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c INTRODUCTON:

In our country the problem of water logging is of great concern,


as large tracts in the indo-genetic plain suffer from
waterlogging.the problem of water logging has been reported
even in several recent project such as Chambal project in
Rajasthan and madhyapradesh. As indicated in the report of
irrigation commission 1972the total area of the land affected by
water logging in different states of our country is estimated to
be affected by water logging. However, several measures area
taken under command area development programmed to
control water logging.
c ë CTS O WATëRLOGGING:
0ater logging causes infertility of land and hence results in
reduction of crop yield. a study of the effect of water logging
on crop production was made at a small farm at Rauni near
Patiala. This study showed that the yield per hectares for
cotton which was about 7.32kn or 746kg O(f)in 1951-52
dropped to 0098kn or 10kg (f)in 1959-60and the fields had
become unfit for the cultivation of cotton. The drop in yield
of wheat was from 13.18kn or 1344kg (f) per 1951-52 to
about 8.79kn or 896kg (fs) per hectares in 1958-59.the main
factors for the infertility of the waterlogged lands are as
follows.
’ ABSëNCë O AëRATION O SOIL IN THë ROOT ZONë O THë
PLANTS

or the growth of plants certain nutrients such as nitrates are


quite essential. The supply of these nutrients is maintained in
the soil by certain bacteria or microorganisms which break
up complex nitrogenous into forms usable by the plants.
These bacteria need oxygen for their life and are unable to
live and function under anaerobic conditions which are
developed when the land is waterlogged.
Ii) DI ICULTY IN CULTIVATION OPëRATIONS
It is difficult to carry out cultivation operations such as tilling
etc.in a soil which is constantly wet. In an extreme case,
when the ground water has risen above the surface,
cultivation operation may be possible.
I’’ GROWTH O WATëR WëëDS AND WILD AQUATIC PLANTS

There are certain plants or weeds which grow very well in


marshy lands. These plants find favorable surroundings in
waterlogged areas and hence grow in abundance,
suppressing the crops growing in these areas. The crops have
to therefore complete with these plants which results in
reduction of crop but it will make the crop uneconomical.
’ RISë O SALTS IN SUR ACë LAYëRS

In a waterlogged land continuous upward flow of water is


established from the water table to the ground surface. This
is so because from the water table water rises into the
capillary zone from where it is lost through evaporation and
transpiration and more water is taken up from the water
table to replenish these losses. As the water rises up it brings
with it dissolved salts such as sodium carbonate, sodium
chloride and sodium sulphate from from the under laying
layers to the surface and as water evaporates it leaves
behind deposit of these salts on the surface. The process of
salt deposition in this mannerism called salt efflorescence.
 RëSTRICTëD ROOT GROWTH

If the water table is high the roots of the plants are confined
to the top layers of the soil above the water table and hence
their growth is restricted. On the other land if the water
table is low the roots of the plants have more space for their
growth. The restricted root growth will result in reduced crop
yield.
’ LOWëR SOIL TëPëRATURë

0ell drained soils warm up faster than saturated soils. The


low soil temperature which results from excessive moisture
in the soil hampers the germination of seed, restricts
development of soil the activity of the bacteria becomes
sluggish and consequently less food is available for the
plants. This results in lowering of the crop yield.
V’’ PLANT DICëASëS

0hen low soil temperatures are accompanied by poor


aeration the root system of plants does not developed
properly and becomes vulnerable to attack by pests
anddiseses. The healthy growth of plants is thus hampered
resulting in reduced crop yield.

cCAUSëS O WATëRLOGGING:
The main factors causing waterloging are as given
below:
c SEEPAGE ROM CANALS
0hen a canal system with unlined channels is introduced,
water percolates from the channels and is added to the
ground water reservoir. This causes a general rise in the
water table in the region. or example after the opening of
the gang canal, the water table under the ganga-yamuna
doab rose from a depth of 12.2m to about 4.6m below
ground level in 100 years.
c OVER IRRIGATION O IELDS
0hen irrigation waters liberally applied to the fields the
excess water percolates deep into the ground which results
in augmenting the ground water storage and rising up of the
water table in the area.
c INADEQUATE SURACE DRAINAGE
Heavy precipitation combined with inadequate surface
drainage causes flooding of vast tracts of land. The prolonged
flooding or inundation of land results in heavy percolation of
water into the ground and a rise water results in heavy
percolation of water into the ground and a rise in the water
table.
c OBSTRUCTON O NATURAL DRAINAGE
If in any are natural drainage is obstructed due to the
construction of irrigation channel and road or rail
embankment, it will not be able to pass the rain water.
c OBSRUCTION O SUBSOIL DRAINAGE
If an impermeable strata exists at a relatively low depth
below the ground surface it will prevent downward
movement of water in the subsoil and result in the creation
of a high false or perched water table which may cause
waterlogging.similarly masonry structures like causeway with
their foundations going into the impermeable strata may
obstruct the movement of water in the subsoil and cause a
rise in the water table.
c NATURE O SOIL
0ater logging cultivators plough up and obliterate (effect
or destroy) an existing natural drainage. this results in
stoppage of flow of storm water and consequent flooding
and water logging of land.
c CONTRUCTION O RESERVOIR
The seepage from a reservoir augments the ground storage
and consequent rise in water table cause water logging.
cRëëDIAL ëASURëS
The following measures affected by water logging:
(A RëDUCING PëRCOLATION RO IRRIGATION CHANNëLS

or reducing percolation from irrigation channels following


methods may be adopted.
c LINING O CHANNELS

By providing a more or less impervious lining for channel


bed and sides the percolation of water from the channel can
be considerably reduced. The lining of channel is considered
to be an effective method to control water logging. The
different types of linings and various aspects of lining are
discussed in section 17.5 and 17.6
c LO0ERING O ULL SUPPLY O IRRIGATION CHANNELS

By designing channels with their full supply level as low as


possible consistent with flow irrigation for most of their
command, the percolation of water from channels may be
reduced in the following two ways. irstly in this case the
channels will be mostly in cutting for which the loss of water
by percolation is much less than for the channels in
embankment orfilling.secondly allow of full supply level will
result in small difference of head between the .S.L.and the
fields and consequently lesser possibility of wasteful use of
water by the cultivation on their fields.
c PROVIDING INTERCEPTING DRAINS ALONG CHANNELS

By providing drains along channels particularly in reaches of


high embankment or or filling and/or high water table, the
water percolating from the channels is intercepted and thus
prevented from augmenting the ground water storage and
water table.
(B RëDUCING PëRCOLATION RO WATëR COURSëS AND
IëLDS
or reducing percolation from water courses and field the
following methods may be adopted.
c LINING O 0ATER COURSES

This has the same effect as lining of other irrigation


channels.
c CONTROLLING INTENSITY O IRRIGATION

It means permitting only a fraction of the total cultural


commanded area to receive water from irrigation channels in
any one year. the used annual intensity of water logging a
lower intensity of irrigation should be adopted.