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Population ecology is the study of how

populations of plants, animals, and other organisms
change over time and space and interact with their
environment. Populations are groups of organisms
of the same species living in the same area at the
same time. They are described by characteristics
that include:
 population size: the number of individuals
in the population
 population density: how many individuals
are in a particular area
 population growth: how the size of the
population is changing over time
Exponential population growth
- Population with unlimited natural
resources grow very rapidly, after which
population growth decreases as
resources become depleted.
If a population grows by a constant percentage
per year, this eventually adds up to what we call
exponential growth. In other words, the larger the
population grows, the faster it grows! A curve of
exponential growth is an upward sweeping growth
Logistic population growth
- A population will continue to grow until it
reaches carrying capacity, which is the
maximum number of individuals the
environment can support. The growth of the
population eventually slows nearly to zero as
the population reaches the carrying capacity
(K) for the environment its also known an S-
shaped curve.


Density-Independent factors are Environmental
resistance factor that occur of have an effect on a
population regardless of density of the population
Density-dependent factors are referred to as
Environmental Resistance Factors that determine
the carrying capacity of the environment for a


Growth trends quantity the rate of growth over
specified period of time. a growth trend can
measured over any period of time, such as a
month, year or decade.

For examples:
 If you know the growth trend for a country
has been 4 percent for the past 10 years,
you can use that information to plan for
future needs for city services, such as
police or schools.
 subtract the size at the end of the
specified period from the size at the
beginning of the specified period.
 If you were finding the growth trend for a
city for the year and the city had a
population of 15,000 at the start of the
year and 16,000 at the end of the year,
you would subtract 15,000 from 16,000 to
get 1,000.
 divide the change in size by the original
size to find the growth trends expressed
as a decimal. In this example, you would
divide 1,000 by 15,000 to get 0.0667.
 multiply the previous step’s result by 100
to convert from a rate to a percentage.
Finishing this example, you would
multiply 0.0667 by 100 to find the growth
trend to be 6.67 %.