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# UNESCO-NIGERIA TECHNICAL &

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
REVITALISATION PROJECT-PHASE II

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

C A B
Ic Ia Ib

ELECTRICAL MACHIENS I I
COURSE CODE: EEC233

THEORY

## Version 1: December 2008

1
Chapter 1: Basic Principles of electric machines: ............................... keeW1
1.1 Introduction .........................................................................................1
1.2 Electro- mechanical energy convertion ........................................... 2

## 1.6 Work Examples ....................................................................................... 8

1.7Electromagnets ...................................................................................... 11

## Chapter 3: Synchronous Machine: ....................................................... keeW5

3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................... 18
3.2 Stator construction .............................................................................. 18

## Chapter4:Control & protection of electric motors ............................. keeW6

4.1 Need for Circuit Protection ............................................................... 22

## 4.3.2 Contactors ....................................................................... 31

4.3.3Pushbuttons ............................................................Week10

## Chapter 5: Energy convertion ............................................................. keeW11

5.1 Electro-mechanical energy convertion .......................................... 37

## 5.2 Energy convertion ................................................................................ 39

5.3 Linked energy system ............................................................................ 40

## 5.11.3 General Condition

1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week 1

1.1 Introduction

It may be necessary to define what we mean by the term electrical machines. A machine is a

device that does useful work in a predictable way according to some physical laws. It acts as

## An electromagnetic machine, in the essential conversion process, uses energy in an

intermediate magnetic form. As a motor the machine takes in electrical energy and converts

it into mechanical work, such as driving a machine tool or a lift, or operating a loudspeaker.

## An electro-magnetic machine is usually reversible and cab, as a generator, producer

electrical energy form some other kind, such as the mechanical energy of prime- movers or

## the a caustic energy of microphones and gramophone pickups.

Electrical energy is versatile and controllable. Its special lie in that can be transfer

## processing), and applied to indicate an supervise production systems (control,

instrumentation and computation). It is readily converted into sound, light, heat and useful

## forms of energy. In particular it is easily converted to or from mechanical energy in the

electromagnetic machines

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1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week 1

## i The development of magneto-mechanical forces and

ii. The induction of emf (electromotive force) by the rate of change of the linkage.

Thus, electromagnetic energy conversion is based on three bask principles namely (i)

## induction (ii) interaction and (iii) alignment

1. Principle of induction

It is known that when electrons are in motion, they produce a magnetic field. Conversely,

when, a magnetic field embracing a conductor moves relative to the conductor, it produce a

## flow of electrons in the conductor.

The phenomenon whereby on e.m.f and hence current (i.e flow of electrons) is induced in

any conductor which is cut across or is cut by a magnetic flux is known as electromagnetic

induction

dt

## Ø = flux in webers linking the coil

T = time in seconds

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1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week 1
This is the equation for the induced emf when the magnetic flux moves relatively to the

conductor.

## L = effective length of conductor in metre , U = velocity of the conductor in m/s

And this is the equation for the induced emf when the conductor moves relatively to the flux.

## 1.2.2 Sketchmatic explanation of the induction principle

Fig:1.1a. Voltage & Current induced in the secondary Fig: 1.1b Conductor stationary, while the

circuit due to flux linkage with the primary winding. field moves (current will be induced on the

galvanometer)

Fig: 1.1c Conductor moves, while the field stationary (current will be induced on the

galvanometer)

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1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week 1
Fig. 1.1 (a) shows an irobn- cored solenoid with a permanent magnetic place adjascent ot it. If the

magnet‟s position is changed from position CD to position AB, the flux linking with the

coils of the solenoid will change, leading to an induced emf in the coil which can be

## detected by the sensitive galvanometer G. in this arrangement, the conductor (coil) i

stationary whilst the filed (magnet) moves as in alternators i.e a.c generators.

Fig 1.1 (b) shows a filed arrangement that is stationary while the conduct a-b is free to move about

the vertical axis. An emf, detectable by galvanometer G, will be induced in the conductor as

it cuts through the flux through the flux. This principle is employed in the construction of

d.c. generator,.

F ig 1.1(c) when a coil (Ni) is made to carry an alternative current (ii) it produces an alternative flux

(g). if a second coil (N2) is now placed in a region whereby the alternative flux produced by

the first coil links with the second coil, an emf ( usually of the some frequency) will be

induced in the second coil. This is the principle of the transformer and the induction motors

2. Principle of interaction

## An electric current flowing in a direction making an angle (preferably a right-angle) with a

magnetic filed produced by another current ( or a magnet) experience a force fe, the relative

## Fig: 1.2 Principle of interaction.

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1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week 1
The force, fe, arises from the interaction of the flux (created by the current l‟ flowing in the

conductor with the flux produced by a second current or magnet. Since lines of flux do not

cross, the two fluxes will realign. Resulting in a stronger fie ld one side. The conductor and

weaker filed on t6he other side. The conductor then tends to move from the region of

## stronger field to the region of weaker filed. Employed in electric motors.

3. Principle of alignment

## A pieces of ferromagnetic materials in a magnetic field experience of force urging it towards

a region where the field is stronger, or tending to align it so as to shorten the magnetic flux

## path as shown in fig: 1.3

Fig: 1.3a Moving coil meter Fig: 1.3b The force „fe‟ on shaped high

## Fig: 1.3c Polar attraction & repulsion on separately magnetized bodies

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1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week 1

## 1.3 Alignment devices

(a) The lifting magnet: Attract ferromagnetic loads such as beams, plates, and scrap-

iron.

(b) The relay: the coil current causes the armature to be attracted towards the cover

against a spring load: Millions of such relays do useful work in automatic telephone

## (c) The telephone receivers: has a ferromagnetic diaphragm attracted by a permanent

magnet, the field is caused to fluctuated by the speech currents in the coil, so varying

the deflection of the claptrap and producing sound waves in the air.

(d) The moving- iron indicator, uses the force between the fixed and moving irons to

## deflect a pointed against a spring.

(e) The Reluctance motor- the forces urge a displaced rotor in alignment with the

magnetized stator.

(f) The actuator-the current-carrying coil “suck” a displaced ferromagnetic plunger into

## a position of symmetry: this is a useful and forceful device.

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1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week 1

## (g) Electromagnetic pump: current passed through a conducting liquid in an enclosed

channel forces the liquid to move by interaction with a magnetic cross field; liquid

sodium-potassium or lithium can be pumped in thy way for the extraction of heat

## from a nuclear reactor.

(h) Loudspeaker: alternating current in the coil flow in the radial magnet filed of the port

magnet,. And the consequent movement of the attached diaphragm sets up sound

## waves. This is the same essential arrangement as a “generator‟ of mechanical

vibrations

(i) Moving –coil indicator-current (normally direct) in the coil of the indirect develops a

force in the radial permanent- magnet filed to move pointed against a control spring.

(k) Industrial rotating machines: Current caused to flow in conductors the surface of a

rotor, mounted within a magnetic stator develop interaction forces tending to turn the

rotor.

## 1.5 Induced voltage devices

Recalling that a conductor moving or cutting magnetic lines of flux or that the flux

moves relative to the conductor will proan induced voltage, the following devices

## employ the induced voltage arrangement.

(i) The transformer- an alternating current flowing in the primary coil (winding) set up

an alternating flux that links with the secondary coil inducing a voltage in the latter.

(m) The generatopr-usually constructed like (k) but with the rotor mechanical energy (via

the prime –mover) will have emf induced in the stator coils. ( the stator is slotted to

house conductors)

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1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week 1
(n) The induction motor- the stator usually carried one or htree –phawindings whilst the

rotor may have a similar arrangement of coil as the stator or just carry or alirmium

bars. Electrical energy supplied to the stator windings produced a rotating magnetic

field with cuts the rotor conductors and hence induced voltages in them. A complete

rotor circult will have current flowing in the rotor conductors (caused by the induced

## 1.6 Work Examples

Examples 1

A conductor carries a current of 800 A at right- angle to magnetic field having a density of

Solution

## The force F is given by F = Bli

= 0.5 X 1 X 800

= 400N

Example 2

A four –pole generator has a magnetic flux of 12 mnb /pole calculated the average value of

the emf generated in one of the armature conductors while it is moving through the

## magnetic flux of one pole, if armature is driven at 900 r.p.m

Solution

When a conductor moves through the magnetic field of one pole, it cuts a magnetic flux of

12 x 10-3 wb.

## Time taken for a conductor to move through one revolution

= 60 = 1 second

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1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week 1
900 15

Since the machine has 4 poles, time taken for a conductor to move through the field of one

## :. Average emf generated in one conductor rate of change of flux

= Ø = 12 x 10-3 1/60

## = 0.012 – 0.01667 = 0.72v

= 0.72v

Example 4

A magnetic flux of 400 uwb passing through a coil of 1200 turns is reversed in 0.1s calculate

## the average emf induced in the coil.

Solution

The magnetic flux has to decrease form 400 uwb to zero and then increase to 400wwb in the

reverse direction, hence the increase of flux is 400 (-400-400) uwb = -800 x 10-6 wb.

## = (change in flux x No of turns) = NdØ

Time taken. Dt

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1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week 1

1.7 Electromagnets
Anything with an electrical current running through it has a magnetic field. Figure1 shows different
sources of magnetic field.

## Figure1.4: Different sources of magnetic field

The most common forms of electromagnets are the Solenoids .When the wire is shaped into a coil
as shown in Figure1.1, all the individual flux lines produced by each section of wire join together to
form one large magnetic field around the total coil.

As with the permanent magnet, these flux lines leave the north of the coil and re-enter the coil at its
south pole. The magnetic field of a wire coil is much greater and more localized than the magnetic
field around the plain conductor before being formed into a coil. This magnetic field around the coil
can be strengthened even more by placing a core of iron or similar metal in the center of the core.
The metal core presents less resistance to the lines of flux than the air, thereby causing the field
strength to increase. (This is exactly how a stator coil is made; a coil of wire with a steel core.) The
advantage of a magnetic field which is produced by a current carrying coil of wire is that when the
current is reversed in direction the poles of the magnetic-as shown in Figure1.2- field will switch
positions since the lines of flux have changed direction. Without this magnetic phenomenon
existing, the AC motor as we know it today would not exist.

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1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week 1

Iron Core
Magnetic field Lines
N S
The Current

Battery

S N

Figure1.5: Reversing the polarity of the solenoid by reversing the current direction

Faradays law states whenever the magnetic flux linked with a circuit changes, an e.m.f. is always
induced in it, or Whenever a conductor cuts magnetic flux, an e.m.f. is induced in that conductor.
The phenomenon of inducing a current by changing the magnetic field in a coil of wire is known as
electromagnetic induction.
Figure1.3 shows an electromagnet which is connected to an AC power source. Another
electromagnet is placed above it. The second electromagnet is in a separate circuit. There is no
physical connection between the two circuits. Voltage and current are zero in both circuits at Time1.
At Time2 voltage and current are increasing in the bottom circuit

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1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week 1

0 0 0

## Figure 1.6: Experment showing the electromagnetic induction phenomena

A magnetic field builds up in the bottom electromagnet. Lines of flux from the magnetic field
building up in the bottom electromagnet cut across the top electromagnet. A voltage is induced in
the top electromagnet and current flows through it. At Time 3 current flow has reached its peak.
Maximum current is flowing in both circuits. The magnetic field around the coil continues to build
up and collapse as the alternating current continues to increase and decrease. As the magnetic field
moves through space, moving out from the coil as it builds up and back towards the coil as it
collapses, lines of flux cut across the top coil. As current flows in the top electromagnet it creates its
own magnetic field.

## 1.9 Lenz's Law

Lenz's law enables us to determine the direction of the induced current: "The direction of the
induced current is such as to oppose the change causing it." The Figure 1.4a shows the north pole of
a bar magnet approaching a solenoid. According to Lenz's law, the current which is thereby
generated in the coil must cause an effect which opposes the approaching magnetic field.

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1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week 1

N N
Iron Core

Ammeter
a

N S N

## Figure1.7: Experiment demonstrating Lenz's law

This is achieved if the direction of the induced current creates a north pole at the end of the
solenoid closest to the approaching magnet, as the induced north pole tends to repel the approaching
north pole. The Figure1.4b shows the north pole of a bar magnet withdrawing from a solenoid.
According to Lenz's law, the current which is thereby generated in the coil must cause an effect
which opposes the departing magnetic field. This is achieved if the direction of the induced current
creates a south pole at the end of the solenoid closest to the departing magnet, as the induced south
pole tends to attract the departing north pole

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1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week Two

## 1.4 Rotating magnetic field

The three-phase induction motor also operates on the principle of a rotating magnetic
field. The following discussion shows how the stator windings can be connected to a three-
phase ac input and have a resultant magnetic field that rotates.
Figure 1.5 shows how the three phases are tied together in a Y-connected stator. The dot in
each diagram indicates the common point of the Y-connection. You can see that the
individual phase windings are equally spaced around the stator. This places the windings
120° apart.

C A B
Ic Ia Ib

## Figure 1.5:- Three-phase, Y-connected stator.

Using the left-hand rule the electromagnetic polarity of the poles can be determined at any
given instant.

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1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week Two
The results of this analysis are shown for voltage points 1 through 7 in figure 2. At point 1,
the magnetic field in coils A is maximum with polarities as shown. At the same time,
negative voltages are being felt in the B and C windings. These create weaker magnetic
fields, which tend to aid the A field. At point 2, maximum negative voltage is being felt in
the C windings. This creates a strong magnetic field which, in turn, is aided by the weaker
fields in A and B. As each point on the voltage graph is analyzed, it can be seen that the
resultant magnetic field is rotating in a clockwise direction. When the three-phase voltage
completes one full cycle (point 7), the magnetic field has rotated through360°.

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1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week Two

10

-5

-10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

## Point4 Point 5 Point6

Point7

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1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines Week 2

## 1.5 Synchronous speed:

The speed of the rotating magnetic field is referred to as synchronous speed (Ns). Synchronous
speed is equal to 120 times the frequency (f), divided by the number of poles (P).

120 f
Ns 
p

If the frequency of the applied power supply for the two-pole stator used in the previous example is
50 Hz, synchronous speed is 3000 RPM.

120  50
Ns   3000 RPM
2

The synchronous speed decreases as the number of poles increase. The following table shows the
synchronous speed at 50 Hz for the corresponding number of poles.

## No of poles Synchronous speed

2 3000rpm
4 1500rpm
6 1000rpm
8 750rpm
Table 1.1: Different speeds for different number of poles

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2. Three phase induction motor Week 3

2.1 Introduction
Three-phase AC induction motors are widely used in industrial and commercial applications. They
are classified either as squirrel cage or wound-rotor motors.
These motors are self-starting and use no capacitor, start winding, centrifugal switch or other
starting device.

They produce medium to high degrees of starting torque. The power capabilities and efficiency in
these motors range from medium to high compared to their single-phase counterparts.

Popular applications include grinders, lathes, drill presses, pumps, compressors, conveyors, also
printing equipment, farm equipment, electronic cooling and other mechanical duty applications.

##  Simple and rugged construction

 Low cost and minimum maintenance
 High reliability and sufficiently high efficiency since there is no losses in brush contacts
or mechanical friction
 Needs no extra starting motor and need not be synchronized
 Need only one source of power

## 2.2 Construction of Induction Motor:

An Induction motor has basically two parts, Stator and Rotor. Also some of other parts were
acknowledged in the following section

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2. Three phase induction motor Week 3

## Figure2.1: Diagram construction of the stator

The stator is made up of several thin laminations of aluminum or cast iron. They are punched and
clamped together to form a hollow cylinder (stator core) with slots as shown in Figure 2.1. Coils of
insulated wires are inserted into these slots.
The iron core on the figure has paper liner insulation placed in some of the slots.
Each grouping of coils, together with the core it surrounds, forms an electromagnet (a pair of poles)
on the application of AC supply. The number of poles of an AC induction motor depends on the
internal connection of the stator windings. The stator windings are connected directly to the power
source. Internally they are connected in such a way, that on applying AC supply, a rotating magnetic
field is created

## 2.2.2 Rotor construction:

There are two main types
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2. Three phase induction motor Week 3
 Squirrel cage type
 Wound rotor

## 2.2.2.1 Squirrel cage rotor:

This rotor has a laminated iron core with slots(Figure2.2), and is mounted on a shaft. Aluminum
bars are molded in the slots and the bars are short circuited with two end rings. The bars are skewed
on a small rotor to reduce audible noise. Fins are placed on the ring that shorts the bars. These fins
also work as a fan and improve cooling.
Most motors use the squirrel-cage rotor because There are no commutators, slip rings or brushes.
Hence this is a most rugged and maintenance-free construction.

End ring

## 2.2.2.2 Wound rotor:

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2. Three phase induction motor Week 3

Wound Rotor

Brush

External Rotor
Slip Rings Resistances

Figure 2.3: Schemtic diagram showing Induction motor, wound rotor type
The wound rotor or slip-ring induction motor differs from the squirrel-cage motor only in the rotor
winding. The rotor winding consists of insulated coils, grouped to form definite polar areas of
magnetic force having the same number of poles as the stator. The ends of these coils are brought
out to slip-rings. By means of brushes, a variable resistance is placed across the rotor winding
(Fig.2.3). By varying this resistance, the speed and torque of the motor is varied. The wound rotor
motor is an excellent motor for use on applications that require an adjustable-varying speed (an

Terminals

Shaft
Slip rings Laminated core
Bearings Fan
Coils
Figure 2.4:Wound rotor

2.2.3 Enclosure

## Enclosure or the frame (Figure2.5) ,its main

application to hold the parts together. also it Helps
with heat dissipation. In some cases, protects internal

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2. Three phase induction motor Week 3
components from the environment. A cooling fan is attached to the shaft at the left-hand side. This
fan blows air over the ribbed stator frame

## Figure2.5:Induction Motor enclosure

2.2.3 Bearings:

There are two main types, the sleeve bearings and ball bearings .Ball (Roller) Bearings
(Figure2.6a) Support shaft in any position. Its Grease lubricated and required no maintenance
The Sleeve Bearings(figure2.6b) are Standard on most motors. They are only used with horizontal
shafts and its oil lubricated.

(a) (b)
b
Figure2.6: a)Ball Bearings
b)Sleeve bearings
2.2.5 Conduit Box
Point of connection of electrical power to the motor’s stator windings.

## 2.2.6 Eye Bolt

Used to lift heavy motors with a hoist or crane to prevent motor damage, as it can be seen in the
following figure.

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2. Three phase induction motor Week 3

## Figure2.7: Sectional view of Induction Motor

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2. Three phase induction motor Week 4

## 2.2 The principle of operation of the Induction Motor:

The three-phase current with which the motor is supplied establishes a rotating magnetic
field in the stator. This rotating magnetic field cuts the conductors in the rotor inducing
voltages and causing currents to flow. These currents set up an opposite polarity field in the
rotor(Lenz's law). The attraction between these opposite stator and rotor fields produces the
torque which causes the rotor to rotate. This simply is how the squirrel-cage motor works

Figure2.8:The magnetic field created in the stator and the rooted in the squirrel cage induction motor

## 2.3 The Slip:

There must be a relative difference in speed between the rotor and the rotating magnetic
field. If the rotor and the rotating magnetic field were turning at the same speed no relative
motion would exist between the two, therefore no lines of flux would be cut, and no voltage
would be induced in the rotor. The difference in speed is called slip. Slip is necessary to
produce torque. Slip is dependent on load. An increase in load will cause the rotor to slow
down or increase slip. A decrease in load will cause the rotor to speed up or decrease slip.
Slip is expressed as a percentage and can be determined with the following formula.
( Ns  Nr ) 100
Slip (%) 
Ns
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2. Three phase induction motor Week 4
Where Nr is the actual speed of the rotor

For Example, a four-pole motor operated at 60Hz has a synchronous speed (Ns) of
1800 RPM. If the rotor speed at full load is 1765 RPM (Nr), then the slip will be
calculated
(1800  1765) 100
Slip (%)   1.9%
1800
2.4 Name Plate:

It is essential that all motors have nameplates with certain information useful in the
identification of the type of motor, The following Table explain the indication of each code
used on the shown nameplate

Name Of Manufacturer
ORD. No. IN123456789
TYPE HIGH EFFICIENCY FRAME 286T
SERVICE
H.P. 42 FACTOR 1.10 3PH

## R.P.M 1790 HERTZ 60 4POLE

DUTY CONT DATE 01/15/2003
NEMA B NEMA 95
CLASS INSUL. F Design NOM. EFF.

## Figure2.9:Typical Nameplate of an AC induction motor

Term Description
Volts Rated Supply voltage
HP Rated motor output
RPM Rated full load speed of the motor

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2. Three phase induction motor Week 4

## Hertz Rated supply frequency

Frame External dimensions based on NEMA Regulations
Date Date of manufacturing
Class Insulation Specifies the max. limit temperature of the winding
NEMA Design Types of NEMA design, A,B,C etc
Service factor Factor by which the motor can be overloaded beyond the full load.
NEMA Nom Motor efficiency at rated load
Efficiency

PH Number of phases
Pole Number of poles
Motor safety standard

## Y The connection either star or delta

Table 2.1:Explanation of the codes used on AC motor nameplates

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3. Synchronous machine Week 5

3.1 Introduction:
Synchronous motors are motors that always run at the same speed regardless of load.
Synchronous motors are somewhat more complex than squirrel-cage and wound rotor motors and,
hence, are more expensive. There is no slip in a synchronous motor, that is, the rotor always moves
at exactly the same speed as the rotating stator field.. The machine consists of three main parts:
 Stator, which carries the three phase winding,
 Rotor, with one DC winding or permanent magnets
 Slip rings or excitation machine (exciter) (in case of electrical excitation).
Synchronous motors are used whenever exact speed must be maintained or for power factor
correction. Synchronous motors are more expensive than other types for the lower horsepower
ratings, but may possibly be more economical for 100 hp and larger ratings.

## 3.2 Stator construction:

The stator of a synchronous generator holds a three-phase winding where the individual phase
windings are distributed 120° apart in space and is sometimes called the armature winding. The
stator must be made of laminated iron sheets in order to reduce eddy currents.

## 3.3 Rotor construction:

The rotor holds a field winding,which is magnetized Metal frame

## by a DC current( the field current). The rotating Laminated iron

core with slots
field winding can be energized through a set of slip
rings and brushes (external excitation), or from a Insulated copper
bars are placed in
the slots to form
diode-bridge mounted on the rotor (self-excited). The the three-phase
winding
rectifier-bridge is fed from a shaft-mounted
alternator, which is itself excited by the pilot exciter.
In externally fed fields, the source can be a shaft-
driven dc generator, a separately excited dc generator, or a solid-state rectifier. Several variations to
these arrangements exist. There are two types of rotors:
 Salient-pole rotor (Fig.2) for low-speed machines (e.g.hydro-generators)
 Cylindrical rotor (Fig.3) for high-speed machines (e.g. turbo-generators).

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3. Synchronous machine Week 5

## 3-Phase Stator Winding

Rotor Field
Winding
Brushes

- +

Slip Rings

Cylindrical
Pole Rotor Field current

Steel
retaining
ring

Shaft
Shaft

Wedges
DCcurrent
DC current
terminals
terminals

## Figure3.1: cylindrical rotor of a synchronous machine

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3. Synchronous machine Week 5

## 3-Phase Stator Winding

Rotor Field
Winding
Brushes

- +

Slip Rings

Salient Pole
Rotor Field current

Slip
rings

Pole

DC excitation
winding
Fan

## b- salient-pole rotor of a synchronous machine

Figure3.2: Salient-Pole rotor of a synchronous machine

## 3.4 Principle of operation of the synchronous generator:

When the 3phase rotor is rotated (by an external prime-mover) the rotating magnetic
flux(induced by DC current) induces voltages in the stator windings. These voltages are sinusoidal
with a magnitude that depends on the field current, and also differ by 120° in time and have a
frequency determined by the angular velocity of the rotation.
3.5 Principle of operation of the synchronous motor:
The stator is supplied with three phase supply in order to develop a rotating magnetic field. Also
the rotor is supplied with DC supply to produce constant

magnetic field. As a result of the interaction of these two fields, the rotor will start to move.
However, the synchronous motor is not self started. Consequently, it usually equipped with squirrel
cage windings that mounted on the pole faces of the synchronous motor rotor. These rotor windings
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3. Synchronous machine Week 5
are frequently referred to as damper or amortisseur windings. Thus, the synchronous motor starts as
an induction motor. When the motor accelerates to near synchronizing speed (about 95%
synchronous speed), DC current is introduced into the rotor field windings. This current creates
constant polarity poles in the rotor, causing the motor to operate at synchronous speed as the rotor
poles "lock" onto the rotating AC stator poles.

## 3.6 Excitation Methods

Two methods are commonly utilized for the application of the direct current (DC) field current to
the rotor of a synchronous motor.
 Brush-type systems apply the output of a separate DC generator (exciter) to the slip rings of the
rotor.
 Brushless excitation systems utilize an integral exciter and rotating rectifier assembly that
eliminates the need for need for brushes and slip rings.

## 3.7 Method of Synchronization

There are three basic method of synchronizing two or more machine:
. Bright lamp method
. Dark lamp method
. automatic method

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3. Protection & control of electric motors Week 6

## 4.1 Need for Circuit Protection

Current flow in a conductor always generates heat(Figure1). The greater the current flow, the
hotter the conductor. Excess heat is damaging to electrical components. For that reason, conductors
have a rated continuous current carrying capacity or ampacity. Overcurrent protection devices, such
as circuit breakers, are used to protect conductors from excessive current flow. These protective
devices are designed to keep the flow of current in a circuit at a safe level to prevent the circuit
conductors from overheating.

## Figure4. 1:The effect of current flowing in conductors

overcurrent is defined as any current in excess of the rated current of equipment of a conductor. It
may result from overload, short circuit, or ground fault

Overloads: An overload occurs when too many devices are operated on a single circuit, or a piece of
electrical equipment is made to work harder than it is designed for. For example, a motor rated for
10 amps may draw 20, 30, or more amps in an overload condition.

1
3. Protection & control of electric motors Week 6

Good Insulation

Damaged Insulation

## Figure4. 2: Insulation of electric conductors

Conductor Insulation Motors, of course, are not the only devices that require circuit protection for
an overload condition. Every circuit requires some form of protection against overcurrent. Heat is
one of the major causes of insulation failure of any electrical component. High levels of heat can
cause the insulation to breakdown and deteriorated, exposing conductors (Figure4.2).
Short Circuits When two bare conductors touch, a short circuit occurs (Figure4.3).

When a short circuit occurs, resistance drops to almost zero. Short circuit current can be thousands
of times higher than normal operating current.
The heat generated by this current will cause extensive damage to connected equipment and
conductors. This dangerous current must be interrupted immediately when a short circuit occurs.

2
3. Protection & control of electric motors Week 6

## Short Circuit conductor

Insulation
Figure4. 3: Short circuit fault between two condu

3
4.Protection & control of electric motors Week 7

## 4.2 Types of Overcurrent Protective Devices

Circuit protection would be unnecessary if overloads and short circuits could be eliminated.
Unfortunately, overloads and short circuits do occur. To protect a circuit against these currents, a
protective device must determine when a fault condition develops and automatically disconnect the
electrical equipment from the voltage source. An overcurrent protection device must be able to
recognize the difference between overcurrents and short circuits and respond in the proper way.
Slight overcurrents can be allowed to continue for some period of time, but as the current magnitude
increases, the protection device must open faster. Short circuits must be interrupted instantly.
Several devices are available to accomplish this.
4.2.1 Fuses
A fuse is a one-shot device (Figure1). The heat produced by overcurrent causes the current
carrying element to melt open, disconnecting the load from the source voltage. There are three types
of fuses, namely
 Semi-enclosed (Rewireable) fuse
 Cartridge fuses
 High Breaking Capacity(HBC)
Fuse Cap

Good Element
Glass or Ceramic
Body

Open
Element

## Figure 4.4: Plug fuse

4.2.1.1 Cartridge
The cartridge type have fuses which look similar to those you would
find in a standard household plug. This type is improvement of the
rewirable fuse type. It is main advantages, is easy to replace, totally

1
4.Protection & control of electric motors Week 7
enclosed and its current rating is very accurate

## Figure 4.5: A cartridge fuse and its holder

4.2.1.2 HBC
HBC stands for "high blow current (sometimes described as HRC = high rupture current). HBC
fuses are designed not to explode when failing under currents
many times their normal working current (e.g. 1500 amps in a 10
amp circuit). They are therefore to be preferred for the
protection of main voltage circuits where the power source may
be capable of providing very high currents. HBC types can
usually be recognized by being sand filled though they may have
a thick ceramic body.

## Figure 4.5: A HBC fuse

4.2.1.3 Semi-enclosed(Rewireable) fuses
As the name indicates, the rewireable type have a fuse wire held at both
ends by a small retaining screw. Once the fuse is blown, the fuse wire is
the only pieces to be replaced. It is cheap, but replacing a wrong size of
element can cause catastrophic consequences.

## Figure 4.6: Rewireable fuses

2
4. Protection & control of electric motors Week 8

## Figure 4.7:Miniature circuit breakers with different poles

The problem with fuses is they only work once. Every time you blow a fuse, you
have to replace it with a new one. A circuit breaker(Figure 4.7) does the same thing
as a fuse .It opens a circuit as soon as current climbs to unsafe levels ,but you can
use it over and over again.
The basic circuit breaker consists of a simple switch,(see figure 4.8) connected to
either a bimetallic strip or an electromagnet. The diagram below shows a typical
electromagnet design.

## Figure4.8: Cut view of a miniature circuit breaker

27
4. Protection & control of electric motors Week 8

## circuit breakers generally employ a bimetal strip to sense overload

conditions(Figure4.9b). When sufficient overcurrent flows through the circuit
breaker’s current path, heat build up causes the bimetal strip to bend. After bending
a predetermined distance the bimetal strip makes contact with the tripper bar
activating the trip mechanism.
A bimetal strip is made of two dissimilar metals bonded together(Figure4.8). The
two metals have different thermal expansion characteristics, so the bimetal bends
when heated. As current rises, heat also rises. The hotter the bimetal becomes the
more it bends, until the mechanism is released.
Material 1

Material2
} Bi-metal

Heat source
Figure 4.8:The effect of heat on a bimetal strip

## Short circuit protection is accomplished with an electromagnet (Figure4.8a). The

electromagnet is connected in series with the overload bimetal strip. During
normal current flow, or an overload, the magnetic field created by the
electromagnet is not strong enough to attract the armature. When a short circuit
current flows in the circuit, the magnetic field caused by the electromagnet attracts
the electromagnet’s armature. The armature hits the tripper bar rotating it up and to
the right. This releases the trip mechanism and operating mechanism, opening the
contacts. Once the circuit breaker is tripped current no longer flows through the
electromagnet and the armature is released. (See figure 4.9).

28
4.Protection & control of electric motors Week 8

## Magnetic Circuit Breaker(a)

Magnetic
Current in coil Magnetic
Current in coil

Electrical
contacts Electrical
contacts

Current Current
out out
Spring Spring
Latching
Latching mechanisim
mechanisim

## Thermal-magnetic Circuit Breaker(b)

Magnetic
coil
Current in Magnetic
coil

Electrical
contacts
Electrical
contacts
Current out
Current in

## Spring Current out

Latching
Spring
mechanisim
Latching
Normal Conditions mechanisim

## Figure4.9: The principle of operation of circuit breakers

29
4.Protection & control of electric motors Week 9

## 4.3 Control devices

4.3.1 Relay:

Iron Core
Iron Core
Switch
Switch

Relay Coil
Relay Coil Battery

Contacts
Contacts

To Power Circuit
To Power Circuit

## Relay Open Relay Close

Figure4.10:The principle of operation of the relay

The relay is a remotely controlled switch. In the diagram above, a power circuit contains a
switch which is opened and closed by operation of a
relay. The relay is activated by a magnetic core which is
energised when a controlling switch is closed. As the
core is energised, it lifts and closes a pair of contacts in a
second circuit - usually a power circuit. The current
required for the relay is usually much lower than that used
for the power circuit so it can be provided by a battery
In the left hand of figure4.10,the diagram shows the
controlling switch is open, so the relay is de-energised and Figure4.11: a relay the
power circuit contacts are open. If the controlling switch is
closed, as in the right hand diagram, the relay is therefore energised and its core magnet lifts
to close the contacts in the power circuit.

1
4.Protection & control of electric motors Week 9

4.3.2 Contactors:

(a) ( b)

## Figure4.12: a)Construction of a contactor ,b) A contactor

Figure4.12a shows the interior of a basic contactor. There are two circuits involved with the
operation of a contactor, the control circuit and the power circuit. The control circuit is
connected to the coil of an electromagnet, and the power circuit is connected to the
stationary contacts.
When the control circuit supplies power to the coil, a magnetic field is produced,
magnetizing the electromagnet. The magnetic field attracts the armature to the magnet,
which, in turn, closes the contacts. With the contacts closed, current flows through the power
circuit from the line to the load. Figure(4.13)
When current no longer flows through the control circuit, the electromagnet's coil is de-
energized, the magnetic field collapses, and the movable contacts open under spring
pressure.

2
4.Protection & control of electric motors Week 9

## Figure4.13:Principle of operation of the contactor

Overload relays (Figure4.14)are designed to meet the special protective needs of motor
control circuits. Overload relays allow harmless temporary overloads that occur when a
motor starts.
Overload relays trip and disconnect power to the motor if an overload condition persists.
Overload relays can be reset after the overload condition has been corrected.

3
4.Protection & control of electric motors Week 9

## 4.3.2.2 Contactors and Overload Relays

Contactors are used to control power in a variety of applications. When used in motor-
control applications, contactors can only start and stop the motors. Contactors cannot sense
Most motor applications require overload protection, although some smaller motor, such as
household garbage disposals, have overload protection built into the motor. Where overload
protection is required, overload relays (such as the one shown here) provide such protection.

## 4.3.2.3 Motor Starter

Contactors and overload relays are separate control devices. When a contactor is combined
with an overload relay, it is called a motor starter.Figure4.15

4
4.Protection & control of electric motors Week 10

4.3.3Pushbuttons

A pushbutton is a control device used to manually open and close a set of contacts. Pushbuttons may
be illuminated or non-illuminated and are available in a variety of configurations and actuator
colors.

## Figure 4.16: Different types of pushbuttons

i) Normally Open Pushbuttons
Pushbuttons are used in control circuits to perform various functions such as starting and stopping a
motor. A typical pushbutton uses an operating plunger, a return spring, and one set of contacts.
This illustration shows a pushbutton with normally open contacts. Pressing the button causes the
contacts to close (figure4.17). This pushbutton has momentary contacts which means that the
contacts will open when the pushbutton is released.
ii) Normally Closed Pushbuttons
Pushbuttons with normally closed contacts, such as the one shown here, are also used in control
circuits. The contacts remain in the closed position allowing current to flow through them until the
pushbutton is pressed(figure4.17). Pressing the pushbutton opens the contacts and interrupts current
flow. The pushbutton shown here also has momentary contacts; however, normally open and
normally closed pushbuttons with maintained contacts are also available.
.

1
4.Protection & control of electric motors Week 10

## Normally Close Pushbutton

Figure 4.17: The mechanism of the pushbuttons

## 4.3.4 Selector Switches

Selector switches are another means to manually open and close contacts and are commonly used
to select one of two or more circuit possibilities.
Selector switches may be maintained, spring return, or key operated and are available in two-
position, three-position, and four-position types.
The basic difference between a pushbutton and a selector switch is the operator mechanism. A
selector switch operator mechanism is rotated to open and close contacts.

2
4.Protection & control of electric motors Week 10

## Figure 4.18: Different types of selector switches

4.3.5 Indicator Lights:
Indicator lights, often referred to as pilot lights, provide a visual indication of a circuit's operating
condition. An indicator light may be wired to turn on for any predetermined condition. Indicator
lights are available in round designs with 16 mm, 22 mm, or 30 mm mounting diameters as well as
in square designs.

## Figure 4.19: Different types of push buttons switch

3
5. energy conversion Week 11

## 5.1 Electro-mechanical energy conversion

Energy is converted to electrical form because of the advantages listed in the introductory

part of the note. It is seldom available or used in electrical form, but converted into electrical

form at the input to a system and back to non-electrical form at the output of a system. A

typical example is the processing of energy from and hydro generating plant. It is converted

into electrical form at the power plant. Transmitted through transmission lines and

distribution lines, and converted to mechanical energy in an electric motor are the point use.

A second example is in the conversion of the energy in sound pressure waves, and the

transmission in electrical form from the taker to the listener in a telephone system. Few more

## Theoretically, only a sourceless current is needed to develop a mechanical force

magnetically. But in a machine the production of force is hardly enough: something must

move in order to do useful work done demands a corresponding energy supply form

somewhere.

In a device energized only by a permanent magnet, the only energy source is the magnet

itself. If the displacable part of the machine moves under force and does work, this can only

be at the expense of the field energy of the permanent magnet, which must decrease. Such an
5. energy conversion Week 11
arrangement has obvious limitations. It may also be inconvenient a permanent magnet”

lifting magnet, for example would not e capable of releasing its load. Where the magnetic

affected by the movement is produced by a current circuit, changes of field energy have to

be supplied electrically from a source. This implies the appearance in the circuit of an

electromotive force e, which, with the current I, represents the delivery or absorption by the

source of energy at the rate ei consider the elementary system of fig 2.1 A sources of voltage

## conversion process results in the appearance of an e.f.m.

The effective resistance of the circuit is represented by R. if current flows into the circuit

form the positive terminal of the source, and the input power p = Vi Rl + el, has the

direction as shown at (a). However¸ if e >, the current reverses and we can now call it –e. the

power input from the now p = v (-i) = Rl2 + e (-l), which is negative, i.e it is an output from

the device into the source, as at (b). to illustrate this simple but fundamental point, suppose

## The current o = v-e = 10-8 =2A

R 1

And the source provides an input power p = 10 x 2 = 20w The converting device accepts 8

## x 2 W as a motor And power loss due to plissipation = 1 x RT2 = 4W Conversely, if e

12V, The current again is 10 -12 -2A (I.e reversed) The device produces 12 x 2 = 24 W as

## a generator of which RT2 22 x 1 = 4W is dissipated in R, and 10 x 20W is delivery as an

output to the source. In the case of the electromagnetic machine, the relationship between

the emf and the magnetic field is obtained from the faraday induction law (which had been

mentioned in 1.1)
5. energy conversion Week 11

## An electromechanical machine forms a coverting link between an electrical energy system (

such as a main power –supply network) and a mechanical one (such as a prime- mover or a

train). In action a machine is not an isolated things, but has a behavious strongly influenced

by its terminal systems. A relay, for instance, will be affected if its operating battery

## becomes discharged; a loudspeaker will behave very differently it enclosed in an evacuated

vessels with the air loading thus removed; a hydro electric generator, suddenly short-

## circuited, will react severely on the turbine and pipe-line.

A machine can, of course, be studies initially in isolation, but the engineering interest

begins in fact when the complete linked system is considered. Again, the steady-state

## Fig 2.1 Electro–mechanical linked energy system

System analysis can be complicated. Fig 2.2 shows diagrammatically a typical electric

## supply system feeding a mechanical load through an electromechanical machine. In some

cases we might simplify the analysis by assuming, say, that the terminal voltage and

frequency of the machine were constant. This is good enough if the machine is a small

contactor but if it is a 25MW motor the effects of its behaviour reach for back through even

an extensive supply system. Methods are available for evaluating such a complex for any
5. energy conversion Week 11
given stimulus, such as the occurrence of a transmission- line fault or starting of a large

motor.

## 5.4 Energy storage

We now consider how a flux is established and energy is stored in simple toroidal magnetic

Circuit of cross sectional area A, path length L, and of material of constant permeability u,

## The flux is to be established by a current i, in a uniformly wound coil of N-turns. In order

To concentrate on energy storage we neglect the coil resistance. With i initially zero, let a

Voltage V, be applied to the coil terminals, what happen thereafter depends on Faraday’s

## Law of electromagnetic induction.

5. energy conversion Week 12

## Fig: 2.1 Electromechanical machine conventions

A machine accepts energy in a variety of forms from its attached terminal systems. By

conversion we take energy input as positive, so that an output is regarded as a negative input.

The machine internally electrical energy- mechanical energy is a motor mechanical energy to

electrical energy is a generator converts some energy, stores some, and dissipates the rest:

these energies are positive if they increase with time. As the prime object of a machine is

conversion to useful output, one of the terminal inputs will normally be negative. Recalling

the principle of conservation of energy which states that energy is neither created nor

destroyed and combining it with the laws of electric and magnetic fields, electric circuits and

## Newtonian mechanics, the energy balance can be expressed as:-

Total terminal energy input internal energy + Dissipation 2.1 for an electromechanical

machine using a magnetic field as the means of conversion, the balance can be stated in more

## = stored magnetic –field energy + stored mechanical energy + Dissipation

5. energy conversion Week 12
Reckoned from an initial condition of zero energy, w = o.A comparable relation must apply

to energy changes dw, and also to energy rate dw/dt i.e to power, P. in corresponding

## Energy rate Pe + pm = dwf + dws + p 2.2(c)

dt dt

The rates of change of stored field energy wf and stored mechanical energy, ws, are left in

differential form because there is always a practical limit to storage. A magnetic field can not

grow in strength indefinitely when ferromagnetic materials is employed; and if the kinetic

energy in a flywheel is continually increased, the speed must rise and the wheel may burst

## under centrifugal force.

We shall now examine the electromechanical machine in more detail with fig 2.3. The

machine links an electric source of voltages supplying a current; and a mechanical sources

represented by a bar moving to positive directions, thus both vi and fmu are inputs ( The

## mechanical source could alternatively be a shaft rotated at angular speed wr by a tongue mm

to give an input power mnwr ). The electrical end of the machine is precisely that of fig 2.1

(a), with opposing v. the mechanical end has the magnetically developed force fe opposing

fm > fm it can reverse speed w so that the mechanical system is driven and absorbs a

mechanical output.

The behavior can now be summarized. With the machine operating in the steady state as a

motor, the applied voltage u drive +I against e to give a total electrical power input pe =

u(+e), of which the part ei is converted. The outcome of conversion is the force fe which

drives the bar against fm to develop the mechanical input pm = fm (-u) which, being
5. energy conversion Week 12
negative, is actually an output. With the machine as a generator; the bar is driven at speed u

by the force fm to provide the mechanical input pm = fm ( +u), as a result which e now

exceeds u and reverse the current to provide the negative electrical input (i.e output (i.e

output) pe = u (-i) the sum of the inputs (pe +pm) must be rate of rise of internal energy

## storage plus the rate of energy dissipation.

A real electromagnetic machine has fairly obvious points of attachment (e.g the electrical

terminals and the shaft) by which it is connected to the electrical and mechanical sources to

form a link between them. But it is very to concentrate source to from link between them.

But it is very convenient attention on the conversion region enclosed by the chain- dotted

line in fig 2.3, for it contains only the essential quantities e and i,. U and fe. Various losses,

and the mechanical storage, are excluded so that attention can be directed on to the physical

process if useful energy conversion by electromagnetic means outside the conversion region

we can account for conduction and core losses associated with the electrical end and

represented rough by the resistance R in fig 2.3, and friction and similar losses on the

mechanical side. It is to be noted that the externally applied force fm is not necessarily equal

to –fe because there may be force-absorbing components of inertial and elasticity in the

## mechanical working parts of the machine itself, as well as internal friction.

The machine has new been reduced to an analyzable form. Its behaviors under specified

conditions involves the forces and movement of the mechanical parts, the voltages and

current at the electrical terminals and processes of energy conversion and storage and

dissipation going on inside. Evaluation is based on the well-established principles and laws

## summarized in the following table.

5. energy conversion Week 12
Part of system Quantities Principles

Kirchhoff laws

Mechanical

## 5.5.1 Block diagram for energy balance equation

The energy balance equation is given by equation 2.2 as electrical energy input mechanical

energy input

## The dissipation (energy lossess) arise from three main causes

(ii) Part of electrical energy is converted directly to heat in the resistance of current path.

(ii) Part of mechanical energy developed with the device is absorbed in friction ad

## windage and converted to heat.

(iii) Part of the energy absorbed by the coupling field is converted to heat in magnetic

core losses (for magnetic coupling ) or dielectric loss) for electric coupling).

if we associate the various losses with the corresponding energies, equation 2.2 be written as

## Resistance losess and windage losses plus associated losses

5. energy conversion Week 12

Equation 2.3 is obtained ( for a motor) with the mechanical energy transferred to the R.H.S

of the equality sign and neglecting the energy mechanical stored energy ( for a machine

without a flywheel and neglecting the mass of the shaft). If there is a flywheel, the stored

## w = angular velocity of rotating wheel

Equation 2.3 may be represented in the form of a block diagram as shown in fig 2.4

Fig 2.4 General representation of electromagnetic energy conversion. Fro a generator action, the
positions of the electrical system and that or the mechanical system will be interchanged.
5. energy conversion Week 13

## completely described by the energy balance equation, we need to be able to determine

qualitatively the energy of the magnetic field and the associated force.

## 5.6.1 Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a region of space in which certain physical effects occurs in particular

the development of mechanical force. A pictorial model of the field can be made by drawing

closed loops of magnetic flux, such that their direction and spacing at any point are a

measure of the flux density. The magnetic circuit in the present context is composed partly

of ferromagnetic material such as iron, and partly of an airgap. The iron serves to “guide” the

flux in a desired path; the airgap is necessary to make useful magnetic effects readily

accessible.

The lines in a flux plot have no real existence. In a given region a magnetic field may change

## 5.6.2 Magnetic circuit n/a

Engineers look upon magnetic flux (Weber) as produced by electric current. A current I

develops around any path that links it a magneto motive force (M.M.F) F = I (ampere). The

effect of a current can be multiplied. By coiling the electric circuit into N turns so that

around a path linking all N turns the m.m.f is N times as great, giving F =- ampere- turn.

The m.m.f is distributed along the path, to give along a path element of length dx the

magnetic field intensity h (ampere-turn/ metre). The summation of Hdx around a single loop

## closed with F i.e F = Hdx = m.m.d.

5. energy conversion Week 13
At any point, H gives rise to a flux density B = NH (tesla or Weber/m2) our Henry/meter]

Flux summation of the flux density over the area available to the flux path given the total

flux [ i.e Ø i.e. BA. (Weber).-2.6 where A is the are of flux path.

The „ law of the magnetic circuit relates the total flux Ø to the mmf f through the

expression.

I = V

## And = 1/s = total permeance [ weber per ampere-turn]

For a path- length x of materials of absolute permeability U, and having a uniform cross-

sectional area A over which the density B is everywhere the same, the mmf f require = N x x

= Hx…………..2.8

## For a succession of parts , x, y, z 2.11

F = fx + fy + f2 + and S = SX + SY + SZ + 2.12

If, however the parts are in parallel and share the flux

## F = fx =fy =fz and

For fields in ferromagnetic materials U is very much greater, and the relative permeability Nr

## =u =Uo 4 /107 1/80000

5. energy conversion Week 13
Which means that H = Ub = 800000B

## Ad the relative permeability Ur = U

Uo

Since, usually Ur is large, then it is convenient ( it simplies analysis) to assume that the

whole mmf is required for the excitation of the air gap i.e the whole of the field energy is

## 5.7 Magnetic field energy

With the assumption that the magnetic filed energy is concentrated within the air gap. It

## becomes easy to calculated the magnetic field energy.

A magnet attract on iron bar. If the iron bar is light enough and the magnet filed is enough,

the bar will be seen to move up to get attached to the magnet. The movement of the bar

signifies that work is done, since the iron bar has mass and covered some distance

(work done = force x distance). This means that the space that the file occupies (the field

region) can demonstrated or has on attribute of force. And hence, the filed region must

process some energy. If can be easily noticed that the force is strong when the air gap is short

## Fig 2.5 maxwell forces

Maxwell formulated the concept that the forces is transmitted across the gap between a pair

of magnetized surface as a result of two stresses. If at a point in the gap the flux density is B

and the corresponding field intensity is H =B/U,. then there is a tensile stress of magnitude
5. energy conversion Week 13
1.2 BH along the direction of a flux line and a compressive stress ½ BH along all directions

## at right angles to a flux line.

Fig 2.5 shows two iron bars forming part of magnetic circuit when, as at (a), the polar

surfaces are close together, the flux is mainly concentrated between the surfaces. The density

## B is large, and so therefore is H, and ½ BH represented a strong tensile force of attraction

between the faces. Not all the flux is useful; some, of the leakage flux, exists at the sides of

each bar. Flux crossing the boundary between air and a high permeable materials must enter

or leave the boundary between air and a high permeable materials must enter or leave the

boundary almost at right angles, so that the tensile stress due to faces. All the comprehensive

## stresses balance out by symmetry.

In case (b), the greater reluctance of the long air gap reduces the total flux, the useful flux

density of the pole faces is smaller while the leakage flux is much greater hence the forces of

attraction between the pole faces is much less than in case (a)

In most practical applications, the air gap is small enough to enable us assumes a uniform

flux density over the polar area. i.e in the air gap.

.
5. energy conversion Week 14

## 5.9 ENERGY DENSITY

The Maxwell stress concept is another way of saying that the energy to the value

½ BH is stored in a unity cube of the space occupied by = magnetic, thus ½ BH is the energy density

## Fig 2.6 magnetic energy.

Consider an air gap, initially unmagnetized. Apply a magnetic force to the gap, an increase of H

from zero causes the flux density B = μoH to increase proportionately, Fig 2.6(o). The energy (m 3

is [HdB, and for and values Bi and H1 the final energy density (shaded area) is clearly ½ B 1H1 . The

some summation applies to a filed set up by in a ferromagnetic matter, with similar result Fig. 2.6

(b0, if the permeability U is constant; but for the same and density B1 a much smaller magnetizing

## force Hii is need and much less energy is stored.

If the ferromagnetic materials is subjected to saturation, the stored energy is as shown in Fig 2.6(c0

and is calculated by piece-wise approximation to composite area of DOAD plus area of trapezium

AB,CD.
5. energy conversion Week 14

When the flux 4 associated with an electric increase in time at by amount d4, an emf, e = de/dt

appears in the circuit. The minus sign implies that the direction of the emf is such that a current

## produced by it in the circuit opposes the change d4.

Flux-linkage 4 (weber- turn] is the product of a magnetic flux and the number of turns through

which it passes in the same direction. Since the current is proportional the flux,

## then flux likage Ų = NQ

Since we are neglecting the coil resistance, then around the electric circuit loop formed by the

voltage source and the N turns of coil on the toroid, the KVL gives

## The instantaneous electric power input to the coil

P =vi = (dw/dt)i

The total energy required to establish from zero a flux Q1 and a linkage Q1, (corresponding to a

## Since the core of the toroid has constant permeability.

Which is represented by the shaded area in Fig, 2. 6 (d). this magnetically stored energy can be

assumed to be uniformly distributed through the active volume Al of the core. Then because

## [f =1/24I =1/2QF =1/2Q2S =1/2 F2S =1/2Q / 1/2F2 =1/2Li2]

5. energy conversion Week 14
Also, since Q BA and F =Hl and H =B/U

## Then wf =1/2 QF =1/2 BAHL =1/2AL

U
But al = volume

Wf = Vol. B2
2U

Any expression for the energy of the field wf in equation 2.32 and 2.23 may be employed

## Fig. 2.7 Energy change with position

Fig 2.7 (a) shows airgap region and existing coil of a magnetic circuit, the ferromagnetic

core of which has a high. Permeability, the plane parallel polar faces. Have an area A and are

spaced x apart. The n-turn coil carrying current I magnetic the system. The problem is to find

## the magnetic force of alteraction between the polar faces.

In the comparable system Fig 2.7 (b), with a rotatable part (rotor) port (stator), the problem is

## to find the tongue.

Insight into the inteplay of energy can be obtained from a study of finite mobvements, say

from an initial position (1) to afinal direction position (2). At (a0. this movement -∆x (i.e
5. energy conversion Week 14
against the positive direction of x) of the right-hand member’ are ( b) it is a rotation -∆Q of

the rotor. The static 4/I relations for the two positions are shown in Fig 2.7 © differ because

the gap reluctance for (2) is less than for (1). Clearly the filed energy will differ too. How it

changes depends on the conditions wholly in the gap, and the effect of coil resistance will

initially be ignored.

## (1) CONSTANT CURRENT

Let the current be held constant at is throughout, as shown at Fig 2.7 (d). for

position the linkage is 41 and the filed energy is ½ Fig 4. to reach position (2) a

linkage 42 with constant current, an electrical energy input + ∆we =(Ų2-Ų1 ) i0 must

be fig 2.7 (d). the current sources. This is represented by the hatched area at Fig

2.7(d0. Now, the increase in field energy is ∆WF =1/2 (Ų2-Ų1)io, which, comparing

the expressions or the hatched areas at (d), is only one-half of∆we. What has

## happened to the other half?

Writing the energy balance and excluding the loss and mechanical storage terms:

∆we + ∆wf

## As 41 the mechanical input is negative: it is in fact an output work

(force x displacement). A precisely similar consideration gives for the rotary case (b)

the output work (torgue x angular displacement). For constant current, therefore, the

source provides ∆we, of which one-half is taken as energy into the filed and the

## other half is converted into mechanical energy output.

5. energy conversion Week 14

## (2) CONSTANT FLUX

Let the flux be kept constant so that linkage is always . the condition implies that the

current fall from Li to i1 to compensate for the rise in permeance in Fig (e). there is

no electrical energy transfer between the source and system for with constant linkage

there is no induced e.m.f to be balance. Hence ∆we =o. but there is change of filed

energy ∆wf =1/2Ų0 (l2-l1) which is negative because l2 <l1. the energy balance is

## Hence ∆wm =fm (-∆x) =1/2 Ų0 (l2 –l1)

For constant flux, therefore, the mechanical work done comes from an equal

## (3) GENERAL CONDITION

In a practical device neither of condition (1) and (2) is likely to apply consistently.

The transition will follow some arbitrary contour, such as that in Fig 2.7 (f), with

changes in both 4 and i. the energy balance is then some combination of cases (1) and

(2). The change in field energy is the shaded area ∆wf, and this will correspond, as

## before in magnitude to the mechanical energy ∆wm even, if owing to saturation

effect, the Q/I relation is non- linear, they are ∆wf can still be found by graphical

∆x

## The mean torgue ∆wf, = mm 2.29

5. energy conversion Week 14

## (4) DIFFENTIAL FORM

IF ∆ AND ∆Q are reduced to the infinitesimal differentials dx and dq, the force and
torgue are obtained for a single position x or Q. Then
Force, fm = dwf 2.30
dx
torgue, mm = dwf 2.31
dQ
5. energy conversion Week 15

## Fig: 2.8 Reluctance motor

The reluctance motor shown in figure above depend on the tendency of the rotor to

Align itself magnetically with the stator. A flux plot for the machine shows that,

provided there is ad equate ove4rlop, all the active flux and all the field energy can be

assumed to occupy the overlap regions. The active gap volume changes with angle Q

between the two magnetic exes, and the torgue is d e f/dQ eqtn 2.31 using equation

2.22 a basis. An angular increase Dq others the active volume of each gap by - rlg

## me = dwe = B2Lrlg 2.24

Dq uo = 4π x10-7 (const.)

## The minus sign indicating that the force acts to reduce Q.

Example 1

With the rotor dimentions shown and a coil of 400 turns carrying 1.6A, calculated the

## torgue acting on the rotor.

5. energy conversion Week 15
Solution

Uo

## :. B =640 x UO 640 X 4π X 190-7 = 0.40 tesla

2lg 2 x 10-3 0.43

## :. me = -0.42 X 0.025 X0.03 X0.001 X107 = 0.0955N-M

-B2l/g4 π

Example 2

The 4-l characteristics of a magnetic circuit are frequently described with straight

segments as shown below. The act is considered linear up to pt. a and in saturation

## from a to 5 find the field energy

Example 3

A dynamic phonograph pickup consists of a 20-turn coil length of each coil =1cm)

## calculated the output voltage at 100-HZ and at 100Hz

Solution
5. energy conversion Week 15
A dynamic phonograph pickup for vertical recording the effective length of

2 2

= 0.0036v =3.6mv

## And r.m.s value of output voltage = 0.2 x 0.2 x 4 π x 10-3

2

= 0.00036v =0.36mv
5. energy conversion Week 15
Example4.

In a d.c machine, shown above, the armature is wound on a laminated iron cylinder

15cm long and 15cm in diameter. The N and S role faces are 15cm long (into the

paper) and 10cm along the circumference the average flux density in the air gap

under the pole faces is 1T. If there are 80 conductors in series between the brushes

and the machine turning at N =1500rpm, calculated the no-load terminal voltage

Solution

## E =NS ∆Ø wb =Ns Ø wb P poles n rev No 2 conductor in sec)

∆t s pole rev 60 sec

= Ns Øpn volts

## Where the flux per pole Ø = BA = 1 x0. 15 x 0.1 = 0.015 wb.

:. E = 80 x 0.015 x 2 x 1500
60

= 60 volts

Example 5.
5. energy conversion Week 15
A magnetic circuit is completed through a soft –iron rotor as shown in the figure

above. Assuming (1) all the reluctance of the magnetic circuit is in the air gaps of

length L

(ii) There is no fringing so the effective area of each gap is the area

Solution

## R = 2l (since Ur =1 for air) R = F =1L

UOA Q A

= 2L
Urwq
For an N-turn coil, the inductance is
L = NØ = NF N2I = N2 trwØ
I IR IR 2L

## Since torgue =1/2 I2 dL = Uo N2rw

dØ 2L
The torgue is independent of Ø under the assume conditions.

Example 6

## (a) Wiring diagram (b)Steady state model

A commutator machine, with the wiring diagram and steady-state model showed

above, is rated 5KW , 250V, 2000rmp. The armature resistance RA is 1. Drive from

the electrical and at 2000rmp, the no-load powder input to the armature is IA = 1.2A

at 250V with the field winding (RE =250) excited by IF =1A. Calculate the efficiency

of this machine.
5. energy conversion Week 15
Solution

In fig (a), input power IF 2RF = 12 X 250 =250W is required to provide the necessary

## In no-load steady operation, there is no output and no change is all loss

[The armature cooper loss at no load is negligible (1.22 x 1=1.44w) and most of the

input power at no- load goes to supply air, bearing brush friction, eddy cumenty and

hystersis losses] the losses are associated with flux changes in the rotting armature

## And rotational loss = IAV = 300w p =iv :.i = p1

v
At full-load of 5KW, IA =5000W = 20A

## Mech. Energy + field elect = increase energy

:input input output energy stored converted
Field to heat
i.e

less less less

## Hence efficiency = output = elect output

Input mech. output + elect input

## = 5000 = 0.84. or 84%

5700 + 250
5. energy conversion Week 15
Example 7

In the relay shown above, the contacts are held open by the spring excerting a force

of 0.1N . The gap length is 4mm when the contacts are open and 1mm when

closed. The coil of 5000 turns would on core 1cm2 in cross- section. Assuming