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Ririn Anggraini/20170810212

Resume chapter 8

Speaking Skills

Why speaking is important? Speaking skill sometimes being a judgement of someone’s language
competence. As English is an International language of communication, so we need to speak and
interact with other for many business and situation in English. For many reasons of student’s
competence on speaking, teachers have to teach and apply the best way to improve student’s
speaking skill. Bygate (1987: 5-6) calls that the first category ‘motor-receptive’ speaking skills which
involves linguistics elements such as pronunciation, vocabulary and chunks (several words
customarily used together in a fixed expression). Some advice to increase intelligibility on speaking
are individual sounds, word stress, sentence stress and rhythm, intonation, sound and spelling.
There are some activities to promote speaking skills as public speaking, communication games,
group working, problem solving, role play, personal response on study, and daily communication.
Resume chapter 9

Writing skills

Besides the other three skills, writing has developed and accumulated many insights into the nature
of language and learning. There is a trend in the teaching of discourse-level writing:

 Handwriting, spelling, punctuation

 Sentences, grammar, word choice
 Paragraphs
 Overall organization

According to Hedge (2005), on her book teaching writing consist of four sections:

 Communicating represents the first stages of writing process the activities are design to help
students become used to writing as self-discovery and as a means of communication
 Composing is the second stages in which learners experience the mental processes of
gathering and organizing ideas before start to write
 Crafting is in which learners are guided to produce well-structured written work
 Improving is when the teacher and the class collaborate to improve the quality of writting

Writing is a productive skill, so the progress of student’s proficiency can be identified by looking at
the student’s writing. The classroom can provide an environment for writing at three stages:

1. Gathering ideas: pre-writing and planning;

2. Working on drafts, and
3. Preparing the final version
Chapter 10

Integrated skills

According to Richards and Schmidt (2010: 288), an integrated approach means ‘the teaching
of the language skills of reading, wring, listening, and speaking in conjunction with each other as
when a lesson involves activities that relate listening and speaking to reading and writing’. The
integrated-skills approach is stresses that English is not just an object of academic interest nor
merely a key to passing an examination; instead, English becomes a real means of interaction and
sharing among people. This approach allows teacher to track students’ progress in multiple skills at
the same time. Integrating the language skills also promotes the learning of real content. Harmer
(2007) introduced seven stage activities for integrating skills:

1. Learners read an advertisement for public relations job with a major airline.
2. Learners write an application
3. The teacher divides the class into small groups and distribute letters from other learners
4. Each members of the group reads the letter and scores each one from 0 to 5 depending on
the quality of the letter
5. The scores are added up and the winner chosen
6. The groups write a letter to the winner and unsuccessful application
7. The letters are read out to the class and feedback are obtained.

The activity is aimed to provide solid integration of skills plus the notion that learners are writing for
a purpose.

There are some materials for integrating skills:

1. General material (news, magazine, story, blogs, email, etc.)

2. EAP materials
3. Task-based materials
4. Oral presentation
5. Project work, and
6. Role play