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®

Ministry of
Municipal Affairs
and Housing

October 4, 2009

Dear Colleague;

The Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing (MMAH) in partnership with the Ontario
Building Officials Association (OBOA) and the Ontario Home Builders’ Association
(OHBA) are pleased to introduce the Official 2010 Ontario Code and Construction Guide
for Housing.

Since 1990, the Code and Construction Guide for Housing has played an important role
providing current, practical and accurate construction information to builders, building
officials, designers, educators, students and others in the housing industry.

The 2010 edition of the Ontario Code and Construction Guide for Housing builds on our
20 year history, is current to today's Building Code and contains many new and unique
features. For more information about the Guide, its advantages, a free sample chapter
and how to order your copy, visit: www.serviceontario.ca/publications

We are happy to continue our successful collaboration developing supportive materials


that are current and relevant to the entire industry, and encourage you to invest in this
valuable resource.

Sincerely

David Brezer, Director


Building and Development Branch
Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing

Lynn Balfour, President


Ontario Building Officials Association

James Bazely, President


Ontario Home Builders’ Association
Ministère de
Affairs municipales
et du Logement

Le 4 octobre 2009

Madame ou Monsieur,

Le ministère des Affaires municipales et du Logement (MAML), en partenariat avec


l’Association des officiers en bâtiments de l’Ontario (OBOA) et l’Ontario Home Builders’
Association (OHBA), est heureux de vous présenter la version officielle 2010 du Ontario
Code and Construction Guide for Housing.

Depuis 1990, le Code and Construction Guide for Housing joue un rôle important en
fournissant une information à jour, pratique et exacte aux constructeurs, aux agents du
bâtiment, aux concepteurs, aux éducateurs, aux étudiants et à tous les intervenants de
l’industrie du logement.

L’édition 2010 du Ontario Code and Construction Guide for Housing, qui s’appuie sur
20 années d’expérience, est totalement conforme au Code du bâtiment actuel et
comporte de nombreuses caractéristiques novatrices uniques. Pour de plus amples
renseignements sur le guide et ses avantages, et pour obtenir un chapitre modèle gratuit
et des instructions sur la façon de commander votre exemplaire, veuillez visiter :
www.serviceontario.ca/publications

Nous sommes heureux de poursuivre notre collaboration fructueuse avec l’industrie,


collaboration qui a débouché sur la conception de ressources documentaires
actualisées et pertinentes, s’adressant à toute l’industrie. Je vous encourage à acheter
cet outil précieux.

Veuillez agréer, Madame ou Monsieur, l’expression de mes sentiments distingués.

David Brezer, directeur


Direction du bâtiment et de l’aménagement
Ministère des Affaires municipales et du Logement

Lynn Balfour, présidente


Association des officiers en bâtiments de l’Ontario

James Bazely, président


Ontario Home Builders’ Association
2010 CODE AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDE Table of Contents i

Table of Contents
Housing Guide
Preface
on
Housing Guide Table of Contents
si
1.
2.
3.
Start-Up
Foundations
Floor Framing er
4. Room and Space Dimensions
t V
5.
6.
Means of Egress
Fire Safety and Sound Control f
7.
8.
Wall Systems
Roofing ra
9. Windows and Skylights D
10. Fireplaces, Chimneys and Flues
11. Mechanical Systems –
09
12. Plumbing and Electrical Facilities
13. Insulation, Air Barriers, and Vapour Barriers
14. Interior Finishes
15. Exterior Finishes
20
,
16. Garages, Carports, Decks and Porches

o
Building Code for Housing
ri
ta
Building Code for Housing Table of Contents

n
Division A: Compliance, Objectives and Functional Statements
TBD

r O
Division B: Acceptable Solutions
Part 1 General
fo
Part 6 Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning

er
Part 9 Housing and Small Buildings
Part 12 Resource Conservation
t
Division C: Administrative Procedures
n
TBD
ri
Supplementary Standards
P
SB-1 Climatic and Seismic Information for Building Design in Ontario

’s SB-2 Fire Performance Ratings


SB-3 Fire and Sound Resistance of Building Assemblies

en SB-7 Construction Requirements for Guards


SB-9 Requirements for Soil Gas Control

ue Appendix A: Explanatory material for the Building Code 2006


Appendix B: Imperial Conversions of Metric Values
Q
Additional Material
© Building Code Cross References
Plans Examination Checklists
Inspection Checklists
Forms

Index - Housing Guide


2010 CODE AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDE Means of Egress 5-1

MEANS OF EGRESSion
rs
Ve
Among the most important provisions of the Code are those per-
taining to the means of egress. These provisions regulate design

ft
and construction to allow people to move within and between
rooms or spaces, as well as to exit and to enter the dwelling unit.

ra
Means of egress for stacked dwelling units are outside the scope
D
of this Code and Guide which focuses on unstacked, single dwell-
ing units.

09
KEY POINTS 0
, 2
rio
Residential buildings must be designed and constructed to fulfill
the following functions:

ta
• allow occupants a safe means of escape from
n
a building in an emergency;

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• allow the safe passage of occupants from one

fo
floor to another; and
• provide acceptable resistance to forced entry.

er
nt
ri
P
’s
en
ue
Q
©
5-2 Means of Egress 2010 CODE AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDE

GENERAL
REQUIREMENTS Dwelling Unit
BUILDING CODE REFERENCES Room

DIVISION B
9.9.1.3. Occupant Load
Room

on
Exits, doors, stairs and ramps along
si
r
with hallways, corridors and passage- Room or
space
ways represent the most common
means of egress in dwelling units.
Guard
Ve
The means of egress is a defined term
in the Code which includes exits and
Handrail

ft Hallway

ra
access to exits. It refers to a continu- Horizontal Landing
ous path of travel provided for the
Vertical
escape from any point in a building or
in a contained open space to a sepa-
rate building, an open public thor- D
egress

Means of egress
oughfare, or an exterior open space
that is protected from fire exposure –
from the building with access to an
open public thoroughfare. Figure 5.1
illustrates the main components and 09
Exit to an exterior protected
open space with access to
public thoroughfare
Vestibule

terms that define means of egress.


The following sections further discuss Figure 5.1
20
Terms Defining Means of Egress
(9.8.1.1)
(9.9.1.1)
each of these in relation to the relevant
Code requirements.
o,
The primary consideration of the Code EXITS
ri Additional exits may not be necessary
where the uppermost floor level is
is the safety of occupants, both under
normal conditions of use and in emer-
ta
BUILDING CODE REFERENCES served by an openable window with a
sill not more than 1 m (3' 3") above the
gency situations, such as in the case
of fire. Under normal conditions of n
DIVISION B
9.5.10.1. Width of Hallway Within Dwelling
floor and not more than 7 m (23')
above the adjacent ground level, pro-
use, means of egress are intended to
be functional and permit occupants to
safely perform tasks such as moving
r O
9.7.1.3.
9.8.1.1.
Unit
Bedroom Windows
General
viding an unobstructed opening of not
less than 1 m (3' 3") in height and 0.55
m (1' 10") in width or the floor level has
furniture, carrying in groceries or serv-
ing food.
fo
9.9.1.1.
9.9.1.2.
Application
Fire Protection
direct access to a balcony. Refer to
Figure 5.2.
Under emergency conditions, the
er 9.9.2.1.
9.9.2.3.
Types of Exits
Elevators, Slide Escapes and An additional exit is required for floor
Code intends that occupants are pro-
vided with a safe exit from the dwell-
nt 9.9.9.1.
Windows as Means of Egress
Travel Limit to Exits or Egress
levels in dwelling units where the
building contains a hallway less than
ing unit traveling through a properly
designed means of egress. Based on
ri Doors
860 mm (2' 10") in width. This addi-
tional exit must be provided near the
n ot o nly be safe with respect to
P
this intent, the means of egress must
Every dwelling unit must contain at
end of the hallway furthest from the liv-
ing area or in every bedroom served

’s
pedestrian movement, but must also
be properly illuminated.
least one exit which can be accessed
directly without going through another
by the hallway. Refer to Figure 5.3.

en dwelling unit, service room or occu-


p a n c y. D w e l l i n g u n i t s m u s t b e
designed so that it is not necessary to

ue
travel up or down more than one sto-
rey to reach a level served by an exit
doorway within 1.5 m (5') of ground

Q level.

©
2010 CODE AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDE Means of Egress 5-3

Note:
Travel to a floor level served by an exit doorway is
Every floor level containing a bedroom requires an limited to one so storey up or down except where:
openable window with a minimum area of 0.35 sq. m
(3.77 sq. ft) with no dimension less than 380 mm (15") 1. an openable window is provided, or
and a maximum sill height of 1 m (3' 3"). 2. the floor level has direct access to a balcony

NOT PERMITTED Minimum dimensions of unobstructed PERMITTED


on
i
opening in openable window: Access to
balcony

s
0.55 m width x 1 m height

r
(1' 10" w x 3' 3" h)
Window sill not
2 storeys down
more than 7 m (23')
above the adjacent
ground level
2 storeys
down
Ve
Window sill not
ft
ra
more than 1 m
(3' 3") above floor

Level served by exit


doorway
D
Exit doorway not –
09 more than 1.5 m
(5') above
adjacent ground
1 storey up

20 level 1 storey up

o,
Figure 5.2
Exit Requirements
ri (9.7.1.3)
(9.9.9.1)

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Option 1 - One Exit n Option 2 - Multiple Exits Option 3 - Two Exits
min 860 mm width hallway

r O exit in each bedroom served


Exit Exit
second exit at end of hallway
Exit

fo
Bath

er Bath
Bedroom

Bedroom
nt
Bedroom
Bedroom
Bedroom Bedroom

ri
Bedroom
PLiving Bedroom Living
Bath
Living

’s Area
Exit
Area
Bedroom
Area

en
ue Living Living Living

Q
Area Area Area

© Exit min 860 mm Exit min 710 mm


(28")
Exit min 710 mm
(34") (28")
Figure 5.3
Exiting Requirements for Buildings With Narrow Hallways (9.5.10.1)
5-4 Means of Egress 2010 CODE AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDE

DOORS Minimum Size of Doors Depending on Entrance


BUILDING CODE REFERENCES
Width (mm (in)) Height (mm (ft in))
DIVISION B
9.6.1.1. Application Dwelling unit (required entrance)
9.6.2.1. Doors for Dwelling Units 810 (32") 1980 (6' 6")
9.6.3.1.
9.6.3.3.
Doorway Opening Sizes
Doors to Bathrooms
Vestibule or entrance hall

Stairs to a floor level that contains a finshed space


on
9.6.5.1.
9.6.5.2.
Exterior Wood Flush Doors
Sliding Doors
All doors in at least one line of passage from the
exterior to the basement 810 (32")

si
1980 (6' 6")
9.6.5.3.
9.6.5.4.
Insulated Steel Doors
Air Infiltration for Exterior Swing
Type Doors
Utility rooms

Walk-in closet 610 (24")


er
1980 (6' 6")
9.6.5.5. Air Infiltration for Patio Type
Sliding Doors Bathroom, water closet room, shower room
t
610 (24") V
1980 (6' 6")
9.6.5.6. Weather Stripping
Rooms located off hallways that are permitted to be
f
ra
9.6.6.1. Maximum Area of Glass 610 (24") 1980 (6' 6")
710 mm (28") wide
9.6.6.2. Glass in Doors and Sidelights
9.6.6.3. Mirrored Glass Doors

D
Rooms not mentioned above, exterior balconies 760 (30") 1980 (6' 6")
9.6.6.5. Glass for Shower or Bathtub
Enclosures Figure 5.4


(9.6.3.1)
9.6.8.1. Application Minimum Size of Doors (9.6.3.3)
9.6.8.2. Wood Doors
9.6.8.3.
9.6.8.4.
9.6.8.5.
Deadbolt Lock
Double Doors
Fastening of Hinges
below). 9
(See also Resistance to Forced Entry

0
u ni t an d a n at t ac he d g ar ag e a s
detailed in Chapter 16. It is also
9.6.8.6.
9.6.8.7.
Fastening of Strikeplates
Outward Swinging Doors
20
Where a door opens onto a drop of
more than 600 mm (24") to the nearest
required that exterior doors provide
the minimum thermal resistance value
listed in Chapter 13.
9.6.8.8.
9.6.8.9.
Door Viewer
Solid Blocking

o,
floor, landing, stair tread, or ground
level (as in a french balcony), the door
RESISTANCE TO FORCED ENTRY
9.6.8.10.
9.9.6.4.
Alternate Test Procedure
Door Action
ri
must be provided with a guard or it
must be equipped with a mechanism A minimum level of security must be
9.9.6.5.
9.9.6.7.
Direction of Door Swing
Door Latching, Locking and
ta
that will prevent any clear unob-
structed opening greater than 100 mm
provided for all swing-type exterior

n doors leading into the dwelling unit.


Opening Mechanisms
9.10.13.16. Door Stops (4"). This Code requirement is intended to

This section deals with requirements


r O
MINIMUM SIZE OF DOORS
substantially reduce the likelihood of
forced entry through exterior doors.

for doors in dwellings. It applies to


doors, glazed areas in doors, side-
fo
The minimum sizes for doors are
shown in Figure 5.4. Doorway open-
Where wood doors leading into the
dwelling unit are installed, these must
lights for doors and glass for shower
or bathtub enclosures.
er ings must be designed to accommo-
date the minimum prescribed door
be either solid core type not less than
45 mm (1-3/4") thick, or stile and rail

Many of the requirements for doors


nt sizes regardless of door type - swing-
ing, sliding or folding.
type having a panel thickness of not
less than 19 mm (3/4") and a total
are based on established standards.
These standards are referenced in the
corresponding section of the Code. ri EXIT DOORS
panel area not exceeding 50% of the
door area.

Standards have been developed to


ensure that doors will provide accept- P Exit doors and doors in means of
Double doors leading into the dwell-
ing unit must be provided with an

’s
able levels of performance for their egress within dwelling units or serving inactive leaf which may be secured

n
intended use. It is important to spec-
ify doors which meet all required stan-
e
dards and to install them in
a single dwelling unit are not required
to swing on the vertical axis.
with heavy duty bolts, top and bottom,
having an engagement not less than
15 mm (5/8").

ue
accordance with manufacturers'
instructions. EXTERIOR DOORS Solid blocking must be provided on
both sides at the lock height between
Exterior doors used in housing are
GENERAL Q commonly of the wood, insulated
steel, fibre glass or sliding glass type.
the jambs and structural framing for all

©
Doors must be provided at each
entrance to a dwelling unit and in
each room containing a water closet.
Exit doors are permitted to swing
Each of these types is required to con-
form to the applicable manufacturing
standard for construction and air infil-
Looking
Ahead
tration referenced in the correspond-
either inward or outward. All exterior ing section of the Code. All exterior
doors must be readily openable from doors, except garage doors, must be
the inside without requiring keys, spe- weatherstripped to control air leak- See Chapter 13 Insulation and
cial devices, or specialized knowl- age. Special consideration must be See Chapter 16 Garages and Carports
edge of the door opening mechanism. given to doors between the dwelling
2010 CODE AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDE Means of Egress 5-5

45 mm (1-3/4")

Structural framing
members

Door viewer
on
required unless
transparent Jamb
si
glazing provided
in the door or in
a sidelight
(9.6.8.8)
er
Solid blocking at lock
height on both sides of

t V
jamb so that the jambs will
resist spreading by force

f
(9.6.8.9)

Wood doors shall be solid core, (not less then 45 mm (1-3/4") thick), or ra
stile and rail type, with a minimum panel thickness of 19 mm (3/4") and
a total panel area not more than half of the door area (9.6.8.2) D

09
Hinges fastened to
door frame with at
20
Hinges fastened
to doors with

,
least 2 screws per screws not less
hinge that are at than 25 mm (1")
least 30 mm (1-3/16")
into solid wood

rio(9.6.8.5)

ta 15 mm
(5/8")

n
Strikeplate fastened with
not less than 30 mm
(1-3/16") screws
r O An inactive leaf in double
doors must be provided with
Dead bolt with not
less than 25 mm
fo heavy duty bolts at the top
and bottom having an
engagement of not less
(1") throw
(9.8.6.3)

er Throw than 15 mm (5/8")


(9.6.8.4)

Figure 5.5

nt
ri
Code Requirements for Resistance to Forced Entry (9.6.8)

P
doors leading into the dwelling unit.
This blocking must be installed to
Strikeplates for all exterior doors lead-
ing into the dwelling unit must be fas-
The Appendix to the Code provides
additional explanatory material for

’s
adequately resist spreading of the
door jambs by force.
tened to wood frames with wood
screws penetrating not less than 30
measures regarding resistance to
forced entry. Figure 5.5 depicts some

en
For all outward swinging exterior
mm (1-1/4") into solid wood. Strike-
plates must be fastened to metal
of the Code requirements for resis-
tance to forced entry.

ue
doors leading into the dwelling unit, frames with No. 10 or larger machine
hinges or pins must be provided so screws not less than 12 mm (1/2")
that the doors cannot be removed long.
when they are in the closed position.
Q
Hinges must be securely fastened to
wood doors with minimum 25 mm (1")
Deadbolt locks must consist of a cylin-
der having no less than 5 pins and a

©
l o n g w o o d s c re w s a n d t o w o o d
frames with at least two wood screws
penetrating not less than 30 mm (1-1/
4") into solid wood.
bolt throw of not less than 25 mm (1"),
protected with a solid or hardened
free-turning ring or beveled cylinder
housing.

Hinges for metal doors and frames Entrance doors without transparent
must be securely fastened with No. 10 glazing provided in the door must be
or larger machine screws not less equipped with a door viewer with a
than 10 mm (3/8") long. viewing angle of not less than 160°.
5-6 Means of Egress 2010 CODE AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDE

2 2
Maximum Glass Area for Doors - m (ft )

Type of Glass

Annealed Fully tempered


Glass
Thickness Annealed
multiple glazed;
Factory sealed Laminated Wired Heat Fully tempered

on
multiple glazed;
Factory sealed

i
(mm) units strengthened
units

rs
e
3 (0.12") 0.50 (5.38) 0.70 (7.53) ----* ----* 1.00 (10.76) 1.00 (10.76) 2.00 (21.52)
4 (0.16") 1.00 (10.76) 1.50 (16.14) ----* ----* 1.50 (16.14) 4.00 (43.04) 4.00 (43.04)
5 (0.20")
6 (0.24")
1.50 (16.14)
1.50 (16.14)
1.50 (16.14)
1.50 (16.14)
----*
1.20 (12.91)
----*
1.00 (10.76)
1.50 (16.14)
1.50 (16.14)
no limit
no limit

t V no limit
no limit

Figure 5.6
f
ra
Maximum Glass Area for Doors Notes to Table: (*) Not generally available (9.6.6.1)

GLASS IN DOORS INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR STAIRS PUBLIC STAIRS D


The maximum area of glass in doors is serving one dwelling unit

serving more than one dwelling unit
provided in Figure 5.6. The thickness
and type of glass is used to determine
the maximum area of glazing permit-
09
Stair dimensions as shown:
235 - 355 mm
250 - 355 mm
ted for the safe performance of the
door assembly.
20 (9-1/4" - 14")
tread limits
(9-7/8" - 14")
tread limits

o,
MIRRORED GLASS DOORS
ri 125 - 200 mm
(4-7/8" - 7-7/8")
125 - 200 mm
(4-7/8" - 7-7/8")
Mirrored glass doors may be used
o n ly at t he en tr an ce to re ac h- in
ta 210 - 355 mm
(8-1/4" - 14")
rise limits 230 - 355 mm
(9" - 14") run
rise limits

clothes closets and must be rein-


forced with a film backing providing n run limits limits

adequate impact resistance. Ensure


that mirrored glass doors conform to
r O Maximum
depth of
CLEAR HEIGHT
(9.8.4.2)

the standards referenced in the Code.

fo beveled or
rounded edge
The clear height over stairs is measured
vertically from a line drawn through the outer

GLASS FOR SHOWER OR BATHTUB


er is 25 mm (1") edges of the nosings.
For stairs within dwelling units the clear height
ENCLOSURES
nt Rounded or
must be not less than 1.95 m (6' 5")
For stairs not within dwelling units the clear
Safety glass must be used for glass
shower and bathtub enclosures. This
ri bevelled
leading edges
of treads can
height must be not less than 2.05 m (6' 9")

check when custom enclosures are P


requirement is especially important to
Tread minimum
not reduce the
required tread

s
being fabricated. depth by more

n’ than 15 mm
(5/8")

e (9.8.4.6)

ue
WIDTH

At least one stairway between each

Q
floor level within a dwelling unit must
Better Building Note have a width not less than 860 mm
(34")

©
As a means of egress, doors
and doorways should be
Required exit stairs and public stairs
must have a width not less than
900 mm (36")
Max vertical
height is
3.7 m (12' 2")
between
designed to provide safety and landings
convenience. Door locations
and types in dwellings along
with directions of swing should
be carefully considered. Figure 5.7 (9.8.2)
Stair Dimensions (9.8.3)
2010 CODE AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDE Means of Egress 5-7

STAIRS
Where a door swings towards a
BUILDING CODE REFERENCES stair, the full arc of its swing shall
be over a landing
(9.8.6.3)
DIVISION B
9.8.2.1. Stair Width
9.8.2.2. Height over Stairs
9.8.3.1. Straight and Curved Runs in
Stairs
For straight-run stairs, the landing
width (LW) and landing length (LL)
on
9.8.3.2.
9.8.3.3.
Minimum Number of Risers
Maximum Height of Stairs
must be not less than the stair width
(SW) required.
si
Landing

9.8.4.1. Uniformity and Tolerances for


Risers and Treads All other landing lengths (LL)
must not exceed 1100 mm
er LH

V
9.8.4.2. Dimensions for Risers
9.8.4.3. Dimensions for Rectangular (43") for stairs in a straight-run.

9.8.4.4.
Treads
Dimensions for Angled Treads
(9.8.6.3)

ft
ra
9.8.4.5. Winders Landing
9.8.4.6. Leading Edges of Treads The vertical height
between any landings
9.8.6.2. Required Landings
9.8.6.3.
9.8.6.4.
Dimensions of Landings
Height over Landings LW LLD (LH) shall not exceed
3.7 m (12' 2")
(9.8.3.3)
9.8.9.1.
9.8.9.2.
Loads on Stairs and Ramps
Exterior Concrete Stairs
SW

LH
9.8.9.3.
9.8.9.4.
Exterior Wood Steps
Wooden Stair Stringers
09
9.8.9.5.
9.8.9.6.
Treads
Finish for Treads and Landings
and Ramps
20
9.8.10.1.
9.8.10.2.
Design
Anchorage

o, Landing

9.8.10.3. Prevention of Damage Due to


Frost
ri Except for main entrance
doors, where a door at
9.9.2.5. Front Edge of Stair Treads

ta the top of a stair swings


away from the stair, no

n
landing is required
(9.8.6.2)
Stairs are the most common means of
ver tical egress in dwelling units.
Code requirements for stairs have
been derived from evolving practices
r O
found to provide reasonable safety
and convenience.
fo Figure 5.8

r
Landing Dimensions

GENERAL
te LANDINGS
door within 900 mm (36'') of the stair
or ramp.

rin
All stairs must be designed and con-
structed such that treads and risers
Landings are intended to provide
occupants with level, secure footing at
Landings must be at least as wide
and as long as the width of the stairs
ways may contain both curved and
P
have a uniform rise and run. Stair- the top and bottom of stairs, ramps
with a slope greater than 1 in 50 and
in which they serve, except that the
length of a landing serving a single

’s
straight portions of stairs provided the
riser height is uniform throughout the
at doorways which swing toward
stairs. Where a door at the top of a
dwelling unit must be not less than

n
entire flight and the curved portion 900 mm (36'') for exterior stairs and
stair swings away from the stair, no not less than 860 mm (34'') for interior

e
conforms to Section 9.8 of the Build-
ing Code. Where interior stairs extend
landing is required between the door- stairs. The length of a landing for

ue
way and stair, however, provision of a public stairs in a straight run must not
through the roof of a dwelling, they landing is recognized as better build-
must be protected from ice and snow. be less than 1.1 m (3' 7"). Public
ing practice. A landing must be pro- stairs are shared stairs that serve
vided at the top of all exterior stairs. A
Q
STAIR DIMENSIONS landing is not required for an exterior
stair serving a secondary entrance
more than one dwelling unit. The
maximum permitted vertical height
between landings is 3.7 m (12' 2") in

©
Code requirements for stair dimen-
sions are illustrated in Figure 5.7. The
rise and run of stairs, the provision of
with 3 risers or less and with a door
that swings away from the stair or that
slides. If the door is a storm or screen
door it must be equipped with hard-
order to minimize the risk of an acci-
dental fall and provide occupants with
a resting level. The clear height over
nosings or backslopes, the minimum landings must not be less 1.95 m (6'
width of stairs and the minimum head ware to hold it open. A landing must 5"). Figures 5.8 and 5.9 illustrate
room are all prescribed by the Code. be provided at the bottom of all exte- requirements for landings.
rior stairs and ramps, unless there is
no obstruction such as a gate or a
5-8 Means of Egress 2010 CODE AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDE

Dimensions for Required Landings Serving a Single Dwelling Unit

Landing Configuration Minimum Length Minimum Width

860 mm
In straight-run interior stair or ramp, or interior landing turning through less than 30 (34")

on
i
Width of stair or ramp
900 mm
In straight-run exterior stair or ramp, or exterior landing turning through less than 30 (36")

rs
Landing turning through an angle of 30 or more, but less than 90
230 mm (9") along inside edge
AND

Ve
370 mm (15") measured at a
point 230 mm (9") from the
ft Width of stair or ramp

ra
inside edge measured at right angle
to path of travel
Width of landing

D
Landing turning through not less than 90

Landing turning through 30 or more



Width of stair or landing

Figure 5.9
09
Note: Please refer to Table 9.8.6.3 in the Code for stairs and ramps serving other than single dwelling units

0
Dimensions of Landings Serving a Single Dwelling Unit (9.8.6.3)

CURVED STAIRS AND WINDERS , 2


In order to accommodate turns safely
in stairs, the Code requirements in rio
CURVED STAIRS WITH ANGLED TREADS
minimum average run 200 mm (8")
WINDERS
Stairs within units may contain winders
Figure 5.10 must be observed. It is
ta measured on the centreline of the stair that converge to a centre point provided
the winders turn through an angle of not
important during the design of curved
stairs and winders, particularly where
n more than 90 and individual treads turn
through an angle of 30
these are manufactured off-site, to
ensure compliance with the Code.

r O risers to
conform
to 9.8.4.2 30 - 45
30 - 45

CONSTRUCTION, UNIFORMITY
fo minimum run 30 - 90
AND TOLERANCES
r 150 mm (6") 45
(9.8.4.4)
The construction of stairs must con-
te Winders must not turn through an angle
Three winders
maximum
form to the corresponding section of
the Code. Stairs and ramps serving a
single dwelling unit must be designed
rin greater than 90

for strength and rigidity to support 1.9


kPa. See Figure 5.11. All risers and
P
s
treads must have a uniform height or

run and tread depth with a maximum PERMITTED
30 -
30 - 45

en
tolerance of 6 mm (1/4''). It is also
important to provide appropriate fin-
ishes for stairs which are both safe
45

ue
and durable. minimum 1.2 m Two winders
(3' 11") separation
between each set

Q
of winders

© 30 -
45

One winder

Figure 5.10
Curved Stairs and Winders (9.8.4.5)
2010 CODE AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDE Means of Egress 5-9

WOOD STAIRS Stair treads of plywood or OSB that


are not continuously supported by the
W = max 900 mm (35") in dwelling units W riser must have their face grain or
W = max 1200 mm (47") in dwelling units when direction of face orientation at right
risers support the front of the treads A angles to the stringers
unless stringers and treads designed for
wider spacing
W = max 600 mm (23-1/2") in other than
dwelling units

on
i
Secure stringers at top and bottom

s
r
Tread thickness:
B
Min 90 mm (3-1/2")
A = min 25 mm (1") when risers
support front of tread
B = min 38 mm (1-1/2") when tread
unsupported at front and distance
Min 235 mm (9-1/2")
Ve
between stringers is no greater
than 750 mm (30") T
Concrete pad
ft
Stringer thickness: Stringer
ra
Exterior wood steps shall not be in
direct contact with the ground unless

T = 25 mm (1") if supported along the length


(i.e. secured to a wall) D
treated to prevent decay
(9.8.9.3)
(9.8.9.4)
T = 38 mm (1-1/2") if unsupported along the length
– (9.8.9.5)

EXTERIOR CONCRETE STAIRS


09 CANTILEVERED EXTERIOR CONCRETE STEPS

0
Concrete steps with more than 2 risers and 2 treads must be supported on
unit masonry, concrete walls or piers not less than 150 x 150 mm (6" x 6")
(9.8.9.2)
2
o,
ri Concrete
foundation

ta
4 risers
n 4 risers
Anchor

r O
fo Suitable precautions shall be taken

er Below frost on
undisturbed
during backfilling and grading to
avoid damage due to soil freezing Min 200 mm

nt ground (9.8.10.3) (8") (9.8.10.2)

Figure 5.11
Stair Construction
ri (9.8.10)

P
’s
en Better Building Note

ue
Landings and thresholds in stairs can be designed
to provide a higher level of safety and convenience.
300 mm (12")
min threshold 300 mm (12") min

Q
It is difficult to open doors swinging into landings if
the occupant is required to step back and down to
beyond door swing

© allow sufficient door swing clearance. Similarly, at


doorways occurring at the top of stairs, it is safer to
provide a threshold in place of the first step, especially
when the stair light switch is located beyond the
doorway.
5 - 10 Means of Egress 2010 CODE AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDE

RAMPS
BUILDING CODE REFERENCES

DIVISION B
9.8.5.1. Application
9.8.5.2. Ramp Width A landing shall be provided at the top

n
and bottom of every ramp with a slope
9.8.5.3. Height over Ramps greater than 1 in 50
9.8.5.4.
9.8.5.5.
Slope
Maximum Rise
(9.8.6.2)

io
9.8.6.2.
9.8.6.3.
Required Landings
Dimensions of Landings
rs
Ramps represent the second most
common form of vertical egress. The
Ve
maximum gradient for interior and
exterior ramps in dwelling units is 1 in
ft
ra
10. Where any means of egress 300 mm (12") min
opens onto the side of a ramp, the
landing shall extend for a distance of
not less than 300 mm (12") on either Width of ramp not
D

side of the doorway or stairway, less than 860 mm (2' 10")
except on a side abutting an end wall.
Figure 5.12 illustrates the Code
requirements governing ramps.

09 Where a doorway or stairway opens


onto the side of a ramp, there shall be

0 1 a level area extending across the full


width of the ramp and for a distance

, 2 10
of at least 300 mm (12") on either
side of the wall opening

rio The maximum gradient for ramps is 1 in 10.

ta (9.8.6.3)

n
r O
Figure 5.12
Requirements for Pedestrian Ramps (9.8.5)

fo
er
nt
ri
P
’s
en
ue
Q
©
2010 CODE AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDE Means of Egress 5 - 11

HANDRAILS Handrails are intended to provide


occupants with a secure grip and
BUILDING CODE REFERENCES means of support when ascending
and descending stairs or ramps.
DIVISION B Code requirements for handrails
9.8.7.1. Required Handrails apply to both stairs and ramps in
9.8.7.2. Continuity of Handrails dwelling units, however, only require-
9.8.7.4.
9.8.7.5.
Height of Handrails
Ergonomic Design
ments for stairs are depicted in Figure
5.13.
on
9.8.7.6. Projections into Stairs and
Ramps
si
9.8.7.7. Design and Attachment of
Handrails
er
t V
f
Handrails REQUIRED on: a) at least one side of stairs or ramps less than 1.1 m (43") wide
b) two sides of stairs or ramps 1.1 m (43") wide or greater

Handrails NOT REQUIRED for: a) interior stairs serving one dwelling unit having not more than two risers
b) exterior stairs serving one dwelling unit having not more than three risers ra
c) ramps with a slope not less than 1 in 12 or rising more than 400 mm (16")
D
– Design and attachment
of handrails must conform
Only one handrail required for exterior
stairs with more than 3 risers serving
09 to article 9.8.7.7

0
one dwelling unit Line through leading
Line through leading edges of stair treads

2
edges of stair treads

,
rio H The height of handrail (H)

ta H must be no less than 800 mm


(31") and not more than
965 mm (38") measured

n vertically from a line drawn


through the leading edges of

r O stair treads to the top of the


handrail

fo 1.1 m (43") or more


require two handrails (9.8.7.1)
Exterior stair

er Interior stair (9.8.7.4)

Newel
nt HANDRAIL
PROJECTIONS
50 mm (2") min

ri
P
’s
Handrails shall be constructed 100 mm
(9.8.7.5)

n
with no obstruction on or above (4") max
them to break a handhold except (9.8.7.6)

e
where the handrails interrupted
by newels at changes in

ue
direction EASY TO GRASP DIFFICULT
TO GRASP
Recommended
50 mm (2") max

Q (9.8.7.2)

©
Figure 5.13
Handrails
5 - 12 Means of Egress 2010 CODE AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDE

GUARDS Guards are intended to reduce acci-


dental falls from differences in eleva-
zontal hand grips and toeholds. Fig-
ures 5.14 to 5.16 illustrate the major
BUILDING CODE REFERENCES tion between adjacent floor levels or Code requirements for guards.
the exterior ground. Generally, guards
DIVISION B are required for stairs, ramps, land-
9.8.8.1. Required Guards ings, balconies, porches, decks, mez-
9.8.8.2. Loads on Guards zanine galleries and raised walkways
9.8.8.3.
9.8.8.4.
Height of Guards
Guards for Floors and Ramps
unless stated otherwise. In many
cases, handrails are incorporated into
on
9.8.8.5.
in Garages
Openings in Guards
guards where both are required.

si
9.8.8.6.
9.8.8.7.
Design to Prevent Climbing
Glass in Guards
Guards should be designed to not
facilitate climbing by minimizing hori-
er
t V
f
Every exterior flight of steps and ramps, landing, porch, balcony, mezzanine, gallery, and raised walkway to which access is provided for other

ra
than maintenance purposes shall be protected by guards on all open sides. (9.8.8.1)

HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND IS NOT MORE THAN 1.8 m (6') HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND IS MORE THAN 1.8 m (6')
D

09
20
900 mm (36")
min guard height

o,
(9.8.8.3 (3))
1070 mm (42")

i
min guard height

ar (9.8.8.3 (1))

nt
r O
Guard is required
when H is more than
600 mm (24")
Balcony

fo (9.8.8.1 (1))

er
nt Openings through a

ri
When an interior stair has more
than two risers, the sides of the
guard must prevent the
passage of a 100 mm
(4") diameter sphere

P
stair and the landing or floor
level around the stair well
(9.8.8.5)

’s shall be enclosed by walls


or be protected by guards

en (9.8.8.1(3))

ue
Q 900 mm (36") min

© measured from top


of landing to top of
guard
(9.8.8.3 (2))

900 mm (36") min


(9.8.8.3 (2))

Line through leading edges of stair treads


Figure 5.14
Required Guards (9.8.8)
2010 CODE AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDE Means of Egress 5 - 13

Handrail required
when more than
Height above adjacent 3 risers
ground level or Guard Requirement (9.8.7.1 (2))
walking surface

on
H is not more
600 mm (24") or less Not Required
H
i
than 600 mm

s
(24"), no
1800 mm (71") or less
(See Figure 5.14)
Required
900 mm (36") min
guard height
er
guard is
required
(9.8.8.1 (1))

Required
t V
f
more than 1800 mm (71")
1070 mm (42") min

ra
(See Figure 5.14) guard height

Figure 5.15 D
Guards not Required

09
20
Where guards are

o,Where guards are not

i
required, openings required, openings must
must prevent the
passage of a 100 mm
(4") diameter sphere
ar be less than 100 mm (4")
or more than 200 mm (8")

nt
r O
fo
max 100 mm (4") min 200 mm (8")

sss
PERMITTED

r
NOT PERMITTED

te
in
more than 450 mm

r
(17-3/4")
Protruding elements
in this zone must be

P
900 mm more than 450 mm
(36") (17-3/4") apart vertically less than
450 mm

s
and horizontally

n’ (17-3/4")

e 140 mm

ue
(5-1/2")

Q Do not provide a toe-space


more than 45 mm (1-3/4")
horizontally and 20 mm Not less than a 1 in 2 slope

© (3/4") vertically
L = max 45 mm (1-3/4")
W = max 20 mm (3/4")
(27 degrees)
2
1
W
Protruding elements may be
Figure 5.16 L offset not more than 15 mm (1/2") (9.8.8.5)
max 100 mm (4")
Design to Prevent Climbing (9.8.8.6)

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