10cm

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Graph 16: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load (N) for brass with x=15cm

Graph 17: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load (N) for brass with x=20cm

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Graph 18: The graft of maximum beam deflection (mm) against load (N) for mild brass with
x=10cm

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