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JIBACHHA PUBLISHING

Jibachha's Textbook of
Equine, Rabbit &
Pet Animals
(Based on SEE & CTEVT Diploma Syllabus)

Dr. Jibachha Sah


Dr. Prabhakar K. Shah
Jibachha's Textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals
Veterinary Publishing
Dr. Jyoti Kumari Shah
Jibachha's Textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals
Jibachha's Textbook of
Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals
(Based on CTEVT Diploma Level Syllabus)

Dr. Jibachha Sah


B.V.Sc & A.H., M.V.Sc (T.U.)
Laboratory Training, NDDB, Gujarat, India

Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah


B.V.Sc & A.H. (P.U.), M.V.Sc (Medicine, AFU)
Director
Dr. Jyoti Kumari Shah
B.V.Sc. & A.H. (T.U.)
Consultant Veterinary Physician

Jibachha Veterinary Hospital (P) Ltd.


Sanepa-3, Jhamsikhel, Lalitpur

Jibachha Veterinary Hospital Research & Training Center (P.) Ltd.


Bharatpur-4, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal
E-mail: vhrtc@yahoo.com, Tel: +977-56-570726

Jibachha Publishing
(Veterinary Publisher and Distributors)
Bharatpur-4, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal
E-mail: jibachhashah@gmail.com, Tel: +977-56-570726

Jibachha's Textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals i


Jibachha's Textbook of
Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals

Edited by: Dr. Jibachha Sah, Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah &
Dr. Jyoti Kumari Shah

Copyright @ 30 Nov., 2019, Jibachha Publishing

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,


stored in retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, with­
out the prior written permission of the publisher.

Published by Jibachha's Publishing


Bharatpur-4, Lankupul, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal.
E-mail: jibachhashah@gmail.com, vhrtc@yahoo.com
Phone: 056-570726

ISBN: 978-9937-727-05-1

Price: Rs. 1,150/-

Press : Siddhababa Offset Press


Hakimchowk, Chitwan
Ph.: 056-524245

Copyright material

ii Jibachha's Textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals


ABBREVIATION
AGID - Agar gel immunodiffusion
AHS - African horse sickness
CAV - Canine adenovirus
CDV - Canine distemper virus
CHF - Congestive heart failure
CIRDC - Canine infectious respiratory disease complex
CME - Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis
CPV - Canine parvovirus
DCM - Dilated cardiomyopathy
ECG - Electrocardiogram
EHV - Equine herpesvirus
EI - Equine influenza
ELISA - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EMS - Equine metabolic syndrome
EVA - Equine viral arteritis
FeLV - Feline leukemia virus
FIV - Feline immunodeficiency virus
FSH - Follicle stimulating hormone
ICH - Infectious canine hepatitis
LH - Luteinizing hormone
MAT - Monoclonal antibody test
MVI - Mitral valve insufficiency
NSAIDs - Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
TDN - Total digestible nutrients
WNV - West nile virus

Jibachha's Textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals iii


PREFACE
"Jibachha's textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals" is
designed for the SEE and diploma level CTEVT student of veterinary
medicine. The contents of the book is based on CTEVT syllabus on
Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animal. The first section include all the theory
topics; Introduction to equine, Equine management, Equine health,
Rabbit breed, management, breeding, Rabbit health and deskinning,
Introduction to pet animals, breed of dog, cat, their health status,
breeding.
The second part of this book is based on Equine, Rabbit and
Pet Animal practical including practical knowledge on rabbit keeping
and dog cat management.
In the series of our 40 books on veterinary clinical field
"Jibachha's textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals" is
purely a syllabus based book which is written with authentic text
and references. This book is designed especially for the students
of technical education to easy, concise, understandable manner and
quick reference. In the time of preparation past examination paper
were highly considered, which will enable to grapes excellence score
in the examination.
The experience gathered by the authors in the course of their
long number of years in publishing veterinary books for the students
and coordinating animal health courses, was strongly brought to bear
on the preparation of this course book; a serious student shall therefore
find the book user friendly and easy to read and understand. We strongly
believe that "Jibachha's textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals"
adequately meet the needs of veterinary students and teachers.
Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah
B.V.Sc & A.H. (P.U.), M.V.Sc (Medicine, AFU) Dr. Jibachha Sah
Dr. Jyoti Kumari Shah B.V.Sc & A.H., M.V.Sc (T.U.)
B.V.Sc. & A.H. (T.U.)

iv Jibachha's Textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals


INDEX
Abbreviation iii
Preface iv
UNIT 1
Introduction to equines
1.1 Introduction of equine species and their distribution 1
1.2 Anatomical features of equine 7
1.3 Digestive system 15
UNIT 2
Equine breeds
2.1 Major breeds of equine worldwide 19
2.2 Major equine breeds in Nepal 28
2.3 Importance of horses rearing 32

UNIT 3
Equine management
3.1 Housing for horses 38
3.1.1 Race horse stable management 41
3.2 Feeding horses (draft horses and race horses) 42
3.3 Parasitic control (external and internal) in horses 52
3.3.1 Bots (Gasterophilus) 52-56
3.3.2 Horse-flies (Biting flies) 56-58
3.3.3 Horse Lice 59-60
3.3.4 Horse mange 60-62
3.3.5 Horse ticks 62-64
3.3.6 Large Redworms and Small Redworms 64-66
3.3.7 Roundworms 66-68
3.3.8 Pinworms (Oxyuris equi) 68-70
3.3.9 Threadworms (Onchocerca cervicalis) 71-72

Jibachha's Textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals v


3.3.10 Tapeworms (Cestodes) 73-75
3.3.11 Lungworms (Dictyocaulus arnfieldi) 75-77
3.4 Breeding season of horses, estrus cycle in mares
77
and breeding time
3.5 Management of pregnant mares and foals 79
UNIT 4
Equine lameness
4.1 Lameness in equine and its types 87
4.2 Lameness management 88
4.3 Shoeing types and techniques 89

UNIT 5
Equine health
5.1 Major bacterial diseases of equines with their
95
treatment principles
5.1.1 Strangles 95-97
5.1.2 Botulism 97-99
5.1.3 Tetanus 99-101
5.1.4 Lyme disease 101-102
5.1.5 Glanders 103-105
5.1.6 Rhodococcus equi 105-107
5.1.7 Leptopirosis 107-109
5.2 Major viral diseases of equines with their
113
prevention and vaccination
5.2.1 Equine influenza 113-114
5.2.2 Equine herpes virus 115-117
5.2.3 Equine infectious anemia 117-120
5.2.4 African horse sickness 120-123
5.2.5 Equine viral arteritis 123-125

vi Jibachha's Textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals


5.2.6 West Nile Fever 126-127
5.2.7 Equine encephalomyelitis 127-128
5.2.8 Rabies 128-130
5.3. Major fungal diseases of equines with their
132
treatment principles
5.3.1 Mycoses 132-135
5.4 Major metabolic diseases of equines with their
136
treatment principles
5.4.1 Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) 136
5.4.1 Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) 137-139
5.4.3 Equine Colic 139-141

UNIT 6
Introduction to rabbit keeping
6.1 Introduction and classification of rabbit 144
6.2 Scope of rabbit production 144
6.3 Economic importance of rabbit 145
6.4 Most popular breed of rabbit in Nepal 146
6.5 Rabbit related terminology 147

UNIT 7
Breeds, management and breeding of rabbit
7.1 Major breeds of rabbit 148
7.2 Housing and feeding practices for rabbits 150
7.3 Estrus cycle and breeding time 154

Jibachha's Textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals vii


UNIT 8
Rabbit health
8.1 Major diseases of rabbits with their prevention
156
and treatment
8.2 Overgrown Teeth 159
8.3 Hairballs (Trichobezoars) 159
8.4 Uterine Tumors 160
8.5 Tyzzer’s disease in rabbit 160
8.6 Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) 163
8.7 Hepatic coccidiosis in rabbit 165

UNIT 9
Skinning of rabbits
9.1 Slaughtering and skinning techniques of rabbits 167
9.2 Sexing in rabbit 169

UNIT 10
Introduction to pet animals
10.1 Definition of pet animals 173
10.2 Major pet animals in Nepal 173

UNIT 11
Breeds of dogs and cats
11.1 Major dog breeds and their characteristics 174

UNIT 12
Breeding of dogs and cats
12.1 Estrus cycle and mating in dogs 191
12.2 Estrus cycle and mating in cats 193
12.3 Care of pregnant bitches and queens 196
12.4 Care of puppies and kittens 198

Jibachha's Textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals


UNIT 13
Prevention and treatment of major
diseases of dogs and cats
13.1 Major diseases of dogs, vaccination in dogs
201
and treatment of diseases
Major viral disease
1. Canine Parvoenteritis 201-202
2. Rabies 202-205
3. Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) 205-208
4. Canine Hepatitis 208-210
Major bacterial disease
5. Brucellosis 210-213
6. Canine Ehrlichiosis 213-215
7. Kennel cough 215-216
8. Canine Leptospirosis 216-218
Major protozoan disease of dog
9. Canine Babesiosis 219-220
10. Giardiasis 221-223
11. Coccidiosis 223-224
Major parasitic disease of dog
12. Canine Hookworm 225-226
13. Canine Tapeworm 226-228
14. Toxocariasis 228-230
15. Heartworm 230-234
16. Mange/mites 232-234
Noninfectious disease of dog
17. Renal failure 235-236
18. Anorexia 236-237
19. Heart failure 238-239
viii Jibachha's Textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals
Sensory disease
20. Conjunctivitis 239-240
21. Otitis 240-240
13.2 Major diseases of cat, vaccination in cat
243
and treatment of diseases
1. Feline leukemia 243-244
2. Feline Diabetes 244-246
3. Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) 246-247
4. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) 247-249
5. Feline panleukopenia (FP) 249-250
6. Haemobartonellosis in cat 251-252

Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals Practicals


Practical 1:
Visiting stud farms and other horse stable 253
Practical 2:
Practical knowledge on rabbit keeping 254
Practical 3:
Dog and cat management 263

Alphabetical index 277-287


Model Question of SEE & Diploma Level 288-290
References 291-292

Jibachha's Textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals


Introduction to equines

1
Introduction
Unit

to equines
1.1 Introduction of equine species and their
distribution
1. Introduction:
Equine, one of the mammal family of Equidae (order
Perissodactyla) that includes the modern horses, zebras, and
asses, as well as more than 60 species known only from fossils
(जीवाश्म, A substance dug from the earth).

All six modern members of the family are placed in


the genus Equus. Only the races of E. caballus (including
the myriad domestic strains) are called horses; three species
(E. zebra, E. burchelli, and E. grevyi) are called zebras; and two
(E. asinus and E. hemionus) are usually called wild asses.

Asian wild ass (Equus hemionus) Asian wild horse (Equus ferus)

Mountain Zebra (Equus zebra) Domestic horse (Equus ferus caballus)

Jibachha's
Jibachha's Textbook
Textbook of
of Equine,
Equine, Rabbit
Rabbit and
and Pet
Pet Animals
Animals 1
Introduction to equines
Horse, (Equus caballus), a hoofed herbivorous mammal of
the family Equidae. It comprises a single species, Equus
caballus, whose numerous varieties are called breeds. Before
the advent of mechanized vehicles, the horse was widely used
as a draft animal, and riding on horseback was one of the chief
means of transportation.

Among the most important colours of horse are black, bay,


chestnut (and sorrel), palomino, cream, and white.

Different types of horses are bred for different types of job. The
major categories are
1. Draft (draught) horses- carry and pull heavy load,
example Percheron, Suffolk, Belgian and Shire.
2. Warm bloods- athletics horse with sensible attitude,
example Dutch warm blood, Hanoverian, Selle Francaise
and Trakehner
3. Light horses- bred for speed, agility, endurance and of
course riding, example American quarter horse, Rocky
mountain horse, Paints, Polo ponies and Morgan.
4. Gaited horses- known as "gentlemans" horse,
have three gaits; walk, trot and gallop, example
Aegidienberger,Campeiro and Campolina.
5. Ponies- used for pulling, packing, harness, riding, jumping,
and plowing, example are welsh mountain pony, Icelandic
pony, Shetland pony and Hackney pony.

Breed of horses are categorized as :


1. Local breed: Those breeds that occur only in one country.
For example Jumli is local horse breed from Nepal.
2. Transboundary breed: Those breeds that occurs in more
than one country. Transboundary breed are of two types:
● Regional transboundary breeds: Those breeds that

2 Jibachha's
Jibachha's Textbook
Textbook of
of Equine,
Equine, Rabbit
Rabbit and
and Pet
Pet Animals
Animals
Introduction to equines
occur only within one region of the several continents.
For example, Hutsul is a regional transboundary horse
breed found in Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia,
Germany, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine.
● International transboundary breeds: Those breeds
that occur in more than one continent. For example,
The Arab horse is an international transboundary horse
breed found in all seven continents of the world.

• Horses can sleep both lying down and standing up.


• Horses can run shortly after birth.
• Domestic horses have a lifespan of around 25 years.
• A 19th century horse named ‘Old Billy’ is said to have lived
62 years.
• Horses have around 205 bones in their skeleton.
• Horses have been domesticated for over 5000 years.
• Horses are herbivores (plant eaters).
• Horses have bigger eyes than any other mammal that lives
on land.
• Because horse’s eyes are on the side of their head they are
capable of seeing nearly 360 degrees at one time.
• Horses gallop at around 44 kph (27 mph).
• The fastest recorded sprinting speed of a horse was 88 kph
(55 mph).
• Estimates suggest that there are around 60 million horses in
the world.
• Scientists believe that horses have evolved over the past 50
million years from much smaller creatures.
• A male horse is called a stallion.
• A female horse is called a mare.
• A young male horse is called a colt.
• A young female horse is called a filly.
• Ponies are small horses.

Jibachha's
Jibachha's Textbook
Textbook of
of Equine,
Equine, Rabbit
Rabbit and
and Pet
Pet Animals
Animals 3
Jibachha's Textbook of
Equine, Rabbit & Pet Animals

"Jibachha's Textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals" is edited


by Dr. Jibachha Sah (M.V.Sc), Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah (M.V.Sc. Vet. Med.)
and Dr. Jyoti Kumari Shah (B.V.Sc & A.H, TU) with sales of their previous 40
books, several of them best-seller approaches more than 22,000 copies.
"Jibachha's textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals" is designed for
the SEE and CTEVT diploma level student of veterinary medicine. The content of
the book is based on CTEVT & SEE syllabus on Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals.
The first section includes all the theory topics; Introduction to equine, Equine
management, Equine health, Rabbit breed, management, breeding, Rabbit health
and deskinning, Introduction to pet animals, breed of dog, cat, their health status
and breeding.
The second section of this book focus on Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals
practical session which includes practical knowledge on rabbit keeping and dog,
cat management.
In the series of their books on veterinary clinical field "Jibachha's
textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals" is purely a syllabus based book
which is written with authentic text and references. This book is especially
designed for the students of technical education to easy, concise, understandable
manner and quick reference. In the time of preparation, past examinations paper
were highly considered, which will enable students to achieve excellent score in
the examination.
We strongly believe that "Jibachha's Textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet
Animals" shall adequately meet the needs of veterinary students and teachers.
Dr. Jibachha Sah is Director of the organization “Jibachha’s Veterinary Hospital
Research & Training Center (P) Ltd”, Bharatpur-4, Lanku, Narayangarh, Chitwan,
Nepal whereas, Dr. Prabhakar K. Shah is the Director of the branch entitled
“Jibachha Veterinary Hospital (P). Ltd”, Sanepa-3, Jhamsikhel, Lalitpur and Dr.
Jyoti Kumari Shah is the consultant veterinary physician.

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Veterinary Publishing
Jibachha's Textbook of Equine, Rabbit and Pet Animals
Bharatpur-4, Lankupul, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal
E-mail: jibachhashah@gmail.com, Tel.: +977-56-570726 9 789937 727051