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Department of Education

Division of Ilocos Sur


Region I

Mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni) and

Mango (Mangifera indica) Leaves as Bio-coal Briquette
A Science Investigatory Project

Presented by:

Chester Espiritu

Joyce Anne Meranez

Jesselyn Leones

Angeli Bless Manglinong

Allysa Parel

Rio Manuel


Lubeth Cabatu

Project Adviser
Chapter I


1.1 Background of the Study

Dried leaves fallen from a tree seems to be normal but sometimes a worrisome as well.

Sweeping them and burning them up is always the solution that comes in handy from time to

time. But doing it daily again and again is tiring. To make it more useful these dried fallen leaves

of Mangos and Mahogany two perennial trees in the Researchers’ area particularly the

Researchers’ School Naravacan National Central High School can be a good source of bio-coal

briquette that sure can be a good alternative to address these worrisome waste and can also be a

way to gain an eco-friendly profit for the school.

Producing bio-coal briquette out of Mango and Mahogany leaves could be used as a tool to

lessen some burdens we face with these wastes.

This study wants to use the dried leaves of Mahogany and mango to promote another useful

way these waste materials can be address or use to. This could be a god start to make all the dried

leaves collected to be make as useful bio-coal briquettes.

Mangifera indica, commonly known as mango, is a species of flowering plant in the sumac

and poison ivy family Anacardiaceae. It is a large fruit-tree, capable of growing to a height and

crown width of about 100 feet and trunk circumference of more than 12 feet.

Charcoal in some countries is the principal fuel for preparing food. Charcoal is a dark grey

or black resembling a coal obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal

and vegetation substances. Charcoal is made by heating wood or other substances in the absence

of oxygen, it only contains impure carbon. It is a source of energy and mainly used as a fuel.
Biomass is a renewable energy source from living or recently living plant and animal

materials which can be used as fuel. An example of biomass is plant material that produces

electricity with steam.

A briquette is a block of flammable matter used as fuel to start and maintain a fire. Common

types of briquettes are charcoal briquettes and biomass briquettes.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

This study aims to produce a Bio-coal briquette out of mahogany and mango leaves.

Specifically, it seeks to answer the question:

1. Does the biomass concentration affect the ignition time of the Bio-coal briquette?
2. Does the biomass concentration of each Bio-coal briquette affect the water boiling time?

3. How long does it take the bio-coal to be totally burned?

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study aimed to produce Bio-coal briquettes out of mahogany and mango leaves which

has not been widely being utilized at particular moment, as well as highlighting the leaves’

potential uses. It also helped lessen the waste materials. This study also encouraged other people

to produce their own briquettes with only of those leaves at their backyard since fallen leaves are

considered waste materials and only burned.

1.5 Scope and Delimitations of the Study

This study revolved only on the utilization of Mahogany and Mango leaves in producing

Bio-coal briquette. This study determined the effect of the biomass concentration on the ignition

time, water boiling time and the time the Bio-coal briquettes are totally burned. This study was

conducted at the researcher’s residence in Zone 5, Paratong, Narvacan, Ilocos Sur.

1.6 Review of Related Literature


Mangifera indica is a large evergreen tree in the anacardiaceae family that grows to a height

of 10-45 m, dome shaped with dense foliage, typically heavy branched from a stout trunk. The

leaves are spirally arranged on branches, linear-oblong, lanceolate – elliptical, pointed at both ends,

the leaf blades mostly about 25-cm long and 8-cm wide, sometimes much larger, reddish and thinly

flaccid when first formed and release an aromatic odor when crushed. The inflorescence occurs in

panicles consisting of about 3000 tiny whitish-red or yellowish – green flowers. The fruit is a well-

known large drupe, but shows a great variation in shape and size. It contains a thick yellow pulp,

single seed and thick yellowish – red skin when ripe. The seed is solitary, ovoid or oblong, encased

in a hard, compressed fibrous endocarp.

Mango, Mangifera indica, has been an important herb in the Ayurvedic and indigenous

medical systems for over 4000 years. According to Ayurveda, varied medicinal properties are

attributed to different parts of mango tree. Mango possesses anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral,

cardio tonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties.

In Nigerian folk medicine the leaves of Mangifera indica are used as an anti-diabetic agent.

In Asian traditional medicine, the fresh leaves of Mangifera indica have been used as a

medicine to treat diabetes mellitus.

In India, China, and other Eastern Asian countries Mango leaves are used as a medicinal

material in traditional herb medicine for a long time.

In India and Cambodia, solution of the gum from the bark is swallowed for dysentery.
In Indian traditional medicine, seeds are used for vomiting, dysentery, diarrhea. Paste is

made from seed, honey and camphor and applied over the vagina to make the vagina contracted

and firm.

In Cambodia, the bark and seed are considered as astringent. They used it in hot lotions

for rheumatism and leucorrhea.

In Philippines, decoction of root is considered diuretic.


The Mahogany tress (Swietenia mahagoni) is a large, semi-evergreen tree with a canopy

that casts dappled shade. It is a popular landscape tree.

Mahogany trees are tall in height as thy can grow 200 feet in height and 20 inches’ long,

but its more common to see them in 50 feet or less.

Woods from Mahogany tree are dense and the tree can hold its own in strong winds.

These heat-loving ornamentals from Mahogany Tree blossoms produce small, fragrant

clusters of flowers. The blossoms are either white or yellow-green and grow in clusters. The

flowers blooms in late spring and early summer. Moths and bees pollinate them and in time,

woody fruit capsules grow in and are brown, pear-shaped and five inches long. They are

suspended from fuzz stalks. When they split, they release the winged seeds that propagate

Charcoal briquette

Charcoal briquettes are made of two primary ingredients (comprising about 90% of the

final product) and several minor ones. One of the primary ingredients, known as char, is basically

the traditional charcoal. It is responsible for the briquette's ability to light easily and to produce the

desired wood-smoke flavor. The most desirable raw material for this component is hardwoods

such as beech, birch, hard maple, hickory, and oak. Some manufacturers also use softwoods like

pine, or other organic materials like fruit pits and nut shells.

According to Engr. Belen B. Bisana, head of DOST-FPRDI’s Bio-Energy and Equipment

Development Section (BEEDS), Compared to plain charcoal, briquettes are less messy and easier

to handle because they are compact and uniform in size. They are also easy to ignite, burn slowly,

give more intense heat per unit volume and are almost smokeless when burning. Charcoal

briquettes made from agro forest wastes may lessen the extensive charcoaling of wood, thus

helping protect what is left of the country’s forest resources.

Biomass Briquette

Biomass briquettes are a biofuel substitute to coal and charcoal. Briquettes are mostly used

in the developing world, where cooking fuels are not as easily available. There has been a move

to the use of briquettes in the developed world, where they are used to heat industrial boilers in

order to produce electricity from steam. The briquettes are cofired with coal in order to create the

heat supplied to the boiler. Biomass briquettes, mostly made of green waste and other organic

materials, are commonly used for electricity generation, heat, and cooking fuel. These compressed

compounds contain various organic materials, including rice husk, bagasse, ground nut shells,
municipal solid waste, and agricultural waste. The composition of the briquettes varies by area due

to the availability of raw materials.

Chapter II


This chapter presents the flow chart, materials, equipment and procedures used in the study.

3.1 Flowchart

Collection and Molding the

Preparation of Mixing the Materials Briquette (Process)

Determining the Ignition Time, Water

Drying the Briquette
Boiling Time and the Time the Briquette
is Totally Burned

3.2 Materials and Equipment

The materials to be used in the study were 250 grams dried mango leaves and 250 dried

mahogany leaves. Starch (Gawgaw) was used as adhesive. Equipments such as; Blender, used to

grind the dried leaves, and plastic gloves used to protect the hands that mashed the cooked leaves.

Improvised coaling machine, where the dried leaves was made as coal. Weighing scale, used to

measure the exact amount of the mixture per treatment. Tin can, were used for molding the

briquette. Bowl, where the mixture were mixed. Stopwatch was used to determine the ignition

time, water boiling time and the time each treatment were totally burned.
3.3 General Procedure

To be able to gather the data needed in this study, the researcher will do the following


3.3.1. Collection and Preparation of the Materials

250g of dried mango leaves and another 250 grams of dried mahogany leaves were

gathered at Brgy. Paratong, Narvacan, Ilocos Sur. 125g of each mango and mahogany leaves were

mixed. 250g of the dried Mango leaves and Mahogany mixture was cooked in an improvised

machine to turn the dried leaves mixtures into coal. Mix another 125g of each dried mahogany and

mango leaves. And this another 250g mixture of dried leaves were grinded using the blender. The

leaves made as coal was mashed. The Starch (Gawgaw) were cooked and used as adhesion for the

briquette mixture.

3.3.2. Mixing the Ingredients

The powdered coal and biomass (grinded dried leaves) were mixed with Starch (Gawgaw)

to create the briquette mixture with different concentrations.

Table 1. Concentration of the Treatments

Treatment Biomass % Coal%

1 100 0

2 75 25

3 50 50

4 25 75
5 0 100

3.3.3. Molding Process

The Researcher used tin can to form the twenty grams (20g) of the briquette mixture with

different concentrations.

3.3.4. Drying Process

The Bio-coal briquettes were left for 2 – 3 days to dry properly.

3.3.5. Determining the Ignition Time, Water Boiling Time and the Time the Briquette is
Totally Burned

Ignite each briquette. The time requires for the flame to ignite the briquette, the water to

boil and the time it will be totally burned was recorded using a stopwatch.