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Nav Krishna Valley Junior College, Kupwad.

Electronics Laboratory
Project Report

On

Water level Indicator

Submitted by

PARTH PRAKASH PATIL.

Under Guidance of

Mrs. M.D. Bisurkar

Submitted to,
Maharashtra State Board of
Secondary and Higher Secondary
School Education, Pune.
Nav Krishna Valley Junior College, Kupwad.
Electronics Laboratory

Certificate

This is to clarify that,

Master Parth Prakash Patil.

HSC Seat No.

Project Name :- Water Level Indicator Using IC ILN2003

This Project is carried out under the Guidance ,Supervision and best
of my knowledge, is his original work and has not not presented earlier.

Project Guide
Mrs. M.D.Bisurkar Principal

Internal Examiner External Examiner

PREFACE

This project introduces a way that can be used for water


level indication. Here you will get the maximum possible
knowledge about “WATER LEVEL INDICATOR BY USING IC
ILN2003”. Maximum efforts have been taken to make the
project more comprehensive and lucid to understand.
This project covers variety of subtopics like basic
information, its uses, working and different aspects of water
level indication system.
I assure you to go through this project thoroughly to know
a bit more and facts about water level indicator.
Acknowledgement

It is with pleasure; I express our deep since of gratitude to Mrs.


SANGITA PAGNIS madam, Principal, NAV KRISHNA
VALLEY & JR. COLLEGE, SANGLI. For their valuable
guidance, stimulating discussions, constant encouragement &
timely advise through the present research work. To express
any thanking words is to show poverty of words.
I am dedicating me sincere thanks to Mrs. M.D.Bisurkar
Madam of Electronics for their encouragement to complete my
project work.
I am also thankful to all TEACHING STAFF of Science
Department who offered their valuable guidance. I am also
thankful to all NON-TEACHING STAFF of the department for
their valuable co-operation.
I would like to mention my FRIENDS, who have helped me
directly or indirectly.
Lastly, I hearty thanks to all those who have helped me
directly or indirectly.
Place :- Kupwad
Date:- / /2019
Thanking you ,
Parth Prakash Patil.
Submitted Year
2019-2020

INDEX
Chapter No. Chapter Name Page No.

1 Introduction 1
2 List of required components 2
3 Power Supply 3
4 Block Diagram 4
5 Circuit Diagram 5
6 Working 6
7 Description of Components
a) IC ULN 2003A 7
b) Resistor 8
c) LED 9
d) Buzzer 10
e) Battery
8 Advantages And Disadvantages 12
9 Conclusion 13
10 Bibliography 14
INTRODUCTION
The total amount of water available on earth has been
estimated to be 1.4 billion cubic Kms. About 95% of the Earth's
water is in the oceans, which is unfit for human consumption.
About 4% is locked in the polar ice caps, and the rest 1 %
constitutes all fresh water found in rivers, streams and lakes
which are suitable for our consumption.
It is estimated that a person in India consumes an
average of 135 litres per day. This consumption would rise by
40% by the year 2025.ln these days, when Earth's reserve of
consumable water is decreasing, every drop of water is
valuable.
Drinking water crisis in India is reaching alarming
proportions. It might very soon attain the nature global crisis.
Hence, it is of utmost importance to preserve water.
In many houses there is unnecessary wastage of
water due to overflow in overhead tanks. Automatic water Level
controller can provide solution to this problem. The operation of
water level alarm is on the fact that water conducts electricity,
so water can be used to open or close a circuit.
Water level alarm is simple yet effective way to
prevent wastage of water. Its simplicity in design and low cost
make it an ideal piece of technology for the common man.
Thus the automatic water level alarm is useful to
control water wastage in house hold applications as well as for
other water saving purposes including agricultural sector and
industries.
Based on the survey result it is found that the
automatic water level alarm has a rising demand. This system
is very beneficial in rural as well as urban areas.
It helps in the efficient utilization of available water
sources. If used on a large scale, it can provide a major
contribution in the conservation of water for us and for the
future generations.

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List Of Components

 IC ILN2003

 Resistor R1 – R5 → 1kΩ

 9 V Battery

 Buzzer

 Copper Wire

 PCB Board

 Soldering Wire and iron

 Solder
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Power Supply

The circuit uses ICLN2003 in unstable mode with {R1 to


R5} =1K ohms, As we know, the frequency of operation of
the ICLN2003 in unstable mode depends on the values of
R1R2,R3,R4,R5 By calculating the frequency of the gives
unstable circuit, we get the frequency to be around
1.18KHz. The frequency at which it operates is in the audio
frequency.

The ends are connected to pin-8 and ground


disables the circuit by default and it enables when the
water reaches its definite levels of each cable and the open
end wire dip inside the water.
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BLOCK DIAGRAM
(4)

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
ULN 2003A

(5)

Working Principal

The basic principal of this Water level


indicator is, “Water conducts electricity. Total 6
wires are there in vessel where one is Ground and
other 5 are inputs. The Ground wire is always in
water i.e. at bottom.
When water level rises then water will
start to touch the ends of cables at different levels
then then IC ILN2003 will get enabled and the
square wave output received is indicated by the
led’s and the buzzer at the full level. We receive
output of around 2.8kHz via buzzer. (*Not sure about this
result as it is as per mobile application.)

In this way by using simple principal of


conduction and combination of NOT gates i.e. IC
ULN 2003A we get the indication of different water
levels.

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DISCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS
1) IC ULN 2003A:-
The ULN2003 is known for its high-current, high-
voltage capacity. The drivers can be paralleled for even higher
current output. Even further, stacking one chip on top of
another, both electrically and physically, has been done.
Generally it can also be used for interfacing with a stepper
motor, where the motor requires high ratings which cannot be
provided by other interfacing devices.
Main specifications:
 500 mA rated collector current (single output)
 50 V output (there is a version that supports 100 V output)
 Includes output flyback diodes
 Inputs compatible with TTL and 5-V CMOS logic
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2) Resistor :-
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component
that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element_
Resistors act to reduce current flow. It act to lower voltage
levels within circuits. Variable resistors can be used to adjust
circuit elements (such as a volume control or a lamp dimmer),
or as sensing devices for heat, light, humidity, force or chemical
activity Two typical schematic diagram symbols are as follows:-

a.Resistor b. Potentiometer c. Variable Resistance

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3) LED:-
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light
source that emits light when current flows through it. Electrons in
the semiconductor recombine with electron holes, releasing energy
in the form of photons. The color of the light (corresponding to the
energy of the photons) is determined by the energy required for
electrons to cross the band gap of the semiconductor.[5] White light
is obtained by using multiple semiconductors or a layer of light-
emitting phosphor on the semiconductor device.[6] In a light
emitting diode, the recombination of electrons and electron holes
in a semiconductor produces light (or infrared radiation), a process
called "electroluminescence". The wavelength of the light depends
on the energy band gap of the semiconductors used. Since these
materials have a high index of refraction, design features of the
devices such as special optical coatings and die shape are
required to efficiently emit light.
Early LEDs were often used as indicator lamps LEDs have
many advantages over incandescent light sources, including lower
energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical
robustness, smaller size, and faster switching
Unlike a laser, the light emitted from an LED is neither
spectrally coherent nor even highly monochromatic. However
its spectrum is sufficiently narrow that it appears to the human
eye as a pure (saturated) color.[9][10] Nor, unlike most lasers, is its
radiation spatially coherent, so that it cannot approach the very
high brightnesses characteristic of lasers.
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4) Buzzer:-
A Buzzer or Beeper is a audio signaling device. The
buzzer used here produces around 2.8kHz (appro) by taking
output from the IC. At Full tank level.

5) Battery:-

Here We used 9V battery for providing Potential


difference across the circuit.

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The Typical Pin Configuration of IC ULN 2003A
IC Pins Pin Direction Pin Purpose
1 Seven Input pins of
2 I Darlington pair, each
3 pin is connected to
N the base of the
4 P transistor and can be
5 triggered by using
U
6 +5V
7 T
8 Ground Ground Reference
(Power) voltage 0 V
9 + Vcc (Power) For Voltage
(COM) Suppression
10 O Respective outputs of
11 U seven input pins.
12 Each output pin will
T be connected to
13 P ground only when its
14 respective input pin is
U
15 high(+9V)
16 T

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES


Advantages:
• Saves time
• Easy to operate
• Less area required for installation
• Low cost
• Eco-friendly
• Low maintenance
• Compact elegant design
• It ensures no overflow or dry running of pump, there
by saves electricity and water
• Fully automatic,
• saves manpower
• Consumes very less electricity, ideal for continuous
operation
• Beneficial in urban as well as in rural area
• It is ideal as it is difficult to access overhead tanks
• It is safe to operate and is within permissible voltage
limits
• Decreased labour cost.
• Water level indicator can be used in storage tanks,
boilers etc. to indicate water level
• Can be used to measure underground storage water
• Can be used in Hotels, Factories, Apartments,
Commercial complexes, Drainages etc .
• Can be used as fuel level indicator in vehicles
• Can be used to calculate incoming and outgaining
water in large reservoirs
• Liquid level indicator in huge containers in factories
• Used to predict arrival of flood

Disadvantages:-
 It’s a passive electrical system and hence it requires
continuous power supply.

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CONCLUSION
In these days, when Earth's reserve of
consumable Water is decreasing, every drop has its
value. Water level alarm is a simple yet effective
way to prevent wastage of water. Its simplicity in
design and low cost make it an ideal piece of
technology for the common man.
Thus the automatic water level alarm is
useful to control water wastage in house hold
applications as well as other water saving purpose
including agricultural sector and industries.
Hence we can conclude that, this system is
very beneficial in rural as well as urban areas. It
helps in the efficient utilization of available water
sources. If used on a large scale, it can provide a
major contribution in the conservation of water for us
and for the future generations.

(13)
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 NCERT 12TH Class
 Applied Digital Electronics by Phadake
Prakashan
 Wikipedia
 CircuitDigest
 ElectronicsGadget

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