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Prepared By:
Edmund Tumusiime
5.1 Introduction
In this chapter, study is made on the energy transfers within a flowing
fluid, and also the prediction of fluid flow phenomena. Bernoulli's
equation will be developed and demonstrated in a more general form that
can accommodate apparent energy losses due to frictional and
separation effects, by application of conservation of energy principle.

The transfer of energy into, or out of a fluid flow system, by introduction

of mechanical devices such as fans, pumps, or turbines, is considered
leading to the introduction of the general steady flow energy equation.

The representation of apparent energy losses due to friction separation

effects will be defined and the application of the energy equation to the
measurement of the flow rate and velocity is demonstrated for a range of
pipe flow and free surface flow conditions.

5.2 Mechanical energy of a flowing fluid

Consider an element of fluid (Fig 5.1) in motion

Fig 5.1: Energy of a

flowing fluid

The element will possess potential energy due to its elevation 'z' above
some chosen horizontal datum, and kinetic energy due to its velocity 'v'
like any other object.

If the weight of element is 'mg', then

Potential energy of element = mgz

Potential energy per unit weight = z

1 2
Kinetic energy of element = mv
Kinetic energy per unit weight =

A steady flowing fluid can also do work due to the force generated when
the fluid pressure acts on a given area in the flow. If the pressure at
section AB of area 'A' is 'p', then

Force exerted on AB = pA

After the weight 'mg' of fluid has moved along the stream tube, section AB
will have moved to A'B'.

mg m
Volume passing AB = =
g 

Therefore, Distance AA’ =

Work done = (Force) x (Distance AA’)

m pm
= pA  =
A 

And, Work done per unit weight = …………………..................(5.1)

Note: The quantity is known as the ‘flow work’ or ‘pressure energy’
5.3 Bernoulli's Theorem

States that; 'for steady flow of a frictionless fluid along a streamline, the total energy
per unit weight remains constant from point to point’.


Pr.E per unit K.E per unit P.E per unit T.E per unit
weight + weight + weight = weight = Constant

p v2
 zH
g 2 g

where = pressure head (meters)
= velocity head (meters)
z = potential head (meters)
H = total head (meters)

If 1&2 are any two points in a stream, then

2 2
p1 v1 p v
  z1  2  2  z 2 ………………………………
g 2 g g 2 g

(T.E/wt)1 = (T.E/wt)2

Note: The above equation (5.2) assumes that no energy has been
supplied to or taken from the fluid between points 1&2. Energy could
have been supplied by introduction of a pump. Equally, energy could
have been lost by doing work against friction or in a machine such as a

In such a case, Bernoulli's equation can be modified to include these


2 2
p1 v1 p v
  z1  q  2  2  z 2  h  w …………………………………(5.3)
g 2 g g 2 g

h = loss per unit weight

w = work done per unit weight
q = energy supplied per unit weight

1. a) A tapering pipe of 2m length is placed in vertical position in such a
manner that its short end (10cm diameter) is at top and the big end
(20cm diameter) is at the bottom. If the discharge through the pipe is
30litres/sec, find the difference of pressures between the two ends.

b) If a differential manometer with mercury is connected between the

top and bottom ends, and if gasoline of specific gravity 0.8 flows
through the pipe, then calculate the manometer reading.

c) If the pipe in part a) is inclined at 300 to the horizontal, then what

will be the pressure difference?

5.4 Kinetic Energy correction factor

The Bernoulli's equation was derived assuming uniform velocity across

the inlet and outlet sections. In a real fluid flowing in a pipe or over a
solid surface, the velocity will vary from the solid boundary, increasing
with increase in distance from the solid boundary. The kinetic energy per
unit weight of the fluid will increase in a similar manner.

If the cross-section of flow is assumed to be composed of a series of small

elements of area ‘ A ’, and the velocity normal to each element is 'u', then

Mass passing through element in unit time = A  u

K.E per unit time passing through the element = A  u 3
1 3
Total K.E passing per unit time =  2  u A
Total weight passing in a unit time =  guA
Thus, taking into account the variation of velocity across the stream,

1    u A
True K.E per unit weight =  ;
2 g    uA
u Q
which is not the same as ; where u   A ,
2g A
is the mean velocity

 u
Therefore, True K.E per unit weight =
where ‘  ’ is the ‘Kinetic energy correction factor’, whose value depends on the
shape of the cross-section and velocity distribution.

5.5 Representation of energy changes in a fluid system

The changes of energy and its transformation from one form to another,
which occur in a fluid system, can be represented graphically. In a real
fluid system, the total energy per unit weight will not remain constant.

Unless energy is supplied to the system at some point by means of a

pump, it will gradually decrease in the direction of motion due to losses
resulting from friction and disturbance of flow at changes of pipe section,
or as a result of changes of direction.

Consider the figure below,

Fig 5.2: Energy changes in a fluid system

The flow of water from the reservoir at ‘A’ to the reservoir at ‘D’ is
assisted by a pump, which develops a head ‘hp’ thus providing an
addition to the energy per unit weight of ‘hp’.

At the surface of the reservoir ‘A’, the flow has no velocity and is at
atmospheric pressure (zero gauge pressure), so that the total energy per
unit weight is represented by the ‘HA’ of the surface above datum.

As the fluid enters the pipe with velocity ‘u1’, there will be loss of energy
due to disturbance of the flow at the pipe entrance and a continuous loss
of energy due to friction as the fluid flows along the pipe, so that the total
energy line will slope downwards.
At ‘B’, there is a change of section with an accompanying loss of energy,
resulting in change of velocity to ‘u2’. The total energy line will continue
to slope downwards but with a greater slope since u 2  u1 and friction
losses are related to velocity.

At ‘C’, the pump will put energy into the system and the total energy line
will rise by an amount ‘hp’. The total energy falls again due to friction
losses and losses due to disturbance at entry to the reservoir, where the
total energy per unit weight is represented by the height of the reservoir
surface above datum (the velocity of the fluid being negligible; and hence
zero, and pressure atmospheric).

If a piezometer tube were to be inserted at point 1, the water would not

rise to the level of total energy line, but to a level ‘ 1 ’ below it, since
some of the total energy is in form of kinetic energy. Thus, at point 1, the
energies present are:
Potential energy = z1
Pressure energy = p1 g
Kinetic energy =
the three energies adding up to the total energy at that point.

The line joining all points to which the water would rise, if an open stand
pipe (piezometer tube) were inserted is known as ‘Hydraulic gradient line’,
and runs parallel to the ‘Total energy line’ at a distance below it equal to
the velocity head.

Since the loss of energy due to friction and separation of the stream from
its boundaries depend on velocity of the stream, the losses can be
encapsulated in the kinetic energy equation as
K  u 2 ;
where ‘K’ is a constant that depends upon the conduit
parameters such as length, diameter, roughness, or fitting
type, and ‘u’ is the local flow velocity.

Thus, the energy equation applied to points 1 and 2 gives,

1 2 1 2 1
p1  v1  gz1  p 2  v 2  gz 2  Ku 2
2 2 2

When applied to reservoirs 1 and 2 with an open surface, the pressures

‘ p1 ’ and ‘ p 2 ’ at the reservoir open surface may be taken as zero since the
atmospheric pressure is the gauge pressure frame of reference.

Also, if the surface area of the reservoirs are very large as compared to
the cross-section areas of the connecting pipe, the velocities ‘ v1 ’ and ‘ v 2 ’
may be disregarded compared with the pipe flow velocity ‘ u ’.

Thus, the steady energy equation reduces to

g  z1  z 2   Ku 2 ………………………………………

5.6 The Siphon

Consider now flow in a pipe which rises above the hydraulic gradient (Fig
The pressure in portion ‘PQ’ will be below atmospheric, and will form a
‘Siphon’. Under reduced pressure, air or other gasses may be released
from solution, or a vapour pocket may form and interrupt the flow.

In such a case, if the control volume is chosen between points 1 and 2,

and the steady energy equation applied at the extremities, it would give
misleading results. The application of steady energy equation between
points 1 and the siphon (A), allows the practicability of the siphon to be

Applying the principle of equation (4.2) to a siphon to assess its

practicability, between points 1 and ‘A’, gives,

1 2 1 2 1
p1  v1  gz1  p A  v A  gz A  Ku 2
2 2 2

Where the friction and separation loss term K  u 2 refer to loss
between 1 and ‘A’.

If the pipe between the two points is assumed constant diameter, then
local velocity in the loss term = Velocity at A = u A

giving, p A  g  z1  z 2     u 2 1  K  ; u = pipe flow

5.7.1 The Pitot tube

The piptot tube is used to measure velocity of the stream and consists of
a simple L-shaped tube facing into the oncoming flow (Fig 5.4)

Fig 5.4: The Pitot tube

If the velocity of the stream at ‘A’ is ‘u’, a particle moving from ‘A’ to the
mouth of the tube at ‘B’ will be brought to rest so that ‘u0’ is zero.

Applying Bernoulli’s equation,

(Total energy per unit weight at A) = (Total energy per unit weight at B)
u2 p u0 p
Giving,    0
2 g g 2 g g
Such that
u2 p p
  0 ………………………………………………
2 g g g
p p0
But  z and  hz
g g
Thus, from (5.3), we have hz  z

Such that u  2 gh

Note: When the pitot tube is used in a channel, the value of ‘h’ can be
determined directly (Fig 5.4 (a)), but if it is to be used in a pipe, the
difference between the static pressure and the pressure at the impact
hole must be measured with a differential pressure gauge, using static
pressure tapping in the pipe walls (Fig 5.4 (b))

While, theoretically the measured velocity u  2 gh , pitot tubes may

need calibration. Thus, the true velocity is given by u  C 2 gh , where ‘C’
is the coefficient of the instrument, and ‘h’ is the difference of head
measured in terms of fluid flowing.

5.7.2 The Venturimeter

The venturimeter (Fig 5.5) is a measuring device used to determine the

volume rate of flow through a pipeline. It uses the concept of pressure
difference to determine the quantity of flow passing per unit time for a
particular configuration.
As shown above, it consists of a short converging conical tube leading
into a cylindrical portion, called the ‘Throat’, of smaller diameter than
that of the pipeline, which is followed by a diverging section in which the
diameter increases again to that of the pipeline.

The pressure difference from which the volume rate of flow can be
determined is measured between the entry section 1 and the throat
section 2, often by means of a U-tube manometer.

Assuming no loss of energy, and applying Bernoulli’s equation to

sections 1 & 2, give:
2 2
p v p v
z1  1  1  z 2  1  2
g 2 g g 2 g

 p  p 2  
2 2
v 2  v1  2 g  1    z1  z 2  …………………………………………(5.4)
 g  

A 
For continuity of flow, A1v1  A2 v 2 Or v 2   1   v1
 A2 
 A
2    p  p 2  
Giving from (5.4), v1  1   1  2 g  1    z1  z 2 
 A2    g  

A2  p  p2 
Such that v1   2 g  1  z1  z 2 
A 1
 A2 
2 1/ 2
 g 

A1 A2
And Volume rate of flow, Q  A1v1 =  2 gH
A 1
 A2 
2 1/ 2

p1  p 2
Where, H    z1  z 2  known as ‘departure from the hydraulic gradient’ is
determined by equating pressures at the datum level (i.e. X-X in the
above case)

If the area ratio A  m
Q  2 gH …………….(5.5)
m 2
1  1/ 2

Determination of H
To determine ‘H’, we equate pressures at level X-X in both limbs.

Thus, p1  g  z1  z   p 2  g  z 2  z  h    man gh

Expanding and re-arranging gives,

p1  p 2  
H   z1  z 2   h man  1
g   

Substituting into equation (5.5) gives the gives the equation for the flow
rate as
A1  
Q  2 g  man  1 ………………………………(5.6)
m 2
1 
1/ 2
  
Equation (5.6) indicated that flow is independent of elevation, so that
reading of the manometer is not affected by the inclination of the

However, if the actual pressure ( p1  p 2 ) is measured and equation

(5.5) used, the values of ‘ z1 ’ and ‘ z 2 ’ and, therefore, the slope of the
meter must be taken into account.

In practice, some loss of energy will occur between the section 1 & 2,
thus the value of discharge ‘Q’ given by equation (5.6) is theoretical,
which is slightly greater than the actual value. A coefficient of
discharge ‘Cd’ therefore must be introduced.

i.e. Actual discharge, Q Actual  C d  QTheoretical

5.8 Pipe Orifices

The venturimeter described in the preceding article, operates by

changing the cross-section of the flow, so that the cross-sectional area is
less at the downstream pressure tapping than at the upstream tapping.
A similar effect can be achieved by inserting an ‘Orifice’ plate (Fig 5.6),
which has an opening in it smaller than the internal diameter of the

Fig 5.6: Pipe orifice metre

The arrangement is cheap compared with the cost of a venturimeter, but
there are substantial energy losses. The theoretical discharge can be
calculated from equation (5.5) but the actual discharge is less. A
coefficient of discharge must therefore be introduced (Cd = 0.65 for a
sharp edged orifice)

5.8.1 Theory of small orifices discharging into the Atmosphere

Definition: An 'Orifice' is an opening, usually circular, in the side or base

of a reservoir, through which fluid is discharged in form of a jet, usually
into the atmosphere. The volume rate of flow discharged through an
orifice will depend upon the head of the fluid above the level of the
orifice, and, it can therefore be used as a means of measurement.

The term 'small orifice' is applied to an orifice which has a diameter or

vertical dimensions, which are small compared to the head producing
flow, so that it can be assumed that this head does not vary appreciably
from point to point across the orifice.

(Fig 5.7) shows a small orifice in the side of a large tank containing liquid
with a free surface open to the atmosphere.

Fig 5.7: Flow through a small orifice

At point ‘A’ on the free surface, the pressure ‘ p A ’ is atmospheric and, if

the tank is large compared to the orifice, the velocity ‘ v A ’ will be
negligible; and hence zero.
At some point ‘B’ in the jet, just outside the orifice, the pressure ‘ p B ’ will
again be atmospheric, and the velocity ‘ v B ’ will be that of the of the jet ‘v’.

Taking the datum for potential energy at the centre of the orifice and
applying Bernoulli’s equation between points ‘A’ and ‘B’, and assuming
there is no loss of energy,

(Total energy per unit weight at A) = (Total energy per unit weight at B)

2 2
pA vA p v
i.e.  z A B  B  zB
g 2 g g 2 g

substituting for z A  z B  H , v A  0 , v B  v , and p A  p B , give;

velocity of the jet v  2 gH …………………………………………………(5.6)

This is a statement of ‘Torricelli’s Theorem’, that the velocity of the issuing

jet is proportional to the square root of the head producing flow.

Note: Equation (5.6) applies to any fluid, 'H' being expressed as head of
the fluid flowing through the orifice.

Theoretically, if 'A' is the cross-sectional area of the orifice, then

Q  A 2 gH ………………………………………..(5.7)

In practice, the actual discharge is considerably less than the theoretical

given by equation (5.7), which must therefore be modified by introducing
the coefficient of discharge ‘Cd, so that
Actual discharge, QActual = Cd Qtheoretical
Or Q Actual  C d A 2 gH …………….…(5.8)

Note: There are two reasons for the difference between the theoretical
and actual discharges; namely,

The velocity of the jet is less than that given by equation (5.6),
because there is loss of energy between points 'A' and 'B'.

therefore, Actual velocity at 'B' =

C v  v  C v 2 gH

where ‘ C v ’ is the coefficient of velocity, which has to be determined

experimentally and is of order 0.97

Considering the contraction of the jet (Fig 5.8). The particles of the
fluid at the orifice converge at the orifice, and the area of the issuing
jet at 'B' is less than the area of the orifice at 'C'.

Fig 5.8: Contraction of the issuing jet

In the plane of the orifice, the particles have a component of velocity

towards the centre and the pressure at 'C' is greater than atmospheric. It
is only at 'B', a small distance outside the orifice, that the paths of the
particles have become parallel. The section through 'B' is called 'vena

Therefore, Actual area of the jet at B = Cc A

where ‘Cc’ is the coefficient of contraction which can be determined
experimentally, and depends on the profile of the orifice. For a sharp
edged orifice, of the form shown above, it is order 0.64

hence, Actual discharge = (Actual area at B) x (Actual

velocity at B)
= C c A  C v 2 gH
C c  C v  A 2 gH ………………………. (5.9)

Comparing equations (5.8) and (5.9),

Cd  Cc  Cv

Note: The values of ‘Cc’ and ‘Cv’ are determined experimentally, and
values are available for standard configurations in British Standards
Specifications (BSS).
To determine ‘Cd’, it is only necessary to collect or otherwise measure the
actual volume discharged from the orifice in a given time, and compare
with the theoretical discharge.

Coefficient of discharge = Actual Measured discharge

such that,
Theoretical discharge

A rectangular orifice in the side of a tank is 1.5m broad and 0.75m deep.
The level of water in the tank is 750mm above the top edge of the orifice.
Calculate the discharge through the orifice in litters per second if the
coefficient of discharge is 0.6
5.8.2 Theory of Large orifices

If the vertical height of the orifice is large, so that the head producing
flow is substantially less at the top of the opening than at the bottom, the
discharge calculated for the small orifice, will not be the true value, since
the velocity will vary substantially from top to bottom of the opening.
Such an orifice is termed as 'Large orifice'

The method adopted for this case is to calculate the flow through a ‘thin
horizontal strip’ across the orifice (Fig 5.9), and then integrate from top to
bottom of the opening to obtain the theoretical discharge, from which the
actual discharge can be determined if the coefficient of discharge is

Area of strip = Bh

Velocity of flow through the strip = 2 gh
Fig 5.9: Flow through a large orifice
Discharge through the strip, Q   Area   Velocity 
= B 2 g  h 1 / 2h

For the whole orifice, integrating from h  H 1 to h  H 2 , gives


Total Discharge, Q  B 2 g  h1 / 2 dh

 3/ 2 3/ 2

B 2 g  H 2  H 1 …………..(5.10)
5.9 Elementary theory of Notches and Weirs

A 'Notch' is an opening in the side of a measuring tank or reservoir

extending above the free surface. It is, in effect, a large orifice which has
no upper edge, so that it has a variable area depending upon the level of
the free surface.

A 'Weir' is a notch on large scale, used for example to measure the flow of
a river. It may be sharp-edged or have a substantial breadth in the
direction of flow.

The method of determining the theoretical flow through a notch is the

same as that adopted for the large orifice. For a Notch of any shape (Fig

Considering a horizontal strip,

Fig 5.10: Discharge through a notch

Area of strip = b  h
Velocity through the strip = 2 gh
Discharge through the strip, Q  bh  2 gh ………………………..(5.11)

Integrating from h = 0 at the free surface to h = H at the bottom of the

Notch, we have;
Theoretical Discharge,
Q  2 g  bh1 / 2 dh ………………...(5.12)
Note: Before integrating equation (5.12), the breadth ‘b’ must be
expressed in terms of ‘h’.

For a ‘Rectangular Notch’, b  Cons tan t  B

Therefore, Discharge, Q  2 g  B  h1 / 2 dh

B  2 g  H 3 / 2 …………………………..(5.13)

For a ‘Vee-Notch’, with an included angle ‘  ’, b  2H  h  tan

Giving, Discharge, H  h   h1 / 2 dh
2 0
Q  2 g  tan

 2 2 
= 2 2 g  tan   H  h 3 / 2  h 5 / 2  0
2 3 5 

8 
Q 2 g  tan  H 5 / 2 …………………………………
15 2

The fluid flowing can do work as a result of its pressure ‘ p ’, velocity ‘ v ’

and elevation ‘z’ and the total energy per unit weight is given by:

p v2
H  z
g 2 g

Weight Energy
Power = Energy per unit time = x
time Weight

If ‘Q’ is the volume rate of flow, then

Weight per unit time = gQ

 p v 
Giving Power P  gQH  gQ   z  ……………………..(5.15)
 g 2 g 

1) Just inside a fire whose, the gauge pressure is 4 bar. Estimate the
velocity in the jet of diameter 50mm just outside the nozzle, taking the
inside hose diameter as 100mm. Determine also how much high the
jet from the hose might rise, if the hose is pointed vertically upwards.

2) Water discharges from a tank via a pipe, which runs out horizontally
from the bottom of the tank. If the water in the tank is 20m deep, and
the head loss in the pipe is known to be 10m, calculate the velocity of
the water on exit from the pipe.
If the end of the pipe is now placed at a distance of 10m below the
bottom of the tank, and the head loss in the pipe is now given as 12m,
calculate the new velocity of the water on exit from the pipe.

Comment on the two values of exit velocity

3) Water is supplied to a building from a tank (in which the depth is

1.5m) on the 10th storey. Consider the flow from a tap located 1m
above the floor of the 5th storey, whose floor level is 15m below the
10th storey level. The water emerges from the tap with a velocity of
5m/s, in a jet of diameter 1cm.

a. What is the head loss in the piping system conveying water from
the tank to the outlet from the tap?
b. A 26mm pipe leads to the tap and starts 0.5m below it. The gauge
pressure measured at the beginning of the pipe is equivalent to a
head of 5m of water. What is the head loss between the tank pipe
and the outlet from the tap?