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EM.EE.10 Heat Transfer Lab.

‫مختبر انتقال الحرارة‬ 10

EXPERIMENT NO.1
SPECIFYING THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY COEFFICIENT
FOR SOLID MATERIAL
AIM OF EXPERIMENT
The purpose of experiment is specifying thermal conductivity coefficient
for a solid materials.

THEORY
The theory of experiment depends on heat transfer by conduction
through the solid materials, and as know, the heat transfers through solid
materials throughout its molecules from the hot side to the cold side.
The basic variables which inserts in calculations of the amount of heat
transfer through the solid materials are (the variables which is consisting of
Fourier ‫׳‬s law):
Cross sectional area of specimens which heat transfer through it.
Temperature differences on the two specimen sides.
The thermal conductivity coefficient for the specimen.
The length of the part which the heat transfers through it (i.e. the part
between two points at different temperature).

DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS

This apparatus has been designed for the determination of


coefficient of thermal conductivity for both good conductors and thin
specimens of insulates. The apparatus consists of a self-clamping specimen
stack assembly with electrically heated source, calorimeter base, "Dewar"
vessel enclosure to ensure negligible loss of heat, and constant head cooling
water supply tank. Two mercury and glass thermometers (left hand water
out, right hand water in) are provided for water temperature readings. Four
NiCr INiAl thermocouples are fitted to provide a digital display of specimen
temperature (see figure-1).

Heat is applied to the top of the stack of specimens by contact with the
thermostatically protected heater block, and is collected at the base of the
stack by contact with a water-cooled calorimeter. The heat transmitted
through the specimens can thus be easily calculated from a measurement of
water flow and temperature rise of the water.

SPECIMEN DIMENSIONS
The specimen used in this experiment consists of one part (made from
Aluminum) with diameter (25mm) and (90mm) long. The end faces of this
specimen are very carefully prepared by
lapping and must not be damaged in any way. Two or four holes are
provided in specimen for insertion of the thermocouples (see figure-2).

PROCEDURE
The apparatus is assembled with the sample in position. Ensure that the ends
of the sample are free from dirt and apply a thin smear of contacting fluid to
enable efficient thermal contact to be made. Suitable contacting fluids are
silicone grease or heat sink compound.
Hold the clamping lever positioned on the front of the apparatus in the
downward position and place the specimen between the heater and
calorimeter block, and clamp in position by releasing the lever.
Insert the thermocouples, in the sequence that they are wired to the support
posts, into the holes provided in the sample.
Place the Dewar vessel on position over the specimens.
Fit the thermometers into the special leak proof connections provided on
top of the calorimeter base, and connect the water pipes from the water
supply to the header tank, the header tank to the inlet on the apparatus, the
apparatus outlet connection to drain.
Turns on the water supply and adjust the flow at source to give a small
regular overflow from the constant head tank to drain. Adjust the height of
the header tank and the clip on the outlet hose to obtain a water flow
through the apparatus of 0.5 to 1cc/sec., whilst maintaining the overflow.
During the experiment, if necessary, re-adjust the clip on the outlet hose to
prevent the difference in temperature between the two mercury-in-glass
thermometers from exceeding 10 0C,whilst maintaining the small overflow
to drain.
Connect the apparatus to a single phase AC supply point using the socket
provided in the right hand side of the apparatus. Switch on the unit.
Regulates the current supplied to the heater block by using the control
knob positioned on the front panel under the ammeter to control heat
delivered to the sample. Turns the knob fully clockwise so that the
maximum current is supplied to the heater until temperature T4, as
indicated by the thermocouple selection knob on the front panel
approaches 80°C. Turns the heater control knob until temperature T4
stabilizes at approximately 80°C and maintain this temperature until each
of the three other thermocouples are reading constant temperature.
Progressively increase the heat supplied to the sample so that temperature
T4 increases at increments of about 40 0C up to a maximum value of about
250 0C, and allow the temperatures to stabilize for each progression.
Record values of (TW,in , Tw,out , T1-4 and t) each time.
Switch of the apparatus.

RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS


The following reading in table below should be recorded.

ALUMINUM SPECIMEN WATER


Time T1 T2 T3 T4 TW,in TW,out
(Sec) (0C) (0C) (0C) (0C) (0C) (0C)
Total
Average
Value

Thermal conductivity coefficient can be calculated by assuming the


amount of heat transfer between the specimen and water is equal if there is
no heat loss.

QSpecimen = QWater …. (1)

( )= Cp (TW,out - TW,in) …. (2)

𝑀 𝐿
K= Cp (TW,out - TW,in) ( ) …. (3)
𝑡 𝐴 𝑇

Where
K: Thermal Conductivity (W/m.0K).
M: Mass of water collected (Kg).
t: Time for collection of M (sec).
Cp: Specific heat of water = 4.19 (W/m2.0K).
TW,in: Water inlet temperature (0C).
TW,out: Water outlet temperature (0C).
L: Distance between the thermocouples (m).
A: Cross sectional area (m2).
∆T: Thermocouple temperatures (T4-T1) (0C).

DISSCUSSION
Discuss the result of thermal conductivity coefficient and compared its value
with thermal conductivity coefficient of the same material from heat transfer
tables and find the different percentage between them and discuss causes and
explain how to prevent it.
EXPERIMENT NO.2
SPECIFYING UNKNOWN THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
COEFFICIENT OF CONTACT RESISTANCE FOR SOLID
MATERIALS
AIM OF EXPERIMENT
The purpose of experiment is specifying thermal conductivity coefficient
and contact resistance for a solid materials.

THEORY
The theory of experiment depends on heat transfer by conduction
through the solid materials, and as know, the heat transfers through solid
materials throughout its molecules from the hot side to the cold side.
The basic variables which inserts in calculations of the amount of heat
transfer through the solid materials are:
Cross sectional area of specimens which heat transfer through it.
Temperature differences on the two specimen sides.
The thermal conductivity coefficient for the specimen.
The length of the part which the heat transfers through it (i.e. the part
between two points at different temperature).

DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS

This apparatus has been designed for the determination of


coefficient of thermal conductivity for both good conductors and thin
specimens of insulates. The apparatus consists of a self-clamping specimen
stack assembly with electrically heated source, calorimeter base, "Dewar"
vessel enclosure to ensure negligible loss of heat, and constant head cooling
water supply tank. Two mercury and glass thermometers (left hand water
out, right hand water in) are provided for water temperature readings. Four
NiCr INiAl thermocouples are fitted to provide a digital display of specimen
temperature (see figure-1).

Heat is applied to the top of the stack of specimens by contact with the
thermostatically protected heater block, and is collected at the base of the
stack by contact with a water-cooled calorimeter. The heat transmitted
through the specimens can thus be easily calculated from a measurement of
water flow and temperature rise of the water.

SPECIMEN DIMENSIONS
The specimen used in this experiment consists of two parts (copper and
mild steel; which is unknown thermal conductivity coefficient) with
diameter (l8 mm) and (64 mm) long for copper part and (32 mm) for mild
steel part. The end faces of this specimen are very carefully prepared by
lapping and must not be damaged in any way. Two or four holes are
provided in specimen for insertion of the thermocouples (see figure-2).

PROCEDURE
The apparatus is assembled with the sample in position. Ensure that the ends
of the sample are free from dirt and apply a thin smear of contacting fluid to
enable efficient thermal contact to be made. Suitable contacting fluids are
silicone grease or heat sink compound.
Hold the clamping lever positioned on the front of the apparatus in the
downward position and place the specimen between the heater and
calorimeter block, and clamp in position by releasing the lever.
Insert the thermocouples, in the sequence that they are wired to the support
posts, into the holes provided in the sample.
Place the Dewar vessel on position over the specimens.
Fit the thermometers into the special leak proof connections provided on
top of the calorimeter base, and connect the water pipes from the water
supply to the header tank, the header tank to the inlet on the apparatus, the
apparatus outlet connection to drain.
Turns on the water supply and adjust the flow at source to give a small
regular overflow from the constant head tank to drain. Adjust the height of
the header tank and the clip on the outlet hose to obtain a water flow
through the apparatus of 0.5 to 1cc/sec., whilst maintaining the overflow.
During the experiment, if necessary, re-adjust the clip on the outlet hose to
prevent the difference in temperature between the two mercury-in-glass
thermometers from exceeding 10 0C,whilst maintaining the small overflow
to drain.
Connect the apparatus to a single phase AC supply point using the socket
provided in the right hand side of the apparatus. Switch on the unit.
Regulates the current supplied to the heater block by using the control
knob positioned on the front panel under the ammeter to control heat
delivered to the sample. Turns the knob fully clockwise so that the
maximum current is supplied to the heater until temperature T4, as
indicated by the thermocouple selection knob on the front panel
approaches 80°C. Turns the heater control knob until temperature T4
stabilizes at approximately 80°C and maintain this temperature until each
of the three other thermocouples are reading constant temperature.
Progressively increase the heat supplied to the sample so that temperature
T4 increases at increments of about 40 0C up to a maximum value of about
250 0C, and allow the temperatures to stabilize for each progression.
Record values of (TW,in , Tw,out , T1-4 and t) each time.
Switch of the apparatus.

RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS


The following reading in table below should be recorded.
Thermal conductivity coefficient can be calculated by assuming the
amount of heat transfer between the specimen and water is equal if there is
no heat loss.

QSpecimen = QWater …. (1)

( )= Cp (TW,out - TW,in) …. (2)

𝑀 𝐿
K= Cp (TW,out - TW,in) ( ) …. (3)
𝑡 𝐴 𝑇

Where
K: Thermal Conductivity (W/m.0K).
M: Mass of water collected (Kg).
t: Time for collection of M (sec).
Cp: Specific heat of water = 4.19 (W/m2.0K).
TW,in: Water inlet temperature (0C).
TW,out: Water outlet temperature (0C).
L: Distance between the thermocouples (m).
A: Cross sectional area (m2).
∆T: Thermocouple temperatures(T4-T3) for long specimen and (T2-T1) for
short specimen (0C).

The contact resistance occurs due to un completely contact between the


surfaces of the two specimens due to the roughness of these surface. And
due to this, the transfer of the heat energy will reduce and the thermal
contact resistance occurs see figure (3), and can be calculated from:

…(4)
…(5)
Where
hc=Contact coefficient.
1/hcA: thermal contact resistance.

DISSCUSSION
Discuss the result of thermal conductivity coefficient and compared its value
with thermal conductivity coefficient of the same material from heat transfer
tables and find the different percentage between them and discuss causes and
explain how to prevent it.

Figure-1: General View with Dewar Vessel removed


EXPERIMENT NO.3
SPECIFY OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITYOF HEAT
INSULATOR MATERIAL
AIM OF EXPERIMENT
The purpose of experiment is specifying thermal conductivity coefficient
for an insulator material.

DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS

This apparatus has been designed for the determination of


Coefficient of Thermal Conductivity for both good conductors and thin
specimens of insulates. The apparatus consists of a self-clamping specimen
stack assembly with electrically heated source, calorimeter base, "Dewar"
vessel enclosure to ensure negligible loss of heat, and constant head cooling
water supply tank. Two mercury and glass thermometers (left hand water
out, right hand water in) are provided for water temperature readings. Four
NiCr INiAl thermocouples are fitted to provide a digital display of specimen
temperature (see figure-1).

Heat is applied to the top of the stack of specimens by contact with the
thermostatically protected heater block, and is collected at the base of the
stack by contact with a water-cooled calorimeter. The heat transmitted
through the specimens can thus be easily calculated from a measurement of
water flow and temperature rise of the water.

SPECIMEN DIMENTIONS
The sample of insulator should be flat and of circular shape with
diameter = 25 mm such that it can be clamped between copper specimens
(38, 64 mm long). If it is impossible to provide a specimen of exactly 25 mm
diameter then a slight degree of overhead can be accommodated. Thickness
of the sample should not be so great that conducted through the test bank to
the calorimeter is immeasurable, and will obviously depend on the thermal
conductivity of the insulator. (see figure-2).
PROCEDURE
The apparatus is assembled with the sample in position. Ensure that the ends
of the sample are free from dirt and apply a thin smear of contacting fluid to
enable efficient thermal contact to be made. Suitable contacting fluids are
silicone grease or heat sink compound.
Hold the clamping lever positioned on the front of the apparatus in the
downward position and place the specimen between the heater and
calorimeter block, and clamp in position by releasing the lever.
Insert the thermocouples, in the sequence that they are wired to the support
posts, into the holes provided in the sample. Connect up the potentiometer-
measuring instrument to the terminals provided on the front of the panel. A
small amount of conductive paste should be used on each thermocouple.
Place the Dewar vessel on position over the specimens.
Fit the thermometers into the special leak proof connections provided on
top of the calorimeter base, and connect the water pipes from the water
supply to the header tank, the header tank to the inlet on the apparatus, the
apparatus outlet connection to drain, via the spring valve provided and the
header tank overflow to drain.
Turns on the water supply and adjust the flow at source to give a small
regular overflow from the constant head tank to drain. Adjust the height of
the header tank and the clip on the outlet hose to obtain a water flow
through the apparatus of 0.5 to 1cc/sec. whilst maintaining the overflow.
During the experiment, if necessary, re-adjust the clip on the outlet hose to
prevent the difference in temperature between the two mercury-in-glass
thermometers from exceeding 100C, whilst maintaining the small overflow
to drain.
Connect the apparatus to a single phase AC supply point using the socket
provided in the right hand side of the apparatus. Switch on the unit.
Regulates the current supplied to the heater block by using the control
knob positioned on the front panel under the ammeter to control heat
delivered to the sample. Turns the knob fully clockwise so that the
maximum current is supplied to the heater until temperature T4, as
indicated by the thermocouple selection knob on the front panel
approaches 250°C. Turns the heater control knob until temperature T4
stabilizes at approximately 250°C and maintain this temperature until each
of the three other thermocouples are reading constant temperature.
Progressively increase the heat supplied to the sample so that temperature
T4 increases at increments of about 40 0C up to a maximum value of about
250 0C, and allow the temperatures to stabilize for each progression.
Record values of (TW,in , Tw,out , T1-4 and t) each time.
Switch of the apparatus.

RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS


The following reading in table below should be recorded.

COPPER SPECIMEN LONG COPPER SPECIMEN SHORT WATER


Time T1 T2 T3 T4 TW,in TW,out
(Sec) (0C) (0C) (0C) (0C) (0C) (0C)

Total
Average Value

Using T1, T2, T3 and T4, to plot temperature gradient graph and determined
the interface temperatures (X1, X2) (see figure-3).
To determined the thermal conductivity of the specimen insulant:

𝑀 𝐿
K= Cp (TW,out - TW,in) ( ) …. (1)
𝑡𝐴 𝑋2 𝑋

Where
K: Thermal Conductivity (W/m.0K).
M: Mass of water collected (Kg).
t: Time for collection of M (sec).
Cp: Specific heat of water = 4186 (W/m2.0K).
TW,in: Water inlet temperature (0C).
TW,out: Water outlet temperature (0C).
L: Thickness of insulant (m).
A: Cross sectional area of copper specimens (m2).
X2-X1: Interface temperatures (0C).

DISSCUSSION
Discuss the result of thermal conductivity coefficient and compared its
value with thermal conductivity coefficient of same material from heat
transfer tables and find the different percentage between them and discuss
causes and explain how to prevent it.
EXPERIMENT NO.) 4 (
MEASUREMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER COIFFICIENT OF
FORCED CONVECTION FOR HOT OUTER SURFACE
CYLINDER
PURPOSE
Specifying an empirical equation for forced convection.
To predict heat transfer coefficient for forced convection (W/m2 0C).

THEORY

The assumption when heat transfers between cylinder and the air is the rejected
heat from cylinder transfers to the air which near the wall. The reading of
thermometer is temperature of surface cylinder.

APPARATUS DESCRIPTION
The device used in this experiment consists of duct passes air through it, part of
this duct made from plastic with dimensions (12.5 mm *12.5 mm)as shown in
figure (1). A centrifugal fan was used for air suction through the duct and can
be controlled on air stream by using control valve on the outlet of a centrifugal
fan. The using specimen which heated by electrical heater is made from
copper and drilled from its axis to insert thermocouple (type K) through it to
measure its temperature by assumption that the temperature of specimen and its
surface (Ts) are equal, another thermocouple was inserted in the duct inlet to
measure air temperature (Ta).

PROCEDURE
After heating the specimen no higher than (800C) with five degrees for
example, placed in the airway during one of the holes and open the valve of a
centrifugal fan 100% and when the specimen temperature arrives (80 0C)
we run the stopwatch and count time for each reading and as well as
keep reading the manometer and the temperature of the surrounding air. Then,
we change the air gate opening percentage to adjust air mass flow and repeat
the procedure again.

RESULTS &CALCULATIONS

The following reading in table below should be recorded.

Ta= (0C) 100% 80% 60% 40 %


Ts= (0C) t(sec) t( sec) t( sec) t( sec)
80
70
60
50
40
30
H
(mmH2O)

The empirical equation for forced convection is:


.Pr n … (1)
n= 0.4 for heating.
n=0.03 for cooling.
The values of (µa,ρa, Cpa,Prand Ka) can be got from air tables at Tfilm

… (2)
2

The value of air velocity can be evaluated from:


2
√ … (3)
Where
Hw: Pressure difference of manometer.
ρw: Density of water.
ρa: Density of air.
G: Acceleration of gravity.

… (4)

Where
di= Internal diameter of duct.
The value of Nusslet number can be evaluated analytically from

… (5)

To find (h), a relationship between ln(Ts-Ta)/ (Tso-Ta)& the time is draw as


follow:‫يكتب اشتقاق العالقة‬

So, the value of (h) can be found by equation below

…(6)
Where
A:Surface area for heat transfer = 0.00405 m2.
mm: Mass of copper specimen = 0.1093 Kg.
cc: Specific heat for copper = 380 J/Kg.0K.
The values of constants (C, m) for empirical Nusslet number equation can be
evaluated from the relationship between (log Nu/Prn) and (log Re) as shown
in figure below.

DISSCUSION
Drawa graphic relationship between ln(Ts-Ta)/(Ts-Ta) and the time
recorded from the laboratory
Calculate heat transfer coefficient on the surface of the cylinder.
Draw the relationship between (log Nu/Prn) and (log Re).
Compare these values (C, m, n) with empirical
equation which installed inthebook.
Discuss in case do not match these values with the values which were
calculated from the experiment.
Figure-1:Apparatus picture
EXPERIMENT NO.5

MEASUREMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER COIFFICIENT OF


NATURAL CONVECTION from hot outer surface of cylinder

PURPOSE
Specifying an empirical equation for free convection
And to predict heat transfer coefficient for free convection (W/m2 0C).

THEORY

Free convection (or natural convection) is the process of heat transfer from
the surface to fluid due to temperatures differences between them, leading to
change the fluid density near the surface, this change leading to generate
buoyancy force which moves fluid up leading to transfer heat between the
surface and the fluid.

APPARATUS DESCRIPTION
The device used in this experiment consists of duct passes air through it,
part of this duct made from plastic with dimensions (12.5 mm *12.5 mm) as
shown in figure (1). The using specimen which heated by electrical heater is
made from copper and drilled from its axis to insert thermocouple (type K)
through it to measure its temperature by assumption that the temperature of
specimen and its surface (Ts) are equal, another thermocouple was inserted in
the duct inlet to measure air temperature (Ta).
PROCEDURE
After heating the specimen no higher than (80 0C) with five degrees for
example, placed in the airway during one of the holes once horizontally and
once vertically and when the specimen temperature arrives (80 0C) we run
the stopwatch and count time for each reading and as well as Keep reading the
temperature of the surrounding air.

RESULTS &CALCULATIONS

The following reading in table below should be recorded.

The empirical equation for natural convection is:

… (1)
Where

… (2)

… (3)

2
… (4)
∆T = TS - Ta
The values of (µa, ρa, Cpa and Ka) can be got from air tables at Tfilm

… (5)
2

The value of theoretical Nusslet number can be evaluated from

… (6)

To find (h), a relationship between ln(Ts-Ta) & the time is draw as


follow

So, the value of (h) can be found by equation below

… (7)

Where
A: Surface area for heat transfer = 0.00405 m2.

m: Mass of copper specimen = 0.1093 Kg.

c :Specific heat for copper = 380 J/Kg.0K.

For horizontal position


… (8)

For vertical position

… (9)

The values of constants (C, n) for empirical Nusslet number equation can be
evaluated from the relationship between (log Nu) and (log Ra) as
shown in figure below

DISCUSSION
Discuss the results which obtained it.
Plot the relation between Nuth and Nuem and explain the different.
EXPERIMENT NO.6
OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR
COUNTER- FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER
Lab Objective:

To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient in a double pipe, single-


pass, counter-flow heat exchanger.

Lab Apparatus:

A single-pass counter-flow exchanger consists of two concentric straight


pipes, each containing a flowing fluid as shown in figure -1, the two flows
entering at opposite ends of the pipe. Hot air in the center pipe, and cold
water in the annulus between the pipes. Figure - 2 Shows Counter-Flow Heat
Exchanger cross section. The inner pipe is made of copper, which very
efficiently transfers heat between the two flows. The outer pipe, however,
does not need to conduct well. In fact, in an experimental setting, it is
beneficial to stop any heat transfer to the surroundings in order to more
accurately calculate the heat transfer coefficient between only the fluids in
the pipe. Four temperature measuring devices are installed in both the inside
and outside tubes to measure the fluid temperatures accurately.

Procedure:

Make sure the flow direction of water flow in the shell should have been set
in the counter – flow orientation.
Switch on the fan then the main switch (air heater). Note: You may
initially reduce the cold water flow rat to speed up the temperature
increase.
Wait for steady state, when achieved record temperature values from
thermocouples, and also the flow rate of cold water and the pressure drop of
air, then set all of them in a table as shown in table -1.
ANALYSIS:

we must find (q) in order to determine U. So we use the following


equation, which is valid for any type of heat exchanger:

Qw= power absorbed by the water = V'w. ρw.CP w. (Tw, out- Tw, in) … (1)

Where

V'w : Water flow rate (m3/s).

ρw : Water density (Kg/m3).

CP w : Heat capacity for water (KJ/Kg. K).

Tw, in : Inlet water temperature (0C).

Tw, out : Outlet water temperature (0C).

In order to determine an overall heat transfer coefficient analytically, we


must first know the convective coefficient for flow in the annulus between
the two cylinders. To explain: Recall by the definition of heat transfer
coefficient:

( )
&
2

Note: Because of the resistance of the cylinder wall is very small so it may
be neglected

So:
…(2)

Where
hi = Conv.coeff. for the hot flow
ho = Conv.coeff. for the cold flow
So we must find hi and ho. To do this as following:

To find (hi) we use the following equation


) … (3)

LMTD (Δtm) = (Δt1- Δt2)/ ln(Δt1 /Δt2) … (4)

Where:

For the counter flow exchanger (see figure 3-a)

Δt1 =T hot in – T w1

Δt2 =T hot, out – T w2

To find (ho) we use the following equation

… (5)

LMTD (Δtm) = (Δt1- Δt2)/ ln(Δt1 /Δt2) … (6)

Where:

For the counter flow exchanger (see figure 3-b)

Δt1 =T w1 – T cold,out

Δt2 =T w2 – T cold,in

The effectiveness, Ɛ, of a heat exchanger is defined as

… (7)

Let us also define the heat capacity rate, C, for the cold and hot fluids as:

Ch = m'h cph

Cc = m'c cpc

Cmin: minimum of Cc and Ch


Cmax: maximum of Cc and Ch

Where m' is the mass flow rate and cp is the specific heat at constant
pressure. With these definitions, the heat exchanger experimental
effectiveness can be derived as:


= … (8)

DISCUTION:
1- Can energy loss to the environment be ignored in calculations? Explain
your answer.
EXPERIMENT NO.7
OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT IN A
PARALLEL-FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER
Lab Objective:

To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient in a double pipe, single-


pass, parallel-flow heat exchanger.

Lab Apparatus:

A single-pass co-flow exchanger consists of two concentric straight pipes,


each containing a flowing fluid as shown in figure -1, the two flows entering
at the same entering side of the pipe. Hot air in the center pipe, and cold
water in the annulus between the pipes. Figure - 2 Shows Parallel-Flow Heat
Exchanger cross section. The inner pipe is made of copper, which very
efficiently transfers heat between the two flows. The outer pipe, however,
does not need to conduct well. In fact, in an experimental setting, it is
beneficial to stop any heat transfer to the surroundings in order to more
accurately calculate the heat transfer coefficient between only the fluids in
the pipe. Four temperature measuring devices are installed in both the inside
and outside tubes to measure the fluid temperatures accurately.

Procedure:

Make sure the flow direction of water flow in the shell should have been set
in the parallel – flow orientation.
Switch on the fan then the main switch (air heater). Note: You may
initially reduce the cold water flow rat to speed up the temperature
increase.
Wait for steady state, when achieved record temperature values from
thermocouples, and also the flow rate of cold water and the pressure drop of
air, then set all of them in a table as shown in table -1.
ANALYSIS:

we must find (q) in order to determine U. So we use the following


equation, which is valid for any type of heat exchanger:

Qw= power absorbed by the water = V'w. ρw.CP w. (Tw, out- Tw, in) … (1)

Where

V'w : Water flow rate (m3/s).

ρw : Water density (Kg/m3).

CP w : Heat capacity for water (KJ/Kg. K).

Tw, in : Inlet Water temperature (0C).

Tw, out : Outlet Water temperature (0C).

In order to determine an overall heat transfer coefficient analytically, we


must first know the convective coefficient for flow in the annulus between
the two cylinders. To explain: Recall by the definition of heat transfer
coefficient.

( )
&
2

Note: Because of the resistance of the cylinder wall is very small so it may
be neglected

So:
…(2)

Where
hi = Conv.coeff. for the hot flow
ho = Conv.coeff. for the cold flow

So we must find hi and ho. To do this as following


To find (hi) we use the following equation

… (3)

LMTD (Δtm) = (Δt1- Δt2)/ ln(Δt1 /Δt2) … (4)

Where:

For the parallel flow exchanger (see figure 3-a)

Δt1 =T hot in – T w1

Δt2 =T hot, out – T w2

To find (ho) we use the following equation

… (5)

LMTD (Δtm) = (Δt1- Δt2)/ ln(Δt1 /Δt2) … (6)

Where:

For the parallel flow exchanger (see figure 3-b)

Δt1 =T w1 – T cold, in

Δt2 =T w2 – T cold, out

The effectiveness, Ɛ, of a heat exchanger is defined as

… (7)

Let us also define the heat capacity rate, C, for the cold and hot fluids as:

Ch = m'h cph

Cc = m'c cpc
Cmin: minimum of Cc and Ch

Cmax: maximum of Cc and Ch

Where m' is the mass flow rate and cp is the specific heat at constant
pressure. With these definitions, the heat exchanger experimental
effectiveness can be derived as:


= … (8)

DISCUTION:
1-For a concentric heat exchanger, which flow orientation provides the most
energy transfer, co-flow or counter-flow? Explain your answer.
2- Can energy loss to the environment be ignored in calculations? Explain
your answer.
Table (1): Data sheet for counter flow heat exchanger
EXPERIMENT NO.8
STUDY THE EFFECT OF MASS FLOW RATE
VARIATION ON OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT IN A DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER

Lab Objective:

To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient in a double pipe, single-


pass, counter-flow heat exchanger with variable air flow.

Lab Apparatus:

A single-pass counter-flow exchanger consists of two concentric straight


pipes, each containing a flowing fluid as shown in figure -1, the two flows
entering at opposite ends of the pipe. Hot air in the center pipe, and cold
water in the annulus between the pipes. Figure - 2 Shows Counter-Flow Heat
Exchanger cross section. The inner pipe is made of copper, which very
efficiently transfers heat between the two flows. The outer pipe, however,
does not need to conduct well. In fact, in an experimental setting, it is
beneficial to stop any heat transfer to the surroundings in order to more
accurately calculate the heat transfer coefficient between only the fluids in
the pipe. Four temperature measuring devices are installed in both the inside
and outside tubes to measure the fluid temperatures accurately.

Procedure:

Make sure the flow direction of water flow in the shell should have been set
in the counter – flow orientation.
Switch on the fan then the main switch (air heater). Note: You may
initially reduce the cold water flow rat to speed up the temperature
increase.
Wait for steady state, when achieved record temperature values from
thermocouples, and also the flow rate of cold water and the pressure drop of
air, then set all of them in a table as shown in table -1.
Change the rate of air flow for three different mass flow rate and records the
variables in step three after reaching to steady state condition.
ANALYSIS:

we must find (q) in order to determine U. So we use the following


equation, which is valid for any type of heat exchanger:

Qw= power absorbed by the water = V'w. ρw.CP w. (Tw, out- Tw, in) … (1)

Where

V'w : Water flow rate (m3/s).

ρw : Water density (Kg/m3).

CP w : Heat capacity for water (KJ/Kg. K).

Tw, in : water temperature inside (0C).

Tw, out : water temperature outside (0C).


In order to determine an overall heat transfer coefficient analytically, we
must first know the convective coefficient for flow in the annulus between
the two cylinders. To explain: Recall by the definition of heat transfer
coefficient:

( )
&
2

Note: Because of the resistance of the cylinder wall is very small so it may
be neglected

So:
…(2)

Where
hi = Conv.coeff. for the hot flow
ho = Conv.coeff. for the cold flow
So we must find hi and ho. To do this as following:

To find (hi) we use the following equation

… (3)

LMTD (Δtm) = (Δt1- Δt2)/ ln(Δt1 /Δt2) … (4)

Where:

For the counter flow exchanger (see figure 3-a)

Δt1 =T hot in – T w1

Δt2 =T hot, out – T w2

To find (ho) we use the following equation

… (5)
LMTD (Δtm) = (Δt1- Δt2)/ ln(Δt1 /Δt2) … (6)

Where:

For the counter flow exchanger (see figure 3-b)

Δt1 =T w1 – T cold,out

Δt2 =T w2 – T cold,in

The effectiveness, Ɛ, of a heat exchanger is defined as

… (7)

Let us also define the heat capacity rate, C, for the cold and hot fluids as:

Ch = m'h cph

Cc = m'c cpc

Where:
Cmin: minimum of Cc and Ch

Cmax: maximum of Cc and Ch

Where m' is the mass flow rate and cp is the specific heat at constant
pressure. With these definitions, the heat exchanger experimental
effectiveness can be derived as:


= … (8)

DISCUTION:
Draw the relation between V'air & the effectiveness, and explain this relation.
2- Can energy loss to the environment be ignored in calculations?
Explain your answer.
Table (1): Data sheet for counter flow heat exchanger.