Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.

net/publication/326156098

Smart Breaking system using Ultrasonic sensors

Conference Paper · May 2017

CITATIONS READS

0 5,620

3 authors, including:

Lakshminarasimha .N
New Horizon College of Engineering
13 PUBLICATIONS   4 CITATIONS   

SEE PROFILE

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

CFD Simulation View project

All content following this page was uploaded by Lakshminarasimha .N on 03 July 2018.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.


IDL - International Digital Library for
Technology & Research
Special issue, May 2017 Available at: www.dbpublications.org

5th National Conference on Topical Transcend in Mechanical Technology SJBIT Bangalore (TTMT-17)
International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017

Smart Breaking system using Ultrasonic


sensors
1
Kesava Kumar V, 2 S Teja,3Vamshidhar V, 4Lakshminarasimha N
1, 2, 3
UG Students, 4 Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department,
MVJ College of Engineering, Bengaluru- 560067
1
kesava988@gmail.com , 2yesteja92@gmail.com , 4nlnsimha25@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Now-a-days accidents are mostly caused by delay of the driver to hit the brake or by the negligence by the
driver. The project aims to develop a prototype system that offers a collision functionality in production vehicle,
a system which can operate automatically with the help of high profile sensors based on relay circuit and some
changes in traditional braking system and apply the brake automatically in emergency situation.The resulting
system can achieve measurements with high accuracy and improved short distance measurement also. This
distance measurement is used to control smart braking system for safety applications. The brain of the system
part can be developed on Arduino Nano microcontroller. The Ultrasonic sensors are the eyes of this system,
which are cheaper and the system comprises of a less demanding hardware. The braking is done with the help of
3/2solenoid valve which actuates brakes and clutch.

Key words: object detection, ultrasonic sensors, 3/2 solenoid valve

1. Introduction
Power
In recent years Vehicle technology has increased supply Relay
rapidly, particularly in relation to braking systems control unit
and sensing systems. ASS (active safety systems)
are being researched and developed to prevent
accidents and target mitigation. The project aims to Arduino Nano
distinguish between systems currently in ultrasonic micro
production like traction control (TC), electronic sensor controller Solenoid
brake force distribution (EBD), Anti-lock Braking
System (ABS) and electronic stability control
(ESC) functions and future systems that are
currently in development. Braking system is such a
vital component that is necessarily required when a
vehicle is considered. It reduces the kinetic energy
of the vehicle in conditions when a vehicle has to
slow down or also it has to be stopped. Thus
Figure 1: Block diagram of Arduino Nano Micro controller
making sure the vehicle and the passengers inside it
are safe. Thus a braking system is always used to Figure 1, shows the circuit connections of the
ensure the safety of the drivers and passengers control unit of the smart braking system. This unit
uncountable valued lives. consists of an Arduino microcontroller which is
operated with an external power supply. The
ultrasonic sensor is connected to the
microcontroller which is powered by the
microcontroller itself. The microcontroller is
further connected to the solenoid which operates

th
Proceedings of the 5 National Conference on Topical Transcend in Mechanical Technology, SJBIT, Bangalore (TTMT-2017)
Copyright@IDL-2017-ISSN (Online) : 2465-3289 Page | 1
IDL - International Digital Library for
Technology & Research
Special issue, May 2017 Available at: www.dbpublications.org

5th National Conference on Topical Transcend in Mechanical Technology SJBIT Bangalore (TTMT-17)
International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017
with help of the 12V battery controlled by the 12V they get hotter. Normally efficiency is regained
relay. when they cool again Brake pads and linings also
wear away faster at higher temperatures. Hence this
project aims to provide the safety measures for
driver and passenger eliminating the above
mentioned problems.
2. Literature Survey 4. Project implementation process
The literature survey is carried out to understand The project implementation process involves
the state of art behind sensor technology used in discussion on major components used in the
automotive engineering. Below are the following project, circuit design and working of Smart
journals. Braking system and braking constraints
Hemalatha B K, et, al., [1], [2016], Paper 4.1 The major components used in the
comprises the use of Infrared sensors for obstacle project
detection with help of PIC microcontroller.This
based on microcontroller technology for collecting Following are the major components in the smart
data related to speed and transmitting it through a Braking system
transceiver to a base station that analyzes the
transmitted data and takes appropriate decisions 4.1.1 Ultrasonic sensor
Related to speed limit and control requirements 4.1.2 Arduinonano
4.1.3 3/2Solenoid valve
NishadVivekKumbhojkar, etc. al [2], [2013], paper 4.1.4 Single acting pneumatic cylinder
comprises of the use of ultrasonic sensors with help
of PIC microcontroller, transducers and servo 4.1.1 Ultrasonic sensor
motor braking mechanism.It is intended to use in
vehicles where the drivers may not brake manually, The Figure 2 shows the Ultrasonic sensor, which
but the speed of the vehicle can be reduced isused to detect the obstacle.
automatically due to the sensing of the obstacles.

Though there are many journals listed in the


reference section only few important journals are
discussed. These journals helped as ready reckoner
to carry out the project.

3. Problem statement
The conventional friction brake system is
Figure 2: Ultrasonic Sensor
composed of the following basic components: the
“master cylinder” which is located under the hood Ultrasonic sensor senses the obstacle in the travel
is directly connected to the brake pedal, and path and gives the control signal to the
converts the drivers’ foot pressure into hydraulic microcontroller. It acts as the eyes of the control
pressure. Steel “brake hoses” connect the master unit. The HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor is a very
cylinder to the “slave cylinders” located at each affordable proximity or distance sensor that has
wheel. Brake fluid, specially designed to work in been used mainly for object avoidance in various
extreme temperature conditions from the master robotics projects. It essentially gives your Arduino
cylinder fills the system. “Shoes” or “pads” are eyes / special awareness.It consists of two
pushed by the slave cylinders to contact the connecting terminals T and R, where T represents
“drums” or “rotors,” thus causing drag, which waves transmission and R represents receiving the
slows the car. Two major kinds of friction brakes waves.
are disc brakes and drum brakes. The above
mentioned convectional brakes have two chief 4.1.2 Arduino Nano
problems one is the wear and tear and other is
unnecessary excessive temperature in the service is Arduinonano is shown in Figure 3, is one of the
attained. Excessive heating of brakes can result in easiest and most commonly used microcontrollers.
fade. It causes temporary changes in the friction as
th
Proceedings of the 5 National Conference on Topical Transcend in Mechanical Technology, SJBIT, Bangalore (TTMT-2017)
Copyright@IDL-2017-ISSN (Online) : 2465-3289 Page | 2
IDL - International Digital Library for
Technology & Research
Special issue, May 2017 Available at: www.dbpublications.org

5th National Conference on Topical Transcend in Mechanical Technology SJBIT Bangalore (TTMT-17)
International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017

Figure 5: Single Acting Pneumatic cylinder


Figure 3: Arduino Nano Micro controller

Arduinonano is user friendly type of Single-acting cylinders are found in most kinds of
microcontroller for the beginners and also for reciprocating engine. In most of the engineering
coding/programming. There are many other applications pneumatic cylinders used because
microcontrollers which are being used for different these are clean and require less space.
purposes are per required.
4.2: Circuit design and working
4.1.3 3/2 Solenoid valve
The system consist of two ultrasonic sensors, kit of
Figure 4 shows the 3/2 solenoid valve. A solenoid electronic control unit(microcontrollers, relays) to
valve is an electro mechanically operated valve give input and output for sensor and Pneumatic
which is operated by an electric current in this circuit as shown in Figure 6 and Figure 7. The
case of a two-port valve the flow is switched on or sensor is having 12volt supply and can measure
off; in the case of a three-port valve, the outflow is hurdle up to 5m.
switched between the two outlet ports. It can
operate manually and automatically

Figure 6: Circuit for braking system

Figure 4: 3/2 Solenoid valve

Solenoid valves are the most frequently used


control elements for fluids and pneumatic. Their
tasks are to shut off, release, dose, distribute or mix
fluids. Figure 7: Microcontroller and 12V Relay

4.1.4 Single Acting cylinder Consider a Vehicle Speeding at 30Km/h constantly


and when there is an accident going to happen
A single-acting pneumatic cylinder is mechanical because of many reasons like driver negligence, the
device which operates with compressed air to worst case that Driver is fallen asleep and vehicle is
actuate the piston and reciprocates in linear motion. approaching to an obstacle at same speed, so here
Figure 5 shows the Single Acting Pneumatic exists the role of smart Braking system,
cylinder.
i. The ultrasonic Sensor senses obstacle
objects in the path of the vehicle and will
give continues input to micro controller.

th
Proceedings of the 5 National Conference on Topical Transcend in Mechanical Technology, SJBIT, Bangalore (TTMT-2017)
Copyright@IDL-2017-ISSN (Online) : 2465-3289 Page | 3
IDL - International Digital Library for
Technology & Research
Special issue, May 2017 Available at: www.dbpublications.org

5th National Conference on Topical Transcend in Mechanical Technology SJBIT Bangalore (TTMT-17)
International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017
ii. The microcontroller which has been
programmed accordingly as per the
vehicle on which it is being used.
iii. Now the microcontroller sends the signal
to the brake actuation system which
controls the braking system either to
reduce the speed of the vehicle or to bring
the vehicle to halt avoiding the accidents.
iv. The braking system consists of brakes
(disc brakes or drum brakes) which shall
be actuated manually by driver and also
automatically by the smart braking system
with help of solenoids.
v. Solenoids are the electromechanically
operated valve which actuates when
electrical energy is supplied to it. When
ultrasonic sensor senses any obstacle the
power is supplied to the solenoid from 12v
relay and actuates pneumatic cylinder

4.3 Braking constraints

The designed smart Braking system includes


Braking constraints, which instructs the vehicle
need to halt automatically by sensing the range or
distance of obstacle while driving.

Figure 8, shows the flow chart of Programmable


logic Braking system describes the Braking options
based on obstacle range sensed by Ultrasonic
sensor. During Normal drive, if the circuit senses
any obstacle with in 300cm, the solenoid valve is in Figure 8: Programming Logic of braking system
off position and braking will not take place. When
it senses any obstacle with in 200cm the solenoid The control unit keeps comparing the values of
valve gets actuated and braking takes place. signal strength and the braking takes place when
required as shown Table 1.

Table 1: condition for braking system

Distance (cm) Result 5. Conclusion:


<200 Braking take place The following conclusions that can be made on
>300 No braking operation smart braking system using ultrasonic sensor are:

1. Arduinonano microcontroller is user friendly and


helps beginners Mechanical engineers in providing
better coding/ programming for automatic braking
system.

2. Ultrasonic sensor is cheaper compared to other


sensors and provides better sensing range within
5m.

3. Pneumatic actuation system used is less weight


and compact and provides better actuation
compared to hydraulic actuation system.

th
Proceedings of the 5 National Conference on Topical Transcend in Mechanical Technology, SJBIT, Bangalore (TTMT-2017)
Copyright@IDL-2017-ISSN (Online) : 2465-3289 Page | 4
IDL - International Digital Library for
Technology & Research
Special issue, May 2017 Available at: www.dbpublications.org

5th National Conference on Topical Transcend in Mechanical Technology SJBIT Bangalore (TTMT-17)
International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017
4. Smart braking system take decision based on [2]NishadVivekKumbhojkar&ChaitanyaAvadhutch
microcontroller inputs and initiates the braking intanKuber Ultrasonic Automatic Braking
automatically and control the vehicle in advance to System For Forward Collision Avoidance With
any dangerous accidents situations. Thus Accelerator Pedal Disengagement
implementing this System can reduce the close Mechanism,International journal & magazine of
impact potential accidents engineering, technology, management and research
registrar of Newspapers of India(RNI) Regd No:
Also it can be concluded that the present project APENG/2011/47294
work is no more exhaustive as it can be further
carried out by using different range sensors and [3] G.V.Sairam, B.Suresh, CH.SaiHemanth and
actuating mechanism. Present paper work becomes K.KrishnaSai,“Intelligent mechatronic braking
a ready reckoner for engineers in future project system”, International Journal of Emerging
development. Technology and Advanced Engineering, ISSN
2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal,
Acknowledgement
Volume 3,Issue 4, April 13
Authors thank Mr.Lakshminarasimha N, Assistant
Professor and Mr Ravi Shnakar M K, Associate
Professor and Head, Mechanical Engineering [4]DHANYA K. R. AND JEYANTHI KSR
Dept., MVJCE for guiding and supporting the College of Engineering,
present paper work. TiruchengodeAUTOMATIC BRAKING SYSTEM
References WITH SENSOR FUSION
CONCEPT(IIEEES)“Intelligent mechatronic
[1]Hemalatha B K, P braking system”, International Journal of Emerging
Pooja,ChaithraM,MeghaS,Rakshitha R TAutomatic Technology and Advanced Engineering, ISSN
Braking System for Automobiles Using IR 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal,
Sensor(IJAREIE) International Journal of Volume 3,Issue 4, April 13
Advanced Research in Electrical,Electronics nd
Instrumentation Engineering(An ISO 3297: 2007 [5]RyszardNawrocki, “Combination brake and
Certified Organization) accelerator pedal assembly”, US Patent No: US
8308613

th
Proceedings of the 5 National Conference on Topical Transcend in Mechanical Technology, SJBIT, Bangalore (TTMT-2017)
Copyright@IDL-2017-ISSN (Online) : 2465-3289 Page | 5

View publication stats