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Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

For centuries, paper was a rare and precious commodity. Until today, paper is a

fundamental part of life and its existence is always taken for granted. Each year, the

world produces more than 300 million tons of paper. Since paper comes from plant fibres

and trees, the paper production creates a big sacrifice for our forests. Natural forests are

destroyed at an unsustainable pace with most surviving forests degraded by roads,

agriculture, pollution and invasive species. Also, paper manufacturing requires large

factories with large inputs of fibres, chemicals, machineries and water.

Ultimately, saving our trees will save humanity as all our food, water, livelihood,

medicine and shelter come from the environment. Producing paper from virgin materials

destroys a lot of our forests, efforts has been made to produce paper from other cellulose

materials like banana peels, carrot stalks, onion skins, corn husk, used cloth or any

fibrous materials. This method of creating paper has been adopted by companies like

Papyrus Australia, which uses banana peelings to produce paper products. Not only do

they produce good quality paper, creating paper from these materials also uses a lot less

energy compared to manufacturing paper from virgin materials. If these materials are

widely used, problems arising from paper production can be greatly aided.

The researchers think that one reason for the unpopularity of recycling these

waste materials is due to the arduous process of creating paper. Recycling waste materials

usually takes a lot of effort, as well as time since the procedures are done manually. If

there is an automated way to recycle these waste materials, we believe that more people

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will be encouraged to produce paper from materials like corn husks, banana peels and

those fibrous plants abundant in the country. Since there are a lot of electronic devices

that can replace and mimic the procedures in the manual procedure, creating such

machine is very feasible. And with this information at hand, the researchers have decided

that the automation of the creation of paper proves to be useful to us as it is important to

our environment. The researchers hope that this project will promote consciousness of

conserving the precious resources we still have and pass this through the next generation.

1.2 Objectives

1.2.1 General Objective:

To design and implement a microcontroller-based paper making machine

involving pulp making, paper forming and paper drying using corn husk as a raw

material

1.2.2 Specific Objectives:

To design a paper making machine using a PIC16F877 MCU that is able

to produce a paper material out of corn skin.

To interface a blender to produce the paper pulp, as well as an electronic

heating element to cook the corn husks for 60 minutes.

To create a program for the PIC16F877 MCU using Proton Plus Compiler.

To design a water level detector that will determine the amount of water to

be transferred to the blender cooker and a circuit that controls the blower

to dry the corn husk paper for 30 minutes.

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To interface solenoid valves that would transfer the solution and water to

the blender cooker, and the pulp with water to the mould and deckle.

To test the systems reliability.

1.3 Statement of the Problem

Today the lush forests are long gone, and even though many trees are planted

specifically for the paper industry, they cannot grow fast enough to meet demand. The

ever-increasing demand, especially of the advanced countries has resulted in continued

denudation of forests causing severe environmental imbalances. This phenomenon if not

treated well will result to serious planet degradation. Deforestation or cutting of trees

because of paper production presents multiple societal and environmental problems such

as loss of biodiversity, destruction of forest-based-societies, erosion, flooding and climate

change

in

the

world.

These

immediate

and

long-term

consequences

of

global

deforestation are almost certain to jeopardize life on Earth.

Moreover, loss of trees is not the paper industry’s only ecological problem. While

the impact on the world’s forests is undeniable, the industry consumes vast amounts of

energy and water to convert trees into paper. In addition, many chemicals that are used in

the process end up in our air, water, and soil in large amounts, causing serious pollution.

Global deforestation and waste pollution are both major problems the world is

facing right now. And business establishments together with the government in different

areas of the world are having a hard time to solve these problems caused by paper

industries. So in order to eliminate or even reduce this occurring problems an alternative

solution of producing a tree-free paper must be made.

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The group proposed an eco-friendly alternative of producing paper from corn

husks- a discarded agricultural waste which is also noted that if not disposed properly can

cause stubborn drain blockages where fibers get tangled. This material will be processed

automatically in order to minimize the time frame of producing paper to meet the demand

of the consumers. The group’s project promotes method of recycling - producing paper

from waste (corn husks) rather than virgin trees. This method makes use of existing waste

and turns it into something beneficial while saving natural virgin resources such as

hardwood

trees

and

eliminates

waste

pollution

for the purpose of protecting the

environment and human lives while meeting the demand for paper.

1.4 Scope and Delimitation

The study conducted will include the topics discussed but will be limited

to the following conditions:

Though there are many kinds of plant materials that can be recycled, the

study will focus on using corn husks as raw materials. This is due to its

availability in the country as well as in the vicinity of the researchers.

The corn husks that will be used in the study are cleaned and washed. The

stalk or any hard part of the corn husk shall be removed.

Also, the corn husks that will be used in the study is cut into small pieces,

about 0.5 cm x 0.5 cm. Corn husks will be loaded into the cooking section

of the prototype.

The compiler to be used on the PIC16F877 will be Proton Plus Compiler,

which can be easily downloaded from the internet.

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For testing purposes, the size of the paper produced will only be 8’’ x 10’’,

which is estimated to be enough to test the quality of the produced paper.

For the soda ash solution, the ratio to be used will be 1L of tap water for

12.5ml soda ash.

The tanks used for water and soda ash solution will have a capacity of

about 3 litres.

The quality of paper produced has scrapbook material appearance.

1.5 Significance of the Study

One importance of this design is that it imposes and promotes recycling process in

our area. Since the researchers will make an automated way of producing paper from

corn husks, more people will be encouraged to recycle their waste since it is easier to do

so. This project can promote awareness to people as to how important recycling is to us

and our environment. Also, this project can give ideas to other researchers that manual

recycling processes can be made to an automated process.

This project provides an important contribution to saving our environment. Since

the design will produce paper from corn husks as raw materials, there will be a reduction

in waste produced by improper disposal of such materials.

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1.6 Definition of Terms

A

Arduous - demanding great effort or labor

B

Blender - is a kitchen appliance used to mix ingredients or puree food.

Blow Dryer - is an electromechanical device designed to blow cool or hot air

C

Corn - constitutes a staple food in many regions of the world.

Cellulose - structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants

D

Design - planning that lays the basis for the making of every object or system

Deforestation - occurs for many reasons: trees or derived charcoal are used as, or sold, for

fuel or as a commodity, while cleared land is used aspasture for livestock, plantations of

commodities, and settlements.

Deckle - is a belt used along with a mold to gather up wood pulp from a vat for pressing

and drying into sheets.

F

Fiber a long thin piece of a natural or artificial substance, similar to a thread or hair in

shape

Float Switch - is a device used to detect the level of liquid within a tank. The switch may

be used in a pump, an indicator, an alarm, or other devices.

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H

Husk - the external covering or envelope of certain fruits or seeds

I

Implement - outsource the new project

Interface - A point at which independent systems or diverse groups interact

Invasive - having to do with invasion

M

Microcontroller - is a small computer on a single integrated circuit consisting internally

of a relatively simple CPU, clock, timers, I/O ports, and memory.

Motor - uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy, very typically through the

Mould - is a hollowed-out block that is filled with a liquid like plastic, glass, metal,

P

Paper - a thin, flexible material made usually in sheets from a pulp prepared from rags,

wood, or other fibrous material, and used for writing or printing on, for

packaging, as structural material, as a fabric substitute, etc.

Pulp - a soft, moist, formless mass that sticks together

Procedure - the act, method, or manner of proceeding in some action; esp., the sequence

of steps to be followed

Proton Plus - is an entry level product written with simplicity and flexibility in mind by

Proton.

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Prototype - the first thing or being of its kind; original; model; pattern

Proximity Detector - Proximity detectors are devices that use mutual capacitance between

itself and object in order to detect its presence.

R

Recycle - to pass through a cycle or part of a cycle again, as for checking, treating, etc.

Relay- is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a

switching mechanism, but other operating principles are also used.

Reliability - Ability of an equipment, machine, or system to consistently perform its

intended or required function or mission, on demand and without degradation or failure.

S

Solenoid valve - an electromechanical valve for use with liquid or gas; it is a tube like

System - a set or arrangement of things so related or connected as to form a unity

W

Water Detector - is a small electronic device that is designed to detect the presence of

water and alert humans in time to allow the prevention of water damage.

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Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature

The collection of theories, concepts, works and articles that are related to the

study can be found in this chapter. Review of related Literature discusses all the factors

contributing to the study that help in the completion of the design prototype. All the

concepts which are comparison to the study are applied in this chapter which was used as

a reference by the researchers.

2.1 Philippine Agriculture

About one-third of the total land area of the Philippines is classified as arable.

Three-fourths of the cultivated area is devoted to subsistence crops and one-fourth to

commercial crops, mainly for export. Farms tend to be small, and many areas are double-

cropped. Soils are generally fertile, but 30% of the agricultural land is suffering erosion.

In 1973, the Marcos government began a land-reform program that undertook to

transfer landowners to about half of the country's 900,000 tenant farmers. By February

1986, over one- half of the areaabout 600,000 ha (1,482,600 acres)had not been

distributed. The Aquino administration proposed a program in two stages: the first,

covering 1.5 million ha (3.7 million acres) in 198789, involved previously undistributed

land and other land held by the state; the second, covering 3.9 million ha (9.6 million

acres) in 199092, involved land cultivating sugar, coconuts, and fruits. A more detailed

19901995 plan sought to increase productivity of small farms, maintain self-sufficiency

in rice and corn production, and to increase the agricultural sector's role in the trade

balance.

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Roughly half the cultivated land is devoted to the two principal subsistence crops,

palay (unhusked rice) and corn. Production of palay was 11,388,000 tons in 1999; long-

term production has increased, mainly through the use of high-yielding hybrid seeds

under a government development program begun in 1973. The Philippines attained self-

sufficiency in rice in 1974 and became a net exporter of rice for the first time in 1977. A

similar development plan was aimed at raising yields of corn, which is the chief food

crop in areas unsuitable for rice-growing and is increasingly important as feed for use in

the developing livestock and poultry industries. The Philippines has been self-sufficient

in corn for human consumption since the late 1970s, but since production of animal feed

lags behind the demand, imports are still necessary. Corn output in 1999 was 4,643,000

tons. Lesser crops include peanut, mango, cassava, camote, tomato, garlic, onion,

cabbage, eggplant, calamansi, rubber, and cotton. (Retrieved February 03,2010 from

http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Asia-and-Oceania/Philippines-

AGRICULTURE.html)

2.2 Philippines Agricultural Geography

In the late 1980s, nearly 8 million hectares--over 25 percent of total land--were

under cultivation, 4.5 million hectares in field crops, and 3.2 million hectares in tree

crops. Population growth reduced the amount of arable land per person employed in

agriculture from about one hectare during the 1950s to around 0.5 hectare in the early

1980s. Growth in agricultural output had to come largely from multicropping and

increasing yields. In 1988 double-cropping and intercropping resulted in 13.4 million

hectares of harvested area, a total that was considerably greater than the area under

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cultivation. Palay (unhusked rice) and corn, the two cereals widely grown in the

Philippines, accounted for about half of total crop area. Another 25 percent of the

production area was taken up by coconuts, a major export earner. Sugarcane, pineapples,

and Cavendish bananas (a dwarf variety) were also important earners of foreign

exchange, although they accounted for a relatively small portion of cultivated area.

Climatic conditions are a major determinant of crop production patterns. For

example, coconut trees need a constant supply of water and do not do well in areas with a

prolonged dry season. Sugarcane, on the other hand, needs moderate rainfall spread out

over a long growing period and a dry season for ripening and harvesting. Soil type,

topography, government policy, and regional conflict between Christians and Muslims

were also determinants in the patterns of agricultural activity. (Retrieved February 15,

2010 from http://countrystudies.us/philippines/60.htm)

2.3 RP Corn Production Up Efforts to raise corn output are paying off

The total corn production of the country has increased by an average of 5.8

percent in the last seven years, an indication that efforts by the government and various

industry stakeholders are paying off, according to Agriculture Secretary Arthur Yap. In a

statement sent to the Sixth National Corn Congress held at the Albay Astrodome here

from April 16 to April 18, Yap said that last year’s national corn production reached 6.93

million tons (MT) which surpassed the 2007, harvest by more than 200,000 tons despite

high-fertilizer

prices

(Retrieved

February

production-up.html)

and

the

03,2010)

damage

from

wrought

by

typhoons

on

corn

plantations.

http://www.agriculture-ph.com/2009/04/rp-corn-

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―For 2009, we are looking at anywhere between 7.2 MT to 7.4 MT—which is

admittedly lower than our original target, because we are taking into account a host of

factors including the expected decline in corn yields due to the adverse effect of changing

weather patterns,‖ Yap said. At the core of the Department of Agriculture’s (DA's) corn

sufficiency and security agenda is a stronger focus on the establishment of postharvest

facilities, such as corn-cob dryers, shellers and farm mechanization support in the form of

four-by-four tractors and shallow-tube wells.―For these endeavors, we have earmarked

P400

million

or

half

of

the

National

programming of P817.7 million,‖ he said.

Moreover

this

allocation

reflects

Corn

Programs’

a

policy

shift

proposed

in

favor

2009

financial

of

investing

in

infrastructure development and away from soft interventions in the form of subsidies for

corn seeds and microbial inoculants, Yap said. ―Hence, we have tasked ourselves to

realize the targets of raising the national harvest to 7.4 MT this year and further to 7.69

MT in 2010, and therefore improve sufficiency level from 94- percent en route to total

sufficiency by 2010,‖ he added. Furthermore, to attain those targets, Yap said farmers

should realize an average yield of six tons per hectare in program areas, lower

postharvest losses to 8 percent and boost farm income to at least P10,000 per hectare by

2010. To achieve those goals, the DA will promote the use of organic and microbial

fertilizers, expand farmlands devoted to corn by opening up new corn areas nationwide,

and step up the nationwide inter-cropping program in coconut plantations, he said. And

lastly ―We will also continue to encourage the use of hybrid corn technology among

farmers across the country, reduce postharvest losses by promoting better harvest

practices, continue to increase the production and consumption of white corn particularly

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among

the

traditional

corn-eating

population

to

requirements,‖ Yap renounced.

2.4 Philippines Life, Livelihood and Corn

Situation

ease

the

pressure

on

our

rice

A Filipino corn farmer earns an average of US$ 535 per hectare each

growing season and plants 1.5 hectares of corn twice a year. They hadn't pursued

alternative sources of income.

Solution

A

Pioneer

Hi-Bred

International

community

service

project

in

collaboration with the Corn Husk Association of the Philippines (CHAP) allows

Filipino corn farmers and their families to earn additional income by training

them to create crafts and handiwork utilizing a natural material abundant in their

community - the corn husk.

Impact

More

than

15,000

corn

farmers

have

been

trained.

Now,

a

family

producing cornhusk handicraft five days per week can double their annual income

enabling farmers to improve their quality of life. (Retrieved February 3,2010 from

2.5 Tree-Free Paper Products

Tree-free paper is one eco-friendly alternative. The fibers from most plants can

be made into quality paper products. Rapidly renewable resources such as flax and hemp

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can create quality paper. Experts believe the most effective and environmentally friendly

resources for tree-free paper can come from otherwise discarded agricultural waste.

Stalks and husks left after harvesting a main crop are perfect; corn, barley, oats, wheat,

rice, rye, coffee bean skins, sugar cane husks, and even tobacco fiber can be made into

paper. This method makes use of existing waste and turns it into something beneficial

while saving natural virgin resources such as hardwood trees.

Some of the most popular alternative materials being used for papermaking today

include the following:

1. Bamboo is being used for everything from flooring to clothing and even paper.

Bamboo paper and rice paper have been made on a small scale in Asia for centuries.

2. Bagasse is the husk and pulp that remains after extracting juice from sugar cane; it

can be processed into paper.

3. Waste bark from banana trees can be made into paper. Banana leaf paper is known as

abaca.

4. Coconut husks can be processed into thick, textured paper.

5. Corn plant stalks, known as corn stover, can be made into excellent paper pulp

comparable to North American hardwood pulp.

6. Cotton paper can be made from old cotton rags and other recycled cotton material,

cotton processing waste, or even fresh organic cotton fibers.

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8. Hemp paper is a superior quality product. It is said that Thomas Jefferson drafted the

Declaration of Independence on hemp paper.

9. Jute can be made into high-quality specialty paper.

10. Kenaf is a hibiscus from Africa that has been used to make paper.

11. Mango paper is made from the mango leaf and paper mulberry.

12. Straw fibers are very similar to wood and make great paper. At one time, the United

States produced straw paper, but the industry no longer exists.

13. The petals and leaves from the tamarind tree can be made into paper.

Tree-free paper is not entirely a mainstream product yet, so it may be hard to

come by at your local office supply store or printer. However, as with everything else,

demand pushes supply up. As more people start asking for tree-free paper, mainstream

stores will start supplying it to the general public. Until then, you can search in your local

health food and natural supply specialty stores and online. (Retrieved February 05, 2010

2.6 Making Paper from Plants

Renewable and easy to find fibers like cattail leaves, iris leaves and agricultural

waste like corn husks are perfect for making paper and provide good results for

beginners.

There are several steps to papermaking, the first of which is harvesting. The same

plant can yield fibers that vary in color and consistency depending on when and where

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they are harvested. Next is cooking. Fibers need to be cooked in an alkali solution for

three to twenty hours, depending on the variety. After cooking, the fibers must be

thoroughly rinsed - a process that takes much more time and water than you would think.

After rinsing, the fibers are beaten into a pulp. Because most leaf and grass fibers area

easy to beat by hand, or even with a kitchen blender, they are good choices for

papermakers without access to a Hollander beater. After beating, the fibers are floated in

a vat of water and scooped up onto a papermaking mould in a thin layer. From there, they

are transferred to a cloth or wool sheet and stacked in a ―post‖. The post is then pressed

to squeeze out water and promote bonding between the fibers. For the most simple drying

method, the cloth with the still-damp paper still attached can be hung on a clothes line.

There are any numbers of other drying techniques that yield different surface textures.

(Retrieved March 12, 2010 from http://www.missioncreekpress.com/plants.htm)

2.7 How to Make Cornhusk Paper

A. Removing the husks:

1. Peel cornhusks from corn, making sure to remove the corn silk from the husks as well.

2. Let cornhusks dry out in an airy place overnight. A flat surface near a window is a good

spot that allows the sun to help speed up this process.

B. Making pulp:

To make the PULP, you will need the following: Crock pot (also called ―slow cooker‖)

Blender, Plant fibre and Water

3. Once the husks have dried, cut them into small pieces about 2 cm long. Place them into

a crock pot, cover with water and let them simmer for about 12 hours. This will soften the

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husks and help separate the fibres.

4. Place softened cornhusks into blender with enough water to help the husks move around

while being blenderized. You can add other types of pulp, such as shredded toilet paper, at

this step.

5. When you remove the pulp from the blender and strain it, the fibres will look ―stringy‖.

You can now place these into a large vat or sink full of water.

D.

Pulling a Sheet of Paper:

6.

Immerse the mold and pull a sheet of paper by lifting the mold in a horizontal position

from the water.

7. Place mold over a pan to catch the water as it drips while the air dries the paper. It can

take up to 2 days to dry this way. If you want it to dry in half the time, you can use a

sponge to dab excess water from the paper every so often.

D. Your Paper is ready to work with!

To finalize the papermaking, you will need: Iron, Clean sheets of paper (letter size is

okay) and Surface covered with thick cloth to iron onto.

8. Remove dried paper from mold by placing the mold upside down onto a flat surface.

Run your fingers over the screen to help the paper separate from the screen. Paper should

release from the mold.

9. When you first remove the paper from the mold, notice that the edges are curled. To

flatten this newly formed paper, place it between 2 sheets of clean paper and press with

hot iron.

10. Transform poem-photograph from white, heavy paper to an antique. Tear edges of

poem-photograph and dab paper completely with a wet teabag. Let it dry and repeat the

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dab-dry process until its color deepens to your liking. Iron it between 2 clean sheets of

paper to flatten it.

11. Glue and iron the poem-photograph onto the cornhusk paper. You can add decorative

items to enhance your new creation your picture is now ready for framing! (Retrieved

2.8 “Braided Tapes”, Handmade Paper Scruptural Book

Dennis Yuen, an entrepreneur and an artist at the same time made a new addition

to his repertoire which is a book made entirely out of his own handmade paper. This book

uses 3 sheets of handmade denim plus corn husk paper (the bluish pages) and 1 sheet

with "Angel Wings" botanical elements (the yellowish pages). See the picture below.

elements (the yellowish pages). See the picture below. As he mentioned before Figure 1 Braided tapes

Figure 1

Braided tapes

in his blog (Cailun.info-paper and book making blog),

that he have been making paper recently. He said ―Making paper is generally not an easy

thing to achieve at home, that is, if you want to have an efficient process and good

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result‖. He also added that at home, he don't have a deep vet to hold the pulp, but he has

a big plastic storage container for the purpose. ―By the way, pulp is the basic ingredient

of paper. It's the a mixture of cellulose fibers and water. When the water is drained away,

the left behind fibers is essentially paper‖ he said.

the left behind fibers is essentially paper‖ he said. Figure 2 Recycled Paper In this pulp

Figure 2

Recycled Paper

In this pulp (and the resulting paper shown here), He added denim cotton (for

indigo the color), corn husk fibers (for the texture) and recycled paper pulp. In place of a

professional beater to break up the fibers, he usedof course, like most paper-makers at

homea blender. Small batches of fibers are blended and added into the vet to create a

workable amount of pulp. The leftovers pulp is drained and frozen for next time's use.

2.9 Tips for Variations in Paper-Making

Given that the ancient Egyptians used plants to make papyrus paper, it’s only

natural that we consider various plants, as well as other creative sources, in creating our

20

own modern paper today. Here are a few tips in creating a look with your own homemade

paper that’s personal, beautiful and unique.

Give it a little color. Add some dye, powdered paint, liquid paint, tea, food

coloring… From henna to smashed berries, coffee grains to cool-aid, there’s

bound to be something creative you can use in your house this very moment.

Experiment to see what colors you like best.

Make it touchy-feely. Adding texture to your paper can give it a very unique

definition. To do this, add the items of your choice to your paper-paste before you

let it dry. Not sure what to add? Anything from tiny seeds to grass, confetti to

pieces of thread to glitter can work.

Write like an Egyptian. Rather than reeds, why not add some flowers to give your

paper a nature look? You can use anything from moss to pieces of grass, full

leaves to flower petals themselves.

Give it an eu de toilette. You may have tried scenting a love letter with some

perfume you had on hand, but scented paper can be even more fun. Use essential

oils, potpouri or spices to give your paper a unique fragrance.

Add your bright and shiny face. You can even put pictures in your paper. Just

smooth a paper copy of a photo onto the paper-paste before draining the water

from it. (Retrieved March 18, 2010 from: http://www.papermaking.net/how-to-

21

From pilfering hotel shampoo bottles to using single squares of toilet paper at a

time, we’ve all heard some pretty interesting, creative, and sometimes slightly unhinged

ways to save money these days. At The Daily Green, handmade paper is considered one

of many ways to re-localize the economy and go green.

They recently featured a piece on Adina Levin, the co-founder of Collab. Collab

is short for collaborators, and is a Manhattan based company that plans on re-localizing

the economy through helping designers, writers, artists, musicians and other creative

people collaborate together to form a more sustainable world.

By enabling these innovative minds with the tools and space that they need to

collaborate together, Collab hopes to get them inspired and working together, which will

hopefully yield environmentally-friendly products and processes to help create localized

economy.

One sustainable practice that Levin advocatesand is knowledgeable inis making

homemade paper. Levin uses a very similar process to the one posted here at Paper

Making. She also promotes a messy, hands-on approach, often touching the paper pulp

and getting very involved in the process. Her video and instructions are perfect for

anyone who isn’t afraid to get messy and produce some truly amazing results.

Would using handmade paper really support a more local economy and a

sustainable world in general? In a word, probably. By using 50% less energy and 75%

less wateras well as creating up to 90% less wastewater and 70% less air pollutionthan

22

paper made from unused fibers, it definitely has less of an environmental impact.

(Retrieved March 18, 2010 from http://www.papermaking.net/)

2.11 Keeping Safety in Mind While Making Paper

Making paper is considered a very safe and enjoyable activity. However, like any

craft, there are some dangers that can always be present.

It’s important to take

precautions before embarking on any new activity. Here are a few tips to do that when

making paper.

Use caution when handling your screen. Remember, it’s made of wire and can

cause a cut. If you make your own screen, you might even wish to wear protective

work gloves until its edges are finished. If you cut yourself during construction,

stop the project immediately and apply an antiseptic and a bandage. Be sure that

the bleeding has stopped before continuing. If the cut is deep, seek medical

attention.

Make your paper in a well ventilated area. While most smells are harmless, it’s

always possible to come in contact with harmful chemicals if you’re not certain of

your paper’s origin. Even benign but strong smells, such as those released during

making grass paper, may make some people sick. Wearing a mask can also help

with this. The best bet is to only use paper that you know has not been chemically

treated. Making paper outdoors is also a good option, as it helps minimize the

mess.

23

Use caution when handling your water. If you spill water, be sure to clean it up

immediately. It will obviously cause surfaces to become slick, so walk carefully if

you must walk in the water.

Be sure to have some towels handy prior to

beginning, and don’t work near anything electrical to avoid water damage and

electric shocks.

Only use mediums that you are comfortable with. If an herb or plant or other item

is a known allergen to you, do not use it. Avoid any materials that may cause

irritation to your skin. You may also wish to wear gloves and eye goggles while

making

paper

in

general.

(Retrieved

March

18,

2010

from

2.12 Top Handmade Paper Products

Though making your own paper and using it for personal projects is a fun and

rewarding activity, handmade paper is not just for this purpose. On the contrary,

handmade paper is used in the finest crafts and arts all over the world. From India to the

United States, homemade paper is a staple in many artisan projects.

For your next gift or special purchase, you might consider buying one of these

unique creations made by fine, handmade paper.

Journals: Though all journals are mostly made of paper, handmade paper journals

are highly unique, often displaying cloth or beaded covers that add an artistic style

to the author’s thoughts. Typically quite exotic and bold, they are also often more

24

durable

than

manufactured

journals.

The

same

sentiment

applies

toward

handmade paper photo albums, photo frames and scrapbooks.

Bags: Rather than wasting brown paperor even plasticshopping bags, handmade

paper bags provide a clever, beautiful alternative that is both stylish as well as

eco-friendly.

Candle Holders: This is a very novel function of handmade paper, with it being

such a flammable source. That said, there are some very simple, elegant designs

created for holding and highlighting tea lights.

Clocks: How many of your relatives can say that they own a clock made from

paper? It would surely be a more unique gift than another tie or fruit pie.

Desk Sets: From paper pads to pencil holders, the items on your desk needn’t be

encased

within stark cookie-cutter plastics.

handmade paper desk set instead?

Why not

go for

a bold, batik

Gift Boxes: How entertaining it would be to be gifted a handmade paper craft

within a gorgeous handmade paper box? (Retrieved March 18, 2010 from

2.13 How to Make Rice Paper

If you’ve been making your own handmade paper now, you might want to try

making rice paper. Rice paper is a beautiful and elegant creation that has been used in

25

writing and art for centuries in China and Japan. Slightly translucent with a unique

texture, it will be a lovely addition to your handmade paper collection.

Though rice paper traditionally means paper made from rice plants, today it can

be made from just about any plant source, such as bamboo.

To make your own rice paper, you will need about a pound and a half of bamboo

leaves, two and a half pounds of wood ash (such as from a fireplace), a big pot, a basin,

water, a couple of towels, some mesh for straining, a mortar and a pestle for grinding, a

wooden spoon, the frame you made for paper-making, any decorations you’d like in the

paper, and some heavy books for pressing your paper.

To begin, shred your bamboo leaves and set them aside. Prepare your ash by

mixing your wood ashes with your water in the pot. Boil the mixture for half an hour and

let it sit overnight.

The next day, strain the mixture through your mesh. Mix your bamboo and the

ash mix in the pot and cook it together for five hours. When it’s finished cooking, strain

the whole mixture once again, and wrap the fiber that’s left in a towel.

Rinse the towel out with fresh water and squeeze out the excess water. Empty the

fibers from the towel into your mortar and grind it into a paper pulp with your pestle.

Next, fill your basin up with water and pour in your pulp. You should have about four

parts of water to one part pulp. Stir it well with your spoon.

26

Follow through with the rest of your paper-making steps, and when you are

finished, lay a piece of cloth over the paper before covering it with your books to flatten

it

out.

(Retrieved

March

18,

2010

from

2.14 How to Make Paper with Dryer Lint

With the threat of global warming and other environmental concerns looming

over us these days, more people are turning to reusing and recycling things in their

homes. It’s easy to find a new life for a milk jug, toilet paper rolls or even used clothing

(did you know that you can make insulation out of old jeans?), but some household

wastes are hard to find uses for.

Dryer lint may not have been on your list of things to reuse, but it can actually be

a good base to use for making paper. To make new paper out of your old dryer lint,

gather the items you need to make paper out of any other materialyour blender,

preparation frame, sink or basin, etc. You will essentially be performing the same steps

just with something you may have thought had no use whatsoever rather than your

recycled paper or grass!

Like any other paper base, your lint color will show up in your final product, so

keep that in mind as you collect your dryer lint. Soak your lint in warm water for half an

hour to break it down for blending. If you want a more full-bodied paper, feel free to add

bits of paper as your lint soaks.

27

Next, blend it in your blender as you normally would when making paper. Use

about a cup of lint and fill the rest of your blender with water; then, blend until it’s a

smooth mixture.

Follow through with the rest of your paper-making steps and you’ll have a wholly

homemade creation that’s great for arts and crafts, letters or other paper projects.

(Retrieved March 18, 2010 from http://www.papermaking.net/how-to-make-paper/how-

2.15 Making Plant-able Homemade Paper

Everyone

experiences

the

conundrum

of

post-holiday,

birthday,

and

other

seasonal greeting card blues. What are we supposed to do with these lovely cards after

the occasion passes?

While we might save a few for sentimental value, most are fairly generic.

Sometimes we can use them in scrap booking, or creating cool origami crafts or boxes;

but for the most part, we’ve got an extra box of recycling to turn in.

Fortunately, this is a problem that can be easily remedied with plant-able

paper.How cool would it be to enjoy your cardand then plant it into the ground to have a

long-lasting gift of nature in its place? Every time you saw it, you would think of the

person who sent it to you, and be reminded of the earth-friendly, natural gift of beauty

from such a thoughtful friend.

28

While you can buy such paper, it’s also possible to create your own. You can use

all of the steps in creating regular paper to begin with. Why not select some greeting

cards for your paper base? Then they will already be infused with good thoughts and

holiday cheer from past senders.

Now the variation comes in to make your paper plant-able. During the step where

you add your paper ―shake‖ mixture to a sink or basin, be sure to also add plenty of the

seed of the plant you wish to be grown from the paper. Flat seeds work best, such as

tomato, hollyhock, chili pepper, and forget-me-not. Then, follow through with the rest of

the steps and you will have made an incredible gift of plant-able paper!

If you decide to give the paper as a gift in the form of a card, gift tag, stationary or

anything else, be sure to note somewhere that it is plant-able and it can be torn up and

directly deposited into the ground as seeds would be. The paper around the seeds will

naturally

disintegrate

as

the

seeds

grow.

(Retrieved

March

18,

2010

from

2.16 How to Make Grass Paper

We’ve learned how to make paper, and even how to add a bit of grass to

homemade paper to give it some texture or a nature look. But did you know that you can

actually make paper out of plain old grass? While the smell from making paper out of

grass isn’t for people with weak stomachs, it can still be a fun way to use up your grass

clippings.

29

First, gather up all of your grass clippings. You’ll need between six to ten cups of

them. You may want to do this right after you mow the lawn, which is probably the

easiest way to gather grass.

Add the clippings to a large pot, fill it with enough water to cover the grass, and

mix in a half-cup of washing soda or baking soda. Allow this mixture to cook for an hour.

(If you have plenty of time, letting the grass soak overnight in cold water first can loosen

it up even more, making it easier to work with.)

Like you would do with other paper pulps you might create, pour your mixture

into a blender and blend until it’s of a smooth, uniform consistency. Then you’ll follow

through with the steps you used in making homemade paper from recycled paper.

Remember that you may have to play around with the consistency to get the

thickness that you want. For variation, long prairie grasses and dried straw work as well.

Be sure to clean out all of your instruments and containers immediately, as this project

can start to smell if left to sit for a long period of time! (Retrieved March 18, 2010 from

2.17 Solenoid valve: Definition, working principle and common uses

A solenoid valve is an electromechanical valve for use with liquid or gas. The

valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid coil. Solenoid valves may

have two or more ports: in the case of a two-port valve the flow is switched on or off; in

30

the case of a three-port valve, the outflow is switched between the two outlet ports.

Multiple solenoid valves can be placed together on a manifold.

A solenoid valve has two main parts: the solenoid and the valve. The solenoid

converts electrical energy into mechanical energy which, in turn, opens or closes the

valve mechanically. A direct acting valve has only a small flow circuit, shown within

section E of this diagram (this section is mentioned below as a pilot valve). This

diaphragm piloted valve multiplies this small flow by using it to control the flow through

a much larger orifice.

Solenoid valves may use metal seals or rubber seals, and may also have electrical

interfaces to allow for easy control. A spring may be used to hold the valve opened or

closed while the valve is not activated.

Solenoid valves are the most frequently used control elements in fluidics. Their

tasks are to shut off, release, dose, distribute or mix fluids. They are found in many

application areas. Solenoids offer fast and safe switching, high reliability, long service

life, good medium compatibility of the materials used, low control power and compact

design.

Solenoid valves are used in fluid power pneumatic and hydraulic systems, to

control cylinders, fluid power motors or larger industrial valves. Automatic irrigation

sprinkler systems also use solenoid valves with an automatic controller. Domestic

washing machines and dishwashers use solenoid valves to control water entry to the

machine. In the paintball industry, solenoid valves are usually referred to simply as

31

"solenoids." They are commonly used to control a larger valve used to control the

propellant (usually compressed air or CO 2 ). In the industry, "solenoid" may also refer to

an electromechanical solenoid commonly used to actuate a sear.

Besides controlling the flow of air and fluids solenoids are used in pharmacology

experiments, especially for patch-clamp, which can control the application of agonist or

antagonist. (Retrieved April 15, 2010 from http://www.wikipedia.com)

2.18 Float Switch: Definition and common uses

A float switch is a device used to detect the level of liquid within a tank. The

switch may be used in a pump, an indicator, an alarm, or other devices. Float switches

range from small to large and may be as simple as a mercury switch inside a hinged float

or as complex as a series of optical or conductance sensors producing discrete outputs as

the liquid reaches many different levels within the tank. Perhaps the most common type

of float switch is simply a float raising a rod that actuates a microswitch.

A very common application is in sump pumps and condensate pumps where the

switch detects the rising level of liquid in the sump or tank and energizes an electrical

pump which then pumps liquid out until the level of the liquid has been substantially

reduced, at which point the pump is switched off again. Float switches are often

adjustable and can include substantial hysteresis. That is, the switch's "turn on" point may

be much higher than the "shut off" point. This minimizes the on-off cycling of the

associated pump.

32

Some float switches contain a two-stage switch. As liquid rises to the trigger point

of the first stage, the associated pump is activated. If the liquid continues to rise (perhaps

because the pump has failed or its discharge is blocked), the second stage will be

triggered. This stage may switch off the source of the liquid being pumped, trigger an

alarm, or both. (Retrieved April 17, 2010 from http://www.wikipedia.com)

2.19 Float Switch Operation

A float switch is an electro-mechanical switch which allows for an electrical

switch to be opened or closed depending on the fluid level in a container. The float

switch allows for automatic operation of devices depending on the level of fluid, such as

the operation of pumps, or the opening or closing of valves. Float switches of numerous

configurations have been used for various marine and industrial applications. Most float

switches contain an electrical switch imbedded within the body of the float switch device.

The electrical switch is actuated upon physical movement of the portion of the float

switch device containing the electrical switch or upon physical movement of another

portion of the float switch device. Such switches typically include a base member having

mounted thereon a buoyant arm or float member. They may be physically integrated with

the devices they control, or physically independent and connected to those devices only

electrically. Electrical circuit and switch means are associated with the arm or member

and are responsive to the angular position thereof, whereby the electrical switch means

opens and closes as the angular position varies. Typically, changes in the angular position

of the arm or member due to changes in water level cause an electrically conductive ball

or fluid, such as mercury, to move between switch ON and switch OFF positions to

33

permit or preclude the flow of current through the electrical circuit means. (Retrieved

April 17, 2010 from http:// www.electronics-manufacturers.com)

2.20 Water Detector

A Water detector is a small electronic device that is designed to detect the

presence of water and alert humans in time to allow the prevention of water damage. A

common design is a small device that lays flat on a floor and relies on the electrical

conductivity of water to decrease the resistance across two contacts. A 9 volt battery then

sounds an audible alarm in the presence of enough water to bridge the contacts. These are

useful in a normally occupied area near any appliance that has the potential to leak water,

water heater. (Retrieved April 20, 2010 from www.wikipedia.com)

2.21 Unipolar Stepper Motor

A unipolar stepper motor has two windings per phase, one for each direction of

magnetic field. Since in this arrangement a magnetic pole can be reversed without

switching the direction of current, the commutation circuit can be made very simple (eg.

a single transistor) for each winding. Typically, given a phase, one end of each winding is

made common: giving three leads per phase and six leads for a typical two phase motor.

Often, these two phase commons are internally joined, so the motor has only five leads.

A microcontroller or stepper motor controller can be used to activate the drive

transistors in the right order, and this ease of operation makes unipolar motors popular

with hobbyists; they are probably the cheapest way to get precise angular movements.

34

(For the experimenter, one way to distinguish common wire from a coil-end wire

is by measuring the resistance. Resistance between common wire and coil-end wire is

always half of what it is between coil-end and coil-end wires. This is due to the fact that

there is actually twice the length of coil between the ends and only half from center

(common wire) to the end.) A quick way to determine if the stepper motor is working is

to short circuit every two pairs and try turning the shaft, whenever a higher than normal

resistance is felt, it indicates that the circuit to the particular winding is closed and that

the phase is working.

Degree per step is often the most important factors in choosing a stepper motor. It

specifies the number of degrees that the shaft will rotate for each full step. Common

degree/step includes 0.72, 1.8, 3.6, 7.5, 15, and even 90. Degree per step is also known as

the resolution of the motor.

2.22 Relex Case Study: Redesign of a Robot for Improved Reliability

Many product manufacturers realize the need to establish reliability process goals

and commit to continual product improvement in order to meet customer, as well as

internal, quality goals. Oftentimes, companies committed to reliability improvement turn

to Relex Professional Services to aid in their reliability programs. The first step in

improving reliability was to identify points in the system affecting reliability. After that,

test plans were formulated in order to prove that the prototype can obtain the desired

reliability.

To analyze the client’s test coverage, flow charts were created for the processes followed

by both the test robot and a robot in the field. These two flow charts were compared, and

35

all differences were identified. The key differences were in the processes of crating the

robot, transporting the robot to the installation site, de-crating the robot, and installing

the robot. It was suggested here that the product reliability must be between 90-95%

confidence levels.

36

Chapter 3

Research Methodology

This chapter contains the research methodology that the researchers will use

through the course of the study. This section contains the theoretical and conceptual

framework that will be used in the implementation of the design. It will also contain

process flowchart regarding on how the system will work, as well as the proposed

schematic diagram for the design.

3.1 Conceptual Framework

MICROCONTROLLER

Shredded Corn Husk

Pouring of alkali solution

Cooking Draining of solution Pouring of water Blending
Cooking
Draining of solution
Pouring of water
Blending
Cooking Draining of solution Pouring of water Blending Passing through a conveyor with blower at both

Passing through a conveyor with blower at both ends

solution Pouring of water Blending Passing through a conveyor with blower at both ends Drying Draining

Drying

Draining of Pulp

solution Pouring of water Blending Passing through a conveyor with blower at both ends Drying Draining
solution Pouring of water Blending Passing through a conveyor with blower at both ends Drying Draining

Molding

Figure 3 Conceptual Framework

37

37 Figure 4 Block Diagram of the whole System

Figure 4 Block Diagram of the whole System

38

The figure 3

shows the process

of

a

microcontroller-based

recycler.

It

is

composed of blocks that reflect the process of the machine recycler.

The

paper

making

 

process

will

be

automatically

controlled

by

our

microcontroller,

which

is

a

PIC16F877A.

The

microcontroller

will

be

activating

necessary devices in order to successfully process the shredded corn husk to corn paper.

The process starts at the cooking, where the user must input the shredded corn

husk. The microcontroller also adds a specified amount of alkali solution to the cooker.

With this, the shredded corn husk will be boiled using a heating element. The cooking

part lasts for about 1 hour, which will be timed by the microcontroller.

After cooking the corn husks in alkali solution, the next process involves draining

the alkali out of the container. Here, a solenoid valve will be used to drain the alkali

solution without draining the corn husks as well. The drained alkali solution will be

passed to the solenoid valve to the container itself.

Before blending the corn husks, an

amount of water will be added to aid with the blending process. The blender will now be

activated by the microcontroller. Once the corn husks are fully blended, the paper pulp is

now produced.

The pulp is now transferred to the mould through the use of a solenoid valve. In

order to spread the pulp while in the mould, a brush controlled by 2 motors is used. Once

the pulp is leveled well in the mould and deckle, it can now be passed to the dryer section

of the machine. The dryer is composed of the conveyor belt, a motor controlled lid, with

two hair dryers located at the sides. After the time allotted for drying, the mould will be

now unloaded and the corn paper is now finished.

39

Figure 4 shows the basic processes the machine will go through. It is divided into

two main boxes namely the User and the Machine. The user part tells us where the user is

involved on the process. The machine part tells us the processes where the user has no

intervention.

The user part has start button and a task of putting in the corn. The whole process

depends on the start button which gives the go signal to the machine to start the whole

process. The task of putting the shredded corn husk in the cooker blender container is

done manually by the user.

The machine has many processes in it. The link between the user’s button and the

machine will be the MCU. It will also give orders to what process will take effect next.

The LED display will indicate if the water and soda ash solution source is nearly

depleted.

There are two tanks inside the machine, the soda ash tank and the water tank.

These two tanks supply the liquid necessary on a specific process. The tanks are all

connected to the cooker blender where the cooking and blending process is made. After

this stage, the pulp will be drained to the mould and deckle. The pulp will be flattened or

leveled to the mould. When this is done, the material will be dried and then will be ready

for use.

40

3.2 Design Considerations

3.2.1 Input

The shredded corn husks will be fed into the machine as an input. The

shredded corn husks are pre-determined before being fed into the machine, it must

be in a size of 0.5 x 0.5 cm and weighs 40 grams. It is fed into the hole directly to

the container where it will be cooked.

3.2.3 Water Level Detector

The water level detector will determine how much volume of water to be

poured into the container. In the system, there are two detectors to be used. These

water level detectors are placed into the tanks. There are two tanks in the system,

one is filled with water mixed with soda ash and the other tank is filled with pure

water. The water level detector for the tank with water and soda ash will

determine the volume needed to be poured to the container to cook the corn husks

and the other one will determine the volume the water needed to blend the cooked

corn husks and needed to drain the blended corn husks or pulp to the mold and

deckle.

Both water level detectors will send signal to the microcontroller to

control the operation of the solenoid valves.

This water level detector uses LDR sensors. The sensor is based on a

voltage comparator circuit using LM741. The input to the inverting input will be

the voltage across the LDR that is light dependent. At darkness the resistance of

41

the LDR will be high and so do the voltage across it. The inverting input will be

higher than the reference at non inverting pin and the output of the comparator

will be low. When the LDR is illuminated, its resistance drops and so do the

voltage across it, thus the voltage at inverting input will be lower than that at non

inverting input and the output of the comparator goes high. A potentiometer will

be used as an adjustable reference voltage of the sensor to alter the sensitivity of

the sensor.

of the sensor to alter the sensitivity of the sensor. Figure 5 LDR 3.2.4 Water Sensor

Figure 5

LDR

3.2.4 Water Sensor

The system will utilize two water sensors. The first one will detect the

draining of the water from the container where the corn husks are cooked. Once

the draining is done, the water sensor sends signal to the microcontroller to stop

the solenoid valve from draining. The other one will detect the draining of water

with pulp. The sensor will send a signal to the microcontroller to start the motor in

distributing the pulp over the mold and deckle.

42

The water sensor is based on a 2N3904 transistor. It uses the transistor to

act as a switch when the base of the transistor is shorted to the positive of the

supply by the water falling on the sensor. When the transistor saturates, it will

send signal to the microcontroller. The 1 MΩ potentiometer will be used to alter

the sensitivity of the sensor.

2N3904
2N3904

Figure 6

Water Detector

3.2.5 Relay Circuit

The relay circuit will be used to control the operation of the heating

element in the cooking, the blender to slice the pulp, and the hair dryer in the

heating of the paper. The relay circuit will be controlled by the microcontroller.

the hair dryer in the heating of the paper. The relay circuit will be controlled by

Figure 7

Relay

43

This is the circuit that drives the ac components of the prototype as shown

above. It uses a 2N3904 transistor to act as a switch. The microcontroller saturates

the transistor to run the relay. The 1N4001 diode to be putting between the

collector and the power is for the protection of the transistor.

3.2.6 Motors

There are two types of motors that the proponents will use: DC motors,

and stepper motors. There are five DC geared motors to be used move the

components of the system. The first motor will control the replacement of mould

and deckle. There are two motors to be used to spread the pulp to the mould and

deckle. And two other motors will be used in pressing the paper in the heating

process.

Two unipolar stepper motor will be used to transfer the paper and the

mould and deckle to the drying area and to the output area using a conveyor belt.

3.2.7 Motor Driver

For the motor driver for the motors of the prototype, the proponents will

be using L298 IC. The L298 IC is an integrated monolithic circuit. It is a high

voltage, high current dual full-bridge driver designed to accept standard TTL

logic levels and drive inductive loads such as relays, solenoids, DC and stepping

motors.

44

44 Figure 8 L298 Motor Driver Figure 9 L298 Pin Configuration Figure 10 DC Geared Motor

Figure 8 L298 Motor Driver

44 Figure 8 L298 Motor Driver Figure 9 L298 Pin Configuration Figure 10 DC Geared Motor

Figure 9 L298 Pin Configuration

44 Figure 8 L298 Motor Driver Figure 9 L298 Pin Configuration Figure 10 DC Geared Motor

Figure 10 DC Geared Motor Driver

45

45 Figure 11 Stepper Motor Driver The circuits above are circuits that drive the motors of

Figure 11 Stepper Motor Driver

The circuits above are circuits that drive the motors of the prototype, DC

geared motors and stepper motors using L298. The circuit provides two source

voltages, 5V and 12V for VCC and VS respectively. It uses fast recovery UF202

diode which has 50 ns recovery time as required by the datasheet of L298 which

should not be greater than 200 ns recovery time. The enable pins are at high

condition to enable the Bridge A and Bridge B because both bridges will be used.

A 0.5Ω resistor is connected to sensing pins to control the current of the load.

3.2.7 PIC16F877

The PIC16F877 Microcontroller includes 8kb of internal flash Program

Memory, together with a large RAM area and an internal EEPROM. An 8-

channel 10-bit A/D convertor is also included within the microcontroller, making

46

it ideal for real-time systems and monitoring applications. All port connectors are

brought out to standard headers for easy connect and disconnect.

out to standard headers for easy connect and disconnect. Figure 12 PIC Microcontroller In the design,

Figure 12 PIC Microcontroller

In the design, the PIC16F877 will be the system’s main microcontroller. It will

accept all the signals from the detection circuits and will actuate all the motors

and other devices of the system.

detection circuits and will actuate all the motors and other devices of the system. Figure 13

Figure 13 PIC16F877 Pin Configuration

47

3.2.8 Power Supply

A dc power supply is used to convert ac voltage at wall outlets into a

constant dc voltage. The circuit is shown below.

The power supply will use a

transformer with a rating of 0-110-220V primary and 12-0-12V, 3A secondary.

The rectifier is a Center-Tapped Full Wave Rectifier that provides a full cycle

pulsating dc which leads to produce a smooth and regulated dc signal to the

electronic

components.

Half-Wave

Rectifier

and

Bridge

Rectifier

are

not

appropriate for the functions of the system because Half-Wave Rectifier produces

a half cycle pulsating DC. Thus, produces a distorted DC signal which can

generate noise causing a delay in the operations of the microcontroller which may

lead to damaging it. The Bridge Rectifier produces a higher voltage and current

rating than Full Wave Rectifier that is not suitable for the functions of the

prototype because it can lead to damaging its electronic components.

The 1N5400 diode will be used in rectifier because this diode suits the

output rating of the transformer t its secondary winding. Though there are other

diodes available such as 1N5401 to 08 but are more expensive.

The 2200 µF,

25V capacitor is used to flatten the pulsating output from the Center-Tapped Full

Wave Rectifier.

There are two voltage regulators will be used, L7805 and L7812. The

L7805 voltage regulator has a fixed output voltage of 5V and output current of 1A

that will be used to supply the microcontroller, and detection circuits. Moreover,

the L7812 has a fixed output voltage of 12V and output current of 1A to supply

the motors.

48

48 Figure 14 Power Supply

Figure 14

Power Supply

49

3.3 Ideal Design of the Prototype

49 3.3 Ideal Design of the Prototype Figure 15 Prototype Figure 16 Water Tank and Soda

Figure 15

Prototype

49 3.3 Ideal Design of the Prototype Figure 15 Prototype Figure 16 Water Tank and Soda

Figure 16 Water Tank and Soda Ash Tank with Water Level Detector

50

50 Figure 17 Cooker Blender Figure 18 Mould Dispenser

Figure 17

Cooker Blender

50 Figure 17 Cooker Blender Figure 18 Mould Dispenser

Figure 18 Mould Dispenser

51

51 Figure 19 Pulp Distributor Figure 20 Brush Figure 15 shows the ideal design of the

Figure 19

Pulp Distributor

51 Figure 19 Pulp Distributor Figure 20 Brush Figure 15 shows the ideal design of the

Figure 20

Brush

Figure 15 shows the ideal design of the prototype. The whole design is composed

of two tanks, one for soda ash solution and one for water which both contains a water

level detector, input section for shredded corn husk, cooker/blender container for cooking

and blending process, solenoid valves, mould and deckle dispenser, brush for leveling of

the pulp, roller pins for pressing of the excess water, conveyor for moving the mould and

deckle with pulp ,motor controlled lid and two blow dryers used for drying process.

Furthermore, it also contains a LED for indication of errors. It also has a start button for

initializing the machine.

52

3.4 System Flowchart

52 3.4 System Flowchart Figure 21 System Flowchart

Figure 21 System Flowchart

53

The process begins when the shredded corn skin is fed to the blender cooker. The

next step involves the pouring of the alkali solution on the blender cooker. This

combination is ready for the next process which is cooking. This process is time bounded

and signaled to start at the moment the right amount of solution is poured. After the given

time is over, the solution on the blender cooker will be drained. A small amount of water

will be introduced to the blender cooker and the blending process will start. Additional

water is supplied to the blender cooker after the process of blending is done. Then, the

water with the pulp will be drained out the blender cooker and then poured out to the

mould and deckle. When all of the pulp is drained out, it will be pressed and distributed

to the mould. After this, the mould with the pulp will be pressed down with a smooth flat

metal and then dried below by blowers or dryers. The finish product is then produced.

3.5 System’s Reliability

To compute for the reliability of the system, consider the equation is shown

below:

R = 1

Number of Failures

Number of Success/ Trial

To compute the percent reliability of the system, we consider the equation shown

below:

%R = R × 100%

The aimed reliability of 95% was based on a case study provided by the Relex

Company. Their case study focuses on the reliability study of a robot with an automated

54

task. During their test planning, the aimed reliability was 95%. Since the case study

involves a robot already in the industry, we think that having a 95% reliability is enough

for our initial prototype.

3.6 Testing procedures

3.6.1 Error Conditions

Table 1 Error Conditions

procedures 3.6.1 Error Conditions Table 1 Error Conditions Table 1 shows the possible errors that could

Table 1 shows the possible errors that could happen to the prototype machine. The

errors can happen during the input of corn husks, input of alkali solution in the cooker

blender, input of water in cooker blender and the error that could happen in the mould

and deckle. The table also shows the test conditions and the expected result for testing.

55

3.6.2 Test Conditions

Table 2 Testing Conditions

55 3.6.2 Test Conditions Table 2 Testing Conditions The testing procedure will be done per process.

The testing procedure will be done per process. As we see from the table 2, we

consider the five major processes involved in the paper machine recycler such as

cooking, draining, disintegrating, transferring to conveyor belt, drying and cutting.

The testing begins by putting in the shredded corn husk, rice straw or talahib. The

amount of the shredded corn husk, rice straw or talahib is predetermined. The alkali

solution however should be tested in two cases. As the user press the start button, the

machine should start pouring alkali solution and it must stop pouring after the required

56

level is reached. The water level detector operation should be tested depending on the

fluid level in a tank. If pouring soda ash solution reached the desired amount needed for

cooking, the water level detector should be able to detect it and send a signal to the

microcontroller to close the valve then start cooking. Cooking will end upon the specified

time.

There are two stages where draining is involved. Draining 1 is when the alkali

solution is drained from the cooker then replaced with pure water, and the other is the

removal of the pulp with water in the disintegrator. Motor pump is the responsible device

to make this process possible.

The disintegrator function will remove the part not needed in the process. It will

start when the enough water needed is poured to the container. The whole blending

process will end after 5 minutes. At the end, water will be poured into the container and

the second draining process will happen.

In the molding process, a conveyor belt is used to spread the paper pulp. It should

be tested to make an equal spreading. Moreover, once it was finished, the conveyor must

move to the pressing and drying section. It must then be tested that once the pulp is in the

pressing-drying section, it must be then pressed using rolling pins and be dried by an

electronic heating element. After the paper is dried first, it will be brought to the cutting

section. It must be tested that the cutter can cut the paper with its given size. Finally, it

will be air dried for the last time. It will be tested that the dryer will activate for the

specified time.

57

3.7 Testing

To thoroughly evaluate the performance of the project, there would be 5 trials to

be

used

to

test

each

category.

Fundamental Formula of Gambling:

The

number

of

trials

was

Fundamental Formula of Gambling: The number of trials was , where determined DC = degree of

, where

determined

DC = degree of certainty = reliability = 0.95 p = probability of success or failure = 0.5 N = number of trials

Solving for N:

From the formula presented above,

of trials Solving for N: From the formula presented above, using the Substituting the values of

using

the

Substituting the values of DC and p, N = 4.322 ≈ 5 trials

Test for Volume of Soda ash Solution This will test if the volume of 1 liter soda ash solution is transferred for the cooking of corn husks with five trials.

Table 3 Tabulation for testing the volume of soda ash solution for cooking

TRIAL

SUCCESS

FAILURE

TIME

1

     

2

     

3

     

4

     

5

     

AVERAGE

   

58

Test for Cooking of the Paper Pulp This will test if the specified time of cooking is achieved with five trials.

Table 4 Tabulation for testing of cooking the paper pulp.

TRIAL

SUCCESS

FAILURE

TIME

1

     

2

     

3

     

4

     

5

     

AVERAGE

   

Test for Disintegration This will test if the specified time of 5 minutes is achieved in blending the pulp with five trials.

Table 5 Tabulation for testing of disintegration of the pulp

TRIAL

SUCCESS

FAILURE

TIME

1

     

2

     

3

     

4

     

5

     

AVERAGE

   

59

Test for Volume of Water This will test if the volume of half liter water is transferred for draining the pulp with five trials.

Table 6 Tabulation for testing of volume of water for draining the pulp

TRIAL

SUCCESS

FAILURE

TIME

1

     

2

     

3

     

4

     

5

     

AVERAGE

   

Test for Conveyor Belt This will test if the pulp is transferred to the conveyor belt and distributed equally with five trials.

Table 7 Tabulation for testing of moulding the paper

TRIAL

SUCCESS

FAILURE

TIME

1

     

2

     

3

     

4

     

5

     

AVERAGE

   

60

Test for Drying of Paper This will test the quality of paper after the specified time of drying with five trials.

Table 8 Tabulation for drying the paper

TRIAL

SUCCESS

FAILURE

TIME

1

     

2

     

3

     

4

     

5

     

AVERAGE

   

Test for Cutting of Paper This will test the size of paper after the specified time of drying with five trials.

Table 9 Tabulation for cutting the paper

TRIAL

SUCCESS

FAILURE

TIME

1

     

2

     

3

     

4

     

5

     

AVERAGE

   

61

3.8 Error Parameters

This part discusses the possible errors that the group considered to occur during

the development of the prototype. The group clarified that the errors stated below will not

become the limitations of the prototype that may reduce its total reliability. These were

merely consideration that served as guide to minimize such errors and achieve a higher

reliability.

The possible errors that will occur in the system design are the following:

Water Level Detector Reading

- Wrong indication of water level may occur

Draining

- Corn husk, Rice straw or talahib may clog on and in the valve

Dispersion of the pulp in the conveyor belt

- The Pulp may not be dispersed at all sides of the mould and deckle

Drying

- Paper pulp may stick to the rolling pin and in the dryer

3.8 Instruments Used

This study utilizes Internet for gathering information about the study and to site

some articles that is related to the project. The group also conducted further experiments

in making paper from corn husks, rice straw or talahib manually. Such experiment done

is made for the purpose of observing the problem arises or the disadvantages when

making paper done manually and also to test the properties of the finished product paper

62

done manually.

The group also made school library visits for the improvement of the

designed project. Through reading books from the library and articles from the internet,

the group was able to get some data that will determine all the required information

needed for the project. Moreover, the group also asked some Electronics Engineers and

concerned citizens for reference regarding the project, the technology given in this

project, the statistics and the parameters to be measured for the project.

63

REFERENCES

A. Undergraduate Researches

Lavin, N., et al. Design and implementation of microcontroller-based rice grain vending

machine. FEU East Asia College, Manila: 2007

Rico,A.R., et al. Design and implementation of microcontroller-based paper vending

machine. FEU-East Asia College, Manila: 2008

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Float

Switch:

Definition

Float

Switch

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Retrieved

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20

April

2010

from

17

April

2010

from

http://

www.electronics-

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64

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65

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D. Datasheet Sources

Microchip,

PIC16F87x

datasheet

(2003,

July

12)

Retrieved

May

2010

from

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Retrieved May 2010 from http://alldatasheets.com

Diodes Incorporated, 1N5400 - 1N5408 Rectifier datasheet (2007) Retrieved May from

STMicroelectronics, 2N3904 NPN Transistor datasheet (2003) Retrieved May from

Fairchild Semiconductor, KA78XX/KA78XXA datasheet (2001) Retrieved May from

National Semiconductor, LM78XX datasheet (May 2000) Retrieved May 2010 from

STMicroelectronics, L298 Dual Full-Bridge Driver datasheet (2000) Retrieved May

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ON Semiconductor, LM317 datasheet (April 2004) Retrieved May 2010 from May 2010

66

National Semiconductor, LM741 Datasheet (August 2000) Retrieved May 2010 from

OptoSupply, Phoenix Red LED Datasheet (2004) Retrieved May 2010 from May 2010

Tyco Electronics, V23072 Relay Datasheet (February 2003) Retrieved May 2010 from

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PanJIT, UF200 THRU UF2010 Ultrafast Switching Rectifier (2006) Retrieved May 2010

KIP Inc, 2-Way Normally Closed Solenoid Valves (February 2003) Retrieved May 2010

67

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