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Topic 4: Water Supply

Introduction

For any living being, air, water and food are essential requirements

With the urbanization and industrialization, natural

water, for drinking is no longer available because of

various causes of pollution

This has given rise to water supply works, corporations

and similar undertakings in almost all the cities and towns.

Early 20th century, many parts of the country were

rural in nature and these areas obtained their water

in the traditional way

~ rivers, individual wells, lakes and rain water collected from roofs of houses.

their water in the traditional way ~ rivers, individual wells, lakes and rain water collected from

2

During the early part of the 20th century, a water installations method was introduced following

international movement in developed nations

~ require all potable water to be filtered generally using slow sand filters.

movement in developed nations ~ require all potable water to be filtered generally using slow sand

Need to Conserve Water Resources

- Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful.

- Uses of water include agricultural, industrial, household,

recreational and environmental activities. & majority of human use is freshwater.

- Water holds everything together--making the land inhabitable by

people and wildlife and preserving the environment.

- As the population grows, the strains placed upon the

environment and its critical ecosystems will increase : therefore

conserving water and its resource is extremely important

Need to Conserve Water Resources

-97 percent of the water on the Earth is salt water and only three

percent is fresh water;

-slightly over two thirds of the 3% is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps. -The remaining unfrozen freshwater is found mainly as groundwater, with only a small fraction present above ground or in the air.

unfrozen freshwater is found mainly as groundwater, with only a small fraction present above ground or

The hydrological cycle is the system which describes the distribution and movement of water between the earth and its atmosphere. The model involves the continual circulation of water between the oceans, the atmosphere, vegetation and land.

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6

Hydrological cycle Condensation

Infiltration

Groundwater zone

Evaporation

Precipitation Throughflow Surface runoff Transpiration

Storage

Percolation

Closed system

Hydrological Cycle

Terminologies

7

Hydrological Cycle: Summary

Sources of Water

Sources of fresh water

1 Surface water

2 Under river flow

3 Ground water

4 Desalination (from salt water)

5 Frozen water

Sources of Water Supply

All sources of water can be broadly classified under the following 2 categories:

o

Surface water

o

Ground water

Surface water

- streams

- lakes

- ponds

- rivers

Ground Water

- wells - tube wells

Sources of Water : wells & boreholes, 11
Sources of Water : wells & boreholes, 11

Sources of Water :

wells

&

boreholes,

Sources of Water

Surface and ground water

Community water systems obtain water from two sources: surface water and ground water. People use surface and ground water

every day for a variety of purposes, including drinking, cooking, and

basic hygiene, in addition to recreational, agricultural, and industrial activities.

Surface Water Surface water is water that collects on the ground or in a stream, river, lake, reservoir, or ocean. Surface water is

constantly replenished through precipitation (rain and snow)

and lost through evaporation and seepage into ground water supplies.

Sources of Water

Ground Water

Ground water, which is obtained by drilling wells, is water located below the ground surface in pores and spaces in the rock, and is used by approximately 78% of community water systems in the United States.

Source Water Protection

Even though most community drinking water (especially from

surface water sources) is treated before entering the home, the cost of this treatment and the risks to public health can be reduced by protecting source water from contamination.

Sources of Water

Sources of Water An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials

An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt) from which groundwater can be extracted using a water well.

rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt) from which groundwater can be extracted using a

Storage

Reservoir

Primary

Sand

Filter

Storage Reservoir Primary Sand Filter Pump House JBA Secondary Sand Filter River: 1 JBA & IWK
Storage Reservoir Primary Sand Filter Pump House JBA Secondary Sand Filter River: 1 JBA & IWK
Storage Reservoir Primary Sand Filter Pump House JBA Secondary Sand Filter River: 1 JBA & IWK
Storage Reservoir Primary Sand Filter Pump House JBA Secondary Sand Filter River: 1 JBA & IWK

Pump

House

JBA

Secondary

Sand

Filter

Sand Filter Pump House JBA Secondary Sand Filter River: 1 JBA & IWK Impounding Reservoir Chlorine
Sand Filter Pump House JBA Secondary Sand Filter River: 1 JBA & IWK Impounding Reservoir Chlorine

River: 1

JBA & IWK

JBA Secondary Sand Filter River: 1 JBA & IWK Impounding Reservoir Chlorine & Pump Borehole Sewage

Impounding

Reservoir

Chlorine

& Pump

JBA & IWK Impounding Reservoir Chlorine & Pump Borehole Sewage Treatment Service Reservoir / water

Borehole

Sewage

Treatment

Service

Reservoir

/ water

tower

Sewage Treatment Service Reservoir / water tower Pump House The Water Usage Cycle Grid layout Of
Sewage Treatment Service Reservoir / water tower Pump House The Water Usage Cycle Grid layout Of

Pump

House

The Water Usage Cycle

Grid layout Of Pipes

tower Pump House The Water Usage Cycle Grid layout Of Pipes SEA Sewers IWK JBA Consumption

SEA

Sewers

IWK

JBA Consumption & Drainage IWK

tower Pump House The Water Usage Cycle Grid layout Of Pipes SEA Sewers IWK JBA Consumption
tower Pump House The Water Usage Cycle Grid layout Of Pipes SEA Sewers IWK JBA Consumption
tower Pump House The Water Usage Cycle Grid layout Of Pipes SEA Sewers IWK JBA Consumption

15

WATER RESOURCES IN MALAYSIA
WATER RESOURCES IN MALAYSIA

Water department of Malaysia equires

~ the storage of water in times of excess capacity, for

release in times when natural surface flows are inadequate.

In some states, groundwater resources have been developed to

meet the needs of smaller communities and isolated industries; generally those without access to piped supplies from surface

sources.

~ Kelantan (groundwater as water supply entities, 37,575,736.00 m 3 per year).

The potential of groundwater in addressing the problems of future water shortage is significant.

WATER QUALITY MONITORING
WATER QUALITY MONITORING

Monitoring of river water quality in Malaysia by the

Department of Environment (DOE) started in 1978,

initially to establish water quality baseline and

subsequently to detect water quality changes and

identify pollution sources.

to establish water quality baseline and subsequently to detect water quality changes and identify pollution sources.

The WQI serves as a basis for environmental

assessment of a watercourse

The WQI serves as a basis for environmental assessment of a watercourse 18

Requirements of Water Supply system

A suitable water supply system should satisfy the following requirements

- Free from impurities and bacteria

- Available in adequate quantities - Be readily available

- should be cheap

- should be readily disposed off, after it has served its

purpose

Quality of Water

Impurities of Water
Impurities of Water

Impurities of water are:

suspended (eg sand, clay, algae, fish) colloidal (silica, iron oxide, bacteria)

sand, clay, algae, fish) • colloidal (silica, iron oxide, bacteria) • dissolved (NH3, Chloride, Sodium, Mn)

dissolved (NH3, Chloride, Sodium, Mn)

Quality of Water- pH value

Quality of Water- pH value • the term pH value is a measure of hydrogen ion

the term pH value is a measure of hydrogen ion activity in

aqueous media

pH can be measured by calorimeter and electrometer

methods

• neutral pH = value of 7 • acidic pH = value less than 7
• neutral pH = value of 7
• acidic pH = value less than 7
• Alkali pH = value more than 7

Quality of Water

Soft Water and Hard Water
Soft Water and Hard Water

Hardness in water is of 2 distinct types:

Temporary

Permanent

Quality of Water

Temporary Hard Water
Temporary Hard Water

due to presence of lime and magnesium bi-carbonate

Permanent Hard Water
Permanent Hard Water

due to presence of gypsum and magnesium ions to a

large extent, along with iron, manganese, and

aluminium to a small extent, are responsible for

hardness of water.

Quality of Water: Hardness

Hardness of water causes:
Hardness of water causes:

In homes and laundries more soap is required

Clothes washed will be spoiled

Scaling of boiler results in overheating

Plumbing gets choked due to precipitation of salts in

them

Quality of Water: Hardness

Quality of Water: Hardness 25
Quality of Water: Hardness 25

Quality of Water: Softening

Softening of Hard Water can be done with these processes:
Softening of Hard Water can be done with these
processes:

Lime process

Lime and soda ash process

Base exchange process

Softening of Hard Water

Lime Process
Lime Process

Water containing only carbonate can be softened by adding lime in water (Clark process)

Lime and Soda Ash Process
Lime and Soda Ash Process

Water containing sulphates of calcium and magnesium can be softened by adding lime- soda ash.

Base Exchange Process
Base Exchange Process

Hard water passed through a bed of zeolite sand (complex

silicate of aluminium & sodium)

Base Exchange Water Softener 28

Base Exchange

Water Softener

Development of Water Supply

The various components of water supply complex are:

1. Intake works

2. Treatment works

3. Clear water reservoir

4.Rising mains, including pumping from clear water to “service reservoir”

5.Distribution system

pumping from clear water to “service reservoir” 5.Distribution system 6.Disposal of Used Water - Chapter 5

6.Disposal of Used Water - Chapter 5

Processes

1. Intake Works/Raw

Water Intake

1. Intake Works/Raw Water Intake A catchment area or drainage basin, area drained by a stream

A catchment area or drainage basin, area drained by a stream or other body of water. A permeable layer over an impermeable layer

may act as a natural reservoir, supplying the river or lake in very

dry seasons. The catchment area is one of the primary considerations in the planning of a reservoir for water-supply purposes.

31
31

Water Intake Types

Water Intake Types 32

Water Intake Types

Water Intake Types 33
33
33

Why does water from a natural source need

treatment?

Why does water from a natural source need treatment? 34
2. Water treatment -Steps
2. Water treatment
-Steps

a. Screening

b. Plain Sedimentation

c. Sedimentation with coagulation

d. Filtration

e. Aeration and Chemical treatment

f. Disinfection

2. Water Treatment . a. Screening- raw water passed

through screens

2. Water Treatment . a. Screening- raw water passed through screens 36

2. Water Treatment . a. Screening-

2. Water Treatment . a. Screening- • involves the installation of “screens” at the intake where

involves the installation of “screens” at the intake where water

is being drawn in for treatment.

at the intake where water is being drawn in for treatment. • Purpose is to remove

Purpose is to remove floating matter such as leaves, branches

of trees, dead animals, etc

Larger impurities
Larger
impurities
Finer impurities 37
Finer impurities
37
2b.Plain Sedimentation - treatment process in which the velocity of the water is lowered below
2b.Plain Sedimentation
- treatment process in which the velocity of the water is
lowered below
the suspension velocity and the suspended particles settle out of the
water due to gravity. The process is also known as settling.
water due to gravity. The process is also known as settling. • Denotes separation of the

Denotes separation of the suspended particles by action of gravitation.

of the suspended particles by action of gravitation. • Its purpose is to remove suspended impurities

Its purpose is to remove suspended impurities such as silt, clay, fine sand, etc.

of gravitation. • Its purpose is to remove suspended impurities such as silt, clay, fine sand,

Typical Tank

38

2b.Types of Plain Sedimentation Tanks
2b.Types of Plain
Sedimentation
Tanks
2b.Types of Plain Sedimentation Tanks 39
2b.Types of Plain Sedimentation Tanks 39
2c. Sedimentation with coagulation
2c. Sedimentation with coagulation
in the formation of rapidly setting aggregates or flocks.
in the formation of rapidly setting aggregates or flocks.

Sedimentation with the addition of chemicals that helps

Some noted coagulants are aluminium sulphate, sodium aluminate, ferric coagulants and chlorinated copperas.

• It further removes fine suspended matter
• It further removes fine
suspended matter
40
40
2c. Sedimentation with coagulation + flocculation.
2c. Sedimentation with coagulation + flocculation.

The final step of coagulation is flocculation. During flocculation,

a process of gentle mixing brings the fine particles formed by

coagulation into contact with each other. Floc is clumps of bacteria and particulate impurities that come together and formed a cluster. This can be easily removed.

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41
2d Filtration
2d Filtration

The purpose of filtration is to remove suspended particles

from water by passing the water through a medium such as sand.

As the water passes through the filter, floc and impurities

get stuck in the sand and the clean water goes through.

The filtered water collects in the clearwell.

Filtration is usually the final step in the solids removal process.

In the filter, up to 99.5% of the suspended solids in the

water can be removed, including minerals, floc, and microorganisms.

2d Filtration
2d Filtration

Some common filters used are :

• Slow Sand Filters • Rapid Filters • Pressure Filters
• Slow Sand Filters
• Rapid Filters
• Pressure Filters

2d. i) Slow Sand Filter

The slow sand filter is the oldest type of large-scale filter. In the slow sand filter, water passes first through about 36 inches of sand, then through a layer of gravel, before entering the underdrain. The sand removes particles from the water through adsorption and straining.

particles from the water through adsorption and straining. Unlike other filters, slow sand filters also remove

Unlike other filters, slow sand filters also remove a great deal of turbidity from water using biological action. A layer of dirt, debris, and microorganisms builds up on the top of the sand.

2d i) Slow Sand Filter

2d i) Slow Sand Filter 45

45

2d ii) Rapid Sand Filter

- The rapid sand filter differs from the slow sand filter in a variety of ways, the most important of which are the much greater filtration rate

and the ability to clean

automatically using backwashing.

- The mechanism of particle

removal also differs in the two types of filters - rapid sand filters do not use biological filtration and depend primarily on adsorption and some

straining.

filters - rapid sand filters do not use biological filtration and depend primarily on adsorption and

46

2d iii) Pressure Filter

- Pressure filters are in many respects similar to conventional

rapid filters.

- The main differences are that the media is contained in a pressure vessel (such as a steel tank) and that they are

operated under pressure provided by means of a pump or

high-pressure water source on the influent side rather than gravity.

- Cartridge filtration typically includes pressure filters with

pleated fabrics, membranes or strings wrapped around a filter element and housed in a pressure vessel.

- The pleating allows for higher surface area for filtration. These filters are available in several micron ratings (from 0.3 to 80 microns) and materials.

2d iii) Pressure Filter pleated fabrics, membranes or strings 48

pleated fabrics, membranes or strings

2d iii) Pressure Filter

Clean

2d iii) Pressure Filter Clean 49

2d iii) Pressure Filter

Pressure Filter

2e Aeration & Chemical treatment
2e Aeration & Chemical treatment

Is the mechanical process of providing intimate

contact of air with water - thoroughly mixing the air and water

Aeration transfers gas molecules, most notably oxygen, from air (gas phase) to water (liquid phase).

Aeration is used to treat tastes and odors, to help remove minerals such as iron and manganese from water, and to remove carbon dioxide and methane from the water.

2e Aeration & Chemical treatment
2e Aeration & Chemical treatment
2e Aeration & Chemical treatment 52

52

2f Disinfection
2f Disinfection

o Disinfection is the process of selectively destroying or inactivating pathogenic organisms in water, usually by chemical means.

oChlorination is currently the most frequently used form of

disinfection in the water treatment field. However, other disinfection processes have been developed.

o During prechlorination, chlorine is usually added to raw water after screening and before flash mixing.

o Postchlorination, in contrast, is often the last stage in the

treatment process. After flowing through the filter, water is chlorinated and then pumped to the clearwell.

2f Disinfection by Chlorination Process
2f Disinfection by Chlorination Process
2f Disinfection by Chlorination Process 54
Chlorinating Plant 55

Chlorinating Plant

Clear Well Storage

Clear Well Storage 56
Clear Well Storage 57

Clear Well Storage

Clear Well Storage 57
58
58
58

Clear Well Storage

Clear Well Storage 59

External Water

Distribution &

Reticulation

Water distribution system

Gravity System

Pumping System

Dual System

Water distribution piping

system

Dead-end system

Grid system

Radial system

Water Distribution System

There are 3 types of water distribution systems:

1. Gravity System (preferred).

2. Pumping System (where there is insufficient

head).

3. Dual System (gravity & pumped combined).

Gravity System

1)

2)

Gravity force The water level or water distribution plat located higher from the service areas. Not using pump. Low-cost and effective.

3) High 4) Low
3)
High
4)
Low

62

Direct Pumped System

1) Pumped direct to the consumer

2) Level of water source is at the same height or lower from the

services area

3) Power failure breakdown the system

4) Several types of pump 5) Expensive

6) Less Effective

Low

area 3) Power failure – breakdown the system 4) Several types of pump 5) Expensive 6)

High

area 3) Power failure – breakdown the system 4) Several types of pump 5) Expensive 6)

Gravity & Pumped System

1)

Combination - Pump and Gravity

2)

Excess water during low water demand

3)

will kept in the storage tank Economical, pump used at constant

rate

Water Distribution System

TYPE

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Gravity

Most reliable.

None

Low operational

costs.

Direct Pumped

Pressure & flow can be easily

Problems associated with operation &

regulated.

maintenance of

Remedial action can be speedily taken.

pumping station.

Gravity & Pump combined

Least cost option under certain topographical

Problems associated with operation & maintenance of

conditions.

pumping station.

65

Distribution of Water

Distribution of Water 66

66

Water Distribution Piping System

The 3 main types of water distribution piping

used are:

1) Dead-end system 2) Grid system

3) Radial system

Selection of system depends on earth’s

topography & areas to be distributed. Two or more combination of piping systems can be

used.

67

Water Distribution Piping System

Dead-end System

Advantages

Disadvantages

68
68

Water Distribution Piping System

Water Distribution Piping System Grid System Advantages Disadvantages 69

Grid System

Advantages

Disadvantages

69
69

Water Distribution Piping System

Radial System

Advantages

Disadvantages

70
70

Internal Water

Distribution

3.1 Cold Water Supply system in Low-rise Building

Sanitary Fittings

Cold Water Supply - Direct System

Cold Water Supply - Indirect

System

Water Storage Requirements

Internal distribution

- Direct System • Cold Water Supply - Indirect System • Water Storage Requirements • Internal

Wash basin

Wash basin Wall hung Vanity Sanitary fittings 72

Wall hung

Wash basin Wall hung Vanity Sanitary fittings 72

Vanity

Sanitary fittings

Wash basin Wall hung Vanity Sanitary fittings 72
Wash basin Wall hung Vanity Sanitary fittings 72

Wash basin

Wash basin Semi recessed Counter top 73

Semi recessed

Counter top

Wash basin Semi recessed Counter top 73
Wash basin Semi recessed Counter top 73
Wash basin Semi recessed Counter top 73

WC

WC Squatting pan Sanitary fittings Floor mounted 74

Squatting pan

Sanitary fittings

WC Squatting pan Sanitary fittings Floor mounted 74

Floor mounted

WC Squatting pan Sanitary fittings Floor mounted 74
74
74

WC

One piece

WC One piece Wall hung 75

Wall hung

WC One piece Wall hung 75
WC One piece Wall hung 75
WC One piece Wall hung 75
Bidet Urinal Sanitary fittings 76

Bidet

Urinal

Bidet Urinal Sanitary fittings 76

Sanitary fittings

Bidet Urinal Sanitary fittings 76
Bidet Urinal Sanitary fittings 76

Bath tub

Bath tub Sanitary fittings 77

Sanitary fittings

Bath tub Sanitary fittings 77
Bath tub Sanitary fittings 77

Sanitary fittings

Flush valve

Sanitary fittings Flush valve 78
Sanitary fittings Flush valve 78
Sanitary fittings Flush valve 78
Sanitary fittings Flush valve 78

Sanitary fittings

Shower head

Sanitary fittings Shower head Shower arm and flange Shower head Stop valve Tap Pillar tap B

Shower arm and flange

Sanitary fittings Shower head Shower arm and flange Shower head Stop valve Tap Pillar tap B

Shower head

Sanitary fittings Shower head Shower arm and flange Shower head Stop valve Tap Pillar tap B

Stop valve

Tap

Sanitary fittings Shower head Shower arm and flange Shower head Stop valve Tap Pillar tap B

Pillar tap

Sanitary fittings Shower head Shower arm and flange Shower head Stop valve Tap Pillar tap B

Bib tap

79

Direct Water Supply Sysytem

When large high-level

reservoirs provide a good

mains supply and pressure, it is possible to use direct water supply system in low

rise building such as double

storey terrace house.

In this system all sanitary fittings are supplied with cold water direct from the main, and a cold-water feed cistern is required only to feed the hot-water storage cylinder if necessary.

Indirect Water Supply System

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81

In this system, the water from the

main is supplied first to a cold-

water storage tank then only draws out to the other fittings.

All the sanitary fittings, except

drinking water draw-offs at kitchen

sinks are supplied indirectly from this cold-water storage cistern.

The drinking water sink in

kitchen or pantry is always connected to rising main to

ensure safe drinking water

supply because the rising main is connected to the main water authority supply, furthermore

cistern stored water could also

be contaminated.

Advantages of direct cold water supply

Smaller cold water cistern (tank)

Less pipework making it cheaper to install.

Drinking water available at all wash basin.

Advantages of indirect cold water supply

Large capacity storage cistern provides a reserve of water during failure of the mains supply.

The water pressure on the taps supplied from the cistern is reduced,

which minimize noise and wear on the taps.

Fittings supplied with water from the cistern are prevented from

causing contamination of the drinking water by back siphonage.

Water storage requirements

Water storage requirements 1. Determine the volume of water required according to type of building. 2.

1.

Determine the volume of water required according to type of building.

2.

Select type of water tank according to form (square or cylinder) and dimensions that suit to the available ceiling space.

3.

Choose the highest location in the building to locate the water tank.

4.

Avoid space above bedroom and family hall.

83

the highest location in the building to locate the water tank. 4. Avoid space above bedroom

Water storage requirements

Water storage requirements EFFECTIVE CAPACITY 1 gallon = 4.546 litres EFFECTIVE CAPACITY 84

EFFECTIVE CAPACITY

1 gallon = 4.546 litres

EFFECTIVE CAPACITY

85

Internal Distribution

Internal Distribution Ground floor plan 86
Internal Distribution Ground floor plan 86

Ground floor plan

86

Internal Distribution

Internal Distribution Roof plan 1 s t floor plan 87

Roof plan

1 st floor plan

87

Internal Distribution

Internal Distribution 88 Pipe size 38mm dia – overflow pipe and discharge pipe 25mm dia –

88

Pipe size 38mm dia overflow pipe and discharge pipe 25mm dia main incoming and distribution pipe 20mm dia sub-distribution pipe

Plumbing and Pipe

Materials

Water Pipe Materials

The common pipe materials approved by Water Authorities are:

For truck mains / reticulation mains

Asbestos Cement (A.C.): can be attacked by sulphates in soil.

Cast Iron (C.I.): strong but brittle. Rarely used nowadays.

Ductile Iron (D.I.): strong. Usually offer long service life.

Mild Steel: strong & can be produced to various lengths. Widely used.

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pipe: Flexible & good

corrosion resistance. Unplasticised Poly Vinyl Chloride (UPVC) pipe: semi-rigid,

easy to cut & join.

- Copper pipe

Water Pipe Materials

- Unplasticised Poly Vinyl Chloride (UPVC) pipe

most common materials used for residential plumbing applications.

UPVC is great because it is an inert and stable material that resists corrosion.

It is also a very cheap material that is quick and easy to install.

A minimal amount of skills and tools are required to properly install

Water Pipe Materials

- Unplasticised Poly Vinyl Chloride (UPVC) pipe

The main disadvantages :

is very brittle that can break or crack if miss-handled.

This is especially true for properties located in cold climates. In addition to this,

it can only be used indoors and is not intended for hot water distribution (it has a maximum service temperature of 140 degrees Fahrenheit).

Because of this, care must be taken when installed near hot items such as furnaces or ovens.

Water Pipe Materials

Copper pipe

Copper is probably the most commonly used plumbing materials today.

It offers long term durability and stability yet is soft enough to resist shattering upon impact.

Its so durable in fact that copper pipes can even be used outdoors in both above and underground setting.

has natural ability to resist the growth of bacteria. This is important because it helps to ensure that your water supply is clean and safe to use.

has a very high melting point and is able to resist deformation. This means that during a house fire, the plumbing may remain intact and could possibly be reused.

Water Pipe Materials

The common pipe materials approved by Water Authorities are:

Summary

For internal plumbing

Unplasticised Poly Vinyl Chloride (UPVC) pipe: semi-rigid, easy to cut & join.

Acrylonitrile Butadience Styrene (ABS) pipe: Strong &

excellent resistance to breaking, scratching, chipping & wear.

Copper pipe: for hot water system.

Note: Galvanised Iron (G.I.) pipe formerly used for internal plumbing is no longer allowed by the water authorities.

Water Pipe Materials

Water Pipe Materials Ductile Iron pipe ABS pipe Mild Steel pipe HDPE pipe Copper pipe UPVC

Ductile Iron pipe

Water Pipe Materials Ductile Iron pipe ABS pipe Mild Steel pipe HDPE pipe Copper pipe UPVC

ABS pipe

Water Pipe Materials Ductile Iron pipe ABS pipe Mild Steel pipe HDPE pipe Copper pipe UPVC

Mild Steel pipe

Water Pipe Materials Ductile Iron pipe ABS pipe Mild Steel pipe HDPE pipe Copper pipe UPVC

HDPE pipe

Water Pipe Materials Ductile Iron pipe ABS pipe Mild Steel pipe HDPE pipe Copper pipe UPVC

Copper pipe

Water Pipe Materials Ductile Iron pipe ABS pipe Mild Steel pipe HDPE pipe Copper pipe UPVC

UPVC pipe95

Water Pipe Materials

The factors to be considered when selecting a pipe material are:

1. Corrosion resistance of the material to water.

2. Strength of pipe material. (to withstand designed

internal & external loads; working & test pressures

including surge pressure).

3. Durability of pipe.

4. Cost as compared to other pipe materials. (capital, operation & maintenance costs).

Water Pipe Materials

The factors to be considered when selecting a pipe material are (cont’d):

5. Suitability & workability for laying & operating

requirements. (e.g. coastal areas possibility of

sulphate attack on asbestos cement pipes).

6. Extent of possible leakages.

7. Ease of installation.

8. Availability of material: locally manufactured or imported.

END

Tutorial 4: Water Supply

1. Illustrate the river back to river concept of the water usage cycle. State the relevant authorities’ in charge of the various stages.

2. Why do we need to treat water?

3. State the purposes of filtration in brief.

4. Define disinfection and state its purpose.

5. Explain water distribution by gravity and pumped process. Using

diagrams to aid your answers. Include discussion on its merits and demerits

6a.Define direct and indirect water supply, using a labelled diagram for each.

6b.What are the main differences between the 2 types of water

supply

mentioned in 6a.