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CHAPTER-I

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of the study


“Satisfaction is a kind of stepping away from an experience and evaluating it”.
Consumer satisfaction with a purchase depends upon the product performance relative
to his expectations. A consumer might experience various degrees of satisfaction. If
the product performances fall short of expectations, the customer is dissatisfied. If the
performance matches the expectations, the customer is satisfied. If the performance
exceeds expectations, the customer is highly satisfied or delighted.

Customer satisfaction is the extent of frequent buying of a product and service.


Customer satisfaction create value for customer, in short supervision of their hopes
and to fulfill their requirements. Consumer satisfaction is defined as meeting one`s
criteria or satisfying one`s hopes or we can say that if customer is satisfied with
product and services it has a different emotion or manners towards a particular brand
it has used. They more explain Consumer satisfaction is one of the main goal of
marketing action whereby it create relationship what consumers purchase and how
they act

Consumer satisfaction with a product/service refers to the favourability of the


individual’s subjective evaluation of the various outcome and experiences associated
with using or consuming the product service. The extent to which expectations are
realized is assumed to be directly related to the level of satisfaction experienced. If the
actual product outcome meets with or exceed these expected level of satisfaction
results. If the product outcomes are judged below the expectation dissatisfaction
occurs

Customer satisfaction is a term frequently used in marketing. It is a measure of how


products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. It
is defined as "the number of customers, or percentage of total customers, whose
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reported experience with a firm, its products, or its services exceeds specified
satisfaction goals. In a competitive marketplace where businesses compete for
customers, customer satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and increasingly has
become a key element of business strategy. More specifically, the focus is on
examining the grouped impact of the factors. First, this research draws on existing
research on the factors influencing customer satisfaction. Second, an empirical
research is conducted to discover the combined effect of different factors on customer
satisfaction.

Every consumer has certain expectations, needs and a strong desire to satisfy them.
To satisfy the expectations they purchase certain goods under the impression that the
goods would satisfy his expectations. If they are satisfied with the product they shall
become the consumer of the firm and also tell about the product to their friends and
others. The advertising improves the effectiveness of the producers and other sales
effort. Such factors finally lead to better volume of sales. Satisfaction is important to
the consumer because it reflects a positive outcome from the outlay of scarce
resources and the fulfillment of unmet needs. Today’s market is consumer oriented.
Consumer satisfaction is a major element to survive in the marketing field. The goods
produced by the producers and the traders must satisfy the consumer. The service
provided by the firms should not only satisfy the existing consumers but also attract
the potential consumers. Thus, minimizing dissatisfaction and maximizing satisfaction
are seen as important goals for both the firm and the consumer.

Philip Kotler defines customer satisfaction as a 'person's feeling of pleasure or


disappointment which resulted from comparing a product's perceived performance or
outcome against his/her expectations'.

Understanding customer satisfaction could be considered as the fundamental principle


of this research work. The definition of customer satisfaction given by Philip Kotler
(Kotler et al 2013) says that it is predetermined by how the expectations of the
customer are met. Customer satisfaction is directly connected to customers’ needs.
The degree to which these needs are fulfilled determines the enjoyment in the case of
conformity or disappointment from discrepancy (Hill et al. 2007, 31).
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Over centuries the Masala have gained greater foothold, not only in Nepal, but also all
over the world wherever good food is considered as necessity. A well-equipped
Nepalese kitchen has all major varieties of spices stocked. In Nepal, Masala are
available in almost all grocery shops. The common spices which are used in their raw
and fresh forms are available in vegetable shops. A company needs to view the
retailers in the same way it views its end users. Masalas play a very important role in
Nepalese cooking. “Masala” is the Nepali word for “Spice”. When a combination of
Masala, herbs and others condiments are ground together, it is also called “Masala”
Masala trade is a big business from time immemorial. Nepal produces variety of
Masala all across the country varying with the climatic conditions. Nepal has been
cultivating Masala for ages and also exporting them to other countries around the
world.

1.1.1. Introduction of Century Masala Udhyog


The Dugar family carries a 137 year old legacy in business. It all started when
Chandan Mal Dugar started trading in fabrics at a ‘haat bazaar’ (a weekly market
organised locally) in Biratnagar. His son Lunkaran Dugar not only continued the
trading business but also widened the business by stepping into agro products. The
Dugar group charted new heights after the four sons of Lun Karan took over the
business. Initially, the group had a presence in textiles and agro products, but later
expanded to jute exports, steel, rice mills, among others.
Late Tola Ram Dugar and his younger brother Moti Lal Dugar have played major
roles in the diversification of the business. After moving from Dharan to Biratnagar,
Tola Ram and Moti Lal diversified the business into jute processing and made
Biratnagar the base for the family business. According to Vivek Dugar, his father
Moti Lal started the practice of making cash payments to farmers while buying raw
food grains from them some six decades ago, which made a huge difference in the
agriculture sector.
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The group started a strawboard paper industry in 1966, ventured into rice and oil mills
in Dhangadi and Birgunj, established a stainless steel utensil industry and in 1972
entered the automobile business. These initiatives are considered to be some of the
key milestones in the Dugar Family’ business history.

At present, the legacy of Dugar’s business is carried out by four groups, each helmed
by the four brothers belonging to the third generation of the family. In 1962, the group
separated into two groups - TM Dugar and HC Dugar. In 1991, the TM Dugar group
separated into TM Dugar Group and KL Dugar Group. In 2015, Motilal Dugar
separated from TM Dugar group and formed MV Dugar Group.

Among them, KL Dugar is a leading business house in the food industry with brands
such as Dhara Oil and Gyan Rice. Similarly, Moti Lal has taken the automobile
business to new heights after restructuring the family run business. In addition, the
MV Group led by Moti Lal has plans for massive investment in the hydropower
sector. Currently, three hydropower projects, totaling 157 MW and amounting to Rs
21 billion, are under construction as part of its plan to engage in projects totaling 500
MW.

Century brand got recognition through its spices but since its establishment, we have
introduced various lines of products ranging from rice, pulses and other snacks.
Century Masala is exported to over 15 countries. As it is an internationally known
brand, the brand cannot be taken lightly. Century Masala need to be careful,
especially in maintaining quality. Its prime priority is to maintain not only the quality
of the spices but to give the best presentation while packaging too. The reason brand
is very much visible in the market is due to hardworking marketing team. Along with
the usual marketing gimmicks, company has been able to maintain brand image
through constant feedback from the consumers. It is because of the two-way
communication that brand is successful in the market. The various product of
century masala are chilly powder, turmeric poweder, coriander powder, cumin
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powder, black pepper powder, meat masala, chicken masala, momo masala, Century
masala, garam masala, chat masala, biryani masala and other various types of masala.

1.2. Statement of problem


Nowadays, a lot of masala products producing companies have started masala
products production all over the world. One of the famous one is Century Masala
product. The Century Masala producers produce many varieties of masala product
like Masalas, Pickles, Thokku, Ready to eat and Ready to Cook Product, for large
scale under the brand name of Century Masala. It is essential to study about the
Consumer satisfaction of Century Masala products in Biratnagar.The research
question of this study are :
1. Whether the customer are satisfied with Century Masala or not?
2. What are the factors that influence customer to purchase Century Masala?
3. What is the level of customer loyalty towards century masala?

1.3. Objectives of the study


The objective of this study is to :
1. To study customer satisfaction regarding Century Masala.
2. To examine the factor that influence customer to purchase Century
Masala.
3. To examine the level of customer loyalty towards century masala.

1.4. Significance of the study


Every study has its own significance. The significance of this study are:
1. To the management of Century Masala Udhyog
Most of the companies want to know about the consumer satisfaction normally. They
had made a huge amount of investment to make the product known to the consumers.
In order to know the effectiveness of sales and customer satisfaction can be made
through the particular survey. If the consumers are not satisfied they would switch
over to the other products it is very difficult to bring back those consumers to make
purchase and encourage them to make a word of mouth. This study will help
management of Century Masala to know about the customer satisfaction of Century
Masala.
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2. To the customer
This study will be helpful to the customer as reference to know about the whether the
people who are using century masala are satisfied or not.

3. To the further researcher


This study will also be helpful to student who will study about the customer
satisfaction of Century Masala.

1.5. Limitation of the study


The limitation of the study is:
1. This Study is based on primary data collected through questionnaire.
2. This Study is done on short period of time of 2 months only.
3. This study is based only one customer satisfaction analysis of Century Masala
, other parts of Century Masala will not be done such as advertising, financial
position.
4. Only limited data analysis tools is used as per the need of the study.

1.6. Organization of the study


Chapter I: Introduction
This chapter deals with brief introduction of the related topic. This chapter discusses
about background of the study, focus of the study, statement of the problem,
objectives of the study, limitations of the study and lastly rational choose study area.

Chapter-II: Review of literature


The review of literature deals with some related matters of the study. It consists of the
theoretical framework and the reviews of relate studies.

Chapter-III: Methodology
In this chapter, research design, data collection and procedure, period covered, nature
scope and sources of the data, data gathering instrument and statistical tools and it
also provides data presentation technique.
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Chapter-IV: Results
Chapter four deals with the presentation and analysis of data through different tables
and diagram. This chapter focus on the objectives of the study and analyze the data as
per the objective of the study. This chapter contain major findings of the study.

Chapter-V: Conclusion
The fifth chapter provides summary conclusion and recommendations. In the
summary, the present study is discussed briefly besides. At the end reference,
questionnaire and appendices are attached.
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CHAPTER-II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1. Introduction
The overall literature of this thesis can be divided in two parts. The first parts
concentrate on the conceptual framework; the second part focuses on measuring
and developing the customer satisfaction. These two parts linked together at
customer satisfaction point.

The second section of the theoretical section concentrates on the importance of


customer satisfaction, measuring and determining customer satisfaction, price
influence on customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer retention. The
theoretical part helps to understand that service quality and price influences
determine customer satisfaction. Improving customer satisfaction is mainly the
improvement of the gap arises in service quality formed by the customer
expectations when they interact with the services.

Customer satisfaction (often abbreviated as CSAT, more correctly CSat) is a term


frequently used in marketing. It is a measure of how products and services
supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. Customer
satisfaction is defined as "the number of customers, or percentage of total
customers, whose reported experience with a firm, its products, or its services
(ratings) exceeds specified satisfaction goals."

The Marketing Accountability Standards Board (MASB) endorses the definitions,


purposes, and constructs of classes of measures that appear in Marketing
Metrics as part of its ongoing Common Language in Marketing Project. In a
survey of nearly 200 senior marketing managers, 71 percent responded that they
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found a customer satisfaction metric very useful in managing and monitoring their
businesses.

It is seen as a key performance indicator within business and is often part of


a Balanced Scorecard. In a competitive marketplace where businesses compete for
customers, customer satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and increasingly
has become a key element of business strategy

Every consumer has certain expectations, needs and a strong desire to satisfy
them. To satisfy the expectations they purchase certain goods under the impression
that the goods would satisfy his expectations. If they are satisfied with the product
they shall become the consumer of the firm and also tell about the product to their
friends and others. The advertising improves the effectiveness of the producers
and other sales effort. Such factors finally lead to better volume of sales.
Satisfaction is important to the consumer because it reflects a positive outcome
from the outlay of scarce resources and the fulfillment of unmet needs. Today’s
market is consumer oriented. Consumer satisfaction is a major element to survive
in the marketing field. The goods produced by the producers and the traders must
satisfy the consumer. The service provided by the firms should not only satisfy the
existing consumers but also attract the potential consumers. Thus, minimizing
dissatisfaction and maximizing satisfaction are seen as important goals for both
the firm and the consumer.

Although sales or market share can indicate how well a firm is


performing currently, satisfaction is perhaps the best indicator of how likely it is
that the firm’s customers will make further purchases in the future. Much research
has focused on the relationship between customer satisfaction and retention.
Studies indicate that the ramifications of satisfaction are most strongly realized at
the extremes.
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It is considered that customers judge products on a limited set of norms and


attributes. Khan (2012) designed his researches as to manipulate actual product
performance, and his aim was to find out how perceived performance ratings were
influenced by expectations. This studies took out the discussions about explaining
the differences between expectations and perceived performance.

Westbrook and Reilly define- Customer satisfaction is as emotional response to


the experience provided by, (or associated with) particular products or services
purchased, retail outlets, or even molar patterns of behaviour, as well as the overall
marketplace.

Another author Hunt (1977) defines customer satisfaction as a process of


evaluation rendered that the experience was at least as good as it was supposed to
be.

Tse and Wilton (1988) elaborated hunt definition where they said ‘customer
satisfaction is a process of consumer’s response to the evaluation of the perceived
discrepancy between prior expectations and the actual performance of the product
as perceived after its consumption’.

Satisfaction is the customer’s fulfillment response. It is a judgmental that a


product or service feature, or the product or service itself, provides a pleasurable
level of consumption-related fulfillment. (Oliver 1977). ‘This definition
approaches two sides where the first approach defines satisfaction as a final
situation or as end-state resulting from the consumption experience and the second
approach emphasizes the perceptual, evaluative and psychological process that
contributes to satisfaction’ (Wayne & Deborah , 2009; 44).

Customer satisfaction usually leads to customer loyalty and product repurchase.


But measuring satisfaction is not the same as measuring loyalty. Satisfaction
measurement questions typically include items like:
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An overall satisfaction measure (emotional): Overall, how satisfied are you with
"DDC fresh yogurt"?

Satisfaction is a result of a product related experience and this question reflects the
overall opinion of a consumer's experience with the product's performance. Note that
it is meaningful to measure attitudes towards a product that a consumer has never
used, but not satisfaction for a product or brand that has never been used.

1. A loyalty measure (affective, behavioral): Would you recommend "DDC" to your


family and friends?

A series of attribute satisfaction measures (affective and cognitive): How satisfied


are you with the"taste"of DDC fresh yogurt? How important is "taste" to you in
selecting Yoni fresh yogurt?

2. Satisfaction and attitude are closely related concepts. The psychological concepts
of attitude and satisfaction may both be defined as the evaluation of an object and
the individual's relationship to it. The distinction is that satisfaction is a "post
experience" evaluation of the satisfaction produced by the product's quality or
value.

3. Intentions to repurchase (behavioral measures): Do you intend to repurchase DDC


fresh yogurt?

Satisfaction can influence post-purchase/post-experience actions other than usage


(such as word of mouth communications and repeat purchase behavior). Additional
post-experience actions might include product or information search activity, changes
in shopping behavior and trial of associated products.

2.1.1. Importance of customer satisfaction


In modern business philosophy business should be customer oriented and the
implementation of the main principles of continuous improvement, justifies the
importance of evaluating and analyzing customer satisfaction. In short, customer
satisfaction is considered as baseline of standardize and excellence of performance
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for many business. It also helps to identify the potential market opportunities.
(Evangelos and Yannis 2010, 1-2) .

Mentioning about importance of customer satisfaction in business perspective


Zairi (2000) said in one magazine ‘Customers are the purpose of what we do and
rather than them depending on us, we very much depend on them. The customer is
not the source of a problem, we shouldn’t perhaps make a wish that customers
‘should go away’ because our future and our security will be put in jeopardy.’

However, the concept of customer satisfaction is not a new one. It hit the business
sectors in early 1980’s where some researchers considered that customer
satisfaction is the best window into loyalty. They also found that it has direct
relationship with company profitability, ROI (return on investment), or share of
market. Satisfied customer think twice or several times before switching to
alternatives because they become attached emotionally and also afraid to believe
on alternatives quality Oliver (1997).

Zairi (2000) mention more about the importance as- ‘numerous studies that have
looked at the impact of customer satisfaction repeat purchase, loyalty and
retention. They all bring the similar message. First, satisfied customers share their
experience with average five or six people and dissatisfied customers normally tell
ten people about their unfortunate experience. Secondly, many customers do not
complain about dissatisfaction but it is needs to realize by the company and it
differs from industry to industry. Finally, people do not think dealing customer
satisfaction is not as costly as to recruit a new customer. Actually it is only twenty
five percent of the recruit a new customer.
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2.1.2. Measuring customer satisfaction


Now a day’s measuring customer satisfaction become an important issue to most
of business organization. In this regard there is a rumoured by Lord Kelvin (19th
century) ‘If you cannot measure something, you cannot understand it’. In recent
decades importance of customer satisfaction has increased thus many organization
considered measuring customer satisfaction should be set as a parameter. ‘It also
considered as reliable feedback and it provides as effective, direct, meaningful and
objective way the customers’ preferences and expectations’ (Saranavel & Sumathi,
2003)

Kubendran & Vanniarajan (2005) said customer satisfaction measurement provides


a sense of achievement and accomplishment for all employees involved in any
stage of the customer service process and it motivates people to perform as well as
achieve higher levels of productivity.

Evangelos and Yannis (2005, 5) mentioned in their book about main advantages of
measuring customer satisfaction, one- measuring customer satisfaction helps to
evaluate business current position against its competition and accordingly design
its future plans. Second- Satisfaction measurement is able to identify potential
market opportunities. Third- it helps to understand customer behaviour and
particularly to identify and analyze customer expectations, needs and desire.
Fourth- It improve the communication the total clientele. Fifth- By this
measurement it is also possible to examine whether new actions, efforts and
programs have any impact on the organizations’ clientele. Sixth- Organizations
weakness and strength against competition are determined, based on customers’
perception.

2.1.3. Determinants of customer satisfaction


Customer satisfaction is one of the most important issues concerning business
organizations of all types. Business organizations try to give best service to the
customer and also look for the reason that can increase the satisfaction level.
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According to Hokinson (1995, 13), these factors include friendly employees,


knowledgeable employees, Helpful employees, accuracy of billing, billing
timeliness, competitive pricing, service quality, good value, billing clarity and
quick service.

(a) Product and services


Customer satisfaction is significantly influenced by the customer’s evaluation of
product or service features. Thus, firms also study concerning satisfaction what
features and attributes of their services customer measure most and that firms
measures the perceptions of those features and overall service satisfaction. In this
regard, research has found that normally customers make trade-offs among service
like, price level versus service quality or friendliness of personnel versus
customization (Zeithaml et al. 2006, 110-111).

(b) Consumer emotions


Consumer emotions played a significant role with the product or services
satisfaction. When a customer in a happy moment of life or positive frame of mind
that influenced the service experience and feel good. Alternatively when
customers passing through bad mood or negative feelings they might over react or
respond negatively towards the service. It is normally seen that positive emotions
had a stronger effect than negative one. Specific emotions may also be influenced
by the consumption experience itself, influencing consumes’ satisfaction with the
service (Zeithaml et al. 2006, 111).

(c) Perception of equity and fairness


Perception of equity and fairness has a great impact on customer satisfaction.
Customers usually think about whether they treated fairly compare to other
customer, was the price eligible for the service, was they get good service. These
senses of fairness are central to customer satisfaction, particularly in service
recovery situations (Zeithaml et al. 2006, 112).
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(d) Perceived value


Perceived value is a kind of gain where a customer obtains in return for the paid
cost (Gallarza& Sorae2006). Perceived value is a strategic instrument to attract
and retain customers based on important factors for the success of industrial
corporations and service providers (Gallarza & Sorae, 2006). When we purchase a
product after using the product we will get the idea of cost put in and benefit of
using a product determine the product life, get the idea which will persuade
customers‟ purchase objective and behavior. Consumer compared benefit received
with cost in order to compare with competitors. When supposed value meets the
need and want of the customer then customer feel value and want to reuse the
product. When the supposed value is less than the expectation then the customer
loyalty is decreased. Product quality is measured when we use the product
comparative to the price paid by customer. Perceived value is the evaluation of the
price paid for the excellence. Quality is measured in term of the product
efficiency. Perceived value arrangement provide an chance for contrast of the
firms according their price-value ratio. In the model, perceived value is expected
to has a positive impact on satisfaction. There are different definitions of
definition of perceived value be present but the definition of Zeithaml (1988,) is
the best definition most commonly accepted perceived value in the literature of
tradeoff. it is tough to determine difficult nature of perceived due to the uni-
dimensional conceptualization policy is efficient and basic, but it cannot the value.

2.1.4.. Price Influence on customer


Price is a very popular tactic for consumer satisfaction. Customer will indicate
higher levels of satisfaction when they get a better deal (pay less price) relative to
a comparison other than they will when they pay more for relative worse deal.
They thought they paid less than the published price for that item if the customer
is satisfied.
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Zeithaml et al. (1996, 116-128) the customers’ use of price as a signal to quality
depends on several factors, they are accessibility of services cues to quality, brand
names that offer evidence of a company’s, level of advertising and the risks
associated with the service purchase.

Usually when the price is high, customer expects higher quality and better
services. On the other hand, when the price is too low, customer may doubt about
the quality of services. Thus, when company use any price promotion tactic, such
as- volume discounts, rebates, preferred customer discount, holiday sales or other
countless marketing offers they should be very careful about their product image
and how customer respond to their product and services.

2.1.5. Factor influencing customer satisfaction


Consumer behavior refers to the selection, purchase, and consumption of goods
and services for the fulfillment of their basic and the fundamental needs. There are
different phases involved in consumer behavior. Initially, the consumer finds the
needs and then goes for the selection and budgets the commodities and take the
decision to consume. Product quality, price, service, consumer emotion, personal
factors, situational factors, a perception of equity or fairness, product features are
some of the factors that influence the customer satisfaction. On the other hand,
several factors like mentioned in the figure influence the purchasing behavior of
the consumer.

(a) Cultural factors:


Culture is crucial when it comes to understanding the needs and behavior of an
individual. The values, perceptions, behaviors and preferences are the factors
basically learned at the very early stage of childhood from the people and the
common behaviors of the culture. Norms and values are carried forward by
generation from one entity to the other. Cultural factors represent the learned
values and perceptions that define consumer wants and behaviors. Consumers are
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first influenced by the groups they belong to but also by the groups (aspirational
groups) they wish to belong to (Kamarasan, 2014)

(b) Social factors:


Human beings live in an environment surrounded by several people who have
different buying behavior. A person’s behavior is influenced by many small
groups like family, friends, social networks, and surrounding who have different
buying behaviors. These groups form an environment in which an individual
evolves and shape the personality. Hence, the social factor influences the buying
behavior of an individual to a great extent (Kamarasan, 2014).

Personal factors: This consumer behavior includes personal factors such as age,
occupation, economic situation, and lifestyle. Consumer changes the purchase of
goods and services with the passage of time. Occupation and the economic
situation also have a significant impact on buying behavior. On the other hand, a
person with low income chooses to purchase inexpensive services. The lifestyle of
customers is another crucial factor affecting the consumer buying behavior.
Lifestyle refers to the way a person lives in a society and is expressed by the
things in the surroundings(Kamarasan, 2014).

Psychological factor: Many psychological factors like motivation, perception,


learning, and attitudes and beliefs play a crucial role in purchasing a particular
product and services. To increase sales and encourage the consumer to purchase
the service organization should try to create a conscious need in the consumer's
mind which develops an interest in buying the service. Similarly, depending on the
experiences of the costumer's experiences, beliefs, and personal characteristics, an
individual has a different perception of another. Attitudes allow the individual to
develop a coherent behavior against the class of their personality. Through the
experiences that the consumers acquire, the customer develops beliefs which will
influence the buying behavior(Kamarasan, 2014).
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The factors that influence customer vary from people to people and by the culture
of the people. Hence, for a successful consumer oriented market service provider
should work as a psychologist to procure consumers. By keeping in mind that
affecting factors can be made favorable and goal of consumer satisfaction can be
achieved. The study of consumer buying behavior is gateway to success in the
market. Overall the result shows that brand image, and perceive value, price,
health concern and quality influences customer satisfaction.

2.1.6. Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty


Based on Menon (2015), there are two critical thresholds affecting the link
between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. On the high side, when
satisfaction reaches a certain level, loyalty increases dramatically, at the same time
satisfaction declined to a certain point, loyalty dropped equally dramatically . The
customer is link to a business success. Customer satisfaction and loyalty should be
incorporated into the long-term goal of a business. Customer satisfaction is a key
element for every organization wishing to increase customer loyalty and create a
better business achievement. The role of satisfaction in loyalty largely indicates
that the former is a key determinant of the latter .

“Satisfaction” is an attitude, whereas loyalty is described as a behavior. Chen and


Wang (2009) suggest a view of customer satisfaction as a kind of consistency
evaluation between prior expectations and perceived service performance.
Accordingly, the positive evaluation of the product or service that the customer
acquires is a major reason to continue a relationship with a company’s service or
products, and an important pillar that upholds loyalty. Satisfied customers are thus
more likely to repurchase, lower their price sensitivity, engage in positive word-
of-mouth recommendation, and become loyal customers (Chen & Wang 2009.)

Customer satisfaction and loyalty represent a top priority of the company's success
and profit. Satisfaction does not automatically lead to loyalty it needs a step by
step process. Steps are described as customers going through different phases such
as awareness, exploration, expansion, commitment, and dissolution. Customer
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loyalty can be considered to be a byproduct of customer satisfaction. The


satisfaction of business customer leads to customer loyalty (Fornell 1992.)
Customer loyalty will increase significantly when satisfaction accomplishes at a
certain level and at the same time customer loyalty will decline automatically if
the satisfaction level drops to a certain point. Moreover, highly satisfied customers
are tending to be more loyal than the customers who are merely satisfied. Overall,
it is clear that there is a significant positive relationship between customer
satisfaction and customer loyalty. Customer loyalty leads to an increase in both
sales and profitability (Chi 2005.)

2.1.7. Management approach about customer expectation

Customer expectations are the belief about service delivery that serves as standard
or reference points against which performance is judged. Customer expectation is
difficult to know in service delivery, wrong actions and failure which could cause
of losing a customer, waste of investment, time and eventually business. Customer
expects some level of service quality from a service provider during the
transaction, therefore customer’s opinion about the quality standards and also what
kind of standard customer expect are essential to know (Zeithaml et al. 2009,75.)

Knowing what the customer expects is one of the most critical factors in
delivering good and service quality (Zeithamlet, 2009). Customer expectations are
the standards of performance against which service experiences are compared. The
difference between what a customer expects and perceives in the service delivery
formed customer gap. Which leads to customer dissatisfaction with the product or
service. To close this gap, the gap model (gap 1, 2, 3,4 and the not knowing what
customer expects, not selecting the right service designs and standards, not
delivering to service standards, not matching performance to promise respectively)
of service quality suggests that four gaps called provider gaps from one to four
needs to be closed. It is important for companies to close the gap between
customer expectations and perceptions in order to satisfy their customers and build
long-term relationships with them (Zeithaml & Bitner 2000, 481 – 482.)
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Grasp is the psychological expectations of customer. On the basis of effective


management of customer expectation, firstly it cannot ignore basic collection and
analysis of customer information which includes information collection and
statistical information based on properties of clients, the level and instability
consumption, personal preferences, service and satisfaction feedback information
regarding the analysis of customer expectations and needs provide a basis to
measure the level of information support. Analyze customer needs, assess
customer expectations: Customer need analysis is an important basis and means of
measuring customer expectation. According to Japanese management expert Kano
model, customer demand is divide into three categories such as basic demand,
expected demand and surprise demand. Zeithaml & Bitner (2003, 84-85) potrait
customer perceptions as the subjective assessments of actual service experiences.
This refers to how customers perceive services, how they assess the quality of
received services, weather they are satisfied, and weather they have received good
value. Accordingly, customer perceptions of service are also defined as customer
perceptions of quality, satisfaction and value. The customer perceptions are the
way that people see something based on their experience. Everyone’s perception
will be, at least, slightly different. Perception is also described as the end result of
a number of observations by the customer.

2.1.8. Strategy of increasing customer satisfaction and loyalty


The art of keeping a customer is a strategy of increasing the satisfaction and
loyalty. As discussed in the previous chapter, customer satisfaction and customer
loyalty are correlated, although the constructs are distinct with one another.
Customer loyalty is referred as the overall final outcome and the cumulative
experience which customers have with the company from the starting point
Customer satisfaction leads to customer loyalty because people already had a good
experience with the products and services provided by the company. Existing
customers are more aware of controlling and minimizing the risks before first hand
and are rational. In the previous studies, customer satisfaction is considered as the
former of the loyalty in service. Therefore, the relationship between these two
21

factors possesses the positive result in a business organization which is referred as


a success.

With regard to customer satisfaction, customer loyalty is being more important for
firms in this era. Loyal customers are more likely to consume the products and
services from the same organizations rather than from new one. On the other hand,
existing customer serves as a “fantastic marketing force” by sharing the
experiences, positive word-of-mouth, acting as an advisory and so on (Raman
1999). This will help to promote the marketing sector more effectively and
efficiently. Moreover, the different type of relationships can be found between
customer satisfaction and customer loyalty such as the core of loyalty is
satisfaction, loyalty as a major component of satisfaction, satisfaction is the initial
phase of loyalty. There are various factors that increase the customer satisfaction
which has been described detailed here.

An acceptable outcome is an absolute necessity for good perceived quality, but an


excellent service process creates a distinct and suitable competitive edge. The
quality of the service using the needs, status or lifestyle aspects create an extra
value for increasing the customer satisfaction and Loyalty. To develop service
management, it is important to understand what customers are really looking for
and what they evaluate. Customer expectation has a decisive impact on customer’s
quality perceptions. In the quality management process, unexpected surprises are
better than big promises. Many quality development processes are destroyed by
too many promises (Engle & Blackwell, 1982).

On the other hand, managing the customer complaints can play the important role
in increasing the customer satisfaction and the loyalty. At some point, every
business organization has to deal with the unsatisfied or upset customer. The
challenge is to handle such customers and make the customer believe on the
service again. Business nowadays needs to positively delight customers if the
organization wants to give the customer satisfaction and earn loyalty. It is
important to listen carefully to what the customer says and shows the value of their
22

problem and ask a question in caring and concerned manner. Apologize and
become a partner with the customer in solving the problem. Take a time to review
the issue with the customer and accept the challenge to turn into something
constructive (Entrepreneur organization 2017.)

Customer feedback and information are the important steps of developing an


organization. Customer feedback is an important tool for a business organization
to improve their business and product services. Feedback is the best way of
measuring the customer satisfaction. The process of winning new business and
retaining an existing customer is only possible with the feedback and complaints
from the consumers. Customer feedback provides the tangible data which can be
used a better business decision. Customer feedback provides valuable insight into
what customers think about product and services which help to build a successful
business organization in future (Client Heartbeat 2015.)

Information and communication technology impacts countries all over the world
(Huang, 1995). The continuous flow of the information to the employees and the
customers helps in the development of the company. Information systems form an
integral part of a working environment. New technology creates new opportunities
for the business organization. Over the past decades, information and
communication technology has helped to grow the business rapidly. At this era,
internet users in social media are tending to be more than 70 percent. Social media
is an effective channel for the customers to share the experiences with the
company and can be taken as the great opportunity to increase the customer
satisfaction. For this the company should pay more attention to make sure that the
social media monitoring tools are working efficiently. The customer prefers
reading other´s customer reviews and recommendation, based on that it would be
easier for them to make the decisions on buying the products.
23

2.2. Review of previous work


Subramani. A.K, (2015) examine that MDH Masala products encountered a lot of
hurdles, since selling masala powders during those days to the oriental women
who are traditionally conservative, it was not easy to sell. It was concept sealing
on “Easy Cooking” rather than marketing food products with self-rule and
tenacious attempts it was able to get into the kitchens of our country and the rest of
the world. The main objective of this research is to identify the customer
satisfaction towards MDH chicken masala in Avadi. Descriptive research was
used in this research. The research was based on the customer satisfaction of MDH
chicken masala and the product preference of the customers to identify the
competitors of MDH.

Bagal, (2015) analysis that Spices have been an integral part in every Indian food
is prepared at home or elsewhere. In recent times, large scale production of spice
powders, curry seasonings, masala powders, spice paste etc., has been taken up by
many firms. Marketing of these brands has been aggressive since there are several
brands firmly rooted in the market. The precise selection of spices for each dish is
a matter of national or regional cultural tradition, religious practice and to some
extent, family preference such dishes are called by specific names that refer to
their ingredients, spicing and cooking methods. The general satisfaction level is
very high among people with regards to Everest Masala. Another heartening trend
in market is that people like spices in their daily food for change.

R. Buvaneswari (2013) conducted study on ” a study on fast moving consumer


goods marketing with special reference to Sakthi masala products” provides
information about the FMCG. Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) goods are
popularly named as consumer packaged goods. Items in this category include all
consumables (other than groceries/pulses) people buy at regular intervals. The
most common in the list are toilet soaps, detergents, shampoos, toothpaste,
24

shaving products, shoe polish, packaged foodstuff, and household accessories and
extends to certain electronic goods.

Theo Muller (2010) in his article titled as “Loyal customers don’t quit... Satisfied
customers do”. In this essay we aim to debunk the long-held belief that customer
satisfaction research is the one and only measure to determine customer loyalty. In
fact, a customer satisfaction score is nothing more than a snapshot of how
customers feel about your products, your service or your brand, at a given point in
time. Tomorrow is another day and they may change their mind if one of your
competitors offers a better deal. If the bribe or incentive is big enough, even
satisfied customers will abandon your brand in droves. The reason for this is that
merely being satisfied, or even very satisfied, is a rational state of mind – there is
little or no emotion attached to that mind set. So any customer loyalty assumed
from their level of satisfaction alone would be misplaced. Customer satisfaction,
therefore, should not be confused with customer loyalty. This is supported by a
survey we conducted in 2007 for a financial services provider. The customer
satisfaction score consistently hovered above the 90% mark, yet, “only” 41% of
respondents (all customers) in that survey claimed that they would not change to
another provider if that provider offered a better interest rate and/or lower fees. A
loyal customer is certainly a satisfied customer, but a satisfied customer is not
necessarily a loyal customer.

Kavitha (2014) is to investigate the influence of brand loyalty on Masala product


buying behaviour of consumers of Salem city in the Tamil Nadu. The study
concluded that there is a high level of influence of product attributes on brand
loyalty among women in Salem. The study concluded that there is a high level of
influence of product attributes on brand loyalty among women in Salem. Product
attributes such as longer shelf life, taste, exotic flavour and varieties, excellent
grade of ingredients, pleasant aroma /distinctive flavour aroma, taste enhancer,
delicious, hygienically and good packaged, fresh and safe to use, optimum
processed, price worthiness, promotion and offers, and availability of various
25

quantity are most important aspects of brand. It is found that Sakthi branded
Masala powder create high level of brand loyalty among consumer.

Some of the researchers found that performance is depended on different pay


schemes. O’Halloran (2004) describes the relationship between different performance
related pay schemes affect the turnover. Variables are Profit sharing, experience job
satisfaction and turnover. Longitudinal database of individual is used for collection
data. Standard probates and panel data base is for analysis. Analysis will focus on a
nationally representative sample of 6,111 male and females who were between the
ages of 14-22 years old. To find that profit sharing reduce employee turnover
positively. Conclusion is that workers receiving some form of PRP, no matter what is
the type, have lower rates of employee turnover than workers who do not.
26

CHAPTER-III

METHODOLOGY

3.1. Introduction
Research is not confined to science and technology only. There are vast areas of
research in other disciplines such as languages, literature, history and sociology.
Whatever might be the subject, research has to be an active, diligent and systematic
process of inquiry in order to discover, interpret or revise facts, events, behaviours
and theories. Applying the outcome of research for the refinement of knowledge in
other subjects, or in enhancing the quality of human life also becomes a kind of
research and development.

Research is important both in scientific and nonscientific fields. In our life new
problems, events, phenomena and processes occur every day. Practically,
implementable solutions and suggestions are required for tackling new problems that
arise. Scientists have to undertake research on them and find their causes, solutions,
explanations and applications. Precisely, research assists us to understand nature and
natural phenomena.

Research methodology is a systematic way to solve a problem. It is a science of


studying how research is to be carried out. Essentially, the procedures by which
researchers go about their work of describing, explaining and predicting phenomena
are called research methodology. It is also defined as the study of methods by which
knowledge is gained. Its aim is to give the work plan of research.

3.2. Research Design


There are many ways to classify research designs, but sometimes the distinction is
artificial and other times different designs are combined. Nonetheless, the list below
offers a number of useful distinctions between possible research designs. A research
design is an arrangement of conditions or collections. Sometimes a distinction is made
27

between "fixed" and "flexible" designs. In some cases, these types coincide
with quantitative and qualitative research designs respectively, though this need not be
the case. In fixed designs, the design of the study is fixed before the main stage of
data collection takes place. Fixed designs are normally theory-driven; otherwise, it is
impossible to know in advance which variables need to be controlled and measured.
Often, these variables are measured quantitatively. Flexible designs allow for more
freedom during the data collection process. One reason for using a flexible research
design can be that the variable of interest is not quantitatively measurable, such as
culture. In other cases, the theory might not be available before one starts the
research.

Qualitative Research Design: Qualitative research is implemented in cases where a


relationship between collected data and observation is established on the basis of
mathematical calculations. Theories related to a naturally existing phenomenon can be
proved or disproved using mathematical calculations. Researchers rely on qualitative
research design where they are expected to conclude “why” a particular theory exists
along with “what” respondents have to say about it.

Quantitative Research Design: Quantitative research is implemented in cases where it


is important for a researcher to have statistical conclusions to collect actionable
insights. Numbers provide a better perspective to make important business decisions.
Quantitative research design is important for the growth of any organization because
any conclusion drawn on the basis of numbers and analysis will only prove to be
effective for the business. Further, research design can be divided into five types –

1. Descriptive Research Design: In a descriptive research design, a researcher is


solely interested in describing the situation or case under his/her research study. It is a
theory-based research design which is created by gather, analyze and presents
collected data. By implementing an in-depth research design such as this, a researcher
can provide insights into the why and how of research.
28

2. Experimental Research Design: Experimental research design is used to establish


a relationship between the cause and effect of a situation. It is a causal research design
where the effect caused by the independent variable on the dependent variable is
observed. For example, the effect of an independent variable such as price on a
dependent variable such as customer satisfaction or brand loyalty is monitored. It is a
highly practical research design method as it contributes towards solving a problem at
hand. The independent variables are manipulated to monitor the change it has on the
dependent variable. It is often used in social sciences to observe human behavior by
analyzing two groups – affect of one group on the other.

3. Correlational Research Design: Correlational research is a non-experimental


research design technique which helps researchers to establish a relationship between
two closely connected variables. Two different groups are required to conduct this
research design method. There is no assumption while evaluating a relationship
between two different variables and statistical analysis techniques are used to
calculate the relationship between them.

Correlation between two variables is concluded using a correlation coefficient, whose


value ranges between -1 and +1. If the correlation coefficient is towards +1, it
indicates a positive relationship between the variables and -1 indicates a negative
relationship between the two variables.

4. Diagnostic Research Design: In the diagnostic research design, a researcher is


inclined towards evaluating the root cause of a specific topic. Elements that contribute
towards a troublesome situation are evaluated in this research design method.

5. Explanatory Research Design: In exploratory research design, the researcher’s


ideas and thoughts are key as it is primarily dependent on their personal inclination
about a particular topic. Explanation about unexplored aspects of a subject is provided
along with details about what, how and why related to the research questions. This
study is about customer satisfaction analysis of Species & Food Products with
reference to Century Masala Udhyog, Biratnagar.
29

3.3 Nature and Sources of Data


There are mainly two sources of data. They are primary source and secondary source.

Primary data: Primary source are collected Primary data are those collected by the
researcher on the concerned topic, which are original in nature. In some cases,
primary data are also taken as personal interview, face to face and telephone
interview.

Secondary data : Data collected by someone else for some other purpose (but being
utilized by the investigator for another purpose).. Secondary data is data gathered
from studies, surveys, or experiments that have been run by other people or for other
research. The required for the study is collected directly from the buyers of the
products.

3.4 Sampling Plan


There are 41 masala industry in Nepal is considered as population for this study.
Among them 10 Garam Masala Udhyog are our population of the study. Out of them
Century Masala Udhyog, Biratnagar is taken as convenience sample for the study.
Beside consumers of Century masala users of Biratnagar Metropolitan Area are
considering as the population of this study. It consists of all the consumers in
Biratnagar Metropolitan Area. The population of the study represent the resident of
Biratnagar Metropolitan Area. Among them only 200 consumers are taken for this
study.

3.5 Data Collection Procedure


The data have been collected through the field survey of Biratnagar Metropolitan
Area. The respondents were identified and served with a set of questionnaire. The
questionnaire contained objective question. The respondents are from different
academic background which is from literate to graduate. The respondents from the
different sectors have been selected on personal contact. A set of questionnaire served
to them. The respondents are selected from the Biratnagar Metropolitan Area. Besides
this, the researcher has personally observed the buying activities of the people in some
public and shopping place of Biratnagar Metropolitan Area.
30

3.6 Data Processing, Tabulation and Analysis


The data are collected thoroughly checked, compiled and presented in appropriate
table to facilitate analysis and interpretation. The tabulated data have been analyzed
and interpreted using simple table and bar diagram .
31

CHAPTER-IV

RESULT AND ANALYSIS

4.1. Introduction
Chapter Four is the heart of the study. This chapter deals with a detailed data analysis
on consumer satisfaction analysis of Century Century Masala As per the objectives
the analysis has been derived with the help of statistical tools.

4.1.1. Gender of the respondent


The following table describes the gender wise distribution of respondents.

Table 1
Distribution of respondent in terms of Gender
Gender Respondent Percentage
Male 59 29.5
Female 141 70.5
Total 200 100
Note: Questionnaire, 2019
90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
Male Female

Figure 1. Gender of the respondent


32

Table 1 and Figure 1 indicate the gender of the sample respondent surveyed. Out of
the total 200 respondent taken for the study 141 (78.5%) respondent were female and
the remaining 59 (29.5%) of them were male respondent. Thus it can be concluded
that majority (70.5%) of the respondent were female.

4.1.2. Age of the respondent


Different age group of respondent participated in the study. The age of the respondent
participated in the study is presented in below table.
Table 2
Age of the respondent
Gender Respondent Percentage
Below 20 years 42 21
20 years – 30 years 88 44
30 years – 40 years 36 18
40years- 50 years 12 6
Above 50 years 22 11
Total 200 100
Note: Questionnaire, 2019

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Below 20 years 20 years – 30 years30 years – 40 years 40years- 50 years Above 50 years

Figure 2. Age of the respondent


33

Table 2 and Figure 2 shows the age of the respondent who participated in the survey.
Out of the total respondent 36 (18%) were between 30 years – 40 years of age, 88
(44%) were between 20 years- 30 years, 12 (6%) were between 40years-50years, 42
(21%) were below 20 years of age and 22 (11%) were above 50 years of age who
participated in the survey.

4.1.3. Educational qualification of the respondent


The educational qualification of the respondent is presented in the below table.

Table 3
Educational qualification of the respondent
Educational Qualification Respondent Percentage
Primary 45 22.5
Higher secondary 83 41.5
Graduate 39 19.5
Post Graduate 33 16.5
Total 200 100
Note: Questionnaire, 2019

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

0
Primary Higher secondary Graduate Post Graduate

Figure 3. Educational qualification of the respondent


34

Table 3 and Figure 3 shows the educational qualification of the respondent. Out of the
total respondent 83(41.5%) of the respondent had higher secondary education, 45
(22.5%) respondent had primary education, 39(19.5%) respondent had graduate
education and 33 (16.5%) respondent had post graduate educational qualification. It
can be concluded that majority of respondent were educated.

4.1.4. Occupational Status


The following table reveals the occupational of the respondent taken for the study.

Table 4
Occupational Status of the respondent
Occupational Status Respondent Percentage
Business 9 4.5
Employed 24 12
Professional 39 19.5
Housewife 128 64
Total 200 100
Note: Questionnaire, 2019

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
Business Employed Professional Housewife

Figure 4. Occupational status of the respondent


35

Table 4 and Figure 4 shows the occupational status of the respondent. Out of the total
respondent 128 (64%) of the respondent were homemaker, 39 (19.5%) were
professional, 24 (12%) were employed and 9 (4.5) were business man who
participated in the survey.

4.1.5. Awareness of different Brands of Century Masala


Respondent were asked about whether they know about different brands of Century
masala or not? The response of the respondent is presented in the below table.
Table 5
Awareness of different brands of Century masala
Awareness of different brands of masala Respondent Percentage
Yes 179 89.5
No 21 10.5
Total 200 100
Note: Questionnaire, 2019

11%

Yes
No

89%

Figure 5. Awareness of different brands of Century masala


36

Table 5 and Figure 5 shows the about the awareness of different brands of Century
among respondent, Out of the total respondent 179 (89.5%) of the respondent were
aware about the different brands of Century masala and 21 (10.5%) were not aware
about different brands of Century masala.

4.1.6. Frequency of buying Century masala


Respondent were asked about the frequency of purchase of Century masala. The
response of respondent is presented in the below table.
Table 6
Frequency of buying Century masala
Frequency of buying masala Respondent Percentage
One in a week 18 9
Once in a month 146 73
Once in a year 36 18
Total 200 100
Note: Questionnaire, 2019

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
One in a week Once in a month Once in a year

Figure 6. Frequency of buying Century masala


37

Table 6 and Figure 6 shows the frequency of buying Century masala by the
respondent. Out of the total respondent 146 (73%) respondent purchased Century
masala once in a month, 36 (18%) respondent purchased once in a year and 18(9%)
respondent once in a week. It can be concluded that most of the respondent purchased
Century masala once in month.

4.1.7. Reason for using Century masala


Respondent were asked about the reason behind using Century masala. The response
of the respondent is presented in the below table.

Table 7
Reason for using masala
Reason for using Century masala Respondent Percentage
Taste 116 58
Color 54 27
Other reason 30 15
Total 200 100
Note: Questionnaire, 2019

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
Taste Color Other reason

Figure 7. Reason for using Century masala


38

Table 7 and Figure 7 shows the respondent reason for using Century masala. Out of
the total respondent, 116 (58%) respondent use Century masala for taste, 54 (27%)
use masala for color and 30 (15%) use it for other reasons.

4.1.8. Preferred factor while purchasing Century masala


Respondent were asked about the factor they consider while purchasing Century
masala. The response of the respondent is presented in the below table.

Table 8
Preferred factor while purchasing Century masala
Reason for using masala Respondent Percentage
Brand name 48 24
Quality 39 19.5
Price 113 56.5
Total 200 100
Note: Questionnaire, 2019

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
Brand name Quality Price

Figure 8. Preferred factor while purchasing Century masala


39

Table 8 and Figure 8 shows the preferred factor while purchasing Century masala.
Out of the total respondent 113 (56.5%) respondent considered the price factor while
purchasing the masala, 48(24%) considered brand name while purchasing Century
masala and 39(19.5%) considered quality factor while purchasing Century masala. It
can be concluded that price factor play an important role in purchasing Century
masala.

4.1.9. Media impact on purchasing decision


Respondent were asked whether there is any media impact on purchasing decision of
Century masala or not? The response of the respondent is presented in the below
table.

Table 9
Advertisement media impact on purchasing decision
Advertisement media impact on purchasing decision Respondent Percentage
Yes 149 74.5
No 51 25.5
Total 200 100
Note: Questionnaire, 2019

26%

Yes
No

74%

Figure 9. Advertisement media impact on purchasing decision


40

Table 9 and Figure 9 shows the advertisement media impact on purchasing decision
of Century masala. Out of the total respondent 149 (74.5%) had view that media had
impact on purchasing decision of Century masala and 51 (25.5) respondent had view
that media does not had any effect on purchasing decision of Century masala.

4.1.10. Impact of advertisement on purchase of Century masala


Respondent were asked about the purpose advertisement serve on purchase of
Century masala. The response of the respondent is presented in the below table.

Table 10
Impact of advertisement on purchase of Century masala
Purpose advertisement serve Respondent Percentage
Inform about features and benefits of the product 140 70
Create the desired perception of the product 39 19.5
Create a preference for the product 21 10.5
Total 200 100
Note: Questionnaire, 2019

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
Inform about features and Create the desired perception Create a preference for the
benefits of the product of the product product

Figure 10. Impact of advertisement on purchase of Century masala


41

Table 10 and Figure 10 shows the impact of advertisement on purchase of Century


masala. Out of the total respondent 140 (70%) respondent were of view that
advertisement provide information about the features and benefits of the product, 39
(19.5%) respondent were of view that advertisement create the desired perception of
the product and 21 (10.5) respondent were of view that advertisement create a
preference for the product.

4.1.11. Customer loyalty toward century masala


Customer loyalty is one of the main factor which company consider now a days.
Customer loyalty towards century masala is presented in the below table.

Table 11
Customer loyalty towards century masala
Customer loyalty Respondent Percentage
High level 149 74.5
Middle level 36 18
Low level 15 7.5
Total 200 100
Note: Questionnaire, 2019

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
High level Middle level Low level

Figure 11. Customer loyalty towards Century Masala Udhyog


42

Table 11 and Figure 12 shows the customer loyalty towards Century Masala Uhdyog.
Out of the total respondent 149 respondent i.e. 74.5% were highly loyal towards
Century Masala Udhyog , 36 respondent i.e. 18% were middle loyal and 15
respondent have low loyalty towards Century Masala Udhyog.

4.2. Comparison between Century Century Masala and other Century masala
Different parameter were used to compare Century Masala. The result of different
parameter and respondent view on those parameter are presented in the table and
figure.

4.2.1. Level of Customer Satisfaction


Respondent were asked about the whether they are satisfied by variety of product
different masala company offered to them? The response of respondent is presented in
the below table.

Table 12
Satisfaction of respondent on variety of brands available to them
Response Respondent Percentage
Highly Satisfied 86 43
Satisfied 24 12
Neutral 45 22.5
Dissatisfied 36 18
Highly Dissatisfied 9 4.5
Total 200 100
Note: Questionnaire, 2019
43

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Figure 12. Satisfaction of respondent on variety of brands

Table 12 and Figure 12 shows the satisfaction of respondent on variety of brands


offered by the different masala company. Out of the total respondent 86 (43%)
respondent were satisfied by the variety of product company offered, 45 (22.5%)
respondent were neutral about the variety of product offered by the company and 9
(4.5%) were highly dissatisfied by the variety of product available to them as they
don’t get desired product from the company they are using.

4.2.5. Availability of brands in the market


Respondent were asked whether they were satisfied with the availability of brands in
the market. The response of the respondent is presented in the below table.

Table 13
Satisfaction of brands availability in the market
Satisfaction of brands availability in the market Respondent Percentage
Century masala 101 50.5
BKM Masala 66 33
Other 33 16.5
Total 200 100
Note: Questionnaire, 2019
44

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
Century masala BKM Masala Other

Figure 13. Satisfaction of brands availability in the market

Table 13 and Figure 13 shows respondent satisfaction regarding availability of brands


in the market. Out of the total respondent, 101(50.5%) were satisfied with the
availability of century masala in the market, 66(33%) were satisfied the availability of
BKM masala and 33 (16.5%) are satisfied with the availability of other brands of
masala.

4.4. Major findings of the study


Data were analyzed and presented in the table and graph form. The findings obtained
from the analysis of data are as below:

1. Out of the total 200 respondent taken for the study 141 (78.5%) respondent were
female and the remaining 59 (29.5%) of them were male respondent. Thus it can
be concluded that majority (70.5%) of the respondent were female.

2. Out of the total respondent 36 (18%) were between 30 years – 40 years of age, 88
(44%) were between 20 years- 30 years, 12 (6%) were between 40years-50years,
42 (21%) were below 20 years of age and 22 (11%) were above 50 years of age
who participated in the survey.
45

3. Out of the total respondent 83(41.5%) of the respondent had higher secondary
education, 45 (22.5%) respondent had primary education, 39(19.5%) respondent
had graduate education and 33 (16.5%) respondent had post graduate educational
qualification. It can be concluded that majority of respondent were educated.

4. Out of the total respondent 128 (64%) of the respondent were homemaker, 39
(19.5%) were professional, 24 (12%) were employed and 9 (4.5) were business
man who participated in the survey.

5. Out of the total respondent 179 (89.5%) of the respondent were aware about the
different brands of Century masala and 21 (10.5%) were not aware about different
brands of Century masala.

6. Out of the total respondent 146 (73%) respondent purchased Century masala once
in a month, 36 (18%) respondent purchased once in a year and 18(9%) respondent
once in a week. It can be concluded that most of the respondent purchased
Century masala once in month.

7. Out of the total respondent, 116 (58%) respondent use Century masala for taste,
54 (27%) use masala for color and 30 (15%) use it for other reasons.

8. . Out of the total respondent 113 (56.5%) respondent considered the price factor
while purchasing the masala, 48(24%) considered brand name while purchasing
Century masala and 39(19.5%) considered quality factor while purchasing
Century masala. It can be concluded that price factor play an important role in
purchasing Century masala.
46

9. Out of the total respondent 149 (74.5%) had view that media had impact on
purchasing decision of Century masala and 51 (25.5) respondent had view that
media does not had any effect on purchasing decision of Century masala.

10. Out of the total respondent 140 (70%) respondent were of view that
advertisement provide information about the features and benefits of the product,
39 (19.5%) respondent were of view that advertisement create the desired
perception of the product and 21 (10.5) respondent were of view that
advertisement create a preference for the product.

11. Out of the total respondent 149 respondent i.e. 74.5% were highly loyal towards
Century Masala Udhyog , 36 respondent i.e. 18% were middle loyal and 15
respondent have low loyalty towards Century Masala Udhyog.

12. Out of the total respondent 86 (43%) respondent were satisfied by the variety of
product company offered, 45 (22.5%) respondent were neutral about the variety of
product offered by the company and 9 (4.5%) were highly dissatisfied by the
variety of product available to them as they don’t get desired product from the
company they are using.

13. Out of the total respondent, 101(50.5%) were satisfied with the availability of
century masala in the market, 66(33%) were satisfied the availability of BKM
masala and 33 (16.5%) are satisfied with the availability of other brands of
masala.
47

CHAPTER-V

CONCLUSIONS

Century Masala is one of the popular of Masala as the household among the millions
of people today. There are wide variety of product available by these company.
Different people have different have different choice and they prefer the brand
accordingly. As masala is used in the cooking people are more aware about the
masala they are using. There might be various reason for using different brands of
masala by the consumer. Some prefer to use particular brand of masala because they
are easily available, some prefer to use because of price and some may prefer because
of advertisement of particular brand. This study is based on customer satisfaction
analysis of Century Masala.

This study has been dividend into five chapter in which chapter one deals with the
background of the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, significance
of the study, limitation of the study and organization of the study. Chapter two deals
with review of literature which contains conceptual framework and theoretical
framework. It also deals with the review of previous articles and thesis. Chapter three
deals with research methodology which contain research design, sources of data,
population and sample and data analysis tools . Chapter four is presentation and
analysis of data. It deals with the presentation and analysis of collected with various
tools and techniques. Last chapter is summary, conclusion and recommendation. It
deals with the summary of entire study, concludes the study and provide
recommendation for the further improvement.

5.1. Conclusions
The conclusion of the study are:
 Respondent considered the price factor while purchasing the masala.
 Media had impact on purchasing decision of masala.
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 Advertisements provide information about the features and benefits of the


product.
 Respondent were satisfied by the variety of product company offered.
 Majority of respondent were satisfied with the availability of century Masala
in the market.
 Respondent considered century Masala advertisement for their purchasing
decision.

5.2. Recommendations
After the summary and conclusion of the study. Recommendation were to the
company in order to improve the where they lack. The recommendation made after
the study are:
1. Product availability of the Nepalese masala is one of the problem for
consumer. So the Nepalese masala company should make easily product
available to the consumer.
2. Nepalese masala company should increase the variety of product available in
the market.
3. Consumer are satisfied with the quality of Century masala.
4. Century masala should ensure to make product available in the desire size by
the consumer.