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Cold Rolling

October 25, 2010 [LAB REPORT- MET 2200]

And Tensile Testing

Metropolitan State College of Denver

Mechanical Engineering Technology Department

By: Sean Bise

MET 2200
Professor John Chart

October 25, 2010


Abstract: The design of this experiment is intended to show the difference in
mechanical properties of samples of common engineering materials in fully rolled,
half rolled, and non-rolled states. The intent is to highlight the advantages or
disadvantages of cold working on samples of CDA 360, AISI 1018, and 6061 T6.
October 25, 2010 [LAB REPORT-COLD ROLLING MET 2200]

I. Introduction:

Cold working metals changes the mechanical property with respect to yield strength, tensile
strength, ductility, and hardness. The effect of cold working can vary from alloy to alloy.
This experiment is designed to display the effects of cold rolling on steel, aluminum, and a
copper alloy sample and determine the resulting changes in mechanical properties. The
rolling press exerts compressive stress, deforming the material at a temperature below that
which re crystallization occurs.

II. Objective:

The objective of this experiment is to determine mechanical property changes in an array of

cold rolled samples materials under uniform temperature. Tensile tests will be conducted
after cold rolling, and shaping into tensile test samples. The end result will provide the
mechanical affects of the cold working procedure at the non-rolled, half, and full-rolled state.

III. Equipment and Materials:

Hardness testing machine in Rockwell B scale with 1/16” ball penetrator. Samples were cold
rolled on a cold rolling machine. Tensile tests were conducted using and Instron tensile
testing machine and 3 samples each of the following specimens of engineering alloys:

1) AISI 1018 cold formed steel- A relatively soft steel with low (less than .2%)
carbon content

2) CDA 360 free cutting brass- A soft material used often as a sacrificial material
or in pipe fittings and machining. The composition of CDA 360 makes it
relatively easy to machine, having (2.5-3.7% lead) free lead in the alloy leads to
small chips that do not impede machining.

3) AA 6061-T6 aluminum alloy- A relatively soft but lightweight material with

important applications in the aerospace industry.

IV. Procedures:

a. Samples of each material were marked as control, half or full rolled.

b. Samples were tested for their pre cold rolling hardness figures.

c. Fully rolled samples were put through the rolling press until their edges displayed
separation indicative of a brittle fracture at their edge.

d. Half rolled samples were then rolled to half as many cycles through the rolling

October 25, 2010 [LAB REPORT-COLD ROLLING MET 2200]

e. Samples were allowed to cool, and were measured for their change in length and
thickness. Empirical data was recorded for these changes.

f. Samples were then hardness tested for their post cold-work hardness figures.

g. Samples were re-shaped into tensile test samples, and tested for tensile strength.

h. All data was recorded and tabulated.

V. Data Analysis:

In this experiment the intent was to show the affects of cold working on
samples of common engineering alloys with respect to their tensile
strength. During the cold rolling process, the material is mechanically
deformed at relatively low heat. The amount cold work is defined by the
reduction in cross sectional area of the sample; this gives the amount of
plastic deformation in the sample, defined by the formula:

d0 - d1
d0 X100% = % Cold Work

Samples were Tested in Half and fully rolled states. From the figures of
elongation, the % cold work was calculated as follows.

October 25, 2010 [LAB REPORT-COLD ROLLING MET 2200]

Figure 1- Hardness figures given in Rockwell B scale. % cold work derived from
half and full rolled values.

October 25, 2010 [LAB REPORT-COLD ROLLING MET 2200]

Figure 2- CDA 360 tensile testing. Stress figures given in lb./f., Strain values given
as elongation in inches.

October 25, 2010 [LAB REPORT-COLD ROLLING MET 2200]

Figure 3- 6061 T6 tensile testing. Stress figures given in lb./f., Strain values given
as elongation in inches.

Figure 4- 1018 Sample tensile testing. Stress values are given in lb/f., Strain
values given as elongation in inches.

Spacial changes caused by rolling process.

Cross section
6061-T6 C360 1018
Control .32495 dia .32495 dia dia
50% W 0.14335 0.22665 0.1497
H 0.36005 0.3676 0.3435
100% W 0.1224 0.2121 0.1321
H 0.37125 0.2616 5

Change in length
6061-T6 C360 1018
50% Broke in Range 0.115 0.95

October 25, 2010 [LAB REPORT-COLD ROLLING MET 2200]

100% 0.105 0.08 0.02

Sample 6061-T6 C360 1018

50% 5.995 6.011 5.985 inches
length (as) 7.25 6.5 7.4375 inches
Dia 0.4999 0.4382 0.4987 inches
Thickness 0.359 0.365 0.337 inches
. . .
392+R.1 267+R.1 401+R.0
Finish Width 03 02 53 inches
roll cycles 6.25 3 6
100% 6 6.011 6.004 inches
length (as) 17.81 8.875 16.6875 inches
Dia 0.4998 0.4382 0.4986 inches
Thickness 0.125 0.265 0.132 inches
Finish Width 0.556 0.371 0.565 inches
roll cycles 12.5 6 12
Control 5.985 6.005 5.995 inches
Dia 0.5004 0.4382 0.4987 inches
roll cycles 0 0 0

VI. Hardness testing:

1) Rockwell hardness: is determined by the formula: HR = E - e

HR, the Rockwell hardness number is determined by the following,

F0 = preliminary minor load in kgf

F1 = additional major load in kgf
F = total load in kgf
e = permanent increase in depth of penetration due to major load F1 measured in units of 0.002
E = a constant depending on form of indenter: 100 units for diamond indenter, 130 units for steel
ball indenter
D = diameter of steel ball

October 25, 2010 [LAB REPORT-COLD ROLLING MET 2200]

Rockwell Hardness Scales

Minor Load Major Load Total Load
Value of
Scale Indenter F0 F1 F
kgf kgf kgf
A Diamond cone 10 50 60 100
B 1/16" steel ball 10 90 100 130
C Diamond cone 10 140 150 100

2) Brinell hardness testing:

Hardness tests:

October 25, 2010 [LAB REPORT-COLD ROLLING MET 2200]

Pre-worked samples:

Materia Rockwell Brinel Vicke

l Scale AVG. l rs
500k 3000
B C g kg 136
1018 C 88 91 92 90 9 157 185 192
50% 63 64 64 64 101 114
Full 63 64 64 64 101 114
360 C 73.5 74 73.5 74 118 135
50% 74 72 71 72 114 130
Full 73 72 72.5 73 116 132
6061 C 49 51 48 49 82
50% 53.5 53 51 53 86
Full 51.5 51.5 51 51 84

After Cold-working:

Materia Rockwell Brinel Vicke

l Scale AVG. l rs
500k 3000
B C g kg 136
1018 C 88 91 92 90 9 157 185 192
50% 96 96 95.5 96 18 179 216 230
Full 98 21 189 228 243
360 C 73.5 73.5 74 74 118 135
50% 83 84 83.5 84 3 140 162 170
Full 90 90 91 90 9 157 185 192
6061 C 48 49 51 49 82
50% 64.5 65 67.5 66 104 117
Full 69 70 70 70 110 125

VII. Discussion:

Strengthening by strain hardening or cold working occurs as a result of being plastically

deformed below their melting point. The intent strain hardening is to increase the density of
dislocations, the increased number of dislocations block the motion of other dislocations. The
values given during the testing came as some surprise.

In 1018 steel, the increase in hardness was 6.5% for the half rolled sample, and only 8.1% for
the fully rolled sample. These figures represent a minimal increase in hardness compared to

October 25, 2010 [LAB REPORT-COLD ROLLING MET 2200]

the amount of cold working. During Tensile testing, the fully rolled steel sample had the
expected increase in tensile and yield strength values, with the expected reduction in
ductility. The half rolled sample had an unexpected result in that it had reduced values of
tensile and yield strengths compared to the control. The discrepancy could have been the
result of a difference in the dimensions of the sample.

Brass samples displayed a higher increase in hardness under cold work. The half rolled
sample displayed a13.5% increase in hardness, and the fully rolled sample exhibited a 21.5%
increase. The half rolled sample of brass had the expected increase in yield strength values,
as well as the overall increase in tensile strength. The fully rolled sample yielded unexpected
results, having both lower yield strength and tensile strength values, compared to the control
sample. The difference from expected values I attribute to surface imperfections that may
have been introduced during the rolling process.

Aluminum displayed the greatest increase in hardness. The half rolled sample increased its
hardness by 34.6%. The fully rolled sample displayed an increase of 42.8%. While
Aluminum had an increased hardness, it displayed sharp reductions in both tensile and yield
strength of the sample. The fact that this occurred at multiple degrees of cold working, it
suggests that the difference in properties caused by the cold working process is inherent in
the composition of the material.

One expected result was that the rate of increase in tensile strength vs. the rate of change in
yield strength did not occur at the same rate. This manifested in the steel and brass samples,
but did not show in the aluminum sample. Additionally, the increase in hardness occurs most
rapidly at the initial cold working. These results were evident as the first 50% cold working
yielded more significant changes in hardness than fully working the samples.

October 25, 2010 [LAB REPORT-COLD ROLLING MET 2200]

Figure 5- cold work diagram showing the reduction in grain size caused by cold

VIII. Conclusion:

The mechanical properties are changed significantly during the cold working process. With
the increase in Tensile and Yield strengths as well as hardness, there are significant decreases
in the ductility, electrical conductivity, and corrosion resistance of the material, due to the
increase in grain density. In BCC materials such as the 1018, the yield and tensile strength of
the materials is significantly increased through cold working. Caution must be observed in
cold rolling BCC materials so as not to induce catastrophic failure in the material during the
cold working process.

With the increase in cold working, there is a decrease in grain size, corresponding to an
increase in hardness with a subsequent decrease in ductility over all samples. Materials
exhibiting unexpected early failure could have the advantages of cold working restored if the
material were to be annealed, allowing grain structures to reform, restoring a degree of their
ductility, before further cold working can occur. This recovery period allows re-
crystallization and grain growth, allowing the formation of strain free dislocations to re-
organize themselves into a stronger structure.

October 25, 2010 [LAB REPORT-COLD ROLLING MET 2200]

Figure 6- Displays the reduction in re-crystallization temperature as % CW


October 25, 2010 [LAB REPORT-COLD ROLLING MET 2200]

Figure 7- Showing the re-crystallization process and the effects of heat

October 25, 2010 [LAB REPORT-COLD ROLLING MET 2200]


Shackelford, James F. , (2009) Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers 7th edition,
Pearson International Edition, New Jersey

Low Carbon Steel, Matweb. AISI 1018 cold formed steel. Retrieved 23 Sept., 2010, from

Brass, Matweb, CDA 360 Free Machine Bras. Retrieved 23 Sept., 2010,

Rockwell Hardness Testing, Gordon England, Rockwell hardness, Retrieved 24 Sept. 2010,

Rockwell Conversion tables, Carbide depot, Hardness conversion chart, Retrieved 24 Sept.
2010, http://www.carbidedepot.com/formulas-hardness.htm

Properties of 1018 Steel, MNSU.edu, Metal properties, Retrieved 25 Sept. 2010.


Properties of CDA 360 Brass, Alloy threaded rods, Properties of brass, Retrieved 22 Sept.
2010, http://threaded-rods.com/alloy_360_brass.htm

Properties of 6061 T6, MATWEB, Retrieved 5 Oct. 2010,


Cold Work, Lab 4, Retrieved 30 Oct. 2010,

Strengthening, Mechanisms in cold working, Retrieved 26 Oct. 2010,