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EE359 – Lecture 10 Outline

 Announcements:
 Project proposals due Friday (post; email link)
 Midterm will be Nov. 4, 8:45-10:45am. Rm TBD.
 Probability of error in fading
 Outage probability
 Average Ps (Pb)
 Combined average and outage Ps
 Ps due to Doppler and ISI
Review of Last Lecture
 Capacity of ISI Channels
 Modulation Tradeoffs
 Amplitude/Phase Modulation
 Constellations, Differential Modulation, bit mappings
 Error Probability for Amp/Phase Modulation


Ps   M Q  M  s 
 Traditional Q function representation
 1  x2 / 2
Q ( z )  p( x  z )   e dx, x ~ N (0,1)
z
2
 Infinite integrand with argument in integral limits
Alternate Q Function
Representation
 New representation (Craig’93)
1  / 2  z 2 /(sin 2  )
Q( z)   e d
 0
 Leads to closed form solution for Ps in PSK
 Very useful in fading and diversity analysis
Linear Modulation in Fading

 In fading s and therefore Ps random


 Performance metrics:
 Outage probability: p(Ps>Ptarget)=p(<target)
 Average Ps , Ps:

Ps  P
0
s ( ) p ( ) d 

 Combined outage and average Ps


Outage Probability
Ts
Ps Outage
Ps(target)

t or d

 Probability that Ps is above target


 Equivalently, probability s below target
 Used when Tc>>Ts
Average Ps
Ps   Ps ( s ) p( s )d s
Ts
Ps
Ps
t or d
 Expected value of random variable Ps
 Used when Tc~Ts
 Error probability much higher than in AWGN alone
1  /2


 z 2 /(sin 2  )
 Alternate Q function approach: Q ( z )  e d
0
 Simplifies calculations (Get a Laplace Xfm)
Combined outage and average Ps
Ps(s) Outage
Ps(s)
Pstarget

Ps(s)
 Used in combined shadowing and flat-fading
 Ps varies slowly, locally determined by flat fading
 Declare outage when Ps above target value
Doppler Effects

 High doppler causes channel phase to


decorrelate between symbols

 Leads to an irreducible error floor for


differential modulation
 Increasing power does not reduce error

 Error floor depends on BdTs


ISI Effects
 Delay spread exceeding a symbol time
causes ISI (self interference).
1 2 3 4 5

0 Ts Tm

 ISI leads to irreducible error floor


 Increasing signal power increases ISI power

 ISI requires that Ts>>Tm (Rs<<Bc)


Main Points
 In fading Ps is a random variable, characterized by
average value, outage, or combined outage/average
 Outage probability based on target SNR in AWGN.
 Fading greatly increases average Ps .
 Alternate Q function approach simplifies Ps calculation,
especially its average value in fading (Laplace Xfm).
 Doppler spread only impacts differential modulation
causing an irreducible error floor at low data rates
 Delay spread causes irreducible error floor or
imposes rate limits
 Need to combat flat and frequency-selective fading
 Focus of the remainder of the course