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# Physics of Material:

Question Bank
UNIT-I
Q1 (a) What do you understand by space groups, point groups, lattice and Bravais
lattice?
(b) Prove that the direct lattice is the reciprocal of its own reciprocal lattice.
(c) Distinguish between h.c.p. and f.c.c. lattices.
(d) Define Miller indices. Sketch the (100) and (111) planes of a simple cubic
lattice.
(e) Obtain the first Brillouin Zine of a simple cubic lattice.
(f) Define packing fraction and coordination number and calculate them for
simple cubic and bcc lattice.
(g) Show that the 5-fod rotational symmetry is not possible in a crystal.
(h) What do Miller Indices signify? Write Miller Indices of the planes with
intercepts:
1 2
(i) 2 , 3 , 1;
2 1
(ii) 3 , , 6

(i) Show that the reciprocal lattice vector G hkl is perpendicular to the
plane(hkl).
(j) Calculate the spacing between nearest planes containing exclusively Na+
and Cl- ions in a NaCl lattice. Given lattice constant=5.63A.
(k) The (111) reflection line in powder diffraction pattern of KCl is absent
whereas it is present for NaCl lattice. Explain.
(l) Sketch the five Bravais lattice that can exist in two dimensions.
(m) Define packing fraction and calculate it for a simple cubic and bcc lattice.
(n) Describe the crystal structure of NaCl Crystal.
(o) Give the relationship between primitive unit cell and the first Brillouin
Zone of a lattice.
(p) Mention the various imperfections in a crystal.
(q) Mark (111) plane and  direction for NaCl lattice.

a a 3
a   2  xˆ   2  yˆ
 

a a 3
b   2  xˆ  2
 yˆ

 

c  czˆ
Find the reciprocal lattice vector.
(r) Describe diamond structure. How many atoms are there per unit cell?
Q2 (a) Explain clearly the concept of Miller indices and reciprocal lattice. 2
(b) Define the term Packing Fraction . Calculate the packing fraction for:
(i) simple cubic;
(ii) b c c;
(iii) f c c; and
(iv) diamond lattice 4
(c) Prove for an orthorhombic system, the lattice plane spacings are given by
1
d hkl  h 2 k 2 l 2
 
a2 b2 c2
(where symbols have their usual meanings) 4

Q3 (a) Calculate the packing fraction and the co-ordination number for bcc and
fcc lattice.
3
(b) Define geometrical structure factor. How does it help to tell whether
reflection from a particular plane of atoms will take place or not?
5
(c) Name the seven crystal systems in 3- dimensions. 2

Q4 (a) What are Miller indices? Sketch the (111) Plane of a cubic lattice and
calculate their interplanar distance. Also find the ratio of intercepts on the
three axes by (123) plane. 6
(b) Calculate the packing fraction and the coordination number for bcc and
fcc lattices.

Q5 (a) Explain the various symmetry operation in crystals. Show analytically that
a five-fold rotation axis can not exit in a crystal lattice. 4
(b) Name the seven types of crystal systems. Give the relation between the
length of axes and angles between the axes of a unit cell in each
type. 3 (c) Explain how directions and plane of a crystal are specified. What
do the following indices indicate?
3 [ 1 1 0 ], ( 1 2 0), {1 1 1}

Q6 (a) What are Miller indices for a crystal lattice? Derive an expression for
interplanar spacing between nearest (hkl) planes in a cubic lattice.
3
(b) Derive Laue equation for diffraction of x-rays from a crystal lattice.
Obtain Bragg’s sine law from these equations.
4
Q7 (a) Derive Von Laue equations for the X Rays scattered from different atoms
and show that these equations lead to Brag’s condition.
4
(b) Describe briefly an experimental method to study X- ray diffraction from
a powdered specimen.
3
(c) Describe “Ewald’s Construction” and explain its importance. 3

Q8 (a) What are Laue equations for diffraction of X-rays by a crystalline solid?
Show that the Brag’s equation is a special case of Laue equation.
5
(b) Show that in a cubic lattice the distance between successive plane of
a
d hkl 
indices (hkl) is given by  h 2
 k 
2 2
l1/ 2

,
Where all the symbol have usual meanings. Find all the inter planar
spacing for the lattice planes of Miller indices (210) and (111) for a
cubic lattice with a  5.62 A.
5

Q9 (a) Describe briefly an experimental method for the study of X-ray diffraction
from a small single crystal. How does this help in ascertaining the quality
of the crystal?
5
(b) Evaluate the geometrical structure factor Fhkl for diffraction from (hkl)
planes of a f. c. c. lattice and show that the factor vanishes unless
the indices h, k, l are odd or even.
5

Q10 (a) Discuss Debye-Scherrer’s powder method for x-ray diffraction study.
(b) What do you understand by geometrical structure factor? Explain why
(111) reflection line is missing for KCl whereas it is present for
NaCl

Q11 (a) Derive Lave diffraction condition and hence obtain Brag’s law from it.
Describe an experimental method for the study of X-ray
diffraction.
(b) Describe “Ewald’s construction” and explain its importance. 3
(c ) The first order (100) reflection angle is 18 o. For a simple cubic crystal
using X-rays of wavelength 1.54A, determine the interplanar
distance between (i) (100) planes, (ii) (111) planes of crystal .(sin18 o
= 0.3090.)

Q12 (a) Derive Brag’s law (2K.G+G2 = 0) for X-ray diffraction by crystal. (the
symbols have their usual meanings)
5
(b) Describe “Ewald’s construction” and explain its importance. 3
(c) Find the first Brillouin Zone of a simple cubic lattice 2

Q13 (a) Prove that for an orthorhombic crystal, the lattice plane spacing are given
by
1
d hkl  h 2 k 2 l 2
 
a2 b2 c2

(b) Define Miler indices in crystal. Sketch (100), (111) and (010) planes in a
cubic structure.
3
(c) Cunstruct the first and second Brillouin Zones for a simple cubic lattice.

   
 2 K G  G  0 
2

## Q14 (a) Discuss X-ray diffraction and obtain Bragg’s law  

and show that its geometrical interpretation leads the concept of
Brillouin zones in crystas.
7
(b) Describe briefly an experimental method for the study of X-ray diffraction
from a small single crystal.

Q15 (a) Discuss Ewald’s construction explaining its importance. Derive Bragg’s
   2
 2 K G  G   0
law law   for X-ray diffraction by crystals.
( the symbols have their usual meanings.)
8
(b) Sketch the first two Brillouin zones of a square lattice. 2

Q16 (a) Prove that the reciprocal lattice vector Ghkl is perpendicular to the crystal
plane (h, h, l) and that the interplananr spacing is
2
d hkl
 

G hkl
5
(b) Discuss Ewald’s condtruction. How is this construction useful in deriving
   2
 2 K G  G   0
the Bragg’s Law  
5

## Q17 (a) What is a reciprocal lattice? Explain its geometrical significance. 3

(b) Prove that the reciprocal lattice vector Ghkl is perpendicular to the crystal
plane(hkl) and the interplanar spacing is inversely proportional to
it.
(c) Prove that the volume of unit cell of reciprocal lattice is inversely
proportional to the volume of a unit cell of the direct lattice.
3

Q18 (a) Sketch the first two Brillouin zones of square lattice. 2
(b) What do Miller indices signify? Write all the planes represented by 111 .
(c) What is reciprocal lattice? Why is it named so? Derive the relationship for
the primitive translation vectors of a reciprocal lattice in term of
those of a direct lattice.
6

Q19 (a) Name the seven types of crystal systems. Give the relation between the
length of the axes and angles between the axes of a unit cell in
each type.
(b) If 2-D oblique lattice has a reflection symmetry, then it results in two
(i) Primitive rectangular lattice;
(ii) Centered rectangular lattice. 4
(c) The primitive translation vectors of a hexagonal lattice are

3 ˆ aˆ
a 2
ai  j ,
2

 3 a
b  2 aiˆ  2 ˆj

c  ck̂.
Find its reciprocal lattice and the crystal class. 3
Q20 (a) Explain the concept of reciprocal lattice vector. Show that the reciprocal
lattice for a face centered cubic lattice is body centered cubic lattice.

(b) Describe the Debye-Scherrer method for finding the crystal structure of
powdered samples.

Q21 (a) Discuss the various symmetry elements in a cubic crystal. Show that the
five fold rotational symmetry is not possible in a crystal.
3
(b) Show that the reciprocal lattice of a bcc lattice is an fcc lattice. 5
(c) Describe the first Brillouin Zone for a simple cubic lattice. 2