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GE-STS (MIDTERM) Activity 3: Science in Society

1. Science - refers to the body of knowledge utilized to understand the world


Activity 1: Overview of Society and Culture a) Used to refer to understand natural phenomena
1. Society - autonomous group of people interacting with others in a distinct b) Became more complex - rational thinkers began to scrutinize society
geographic territory and sharing a common culture to understand it’s various processes and component
2. Culture - diverse and vary across different places c) Natural science to understand social world - SOCIAL SCIENCES
3. Factors contributing to diversity: d) Instrumental in the development of technologies
a) Physical environment e) Knowledge of specific culture regarding natural and social
b) How people manage to utilize what is found in their immediate phenomena
environment in order to respond to their needs
2. Social science 3. Natural science
4. Technology - process of harnessing resources in order to respond to
a) Anthropology a) Astronomy
society’s needs
b) Economics b) Biology
5. Science - knowledge utilized to harness natural resources
c) History c) Chemistry
d) political science d) Earth/Environmental science
SOCIETY CULTURE e) Psychology e) Physics
f) Sociology f) Math
territory Guild Beliefs Values
Organization Family Ideology Folklore
Institution Village Food Literature Activity 4: Technology and Culture
Club Company Religion music 1. Technology - considered component of culture (sociology & anthropology)
Affinity Association Fashion a) Not confined with modern technology
tribe art b) Stone tool technology of early humans
2. Artifacts/Material Culture - object produced by technology
3. Technology and culture are interrelated
Activity 2: Components of Culture a) When culture evolve, they tend to create new technology
1. Material culture - society’s physical object (tangible)
a) Object produced as a result of technology Activity 5: Linking Science, Technology and Society
i. Tools & technology 1. Science - explain how things work
ii. Clothing 2. Technology - uses the knowledge gained in science to design what has
iii. Eating utensils never been
iv. Means of transportation 3. Society - key goal of technology is to solve problems in society and
2. Non material culture (gestures) enhance peoples’ lives
i. Values
ii. Beliefs
iii. Symbols
3. The way people think, communicate and act altogether form altogether
people' way of life
4. People are exposed to different natural and social context
5. Flag - material culture
C. There are the oppressors and oppressed because of power. Material
resources or wealth, and socioeconomic status. Other conflicting issues
include race, gender and culture. POWER - ABUSE - CONTROLLING ORDER

Activity 8: Social Aspects of Technology


1. Technological determinism - contends that technology is an autonomous
force that dictates the direction of society and its culture
a) Technology dictates the culture of the society

New Resulted to
Culture
technology change in

2. Social Construction of Technology - perspective arose as a contrasting


Activity 6: Video Clip view to technological determinism. It emphasizes the importance of social
Activity 7: Three Perspective in the Analysis of Society and Culture context in the development of new technologies viewed as a product of
1. Symbolic Interactionism social processes involving several social groups.
a) Society is made up of individuals who interact with each other using a) Technology depends on the values of the society
symbols with corresponding meaning
b) Social problems are caused by different understanding of symbols and
their meaning Dictates
Society Technology
2. Structural Functionalism demand for
a) Society is made up of interrelated systems/institutions with
corresponding functions (see activities for example)
b) Social problems are caused by a dysfunction in one of the systems
which affect all the other system Activity 9: The Spheres of the Earth
3. Conflict Theory 1. Planet earth - our world, our home
a) Society is made up of conflicting groups with unequal level of power. 2. Biosphere - part of the planet Earth where life is found
Wealth and prestige a) Geosphere / Lithosphere
b) Social problems are caused by the inferior group by the dominant i. Consist of landmasses (continents and islands)
group ii. Supports a variety of life (from bacteria to mammals)
EXAMPLES: iii. Land provides shelter and protection for animals from weather
A. Human actions (behavior) toward things (everything: physical objects, and predators
actions and concepts) are based on the meanings (or understating) they iv. Land - anchor for plants
ascribe on those. The meanings are derived from one’s social interactions b) Hydrosphere
with others and society (meaning can change over time). OWN i. Aquatic part (ocean, rivers, lakes)
PERSPECTIVE OF REALITY ii. Living things need water to grow and live
c) Atmosphere
B. Institutions are created to meet the needs of society. A strong society has i. Air surrounding our planet
social stability. Social change must be minimal. STRUCTURE - ORDER - ii. O and CO2 - essentials for plant and animal respiration
STABILITY
iii. Birds, insects and other life can be found up to approx. 2K meters Biosphere Zone of life on planet earth. Sum of all Earth’s biosphere
above the earth’s surface ecosystems on Earth
iv. Plays critical roles in shaping the biosphere by deflecting harmful
radiation from the sun and determining weather patterns
3. Events - change in one sphere results to a change in one or more of the
other sphere
a) Can occur naturally or can be caused by humans
4. Interaction - the cause and effect relationship of an event between spheres
(refer to activity 9 for examples)

Activity 10: Environment and Society (product making)


1. The quality of our environment is very important since it EQUATES to our
own existence
2. Atmosphere - provides air to breathe
3. Ocean- provides marine life we harvest for food
4. Land - where plants grow

Activity 11: Biological Levels of Organization


1. Biosphere - highest level of biological organization
a) Known as “ecosphere”
BIOLOGICAL LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION Activity 12: Ecosystem
LEVEL DEFINITION EXAMPLES 1. Ecosystem - interacting system of the biotic and abiotic components of the
Atom Smallest unit of matter carbon environment, in a relatively stable equilibrium, in a limited geographical
molecule Group of atoms that are chemically DNA, CO2, NaCl, H2O location, and include various size and kind
bonded together
Cell Basic unit of life Nerve cell a) Biotic components (living) - plants, animals, microorganisms
tissue Group of specialized cells that perform Muscle tissues b) Abiotic components - nonliving variable (wind, water, day length,
similar functions
rainfall, temp., water current, source of energy
organ Group of tissues joined as a unit to Stomach + brain
perform a function
Organ system Group of organs joined as a unit to Digestive system 2. Types of Ecosystem
perform a function
a) Forest e) Freshwater
organism A distinct living thing A tarsier
Population A group of organisms of the same Tarsiers in the forest of Corella,
b) Grassland f) Marine
c) Tundra g) Agriculture/Agro
species. Living in the same area Bohol +colony of ants +
d) desert h) Urban
crocodile of Balabac, Palawan
+pack of wolves
Community The interacting, living population of All population (animals, plants, 3. Biotic factor in the forest used as habitat - TREES
different species that live in the same fungi, bacteria) in Corella,
area Bohol + species in a pond
Ecosystem A community of living organisms and The Corella community + its
their nonliving parts of their energy, soil and air + coral
environment (energy, soil, air)
reef + urban city/rural area
Activity 13: Ecosystem Services ii. Semi-nomadic in search of greener pastures for their food
1. Ecosystem services - the benefit given to humans derived from the natural c) Horticultural society
ecosystem i. Used domesticated plants for food (they grow their own food)
a) Support man’s survival and his quality of life directly or indirectly ii. Utilized simple gardening tools in planting crops
2. Categories: iii. Practiced shifting cultivation (agricultural system in which plots of land
a) Provisioning services (direct) - derived directly from species in an are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned and allowed to revert to their
ecosystem natural vegetation while the cultivator moves on to another plot.)
i. Food d) Agricultural society
ii. Freshwater i. Utilized more complex tools in both crop and livestock
iii. Wood production
iv. fiber ii. Intensive cultivation of the land following the private ownership
b) Regulating services - benefits obtained from the regulation of of land
ecosystem processes e) Mechanization and Industrialization
i. Climate regulation i. ↑ food production entailed processing and preservation so as to
ii. Water regulation lengthen shelf life
iii. Pest and disease regulation ii. Distribution of these processed food products to consumers is
iv. Flood regulation through grocery stores and supermarkets
c) Make the ecosystem STABLE iii. They include processed:
3. Aesthetic/Ethical services - include peace and other feelings humans 1. Baked
experience when they spend time in nature as well as the value of leaving 2. Canned
intact, healthy ecosystems for future generations 3. Bottled juices and jams
4. Habitat and supporting services (indirect) - supports provisioning,
regulating and cultural services of the ecosystem
i. Habitat provision
ii. Soil formation
iii. Nutrient cycling
iv. Water cycling

(refer to activity 13 for example)

Activity 14: Food, Technology and Food Production


1. Human societies - evolve based on technological development and the
population’s growth
a) Can be based on how they utilize the ecosystem for their food
2. Types of Societies
a) Foraging society
i. Hunting and gathering
ii. Uses stone tools to gather
iii. Largely nomadic in searching for food
b) Pastoral society
i. Used domestication and breeding of animals for food
○ At age 4, Freud's father moved the family from Czech Republic to
Activity 16: Intellectual Revolution (Part 1) Vienna Austria
○ Born before the advent of telephones, radios, automobiles etc.
○ Austrian doctor of the brain or a NEUROLOGIST
○ One of the first psychologists to study HUMAN MOTIVATION
● Freud believed that mental illness is a result of NURTURE and not NATURE
○ Nurture - environment
○ Nature - gene
● Freud often asked:
○ What makes people do things? MOTIVATION
○ What motivates people? (food, shelter, clothing) NEEDS
● NEEDS motivate human behavior

Intellectual (Scientific) Revolution:


● transformed/ defined society
● revolutionized the way we think of the universe
● changed the general world views of people in the society
● explained specific phenomena through precise measurements

SIGNIFICANT PEOPLE IN INTELLECTUAL REVOLUTION:


1. Sigmund Freud
2. Nicolaus Copernicus
3. Charles Darwin

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) ● Human MOTIVATION explains the reason why people behave the way
● Why was he revolutionary? they do.
○ Because of his way of seeing humans and humans minds ● Being deprived of a need, arouses the feeling called DRIVES or DESIRES
● Contributions: ● People have DRIVES and DESIRES at the back of their mind
○ a theory of motivation ● Some of these drives and desires cause people to behave irrationally
○ a theory of mental structure ○ To Freud, the human mind influences ones behavior and
○ a theory of thinking personality
○ a theory of personality management ■ 2 models of the mind:
○ a theory of psychometry 1. Topographical model
● BIOGRAPHY: 2. Structural model
○ Full name: Sigmund Schlomo Freud TOPOGRAPHICAL MODEL
○ Born: May 6 1856 ● CONSCIOUS (10%)
○ 1 out of 8 (Jewish Family) ○ Consist of all mental processes of which we are aware of
○ "tip” of the iceberg
■ Decides what action to take in a positive way and what
● PRECONSCIOUS (15%) to do based on what is believed to be the right thing to
○ Contains thoughts and feelings that we are not currently aware do
of, but which we can easily be brought to consciousness ○ Tries to get the 'id' to cooperate in real life
○ Like a mental "waiting room" ■ REALITY PRINCIPLE:
● considers risk, possible outcomes of decisions
● UNCONSCIOUS MIND (75%) made
○ Stores all the thoughts, memories and feelings that are disturbing ○ Sometimes, it repressed the urges of id
or "TRAUMATIC"
○ The brain protects itself by deeply burying these memories in the ● SUPEREGO ("above I")
unconscious mind ○ Unconscious part of the mind that operates as a moral
■ REPRESSION - psychological attempt to direct one's own conscience
desires and impulses towards pleasurable instincts by ○ Moralistic. Reminds us of what we should do based on values and
excluding them from one's consciousness and holding or morals learned from family/society
subduing them in the unconscious. ○ Conscience and Idealistic self. Uses guilt and self approach
■ Punish/Reward
Example: Conscious vs. Unconscious ● The 'ID' and 'SUPEREGO' are in constant conflict. Your id tells you to do
Andrew started a new relationship with someone he met at school. While talking one thing but your superego tells you to do something else.
to her one day, he accidentally calls her by his ex-girlfriend's name. Why Andrew?
● Inner force outside of awareness directing Andrew's slip of the tongue
● Unresolved feelings of her ex, or doubt in his new relationship
● Memories, emotions, thoughts, desire influence his behavior
The unconscious mind is the primary source of human behavior which influences
one's judgement, feelings and decisions in life.

STRUCTURAL MODEL
● ID or the "It"
○ Unconscious part of the mind
○ Operates under the PLEASURE PRINCIPLE:
■ "I want what I want and I want it now"
○ Control many of our actions (drives the primitive urges of our
personality
■ Ex. hunger, thirst, aggression, sexual drives
○ Animal-like and chaotic

● EGO ("I")
○ Part of the mind (rational self)
○ Decision making part of mind
A. Claudius Ptolemy (AD 90-168)
a. born in Alexandria (Roman Empire in Egypt under the
Roman Empire)
b. the Geocentric Model (1 300 years)
c. based on man’s everyday observation
B. Copernicus (1473-1543)
a. Torun, Poland
b. build a modest observatory
i. speed of each planet’s orbit depends on its
distance from the sun
c. theory was revolutionary and very controversial
d. published his book just before his death in 1543 by
GIORDANO BRUNO (in 1616 was burned for teaching
that the Earth orbited the Sun)
Activity 17: Intellectual Revolution (Part 2) e. Catholic Church completely banned the book in 1616 by
The Copernican Revolution (1 500 - 1 700) Roman Church
C. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543) a. established astronomical observatory in Hven, Denmark
● rediscovered the heliocentric model (Aristarchus) i. proper research institute in the world
b. collected 20+ years of data from observations
c. measured position of Mars accurately
d. set of data to be used later by Kepler
D. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
a. German urthodox Protestant
b. derived 3 (three) mathematical Laws of Planetary
Motion (from Brahe’s data)
i. elliptical orbit
ii. movement - fastest movement of the planet
when near the sun (meaning it is NOT
CONSTANT)
iii. Period (when planets are closer to the sun,
period is shorter)
● Similarities between Geocentric and Heliocentric
○ planets have circular orbits (heavenly perfect)
○ have uniform motion (heavens cannot change)
○ explain observations (sun rises “east” and sets “west”)
● The shift from geocentric to heliocentric slowly happened
● HISTORICAL FIGURES:
i. Galileo heard about it and made his own in 1609
k. the church forced Galileo to retract his claims
l. house arrested in 1633
m. remained imprisoned until his death in 1642
n. Galileo’s crime were publicly forgiven by the Catholic
Church in 1992 (Pope John Paul II)
o. Copernican Model continued to gain acceptance as the
years passed
c. discovered that planets follow elliptical paths, not p. unmanned probes of the 1960’s, 70’s and 80’s
circular
E. Galileo Galili (1564-1642) THE COPERNICAN REVOLUTION
a. Pisa, Italy
b. inventor, physicist, engineer, and astronomer
c. used telescope to:
i. observe the moon & planets
ii. validate heliocentric model
d. developed physical laws (Newton’s law of Universal
Gravitation and Einstein's Theory of Relativity)
e. invented the modern view of science
i. from a faith-based “science” to observation-
based “science”
f. was the 1st to meticulously report telescope
● The Copernican Model was NOT ACCEPTED BY SCHOLARS & THE PUBLIC,
observations from the sky to support the Copernican
because it violates the religious teaching of the time
Model of the Universe
● Copernicus book “De Revolutionibus” was published in 1543 (year
g. MAJOR DISCOVERIES:
Copernicus died)
i. 4 moons of Jupiter (4 Galilean moons)
ii. Rings of Saturn
F. Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
iii. surface structures on the moon; first estimates
a. Lincolnshire, England
of the height of mountains on the moon and its
b. developed the full theory of planetary orbits
craters
c. discovered that the main force that causes the planets
iv. sun spots (which eventually blinded him)
continue moving in elliptical orbits is GRAVITY
v. phases of Venus (including “full Venus”),
d. formulated the UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION
proving that Venus orbits the sun, not the Earth!
h. performed experiments to test his ideas (radical idea
● From Aristarchus belief until actual proof took over 2000 YEARS
before)
i. regarded as: FATHER OF EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCE
Activity 18: Darwinian Revolution (Intellectual Revolution Part III)
j. The telescope was invented in Holland early in the 17th
Archbishop James Ussher of Ireland (1581-1656)
century
● the earth was created on October 22, 4004 BC ○ origin of living things
● His book: “History of the World” ○ how new species replaced extinct ones
● claims that all life on Earth is connected and related to each other
James Hutton, Theory of the Earth (1795)
● “... we find no vestige of a beginning,— no prospect of an end.”

Some points:
1. The Earth is much older than we thought
2. Different creatures have inhabited the earth at different times.
Problem: How did this happen? (based on point #2)
Two Theories:
1. Catastrophism
*George Cuvier (1769-1832)
2. Evolution
*Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Alive vs. Fossil records

CATASTROPHISM & EXTINCTION


● differences observed in the fossils were the result of catastrophic events
such as floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruption

DARWIN’s THEORY OF EVOLUTION


● disputed the existence of a creator (God)
● supported by scientific explanation of phenomena that have occured in
the natural world SIGNIFICANT STOP: Galapagos Island
● Charles Darwin 1. Darwin’s Finches
○ british naturalist
○ born in Shrewsbury, England in 1809
○ At 16 y/o, took medicine at Edinburgh University
○ studied to be a clergyman at Christ College, Cambridge
○ obtained his degree in Theology in 1831
○ “Father of Modern Evolution”
○ “A universe unguided by any divine hand”
○ viewed life as “always changing”
Darwin’s Finches UNIQUE BEAKS
● large beak - crack the hard shells of nuts and seeds
Evolution
● long, thin beaks - probe into cactus flowers
● the process of biological change by which descendants come to differ from
● medium-sized beaks - that can catch and grasp insects
their ancestors.
● explains the:
2. Variation among Tortoise ● natural selection is the natural process of evolution
● adaptation is the characteristic of the organism

IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER:


A. natural selection
B. survival of the fittest
C. adaptation to environment
D. variation in species

ADAPTATION
● species adapt to their environment
● a characteristic that allow organisms to survive in its environment: good
chance for survival
● adaptation may lead to genetic change (mutation)
● VARIATIONS in a population lead to adaptation

DARWIN’s 2 MAIN POINTS:


1. Descent with Modification (Variation)
a. process by which descendants spread over various habitats and
adapt to environment
b. Examples:
i. snowshoe hare
ii. Jack rabbit
2. Natural Selection is the mechanism for revolution
a. process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well-
suited to the environment leave more offspring than others
Activity 19: Historical Developments of Technology
b. PROBLEM
Throughout history, humans survive and adapt to the changes in environmental
i. population contains individuals with variations (genetic
conditions and the demands and the needs of the time by constantly seeking
mutations)
knowledge and innovations to help them in their day-to-day activities.
ii. these individuals struggle for existence to stay alive
1. Ancient Period (3rd - 4th Centuries)
iii. Survival of the fittest - those that can adapt to live longer
a. goes back to the beginning of life, and late antiquity/medieval
and reproduce
period, from the 3rd through 7th centuries.
ADAPTATION AND NATURAL SELECTION
2. Middle Ages (ca. AD 476- 1 500) Technology is slipping out of control (we shall see later why) and its nature
a. is the period between the downfall of the Roman Empire as an instrument causes frustration and excites the will to remaster it,
between and the beginning of Italian Renaissance and the Age of which is a large factor in the growing discomfort with modern technology.
Exploration and Discovery.
b. It is regarded as the Dark Ages since little written accounts during 2. Causality: instruments are designed to for the purpose of causing an end.
these years were available.
3. Early Modern Period (ca. 1 450 - 1 750) A deeper look into causality reveals that the end is the beginning: a cause
a. is the period between the Renaissance and French REvolution. is that to which something is indebted and the purpose for which an
b. This is sometimes understood as a transition period between instrument is designed is the primary cause of its coming into being. The
FEUDALISM and CAPITALISM essence of causality is reduced to an occasioning, that is a bringing forth
4. Late Modern Period (ca. 1 750- 1 945) into presencing of something which is not presencing., the Greek poiesis.
a. is the period known for changes in forms of government from
monarchy to democratic and socialist forms. 3. Revealing: something is brought forth only when it passes from
b. this period is also known as the Age of Revolutions. concealment into unconcealment; when it is revealed.

Heidegger claims that revealing is what “truth” really means. The Greek for
ANCIENT MIDDLE AGES EARLY MODERN LATE MODERN
revealing, aletheia, is translated into veritas, truth, by the Romans. The
Housing Weaponry and War printing press of movable - steam engine equating of revealing with truth is pertinent to understanding the danger
related: type - internal of technology.
oars, longbow, combustion engine
gunpowder
DISCUSSION:
Clothing Nautical: compass, Studies: Math, telegraph The Meaning of Technology:
rudder, traverse boards Astronomy, Geography,
● Understanding technology is understanding its existence
Medicine,Alchemy,
Hunting Farming: mills, Engineering and telephone
Spears wheelbarrow, horseshoe Architecture Two statements may serve as the answer for this question (not Martin
and horse collar Heidegger’s):
● technology is a means to an end; it is an “instrument” to meet our needs
Boat Timekeeping: Renaissance humanism sewing machine
hourglass,sundial, after the barbarism that (instrumental definition)
minute glass troubled the Middle Ages ● technology is a human activity (anthropological definition)

The General: printing press, airplane


wheel eyeglasses Philosophical Perspective of Technology
1. technological objects are means for ends
2. built and operated by human beings
Activity 20 & 21:
3. but the essence of technology is something else entirely

1. Instrumentality: technology is an instrument to achieve human ends,


Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)
specifically those of building up or arranging.
● reexamines the meaning, origin and the essence of technology
1. Technology is not an instrument 1. Material Cause - physical elements that find its unity under our
2. Technology is not a human activity comprehension of “wood”. It is the wood that serves as the
3. Technology is dangerous material cause of this wooden chair.
2. Formal Clause - based on the shape which the material cause
● Technology (wood) has taken which is its “chair-ness”
○ is understood as “way of revealing” 3. Efficient Clause - one that brought it into existence - the
○ ancient Greek term, TECHNE (art and technique) carpenter
○ “is helping something to come into BEING 4. Final Clause - circumscribes the wooden chair as a furniture or as
■ Craftsmanship a throne, which means that the unity of both formal and material
■ Craft sets forth the completion of the thing
■ Fine Art
● both the material and formal causes are co-responsible for the occurence
● Principle of Causality of the technological object
○ Plato (429-347 BCE) ● the final cause, too, is co-responsible for the existence of the wooden
■ founded on the relation of “cause and effect” chair. What brings it into appearance is the carpenter which is called the
■ “When I was young, Cebes, I was tremendously eager for “efficient cause”
the kind of wisdom which they call investigation of
nature. I thought it was a glorious thing to know the
causes of everything, why each thing comes into being
and why it perishes and why it exists [...]” (Phaedo 96a)
○ expounded or solidified by Plato’s student, Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
■ to Aristotle, there are four causes:
● the material [causa materialis]
● formal [causa formalis]
● efficient [causa efficiens]; and
● final [causa finalis]

● Technology is not an INSTRUMENT to meet man’s needs.


○ being “instrumental” reveals man is exerting power over nature

“A crafts person would see her or Modern technology is not seen as


himself as himself as helping helping to come into being, but in a
something to come into being” sense, “forcing into being”

- nature reveals itself as a


- respects nature supplier of energy
technology bringing-forth
● windmills doesn’t force the winds to show itself as a supplier of energy,
but it feeds itself into nature
“SO TECHNOLOGY IS NOT AN INSTRUMENT” ● Technology as Challenging-forth

Technology as a “way of revealing”


poiesis - bringing-forth Ge- Stell - challenging forth
● Technology as Bringing-forth
a saving power a danger (ENFRAMING)
○ from nothing to something
○ concealment to unconcealment block unconcealment or truth
○ Heidegger classifies bringing-forth (poiesis) in two: ex. modern technology
■ bringing-forth in-itself (physis) GE-STELL
● an occasioning from nothing to something, an ● The human being becomes merely a “standing- reserve”
emergence, it is a form of bringing-forth that is ● regulated as an instrument for efficiency, productivity and functionality
characterized in a kind of eruption that may find ● nature, everything us ordered to stand by, to be on call for further
its paradigm in nature ordering (standing-reserve)
● unlike before, nature is now seen as a “resource we can readily
■ bringing-forth in-another (poiesis) manipulate
● a bringing-forth that is not a sudden emergence ● it is no longer an object of wonder but an object of human conquest
in itself, but it is an emergence that requires the
play of the four causes, specifically the Man’s technological relationship with nature was once as one of the stewards but
carpenter for the case of our wooden chair now is one of both master and slave
○ means that technology brings-forth what is connected to appear,
thus, making it unconcealed. The airliner standing on the runway is a stationary object ordered to be ready for
○ this makes technology a revealing of what was concealed before take off

We, in fact, like the airliner on the runway, are situated in the “standing-reserve”
as human resources.

“In our digital age, we are surrounded by technology, but we do not know how it
works or how it is brought about
“We do not know how they were made or what they are made of and just like the
four causes we have made the 4th cause the most important we have not
questioned the products we have just accepted that that’s the way things are.”

Examples:
● In mining, man digs coal NOT simply to know what coals are
○ yes, man “exposes” these coals but not simply to know them.
They uncover them because he wants to use them
● Coals are mined from truck loads so as to use their energy
○ this is the characteristic of the things revealed in modern
technology. they are there “for” something

Comparison of the Old and New Technology


● the modern and the old technologies are of different modes of revealing
○ modern is artificial
○ old technology (non-machine-powered technology) still respects
nature as an object of autonomy

Human beings with their technological advancements, not only extended the
human lifespan, particularly through advancements in medicine, but also mode
possible more efficient means of killing human beings, from the use of guns that can
kill a low persons at a time to the employment of thermonuclear devices that can
kill millions in an instant.

Enframing, the essence of technology then, is the danger.


… there is the danger that humans will also interpret themselves as raw materials.
Man is a master and a slave to technology.

Heidegger’s Solution: “the will not to will” (RELEASEMENT)