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science

FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER FIVE

CLASS NOTES

Prepared By:

Edmund Tumusiime

5.1 Introduction

In this chapter, study is made on the energy transfers within a flowing

fluid, and also the prediction of fluid flow phenomena. Bernoulli's

equation will be developed and demonstrated in a more general form that

can accommodate apparent energy losses due to frictional and

separation effects, by application of conservation of energy principle.

of mechanical devices such as fans, pumps, or turbines, is considered

leading to the introduction of the general steady flow energy equation.

effects will be defined and the application of the energy equation to the

measurement of the flow rate and velocity is demonstrated for a range of

pipe flow and free surface flow conditions.

Consider an element of fluid (Fig 5.1) in motion

flowing fluid

The element will possess potential energy due to its elevation 'z' above

some chosen horizontal datum, and kinetic energy due to its velocity 'v'

like any other object.

Potential energy per unit weight = z

1 2

Kinetic energy of element = mv

2

v2

Kinetic energy per unit weight =

2g

A steady flowing fluid can also do work due to the force generated when

the fluid pressure acts on a given area in the flow. If the pressure at

section AB of area 'A' is 'p', then

Force exerted on AB = pA

After the weight 'mg' of fluid has moved along the stream tube, section AB

will have moved to A'B'.

mg m

Volume passing AB = =

g

m

Therefore, Distance AA’ =

A

m pm

= pA =

A

p

And, Work done per unit weight = …………………..................(5.1)

g

p

Note: The quantity is known as the ‘flow work’ or ‘pressure energy’

g

5.3 Bernoulli's Theorem

States that; 'for steady flow of a frictionless fluid along a streamline, the total energy

per unit weight remains constant from point to point’.

i.e.

Pr.E per unit K.E per unit P.E per unit T.E per unit

weight + weight + weight = weight = Constant

p v2

zH

g 2 g

p

where = pressure head (meters)

g

v2

= velocity head (meters)

2g

z = potential head (meters)

H = total head (meters)

2 2

p1 v1 p v

z1 2 2 z 2 ………………………………

g 2 g g 2 g

…………….(5.2)

(T.E/wt)1 = (T.E/wt)2

Note: The above equation (5.2) assumes that no energy has been

supplied to or taken from the fluid between points 1&2. Energy could

have been supplied by introduction of a pump. Equally, energy could

have been lost by doing work against friction or in a machine such as a

turbine.

conditions.

thus,

2 2

p1 v1 p v

z1 q 2 2 z 2 h w …………………………………(5.3)

g 2 g g 2 g

w = work done per unit weight

q = energy supplied per unit weight

Question

1. a) A tapering pipe of 2m length is placed in vertical position in such a

manner that its short end (10cm diameter) is at top and the big end

(20cm diameter) is at the bottom. If the discharge through the pipe is

30litres/sec, find the difference of pressures between the two ends.

top and bottom ends, and if gasoline of specific gravity 0.8 flows

through the pipe, then calculate the manometer reading.

will be the pressure difference?

the inlet and outlet sections. In a real fluid flowing in a pipe or over a

solid surface, the velocity will vary from the solid boundary, increasing

with increase in distance from the solid boundary. The kinetic energy per

unit weight of the fluid will increase in a similar manner.

elements of area ‘ A ’, and the velocity normal to each element is 'u', then

1

K.E per unit time passing through the element = A u 3

2

1 3

Total K.E passing per unit time = 2 u A

Total weight passing in a unit time = guA

Thus, taking into account the variation of velocity across the stream,

3

1 u A

True K.E per unit weight = ;

2 g uA

2

u Q

which is not the same as ; where u A ,

2g A

is the mean velocity

2

u

Therefore, True K.E per unit weight =

2g

where ‘ ’ is the ‘Kinetic energy correction factor’, whose value depends on the

shape of the cross-section and velocity distribution.

The changes of energy and its transformation from one form to another,

which occur in a fluid system, can be represented graphically. In a real

fluid system, the total energy per unit weight will not remain constant.

pump, it will gradually decrease in the direction of motion due to losses

resulting from friction and disturbance of flow at changes of pipe section,

or as a result of changes of direction.

Fig 5.2: Energy changes in a fluid system

The flow of water from the reservoir at ‘A’ to the reservoir at ‘D’ is

assisted by a pump, which develops a head ‘hp’ thus providing an

addition to the energy per unit weight of ‘hp’.

At the surface of the reservoir ‘A’, the flow has no velocity and is at

atmospheric pressure (zero gauge pressure), so that the total energy per

unit weight is represented by the ‘HA’ of the surface above datum.

As the fluid enters the pipe with velocity ‘u1’, there will be loss of energy

due to disturbance of the flow at the pipe entrance and a continuous loss

of energy due to friction as the fluid flows along the pipe, so that the total

energy line will slope downwards.

At ‘B’, there is a change of section with an accompanying loss of energy,

resulting in change of velocity to ‘u2’. The total energy line will continue

to slope downwards but with a greater slope since u 2 u1 and friction

losses are related to velocity.

At ‘C’, the pump will put energy into the system and the total energy line

will rise by an amount ‘hp’. The total energy falls again due to friction

losses and losses due to disturbance at entry to the reservoir, where the

total energy per unit weight is represented by the height of the reservoir

surface above datum (the velocity of the fluid being negligible; and hence

zero, and pressure atmospheric).

2

u

rise to the level of total energy line, but to a level ‘ 1 ’ below it, since

2g

some of the total energy is in form of kinetic energy. Thus, at point 1, the

energies present are:

Potential energy = z1

Pressure energy = p1 g

2

u1

Kinetic energy =

2g

the three energies adding up to the total energy at that point.

The line joining all points to which the water would rise, if an open stand

pipe (piezometer tube) were inserted is known as ‘Hydraulic gradient line’,

and runs parallel to the ‘Total energy line’ at a distance below it equal to

the velocity head.

Since the loss of energy due to friction and separation of the stream from

its boundaries depend on velocity of the stream, the losses can be

encapsulated in the kinetic energy equation as

1

K u 2 ;

2

where ‘K’ is a constant that depends upon the conduit

parameters such as length, diameter, roughness, or fitting

type, and ‘u’ is the local flow velocity.

1 2 1 2 1

p1 v1 gz1 p 2 v 2 gz 2 Ku 2

2 2 2

‘ p1 ’ and ‘ p 2 ’ at the reservoir open surface may be taken as zero since the

atmospheric pressure is the gauge pressure frame of reference.

Also, if the surface area of the reservoirs are very large as compared to

the cross-section areas of the connecting pipe, the velocities ‘ v1 ’ and ‘ v 2 ’

may be disregarded compared with the pipe flow velocity ‘ u ’.

1

g z1 z 2 Ku 2 ………………………………………

2

………...(5.2)

Consider now flow in a pipe which rises above the hydraulic gradient (Fig

5.3),

The pressure in portion ‘PQ’ will be below atmospheric, and will form a

‘Siphon’. Under reduced pressure, air or other gasses may be released

from solution, or a vapour pocket may form and interrupt the flow.

and the steady energy equation applied at the extremities, it would give

misleading results. The application of steady energy equation between

points 1 and the siphon (A), allows the practicability of the siphon to be

assessed.

practicability, between points 1 and ‘A’, gives,

1 2 1 2 1

p1 v1 gz1 p A v A gz A Ku 2

2 2 2

1

Where the friction and separation loss term K u 2 refer to loss

2

between 1 and ‘A’.

If the pipe between the two points is assumed constant diameter, then

the

local velocity in the loss term = Velocity at A = u A

1

giving, p A g z1 z 2 u 2 1 K ; u = pipe flow

2

velocity

5.7 MEASUREMENT OF FLOW AND FLOW VELOCITY

The piptot tube is used to measure velocity of the stream and consists of

a simple L-shaped tube facing into the oncoming flow (Fig 5.4)

If the velocity of the stream at ‘A’ is ‘u’, a particle moving from ‘A’ to the

mouth of the tube at ‘B’ will be brought to rest so that ‘u0’ is zero.

(Total energy per unit weight at A) = (Total energy per unit weight at B)

2

u2 p u0 p

Giving, 0

2 g g 2 g g

Such that

u2 p p

0 ………………………………………………

2 g g g

…….(5.3)

p p0

But z and hz

g g

u2

Thus, from (5.3), we have hz z

2g

Such that u 2 gh

Note: When the pitot tube is used in a channel, the value of ‘h’ can be

determined directly (Fig 5.4 (a)), but if it is to be used in a pipe, the

difference between the static pressure and the pressure at the impact

hole must be measured with a differential pressure gauge, using static

pressure tapping in the pipe walls (Fig 5.4 (b))

need calibration. Thus, the true velocity is given by u C 2 gh , where ‘C’

is the coefficient of the instrument, and ‘h’ is the difference of head

measured in terms of fluid flowing.

volume rate of flow through a pipeline. It uses the concept of pressure

difference to determine the quantity of flow passing per unit time for a

particular configuration.

As shown above, it consists of a short converging conical tube leading

into a cylindrical portion, called the ‘Throat’, of smaller diameter than

that of the pipeline, which is followed by a diverging section in which the

diameter increases again to that of the pipeline.

The pressure difference from which the volume rate of flow can be

determined is measured between the entry section 1 and the throat

section 2, often by means of a U-tube manometer.

sections 1 & 2, give:

2 2

p v p v

z1 1 1 z 2 1 2

g 2 g g 2 g

p p 2

2 2

v 2 v1 2 g 1 z1 z 2 …………………………………………(5.4)

g

A

For continuity of flow, A1v1 A2 v 2 Or v 2 1 v1

A2

2

A

2 p p 2

Giving from (5.4), v1 1 1 2 g 1 z1 z 2

A2 g

A2 p p2

Such that v1 2 g 1 z1 z 2

A 1

2

A2

2 1/ 2

g

A1 A2

And Volume rate of flow, Q A1v1 = 2 gH

A 1

2

A2

2 1/ 2

p1 p 2

Where, H z1 z 2 known as ‘departure from the hydraulic gradient’ is

g

determined by equating pressures at the datum level (i.e. X-X in the

above case)

A1

If the area ratio A m

A2

Then,

A1

Q 2 gH …………….(5.5)

m 2

1 1/ 2

Determination of H

To determine ‘H’, we equate pressures at level X-X in both limbs.

Thus, p1 g z1 z p 2 g z 2 z h man gh

p1 p 2

H z1 z 2 h man 1

g

Substituting into equation (5.5) gives the gives the equation for the flow

rate as

A1

Q 2 g man 1 ………………………………(5.6)

m 2

1

1/ 2

Notes:

Equation (5.6) indicated that flow is independent of elevation, so that

reading of the manometer is not affected by the inclination of the

meter.

(5.5) used, the values of ‘ z1 ’ and ‘ z 2 ’ and, therefore, the slope of the

meter must be taken into account.

In practice, some loss of energy will occur between the section 1 & 2,

thus the value of discharge ‘Q’ given by equation (5.6) is theoretical,

which is slightly greater than the actual value. A coefficient of

discharge ‘Cd’ therefore must be introduced.

changing the cross-section of the flow, so that the cross-sectional area is

less at the downstream pressure tapping than at the upstream tapping.

A similar effect can be achieved by inserting an ‘Orifice’ plate (Fig 5.6),

which has an opening in it smaller than the internal diameter of the

pipeline.

The arrangement is cheap compared with the cost of a venturimeter, but

there are substantial energy losses. The theoretical discharge can be

calculated from equation (5.5) but the actual discharge is less. A

coefficient of discharge must therefore be introduced (Cd = 0.65 for a

sharp edged orifice)

of a reservoir, through which fluid is discharged in form of a jet, usually

into the atmosphere. The volume rate of flow discharged through an

orifice will depend upon the head of the fluid above the level of the

orifice, and, it can therefore be used as a means of measurement.

vertical dimensions, which are small compared to the head producing

flow, so that it can be assumed that this head does not vary appreciably

from point to point across the orifice.

(Fig 5.7) shows a small orifice in the side of a large tank containing liquid

with a free surface open to the atmosphere.

the tank is large compared to the orifice, the velocity ‘ v A ’ will be

negligible; and hence zero.

At some point ‘B’ in the jet, just outside the orifice, the pressure ‘ p B ’ will

again be atmospheric, and the velocity ‘ v B ’ will be that of the of the jet ‘v’.

Taking the datum for potential energy at the centre of the orifice and

applying Bernoulli’s equation between points ‘A’ and ‘B’, and assuming

there is no loss of energy,

(Total energy per unit weight at A) = (Total energy per unit weight at B)

2 2

pA vA p v

i.e. z A B B zB

g 2 g g 2 g

jet is proportional to the square root of the head producing flow.

Note: Equation (5.6) applies to any fluid, 'H' being expressed as head of

the fluid flowing through the orifice.

Discharge

Q A 2 gH ………………………………………..(5.7)

given by equation (5.7), which must therefore be modified by introducing

the coefficient of discharge ‘Cd, so that

Actual discharge, QActual = Cd Qtheoretical

Or Q Actual C d A 2 gH …………….…(5.8)

Note: There are two reasons for the difference between the theoretical

and actual discharges; namely,

The velocity of the jet is less than that given by equation (5.6),

because there is loss of energy between points 'A' and 'B'.

C v v C v 2 gH

experimentally and is of order 0.97

Considering the contraction of the jet (Fig 5.8). The particles of the

fluid at the orifice converge at the orifice, and the area of the issuing

jet at 'B' is less than the area of the orifice at 'C'.

towards the centre and the pressure at 'C' is greater than atmospheric. It

is only at 'B', a small distance outside the orifice, that the paths of the

particles have become parallel. The section through 'B' is called 'vena

contracta'.

where ‘Cc’ is the coefficient of contraction which can be determined

experimentally, and depends on the profile of the orifice. For a sharp

edged orifice, of the form shown above, it is order 0.64

velocity at B)

= C c A C v 2 gH

=

C c C v A 2 gH ………………………. (5.9)

Cd Cc Cv

Note: The values of ‘Cc’ and ‘Cv’ are determined experimentally, and

values are available for standard configurations in British Standards

Specifications (BSS).

To determine ‘Cd’, it is only necessary to collect or otherwise measure the

actual volume discharged from the orifice in a given time, and compare

with the theoretical discharge.

such that,

Theoretical discharge

Question

A rectangular orifice in the side of a tank is 1.5m broad and 0.75m deep.

The level of water in the tank is 750mm above the top edge of the orifice.

Calculate the discharge through the orifice in litters per second if the

coefficient of discharge is 0.6

5.8.2 Theory of Large orifices

If the vertical height of the orifice is large, so that the head producing

flow is substantially less at the top of the opening than at the bottom, the

discharge calculated for the small orifice, will not be the true value, since

the velocity will vary substantially from top to bottom of the opening.

Such an orifice is termed as 'Large orifice'

The method adopted for this case is to calculate the flow through a ‘thin

horizontal strip’ across the orifice (Fig 5.9), and then integrate from top to

bottom of the opening to obtain the theoretical discharge, from which the

actual discharge can be determined if the coefficient of discharge is

known.

Velocity of flow through the strip = 2 gh

Fig 5.9: Flow through a large orifice

Discharge through the strip, Q Area Velocity

= B 2 g h 1 / 2h

H2

Total Discharge, Q B 2 g h1 / 2 dh

H1

2

=

3

3/ 2 3/ 2

B 2 g H 2 H 1 …………..(5.10)

5.9 Elementary theory of Notches and Weirs

extending above the free surface. It is, in effect, a large orifice which has

no upper edge, so that it has a variable area depending upon the level of

the free surface.

A 'Weir' is a notch on large scale, used for example to measure the flow of

a river. It may be sharp-edged or have a substantial breadth in the

direction of flow.

same as that adopted for the large orifice. For a Notch of any shape (Fig

5.10),

Area of strip = b h

Velocity through the strip = 2 gh

Discharge through the strip, Q bh 2 gh ………………………..(5.11)

Notch, we have;

Theoretical Discharge,

H

Q 2 g bh1 / 2 dh ………………...(5.12)

0

Note: Before integrating equation (5.12), the breadth ‘b’ must be

expressed in terms of ‘h’.

H

Therefore, Discharge, Q 2 g B h1 / 2 dh

0

=

2

B 2 g H 3 / 2 …………………………..(5.13)

3

For a ‘Vee-Notch’, with an included angle ‘ ’, b 2H h tan

2

H

Giving, Discharge, H h h1 / 2 dh

2 0

Q 2 g tan

H

2 2

= 2 2 g tan H h 3 / 2 h 5 / 2 0

2 3 5

Or

8

Q 2 g tan H 5 / 2 …………………………………

15 2

……(5.14)

5.10 POWER OF A STREAM

and elevation ‘z’ and the total energy per unit weight is given by:

p v2

H z

g 2 g

Weight Energy

Power = Energy per unit time = x

time Weight

p v

Giving Power P gQH gQ z ……………………..(5.15)

g 2 g

Questions

1) Just inside a fire whose, the gauge pressure is 4 bar. Estimate the

velocity in the jet of diameter 50mm just outside the nozzle, taking the

inside hose diameter as 100mm. Determine also how much high the

jet from the hose might rise, if the hose is pointed vertically upwards.

2) Water discharges from a tank via a pipe, which runs out horizontally

from the bottom of the tank. If the water in the tank is 20m deep, and

the head loss in the pipe is known to be 10m, calculate the velocity of

the water on exit from the pipe.

If the end of the pipe is now placed at a distance of 10m below the

bottom of the tank, and the head loss in the pipe is now given as 12m,

calculate the new velocity of the water on exit from the pipe.

1.5m) on the 10th storey. Consider the flow from a tap located 1m

above the floor of the 5th storey, whose floor level is 15m below the

10th storey level. The water emerges from the tap with a velocity of

5m/s, in a jet of diameter 1cm.

a. What is the head loss in the piping system conveying water from

the tank to the outlet from the tap?

b. A 26mm pipe leads to the tap and starts 0.5m below it. The gauge

pressure measured at the beginning of the pipe is equivalent to a

head of 5m of water. What is the head loss between the tank pipe

and the outlet from the tap?

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