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CONFIDENTIAL* 2

Section A [15 marks]


Answer all questions in this section.

1. The structure of a sugar molecule is shown below.

Which sugar has the above structure?


A. Ribose C. Galactose
B. Glucose D. Fructose

2. Which of these molecules is not the example of lipid?


A. Stearic acids C. Lecithin
B. Oestrogen D. Keratin

3. If 45% of the bases in one strand of DNA are adenine and guanine, the percentage of
thymine and cytosine in the complementary strand is
A. 15% C. 45%
B. 35% D. 55%

4. The palm oil which is cheaper in price tends to solidify when it is located in Cameron
Highlands but remains in liquid form if it is located in Ipoh.
Which of these explains best about this situation?
A. In the cheaper priced oil, the percentage of phospholipid is higher than the
percentage of the unsaturated fatty acids.
B. In the cheaper priced oil, the percentage of saturated fatty acids is higher than
the percentage of the unsaturated fatty acids.
C. In the cheaper priced oil, the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids is higher
than the percentage of the saturated fatty acids.
D. The higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids is higher than the
percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids.

5. Which of these organelles has only one membrane?


A. Nucleus C. Golgi apparatus
B. Lysosome D. Rough endoplasmic reticulum

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CONFIDENTIAL* 3

6. Which of these organs will have the least percentage of smooth endoplasmic
reticulum?
A. Liver C. Testis
B. Sebaceous gland of skin D. The fingernail

7. Which plant tissues present in an apple?


I. Tracheid tissue at the apple skin
II. Parenchyma tissue at the juicy fruit
III. Collenchyma tissue at the apple seed coat
IV. Schlerenchyma tissue at the apple seed coat

A. I and II C. II and III


B. II and IV D. I and IV

8. Which of these are can be diffuse through cell membrane by simple diffusion?
I. Amylase III. Oestrogen
II. Vitamin A, D, E and K IV. Glucose

A. I and II C. II and III


B. II and IV D. I and IV

9. Given are the solute potential and pressure potential of cell X and Y in 0.1M sucrose
solution.

0.1M sucrose solution: Cell X: Cell Y:

ψs = -55kPa ψs = -350kPa ψs = -175kPa

ψp = 0kPa ψp = +280kPa ψp = +105kPa

What is the direction of the water movement and what is the water potential of cell X
when it reaches equilibrium?

Direction of water movement Water potential of cell X at equilibrium


A. From cell X to cell Y -70kPa
B. From cell Y to cell X -70kPa
C. From sucrose solution to cell X -62.5kPa
D. From cell X to cell sucrose solution -62.5kPa

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10. Given that the intercept on y-axis of Lineweaver-Burk plot is 50 mol-1Lsec. Which of
these can be obtained from the data of y-intercept?
A. Km = 50 mol/Lsec C. V max = 50 mol/Lsec
B. Km = 0.02 mol/Lsec D. V max = 0.02 mol/Lsec

11.
This class of enzyme can transfer the functional group from one molecule to
another molecule.

This statement refer to enzyme class


A. Lyase C. Transferase
B. Hydrolase D. Oxidoreductase

12. At which phase of the Krebs cycle does the substrate level phosphorylation occurs?
A. Citrate to isocitrate C. Oxaloacetate to citrate
B. Α-ketoglutarate to succinyl Co-A D. Succinyl Co-A to succinate

13. Which of these is true of the fate of NADH and FADH2?


A. the oxidised NAD+ will be reused in the Krebs cycle and glycolysis in the
stroma
B. FADH2 will release its electrons to plastoquinone in the electron transport
chain
C. 2 ATP will be formed from 1 molecule of NADH whereas 3 ATP will be
formed from 1 molecule of FADH2
D. 2 molecules of hydrogen ions will be pumped from intermembrane space to
the matrix during the electron transportation from FADH2

14. Which of these occur during non-cyclic photophosphorylation?


I. Production of ATP III. Production of NADPH
II. Photolysis of water IV. Recycling of electron

A. I and II C. II and III


B. II and IV D. I and IV

15. Which of these is the example of CAM plants?


I. Maize III. Cactus
II. Pineapple IV. Sugarcane

A. I and II C. II and III


B. II and IV D. I and IV

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CONFIDENTIAL* 5

Section B [15 marks]


Answer all questions in this section

16. The passage of most molecules through membrane is regulated by proteins.


Diagram below shows four main steps in the release of insulin from beta cells, which
involves three types of transmembrane protein.

a) Explain why transmembrane proteins are necessary for glucose, potassium ions and
calcium ions to pass through cell surface membrane. [2 marks]

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

b)
i. Suggest why there are no channels for insulin release across the membrane.
[2 marks]
..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

ii. Name the process of insulin release across the membrane. [1 mark]

..........................................................................................................................................

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iii. Describe how insulin release across the membrane occurs. [3 marks]

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

17. The enzyme catalase is found in many plant and animal tissues. The enzyme catalyses
the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, which is a toxic product of metabolism. The
reaction is:

a) State the class of the enzyme. [1 mark]

..........................................................................................................................................

b) Graph below shows how the substrate concentration (hydrogen peroxide) affects the
rate of reaction of catalase.

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i. Use the graph to determine Vmax for catalase [1 mark]

..........................................................................................................................................

ii. Use the graph to calculate Km for catalase. Show your working. [2 marks]

c) Metal ions can act as a non-competitive inhibitor of catalase.


Explain how copper ions can act as a non-competitive inhibitor. [3 marks]
..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

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CONFIDENTIAL* 8

Section C [30 marks]


Answer any two questions in this section.

18.
a)
i. Distinguish glycosidic bonds found in starch from those found in cellulose.
[3 marks]
ii. Explain why these differences are of biological importance. [6 marks]

b) Describe the structure of DNA based on Watson and Crick model. [6 marks]

19.
a) Draw and label the structure of chloroplast found in C3 plant. [4 marks]

b) Describe how the structure of a chloroplast is related to its functions. [11marks]

20.
a) Describe the essential features of glycolysis and their role. [10marks]

b) Cyanide is a deadly poison and forms a complex with cytochrome.


How does cyanide affect cellular respiration? [5 marks]

***End of questions***

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1

Marking Scheme Biology Paper 1

Section A [15 marks]

1.D 2.D 3.C 4.B 5.B 6.D 7.B 8.C


9.C 10.D 11.C 12.D 13.D 14.D 15.A

Section B [15 marks]

16. a) 1. the transmembrane protein posses specific receptor for each


molecule / ion
1
2. control the movement of the molecule /ions into/out of cell 1

3. insoluble in lipid //hydrophilic molecules


1
Max : 2
b) i
1. produce in large amount
1
2. pack in vesicle 1

ii Exosytosis 1

iii 1. Vesicle contain insulin move toward the plasma membrane 1

2. The vesicle fuse with the membrane 1

3. The vesicle open and release insulin 1

Total: 8m
17. a) Oxidoreductases 1
b) i 3.4 μM min–1 1
ii 0.15 mM 1
1
½ Vmax // 3.4 / 2 = 1.7 μM min–1

c) 1. bind to, allosteric site / site other than active site 1


2. causes change in (shape of) active site 1
3. substrate cannot bind to enzyme active site 1
4. enzyme-substrate complex cannot form 1

Max : 3m
Total: 7m
2

Section C [30 marks]

18 a) i Starch Cellulose
1.The bond links α glucose 1.Links β glucose monomers
monomers 1

2.The monomers linked by α- 2.The monomers linked by β-1,4


1,4 bonds for liner bonds for liner structure 1
structure

3.The glycosidic linkages 3.The glycosidic linkages give


give helical shape straight chain molecule 1
molecule

4.Linked by α-1,6 bonds for 4.No α-1,6 bonds 1


branched structure Max: 3m
ii Starch
1. forming storage polysaccharide 1
2. helical / branched structure 1
3. form compact molecule for space saving 1
4. less soluble in water //do not effect water potential 1
5. the bond can be digested by amylase 1

Cellulose 1
6. Forming structural polysaccharide
7. Cellulose molecule is unbranched, hydrogen-bond with
1
other cellulose molecules forming microfibril
1
8. strong building material
1
9. The bond can be digested by cellulase
Max: 6 m
b) 
1. DNA have two polynucleotides that wind around forming 1
double helix
2. The polynucleotides are arrange in antiparallel /
1
opposite 5’ 3’ direction from each other
3. The sugar-phosphate backbones are on the outside of the
helix 1
4. and the nitrogenous bases are paired in the interior of the
helix 1
5. the two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds
between the paired basses 1
6. the bases paired in specific combination : (A) with (T) and
(C) with (G)
7. (A) can form two hydrogen bond with( T) and (C) can form 1
two hydrogen bond with( G) 1
8. Ten base pairs are present in each full turn of the helix
//each turn constitutes 3.4 nm length //The width of the 1
helix – 2.0 nm Max: 6m
3

Total: 15m
19 a) 1. Drawing 1
2. Label 3 ( 1 mark for
every three
labels)
b)
1. Two membranes enclose the chloroplast and separate it 1
from the cytosol 1
2. stroma contains RuBp carboxylase enzymes / rubisco
1
3. for, light independent stage / Calvin cycle
4. internal membrane system called thylakoid in stroma for 1
light dependent stage 1
5. thylakoids are flat disclike sacs (filled with fluid ) 1
6. (grana) have large surface area for (maximum) light 1
absorption
7. The thylakoids are arranged in stacks called grana 1
8. thylakoid membrane / grana hold photosynthetic pigments
9. pigments of photosystems are arranged in light harvesting
clusters 1
10. primary pigment / reaction centre / chlorophyll a, 1
surrounded by accessory pigments
11. accessory pigments pass energy to, primary pigment / 1
reaction centre / chlorophyll a
12. different photosystems absorb light at different 1
wavelengths
1
13. grana membranes also hold, ATP synthase / electron
carriers
14. for, photophosphorylation / chemiosmosis 1
Max: 11m

Total: 15m
20 a)
1. Glycolysis is the oxidation of glucose to pyruvate 1
2. Occurs in the cytoplasm of cells 1
3. Does not require oxygen
1
4. First phase energy / ATP investment phase
5. phosphorylation of the sugar 1
6. phosphate group is transferred from ATP to the sugar / 1
/The process uses ATP 1
7. Making the sugar more reactive 1
8. Fructose -1,6-bisphosphate /phosphorylated 6C sugar form 1
9. Lysis of the 6C sugar /Fructose-1,6- bisphosphate split into 1
two 3C molecules /dihydroxyacetone phosphate and
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate(G3P)
10. Second phase – NADH and ATP yielded 1
11. Oxidation of two 3C molecules /G3P 1
12. Two NADH are form 1
13. Substrate-level phosphorylation 1
4

14. Four ATP molecules are produced 1


Max: 10m

b) 1. cyanide is a non competitive inhibitor 1


2. binds to cytochrome oxidase of electron carrier 1
3. inhibits the action of cytochrome oxidase 1
4. by blocking the transfer of electron to oxygen 1
5. oxygen is not reduce to water 1
6. prevent ATP synthesis 1
7. resulting in the failure of cellular respiration 1
Max: 5m

Total: 15 m

***SKEMA JAWAPAN TAMAT***


Section A [15 marks]

Answer all questions in this section

1 Based on the table below, match the properties of wáter and the physiological roles.

Property Physiological role


I bipolar molecule (a) acts as a termal buffer
II low viscosity (b) evaporation of sweat has a cooling effect on the body
III high specific heat capacity (c) as a universal solvent
IV high heat of vapourisation (d) flows with less friction through narrow vessels

I II III IV
A (c) (d) (a) (b)
B (c) (d) (b) (a)
C (d) (a) (b) (c)
D (d) (c) (a) (b)

2 The chromatogram shows the products of hydrolysis of five disaccharides. Spot P represents the
hydrolysis of lactose.Which results were obtained from the hydrolysis of maltose and sucrose?

Maltose Sucrose

A Q R
B R S
C S T
D T Q

3 A marine mammal, such as a seal or porpoise, stores large amounts of subcutaneous fat as
blubber. Which one of the following is an incorrect statement about the adaptive value of
this fats?
A it has lower energy content for its mass in comparison to other food reserves such as
glycogen
B it has an insulating function, fat having a low heat conductivity
C it may act to streamline contours for swimming and be a protective shock absorber
below the skin
D it acts as an energy store, being utilized when the animal is short of food

4 Which structure is found in all eukaryotic cells?


A Chloroplast C Mesosome
B Centriole D Ribosome

5 What are the types of muscle tissue found in wall of aorta, wall of ileum and wall of ventricles of
the heart?
wall of aorta wall of ileum wall of ventricles of the
heart

A Smooth muscle Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle

B Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle

C Cardiac muscle Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle

D Involuntary Involuntary
Myogenic muscle
muscle muscle

6 The diagram below shows an onion cell that has been immersed in a concentrated sucrose
solution. Which of the following would be found in P?

A. Pure water C. Sucrose solution


B. Cell sap D. Cytoplasm

7 Which tissue corresponds to its cell shape correctly?

Tissue Cell shape

A Parenchyma Elongated and tubular

B Collenchyma Elongated and polygonal with tapering ends

C Sclereids Roughly spherical to elongated

D Sieve tubes Roughly spherical or irregular

8 A plant cell is found to have a solute potential of -1000 kPa and its pressure potential is
200 kPa What is the water potential that will cause water entry into the plant cell when
placed in a sucrose solution with a solute potential of -300 kPa ?
A -500kPa C -1100kPa
B -800kPa D -1500kPa

9. The diagram below shows part of the plasma membrane.


Which components affect the fluidity of the plasma membrane?
A. P, Q, R and S B. P, Q and S C. P and S D. Q and R

10 Which class of enzyme catalyses the reaction below?


Malate + NAD+ Oxaloacetate + NADH+H+

A Oxidoreductases
B Transferases
C Lyases
D Ligases

11 Which of the following are the components of biosensor?


i. A transduser
ii. A signal generator
iii. An amplifier
iv. A biological screening material
v A operator

A. i, ii and iii C i, iv and v


B i, ii, iii and iv D ii, iii, iv and v

12 The diagram below shows the structure of NAD. Which of the following is nicotinamide?

13 The diagram below shows parts of the electron transport chain.

What are P, Q, R, S and T

P Q R S T
A Fumarate Cytochrome b Cytochrome a Cytochrome c Cytochrome a3
B Malate Cytochrome c Cytochrome a Cytochrome b Cytochrome a3
C Fumarate Cytochrome b Cytochrome c Cytochrome a3 Cytochrome a
D Malate Cytochrome a Cytochrome a3 Cytochrome b Cytochrome c
14 Which of the following are the effects of photolysis of water?
i. increases the concentration of proton in thylakoid space
ii produces electrons to reduced oxidised photosystem II
iii produces CO2 in photosynthesis
iv photoactivates photosystem II

A i and ii C iii and iv


B ii and iii D i and iii

15 The graph shows changes in the pH of water in a fresh water lake on a summer day

.
What is the probable cause of the rise in pH between times X and Y?
A decreased levels of mineral nutrients in the water
B decreased levels of carbon dioxide due to photosynthesis
C increased levels of carbon dioxide due to respiration
D increased oxygen released by the producers

Answers for Section A

1 A B C D 9 A B C D

2 A B C D 10 A B C D

3 A B C D 11 A B C D

4 A B C D 12 A B C D

5 A B C D 13 A B C D

6 A B C D 14 A B C D

7 A B C D 15 A B C D

8 A B C D

Total = / 15
Section B [ 15 marks ]

Answer all questions in this section

16 Given below is a Michaelis-Menten equation,

Vo = Vmax [S]
KM + [S]

(a) Change the above equation to Lineweaver-Burk equation. [3 marks]

(b) Below is a Lineweaver-Burk graph for an enzymatic reaction without inhibitor.

(i) What is P and Q? [2 marks]


P: _______________________________________________________________

Q: _______________________________________________________________

(ii) Draw and label two graphs to show the effect of competitive and a non competitive
inhibitor, on the same graph above. [2 marks]

c) State ONE difference between non competitive inhibitor (reversible ) and non competitive
inhibitor (non reversible ) [1 mark]

_______________________________________________________________________________
17 The diagram below shows cross section of a bone

a) Identify structures of A, B, C and D [4 marks]

A: _____________________________________________________________

B:______________________________________________________________

D:______________________________________________________________

E:______________________________________________________________

b) State the function of cell X in the development of bone [1 mark]

_________________________________________________________________________

c) State TWO functions of bone besides providing support and shape to body [2 marks]

__________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________
Section C [ 30 marks ]

Answer any two questions in this section

18 (a) Protein can be divided into two groups, namely fibrous proteins and globular proteins, based on the
shape of the molecule. Describe the differences between the two types of proteins.
[7 marks ]
(b) i. Describe the differences between DNA and RNA. [4 marks]
ii. Distinguish phagocytosis and pinocytosis [4 marks]

19 (a) i) Compare and contrast the process of anaerobic respiration in plants and in animals.
[6 marks]
ii) List two application of anaerobic in industry [2 marks]

(b) There are three stages in the release of energy from a molecule of glucose : glycolysis,
Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. What are the essential features of each of
these processes? [7 marks]

20 (a) Describe the photosynthetic pathway which occurs in a named CAM plant. [9 marks]
(b) Explain how photorespiration is a wasteful process in C3 plants [6 marks]
MARKING SCHEME TRIAL SEMESTER 1 964/1 2018

Section A

1. A 2. D 3. A 4. D 5. B
6. C 7. B 8. A 9. C 10. A
11. A 12. B 13. C 14. A 15. B

Section B

16 a) 1 = KM + [S] 1m
Vo Vmax [S]

1 = KM + [S] 1m
Vo Vmax [S] Vmax [S]

1 = KM 1 + 1 1m
Vo Vmax [S] Vmax

b) P = -1/Km 1m
Q = 1/Vmax 1m

c) 2m

c)
Non- Competitive inhibitors (Non reversible) Non- Competitive inhibitors (reversible)

1. increasing in substrate concentration will 1. Effect can be overcome by reducing the end
not overcome the effect of inhibitor product produced

2. inhibitor bind to the active site forms 2. inhibitor bind to temporarily to the allostearic
permanent covalent bonds with active site of site of an enzyme in metabolic pathway
an enzyme
Any 1 (1/0 mark)

17 a) A : Haversian system/ osteon 1 mark


B : Bone lamellae 1 mark
D: canaliculus 1 mark
E: Haversian canal 1 mark

b) – Osteoblast secrete matrix that contain calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate and protein.
1 mark
c) – act as a reservoir for calcium and phosphorus 1 mark
- protect the internal organs 1 mark
- site for the blood cell synthesis ( bone marrow) 1 mark
- provide surfaces for attachment of skeletal muscles to enable movement 1 mark
Any 2
Section C

18 a) Differences between fibrous protein & globular protein 7 marks

Fibrous proteins Globular protein


They are secondary structure Have a tertiary structure 1/0
Polypeptide chains are cross-linked at interval Polypeptide chain is tightly folded to form a 1/0
to form a long fibers/sheet spherical shape
Insoluble in water, (due to the large number of Soluble in water 1/0
hydrophobic R groups)
Amino acid sequence may vary slightly Amino acid sequence is highly specific between 1/0
two samples
The length of polypeptide may vary in two The length of polypeptide is identical in two 1/0
samples of the same fibrous protein samples
Amino acid sequence is remarkable regular Amino acid sequence is rarely exhibit
regularities 1/0
Perform structural function Perform metabolic function
1/0
Eg: keratin, fibroin,collagen Eg:Enzymes 1/0

18 b) (i ) Describe the differences between DNA and RNA. 4 marks

DNA RNA
DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a double- Ribonucleic acid is a single-stranded 1/0
stranded, antiparallel polynucleotide chains. polynucleotide chain.
Nitrogenous bases of DNA are Adenine, Nitrogenous bases of RNA are Adenine, 1/0
Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine. / Do not have Guanine, Cytosine and Uracil./ Do not have
Uracil Thymine
Pentose/ 5C sugar of DNA is deoxyribose sugar. Pentose/ 5C sugar of RNA is ribose sugar. 1/0
DNA is formed/ replicated in the nucleus/ RNA is formed/ transcript in the nucleus and
Found almost entirely in the nucleus translate in the cytoplasm / Found in the 1/0
nucleus and cytoplasm of a cell
There is only one type of DNA There are three types of RNA such as mRNA,
rRNA and tRNA 1/0
Two strands coil around each other to form Straight chain and not spiral shape. 1/0
double helix
4 marks

(ii) Distinguish phagocytosis and pinocytosis

Phagocytosis Pinocytosis
Material taken into cell is in solid form/ cell Material taken into cells in liquid form/ cell 1/0
eating drinking
Selective process Not selective process 1/0
Particles are taken into cell by invagination of Liquids is taken into cell by invagination of 1/0
membrane or by pseudopodia membrane
It forms food vacuoles or phagosomes. It forms very tiny vesicles or pinosome/
pinocyctic vesicles 1/0

Hydrolases are added to digest its content. Hydrolase may not be added. 1/0
It occurs in amoeboid cells or phagocytes. It occurs also in the cells of intestines and liver. 1/0

19 a) i) Compare and contrast the process of anaerobic respiration in plants and in animals. 6 marks

Anerobic in plants Anaerobic in animals


1. Occurs when root are submerged // 1. Occurs when muscles are actively 1/0
oxygen supply decreases contracting
2. products are ethanol and carbon dioxide 2. product is lactic acid 1/0
3. pyruvate changed / reduced to ethanal 3. pyruvate directly changed / reduced to its 1/0
first then to its final product ethanol final product lactic acids
4. Accumulation of ethanol poison the plant 4. Accumulation of lactate causes fatigue of 1/0
muscle/lower blood pH
5. Ethanol cannot be converted back to 5. lactic acid can be converted back to
glucose glucose 1/0
6. occurs in roots/ seed/ /storage organ / 7. occur in skeletal muscles
tuber 1/0

Any 4
Similarities
1
1. Both regenerate NAD+ 1
2. Both remove pyruvate 1
3. Both occurs in cytoplasm of cell Any 2

2 marks
ii) List two application of anaerobic in industry. 1
1. Produce ethanol/alcohol to make beer/wine in brewing industry 1
2. Yeast produces CO2 to rise the dough in bread making industry
(may also accept production of yogurt, tapai or other suitable examples)

19 b) There are three stages in the release of energy from a molecule of glucose : glycolysis, Krebs 7 marks
cycle and the electron transport chain. What are the essential features of each of these processes?

Glycolysis :
P1. phosphorylation of glucose 1
P2. splitting of hexose (6C) to two triose molecules (3C) 1
P3. production of ATP directly / substrate level phosphorylation 1
P4. production of ATP indirectly – via electron transport chain / oxidative phosphorylation 1
Any 2
Krebs cycle :
P5. lost of CO2 to give a 2 carbon molecule. 1
P6. combination of two carbon and 4 carbon molecule to give 6 carbon molecule. 1
P7. oxidation of 2 carbon atoms to CO2 to generate a 4 carbon molecule 1
P8. production of ATP / GTP direct / substrate level phosphorylation 1
P9. indirect ATP via electron transport chain / oxidative phosphorylation 1
Any 3
Electron transport chain
P10. progressive transfer of electron to carriers at lower energy levels. 1
P11. the use of the energy associated with the electrons transfer to generate ATP from ADP 1
P12. the reduction of oxygen to water 1
Any 2

20. a) Describe the photosynthetic pathway which occurs in a named CAM plant. 9 marks
 An example of CAM plant is the cactus / pineapple. 1
P1: It shows the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism pathway. 1
P2: The stomata in CAM plants are closed during the day and opened at night. 1
P3: Fixation of carbon dioxide occurs at night in the cytoplasm of mesophyll cell. 1
P4: The carbon dioxide combines with phosphoenolpyruvate /PEP (3C acceptor) to produce 1
oxaloacetate (4C)/ OAA.
P5: The process is catalysed by the enzyme phsphoenolpyruvate carboxylase / PEP carboxylase// 1
PePCo which has higher affinity for carbon dioxide.
P6: The oxaloacetate is reduced to malate (4C acid) by NADPH 1
P7: The malate formed is stored in the cell vacuole at night to prevent pH changes in the cytoplasm. 1
P8: During day time, malate is oxidised producing pyruvate and carbon dioxide. 1
P9: The concentration of carbon dioxide increases in the cells of CAM plant and photorespiration is 1
prevented.
P10: Carbon dioxide combines with Ribulose Bisphosphate / RuBP, enter into Calvin Cycle, producing 1
organic molecules.
P11:Pyruvate is phosphorylated to regenerate phosphoenolpyruvate by ATP 1
Any 9
20 b) Explain how photorespiration is a wasteful process in C3 plants 6 marks

P1: In C3 plants, photorespiration occurs when oxygen concentration is high, compared to carbon 1
dioxide.
P2: Rubisco / RuBP carboxylase has higher affinity to oxygen 1
P3: Oxygen acts as competitive inhibitor in the enzyme RuBP carboxylase (Rubisco) // Oxygen 1
competes with carbon dioxide for the active site of the enzyme.
P4: Resulting ,RuBP is break down to one molecule of 2- phosphoglycolate (2C) and one molecule of 1
glycerate 3-phosphate / PGA (3C).
P5: Phosphoglycolate is converted into glycolate 1
P6: Glycolate is converted into glycine 1
P7: Glycine break down back to released carbon dioxide by using ATP and NADPH 1
P8: Lower photosynthesis rate// Less organic products are synthesised. 1
P9: Photorespiration will reduced the potential photosynthesis yield by up to 50%. 1

Any 6
CONFIDENTIAL*

Section A [15 marks]


Answer all questions in this section

1. The density of water is highest at 4oC. What is the effect of this property of water?
A. Water can function as lubricant.
B. Water can act as a thermal buffer.
C. Water can function as an insulating layer.
D. Water provides a cooling effect on animals.

2. Which of the following statements are true about triglycerides?


I. It is a non-polar molecule.
II. It forms a bilayer in cell membrane.
III. It is formed by condensation of one fatty acid and three glycerol.
IV. It has higher hydrogen to oxygen ratio compared with carbohydrate.
A. I and II B. I and IV C. II and III D. III and IV

3. At which levels of protein structure do ionic bonds occur?


A. Quaternary
B. Quaternary and tertiary
C. Quaternary, tertiary and secondary
D. Quaternary, tertiary, secondary and primary

4. Which of the following is not true about prokaryotes and eukaryotes?


Prokaryotes Eukaryotes
A. 70S ribosome 80S ribosome
B. Has circular DNA Has linear DNA
C. Can perform meiosis Can perform mitosis and meiosis
D. Cell wall made up of murein Cell wall made up of cellulose or chitin

5. The diagram above represents the basic structure of a cell membrane. Which component
allows vitamin E to move into the cell?

6. A special poison can break up the cytoskeleton of the cell. Which of the following cell
processes will be affected directly by the poison?
A. Photosynthesis C. Protein synthesis
B. Respiration D. Cell division

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7. The graph shows the energy


level for enzyme catalysed
and uncatalysed reactions.
Which of the following shows S
the overall change in free R
energy of the enzyme T
catalysed reaction? Q
A. Q
B. R
C. S
D. T

8. Which of the following comparison between competitive inhibitor and non-competitive inhibitor
of enzyme is correct?

Competitive inhibitor Non-competitive inhibitor


A. Attaches to active site of enzyme Attaches to allostearic site of enzyme
B. Increases Vmax of reaction Reduces Vmax of reaction
C. Reduces Km of enzyme Km of enzyme remains unchanged
D. Effect cannot be overcome by substrate Effect can be overcome by substrate
concentration concentration

(𝐴𝐴+𝐺𝐺) (𝐴𝐴+𝐺𝐺)
9. If the ratio of in one DNA strand is 0.40, what is the ratio of in its
(𝑇𝑇+𝐶𝐶) (𝑇𝑇+𝐶𝐶)
complementary strand?
A. 0.40 B. 0.60 C. 1.50 D. 2.50

10. Which of the following statements are true about the reaction shown above?
I. The reaction happens in cell cytoplasm.
II. 2H+ are released and received by NAD+.
III. Carbon dioxide is released in the reaction.
IV. Enzyme pyruvate kinase catalyses the reaction.
A. I and III B. I and IV C. II and III D. II and IV

11. A runner in marathon was facing insufficient of oxygen supply in his body when he was
approaching the finishing point. How many ATP is produced by his leg muscle cells from
each glucose molecule in that condition?
A. 0 ATP B. 2 ATP C. 36 ATP D. 38 ATP

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12. An experiment was carried out to investigate the anaerobic respiration process in plant cells
as shown in the table:

Test tube Content


I Glucose + cytoplasm without organelles
II Glucose + mitochondria
III Pyruvate + cytoplasm without organelles
IV Pyruvate + mitochondria

After some incubation period, in which test tube is carbon dioxide most likely to be found?
A. I and III B. I and IV C. II and III D. II and IV

13. A type of weedkiller can block the electron flow in electron transport chain of
photophosphorylation. How does it work to kill the wild grass?
A. Blocks the photolysis of water.
B. Stops the photoactivation of chlorophyll.
C. Stops the production of ATP and NADPH.
D. Denatures the enzyme used in photosynthesis.

14. Which of the following conditions can produce the highest photosynthesis yield?

Concentration of CO2 Light colour


A. High Red and blue
B. High Blue and green
C. Low Red and blue
D. Low Blue and green

15. At which stage of Calvin cycle that NADPH is oxidised?


A
RuBP 3-phosphoglycerate B
1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate
D
glyceraldehydes 3 phosphate C

Section B [15 marks]


Answer all questions in this section.

16. The diagram shows a type of biological molecule.


(a) Name the molecule shown. [1]
____________________________________________________
(b) Two of the molecules shown may combine to form a disaccharide.
(i) Name the chemical reaction involved. [1]
____________________________________________________
(ii) Name the bond that holds the two molecules together. [1]
____________________________________________________

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(iii) Draw the structure of disaccharide formed in the space below. [2]

(c) The molecule shown can be used to form a type polysaccharide. Describe the importance of
the polysaccharide to living organisms. [3]
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

17. The diagram shows a cross section of a C4 plant leaf structure.


(a) (i) Name the enzyme found in cell X that is used in carbon fixation. [1]
__________________________________________________________________________
(ii) What is the significance of the enzyme in (a) (i) to this type of plant? [2]
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

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(b) (i) Identify cell Y. [1]


__________________________________________________________________________
(ii) How does cell Y obtain carbon dioxide to carry out the light independent reaction? [1]
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
(c) Open burning is one of the human activities that threatens the environment. By referring to
C3, C4 and CAM plants, suggest which type of plant would gain more benefit from the effect
of open burning? Justify your answer. [2]
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

Section C [30 marks]


Answer ONLY two questions in this section.
18. (a) Describe the structures and functions of three types of ground tissues in plants. [9]
(b) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of transmission electron microscope
as compared to light microscope. [6]

19. (a) Describe the features of the plasma membrane that allow it to maintain its fluid [9]
-mosaic pattern.
(b) Explain the substrate specificity of an enzyme based on the lock & key model. [6]

20. (a) Explain how many ATP can be produced from one molecule of acetyl-CoA that [9]
enters Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation during aerobic respiration in a
muscle cell.
(b) Describe the effects of carbon monoxide on respiration. [6]

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ANSWER SCHEME UPP SEM 1 2020 SSI Kulai

Section A [15 marks]


1. C 6. D 11. B
2. B 7. A 12. A
3. B 8. A 13. C
4. C 9. D 14. A
5. D 10. C 15. C

Section B [15 marks]


16. (a) β-glucose
(b) (i) condensation
(ii) (β)1,4 glycosidic bond
(iii)

(c) - cellulose [1] + any 2


- long linear/straight/unbranched chain
- (layers of parallel cellulose molecules) form microfibrils / fibres
- (high tensile strength) as support/building materials / plant cell wall

17. (a) (i) PEP carboxylase


(ii) - high affinity to CO2 / binds to CO2 more efficiently
- prevent photorespiration
(b) (i) Bundle sheath cell
(ii) CO2 produced from oxidation of malate to pyruvate
(c) [answer must be justified by suitable reason]
- C3 plants, high CO2 prevent photorespiration [2/0] or
- C4/CAM plants, high temperature (due to greenhouse effect) closes
stomata and increases photorespiration [2/0]
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Section C
18. (a) 1. Parenchyma [1]
S1: - Usually spherical/isodiametric/thin primary cell wall/large central vacuole/
loosely arranged / flexible / retain ability to differentiate into other
types of plant cells [any 1]
F1: - synthesising/storing organic compound / fleshy tissue of fruits /
major component of ground tissue //
- perform photosynthesis/metabolic reactions //
- provide turgidity (for support) [any 1]

2. Collenchyma [1]
S2: - generally elongated cells / have thicker primary walls than
parenchyma cells / unevenly thickened primary walls (usually at
corner) / compactly arranged [1]
F2: - support young parts of plant shoot / provide flexibility //
- carry out photosynthsis [any 1]

3. Sclerenchyma [1]
S3: - secondary cell walls / cell walls thicken by lignin / elongated (with
tapered end) / dead at maturity / tightly packed / empty lumen [1]
F3: - provide mechanical strength/support/rigidity to plants //
- sclereids protect the seed/impart hardness to nutshell/gritty texture
to pear [any 1] [3x3 = 9m]

(b) Advantage:
1. very high resolution / up to 2nm
2. permits very high magnifications of 250,000 times
3. able to view detail structures at the molecular level [max 3m]

Disadvantage:
1. kill specimen during preparation
2. alter specimen structure during preservation
3. special techniques (of thin sectioning) are needed to prepare specimens //
preparation of material is time-consuming
4. need to stain the specimen to obtain sufficient contrast
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5. expensive / high cost


6. requires expert training to run the equipment
7. specimen gradually deteriorates in electron-beam [max 4m] [9+6 = 15]

19. (a)
1. plasma membrane is made up of mainly proteins and phospholipid
bilayer
2. numerous proteins scatter in the phospholipid bilayer (giving the
mosaic pattern)
3. positions of the proteins are constantly moving in the phospholipid
bilayer
4. hydrophobic/non-polar region of protein / hydrophobic amino acids of
protein interacts with hydrophobic/polar/fatty acid tails of phospholipid
5. enable protein to stay in membrane [dependent on P4]
6. channel surfaces of the proteins / hydrophilic/polar region of protein
interacts with cytoplasm
7. channel/pore proteins enable ions/polar molecules to pass through
membrane [dependent on P6]
8. phopholipid molecules are free to rotate/move laterally (giving the
fluidity of membrane)
9. cholesterol molecules are present between the phospholipid
10. cholesterol helps to regulate/control the fluidity/stability of the
membrane
11. makes membrane more fluid/prevent solidification at low temperature
and less fluid at high temperature
(b)
1. Active site is the specific site for substrate to bind to
2. The site has a 3-dimensional structure/conformation
3. It is made up of specific arrangement of amino acids
4. The active site is referred as lock and substrate is referred as key
5. Substrate (with definite shape) binds complementary to the active site
6. To form enzyme-substrate complex
7. Bonds are broken/new bonds are formed/substrate is converted to
product
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8. The active site is unchanged or can be reused / recycled after the


reaction. [max 6m] [Total: 9+6=15M]
20. (a)
Krebs cycle:
1. Oxidative decarboxylation of citrate to α-ketoglutarate produces 1
NADH
2. Oxidative decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate to succinyl-CoA produces
1 NADH
3. 1 GTP/ATP produced by substrate level phosphorylation when sccinyl-
CoA converts to succinate.
4. Oxidation of succinate to fumarate produces 1 FADH2.
5. Oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate produces 1 NADH.

Oxidative phosphorylation:
6. Each NADH generates 3 ATP
7. Each FADH2 generates 2 ATP

8. 3 NADH x 3 = 9 ATP
9. 1 FADH2 x 2 = 2 ATP
10. + 1 ATP from Krebs cycle = 12 ATP [any 8 + P10 = 9m]]

(b)
1. Carbon monoxide is a non-competitive inhibitor
2. binds to cytochrome oxidase
3. blocks the transfer of electron through electron transport chain (to
oxygen)
4. oxygen is not reduced to water
5. protein gradient not generated
6. prevents ATP synthesis / chemiosmosis / stop oxidative
phosphorylation
7. resulting in the failure of cellular respiration / death of cell
8. CO binds to (haem group of) haemoglobin to form
carboxyhaemoglobin
9. reducing the oxygen transport in blood. [any 6]
[Total: 9+6 = 15m]
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(Nama) (Kelas)
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SMK TINGGI SEGAMAT


(SEGAMAT HIGH SCHOOL)

PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN STPM SEMESTER 1


(FIRST TERM STPM TRIAL EXAMINATION)

Instructions to candidates: For examiner’s use


(Untuk kegunaan
DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO. pemeriksa)
There are fifteen questions in Section A. For each question, four choices of answers Section A
are given. Choose one correct answer and indicate it on the multiple-choice Answer (Bahagian A)
Sheet provided or circle the answer. Read the instructions on the multiple-choice Answer 1 – 15
Sheet very carefully. Answer all questions. Marks will not be deducted for wrong Section B
answers. (Bahagian B)
16
Answer all questions in Section B. Write your answers in the spaces provided.
17
Answer any two questions in Section C. All working should be shown. For Section C
numerical answers, unit should be quoted wherever appropriate. Begin each answer on (Bahagian C)
a fresh sheet of paper and arrange your answers in numerical order.
Answer may be written in either English or Bahasa Melayu.
Total
(Jumlah)
Arahan kepada calon:
JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA ANDA DIBENARKAN BERBUAT DEMIKIAN.
Ada lima belas soalan dalam Bahagian A. Bagi setiap soalan, empat pilihan jawapan diberikan. Pilih satu
jawapan yang betul dan tandakan jawapan itu pada Borang Jawapan Aneka Pilihan yang dibekalkan atau buat
bulatan pada jawapan tersebut. Baca arahan pada Borang Jawapan Aneka Pilihan itu denganteliti. Jawab semua
soalan. Markah tidak akan ditolak bagi jawapan yang salah.
Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian B. Tulis jawapan anda di ruang yang disediakan.
Jawab m a n a - ma na dua soalan dalam Bahagian C. Semua jalan kerja yang hendaklah ditunjukkan. Bagi
jawapan berangka, unit hendaklah dinyatakan di mana-mana yang sesuai. Mulakan setiap jawapan pada helaian
kertas jawapan yang baharu dan susun jawapan anda mengikut tertib berangka.
Jawapan boleh ditulis dalam bahasa Ingeris atau Bahasa Melayu

This question paper consists of 8 printed pages and no blank page.


(Kertas jawapan ini mengandungi 8 halaman bercetak dan tiada halaman kosong.)

© Hakcipta SMK Tinggi Segamat 2018

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(*Kertas soalan ini SULIT sehingga peperiksaan kertas ini tamat.) SULIT*
2
Section A [15 marks]
Answer all questions in this section.

1. Which property of water allows aquatic organisms in ponds to survive in liquid water
during the winter month?

A Water is a universal solvent.


B Water is a dipolar molecule.
C Water has its maximum density at 40C.
D Water has a high surface tension.

2. The structure below shows a type of monosaccharides.

Which of the following statement correctly describe the structure?

A Act as a source of energy.


B It is a constituent of ATP.
C It is a constituent of nectar.
D It is a intermediates in photosynthesis.

3. Which of the following substances can be analysed using electrophoresis?

I DNA fragment
II Amylase
III Chlorophyll pigments
IV Fresh liver tissue

A I and II.
B I and III
C II and IV
D III and IV

4. Which of the following characteristic determines animals as eukaryotes?

A The DNA is circular double stranded.


B The DNA is not surrounded by specific membranes.
C The DNA forms a complex without histones.
D 80S ribosomes occur as free particles in the cytoplasm.
3
5. The process of digesting old or damaged cells by enzyme is called

A autophagy.
B autolysis.
C phagocytosis.
D metamorphosis.

6. The longitudinal section of a plant tissue is shown in the diagram below.

Which tissue is shown by the diagram?

A Parenchyma
B Collenchyma.
C Sclerenchyma fibres
D Sclereids

7. Which epithelial tissue is found in the lining of Bowman’s capsule?

A Simple columnar
B Simple cuboidal
C Simple squamous
D Pseudostratified

8. The individual of phospholipid and some protein molecules move around within their
layer is described as.

A mosaic
B fluidity
C selectively permeable
D viscous
4
9. The table below shows two hypothesises and their description.

Hypothesis Descriptions
p Active site and substrate are exactly complementary.
I Lock-and-key
q Binding occur when enzyme collides with substrate molecule.
r Active site is flexible.
II Induced fit
s Random movement bring the substrate into active site of the enzyme.

Which hypothesis corresponds to their description?

p q r s
A I II I II
B II I II I
C I I II II
D I II II I

10. Which class of enzyme show the reaction below?


ATP AMP + Pi + Pi

Amino acid + tRNA Amino acid-tRNA complex


Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

A Transferases
B Oxidoreductases
C Ligases
D Lyases

11. What are the advantages of an immobilised enzyme system?

I More chance of substrate molecules bind to active site of enzyme.


II Active site of enzymes molecules are not covered by the inert matrix.
III The operation can be carried out at higher temperature.
IV Product form without purification.

A I and II
B I and III
C II and IV
D III and IV

12. Which of the following statement about Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) is true?

A It is an inorganic non-protein compound.


B It is derived from vitamin B2, adenine, ribose and two phosphates.
C FADH2 is oxidised form and reduced to FAD.
D It is an enzyme activators.
5
13. What are the mobile electron carriers in electron transport chain?

I Ubiquinone
II Cytochrome C
III NAD dehydrogenase
IV Succinic dehydrogenase

A I and II
B I and III
C II and IV
D III and IV

14. The diagram below shows the ultrastructure of chloroplast. Where is the attachment of
chlorophyll molecules and accessory pigment?

15. What is the products of oxidation of ribulose biphosphate during photorespiration?

I One molecule of glycerate 3-phophate.


II Two molecules of glycerate 3-phosphate.
III One molecule of phosphoglycolate.
IV Two molecules of phosphoglycolate

A I and III
B II and III
C I and IV
D II and IV

Answer for section A

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
6
Section B [15 marks]
Answer all questions in this section

16. The diagram below shows the structure of Golgi apparatus.

(a) Name structure Q and face R. [2 marks]

Structure Q: .......................................................................................

Face R: ..............................................................................................

(b) Give one function of Golgi apparatus. [1 mark]

.......................................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................

(c) Name and state the function of face P. [2 marks]

Name: ................................................................................................

Function: ......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................

(d) (i) What is the technique used to separate and isolate Golgi apparatus from animal
cell? [1 mark]

.......................................................................................................................................................

(ii) What are the basic principles of the technique you mention in (d) (i)? [2 marks]

.......................................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................
7
17. The diagram below shows two shuttle system and the stage occur during cellular
respiration.

Shuttle system

V 2 NADH
2 NADH
W 2 FADH2

Acetyl Krebs Electron transport


Glycolysis
Co A cycle chain and
chemiosmosis

(a) Name the type of shuttle system operates in V and W. [2 marks]

Shuttle system V: ....................................................................


Shuttle system W: ..................................................................

(b) What is the process of ATP production via electron transport chain and chemiosmosis?
[1 mark]
.......................................................................................................................................................

(c) Explain why shuttle system in W only generate 2 ATP? [2 marks]

.......................................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................

(d) Give one example of tissue operate via system V. [1 mark]

.......................................................................................................................................................

(e) Where does Krebs cycle occur in plant cell? [1 mark]

.......................................................................................................................................................
8
Section C [30 marks]

Answer any two questions in this section.

18. (a) Describe three chemical and three physical properties of water and relate its
physiological roles in organism. [12 marks]

(b) Describe basic principles of paper chromatography in pigment separation. [3 marks]

19. (a) Explain the effects of competitive and non-competitive inhibitors on the rate of
enzyme activity of reversible inhibitor. [10 marks]

(b) Sketch the graph and explain how enzyme affects the activation energy. [5 marks]

20. (a) Explain the absorption spectrum and action spectrum of photosynthetic pigments.
[6 marks]

(b) Explain carbon dioxide fixation in CAM plant. [9 marks]

- End of questions paper –

Prepared by: Checked by: Approved by:

_________________________ ________________________ __________________________


(CHIONG YEW MING) (SURIADI BIN OSMAN) (RUKIAH BINTI MARJAN)
Biology Teacher Head of Form Six Biology Senior Assistant of Form Six
Segamat High School Department Segamat High School
Segamat High School
9
Trial Exam (Sample answers)
Biology, Lower 6, October 2018
Segamat High School

1. C 2. B 3. A 4. D 5. B
6. A 7. C 8. B 9. D 10. C
11. D 12. B 13. A 14. D 15. A

16. (a) Structure Q – Cisterna, face R- Trans face 2


(b) Packaging, storing, modifying protein // formation of lysosomes // secretes
polysaccharides for the formation of cell pates and cell walls // formation of peroxisomes.1

(c) Name: cis face, function: received protein from endoplasmic reticulum. 2
(d) Differential centrifugation // cell fractionation 1
(e) size/mass // shape // density Any 2

17. (a) Shuttle system V: Malate-aspartate, W: Glycerophospate 2


(b) Oxidative phosphorylation 1
(c) Cytosolic NADH+H+ are transferred to dihydroxyacetone phosphate which enters the
mitochondrion. 1
The electrons are used to reduce FAD to FADH2 instead of NAD+, generating only 2 ATP.1
(d) Liver // heart // kidneys 1
(e) Mitochondria matrix 1

18 a)
Chemical properties Description Mark
Solvent Many kinds of molecules can move freely in cells, permitting a 1+1
diverse array of chemical reactions.
Bond Angles - This stronger attraction for electrons gives the oxygen atom a 1+1
partial negative charge (-) and each hydrogen atom carries a
partial positive charge (+).
- Bond angle of 104.5o between the 2 covalent oxygen-hydrogen
bonds.
Hydrogen Bond Water molecules tend to attract each other, forming hydrogen 1+1
bonds between the negatively charged O atom and the positively
charged hydrogen atom of other water molecules.
Dipolar / Bipolar Water molecule is dipole, which means one part of the molecule 1+1
(the hydrogen end) is slightly positive, the other part is slightly
negative (the oxygen end).
Any 3
Physical properties Description Mark
Cohesiveness Leaves pull water upward from the roots; seeds swell and 1+1
germinate.
Highest Density at 4ºC Ice on surface of pond: insulates water below to increase chances 1+1
of survival for life underwater.
High Surface Tension Many small organisms (eg. water strider, pond skater) rely on 1+1
surface tension to settle in water or to skates over its surface.
High Specific Heat Water stabilizes the temperature of organisms and the 1+1
Capacity environment.
High Latent Heat of Evaporation of water cools body surfaces. 1+1
Vaporisation
Low Viscosity Water can flow through narrow blood vessels with less friction. 1+1
Any 3
* Biology Raven, 11th edition Page 27
10
(b) Basic principles of paper chromatography
 Size 1
 Solubility 1
 Absorption 1
All three
19. (a) Competitive inhibitor
 It is structurally similar to the true substrate for the enzyme. 1
 Competes with substrate for the enzyme active site. 1
 It increases the apparent KM. 1
 Does not change the observed Vmax. 1
 Can overcome by increasing substrate concentration. 1
 Any suitable example of competitive inhibitors 1
Any 5
* Biochemistry, Concept and connection, Global edition Page 287-288

Non-competitive inhibitor
 Substrate can bind either to the enzyme or the enzyme–inhibitor complex. 1
 However, the enzyme–inhibitor–substrate complex does not proceed to form product. 1
 The value of Vmax is decreased. 1
 The value of KM is unchanged. 1
 Noncompetitive inhibition cannot be overcome by increasing the substrate
concentration. 1
 Any suitable example of non-competitive inhibitors 1
Any 5
19. (b)

 Graph show activation energy without enzyme and with enzyme. 1


 Correct labeled including y-axis and x-axis. 1
 Enzyme exert their action by affecting an intermediate stage in a reaction—the
transition state. 1
 The energy needed to reach this transition state is the activation energy. 1
 Enzymes stabilize this transition state, thus lowering activation energy. 1
 An enzyme does not alter the proportion of reactant ultimately converted into product.
1
th
* Biology Raven, 11 edition Page 111-112
11
20 (a) Absorption spectrum
 A graph plotting a pigment’s light absorption versus wavelength is called an
absorption spectrum. 1
 The absorption spectra of chloroplast pigments provide clues to the relative
effectiveness of different wavelengths for driving photosynthesis, since light can
perform work in chloroplasts only if it is absorbed. 1
 The spectrum of chlorophyll a / chlorophyll b / carotenoids suggests that violet-blue
and red light work best for photosynthesis since they are absorbed, while green is the
least effective colour. 1
All 3
* Campbell e-books 11th edition page 193-194
Action spectrum
 Is the rate of a physiological activity plotted against wavelength of light. 1
 The relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of light in promoting
photosynthesis. 1
 Corresponds to the absorption spectrum for chlorophylls. 1
All 3
20. (b) Carbon dioxide fixation in CAM plant.

 Involve one cell (Mesophyll cell only) and 2 organelle (Chloroplast and vacuole) 1
 Stomata open during the night. 1
 Atmospheric CO2 fixations occur at night. 1
 PEP combines with atmospheric CO2 to produce oxaloacetate. 1
 This process is catalysed by enzyme PEP carboxylase. 1
 Oxaloacetate is reduced by NADPH to malate. 1
 Malate is stored in the cell vacuole at night to prevent pH changes in cytoplasm. 1
 During the day, malate is oxidised producing pyruvate and carbon dioxide. 1
 CO2 concentration increases in mesophyll cells. 1
 CO2 accepted by RuBP, then enters into the Calvin cycle to produce organics
molecule. 1
 Temporal separation of steps (days and night) 1
 REDUCE photorespiration. 1
Any 9

This marking scheme is only a guide for examiner, any other suitable
answers can also be accepted.

Prepared by: Chiong Yew Ming


Date: 26 May 2018, 1st Revised on 29 July 2018, 2nd revised on 12, 13 August 2018, 3rd revised on 26,
29 August 2018, 4th revised on 5 September 2018.