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TO THE READER

A special chapter is assigned to the collapse of the theory of evolution because this theory con-
stitutes the basis of all anti-spiritual philosophies. Since Darwinism rejects the fact of creation—and
therefore, Allah's existence—over the last 150 years it has caused many people to abandon their
faith or fall into doubt. It is therefore an imperative service, a very important duty to show everyone
that this theory is a deception. Since some readers may find the opportunity to read only one of our
books, we think it appropriate to devote a chapter to summarize this subject.
All the author's books explain faith-related issues in light of Qur'anic verses, and invite read-
ers to learn Allah's words and to live by them. All the subjects concerning Allah's verses are ex-
plained so as to leave no doubt or room for questions in the reader's mind. The books' sincere, plain,
and fluent style ensures that everyone of every age and from every social group can easily under-
stand them. Thanks to their effective, lucid narrative, they can be read at one sitting. Even those who
rigorously reject spirituality are influenced by the facts these books document and cannot refute the
truthfulness of their contents.
This and all the other books by the author can be read individually, or discussed in a group.
Readers eager to profit from the books will find discussion very useful, letting them relate their re-
flections and experiences to one another.
In addition, it will be a great service to Islam to contribute to the publication and reading of
these books, written solely for the pleasure of Allah. The author's books are all extremely convinc-
ing. For this reason, to communicate true religion to others, one of the most effective methods is en-
couraging them to read these books.
We hope the reader will look through the reviews of his other books at the back of this book.
His rich source material on faith-related issues is very useful, and a pleasure to read.
In these books, unlike some other books, you will not find the author's personal views, ex-
planations based on dubious sources, styles that are unobservant of the respect and reverence due
to sacred subjects, nor hopeless, pessimistic arguments that create doubts in the mind and devia-
tions in the heart.

Translated by Carl Nino Rossini


Edited by Timothy Mossman

Published by
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All translations from the Qur'an are from The Noble Qur'an: a New Rendering of its Meaning in English by Hajj
Abdalhaqq and Aisha Bewley, published by Bookwork, Norwich, UK. 1420 CE/1999 AH.

www.harunyahya.com - www.harunyahya.net
K-Z
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Now writing under the pen-name of HARUN
YAHYA, Adnan Oktar was born in Ankara in 1956.
Having completed his primary and secondary education
in Ankara, he studied fine arts at Istanbul's Mimar Sinan
University and philosophy at Istanbul University. Since
the 1980s, he has published many books on political, scien-
tific, and faith-related issues. Harun Yahya is well-known as
the author of important works disclosing the imposture of
evolutionists, their invalid claims, and the dark liaisons be-
tween Darwinism and such bloody ideologies as fascism and
communism.
Harun Yahya’s works, translated into 63 different languages,
constitute a collection for a total of more than 55,000 pages with
40,000 illustrations.
His pen-name is a composite of the names Harun (Aaron) and
Yahya (John), in memory of the two esteemed Prophets who
fought against their peoples' lack of faith. The Prophet's seal on his
books' covers is symbolic and is linked to their contents. It repre-
sents the Qur'an (the Final Scripture) and Prophet Muhammad
(saas), last of the prophets. Under the guidance of the Qur'an and
the Sunnah (teachings of the Prophet [saas]), the author makes it
his purpose to disprove each fundamental tenet of irreligious
ideologies and to have the "last word," so as to complete-
ly silence the objections raised against religion. He
uses the seal of the final Prophet (saas), who at-
tained ultimate wisdom and moral perfection, as
a sign of his intention to offer the last word.
All of Harun Yahya's works share one sin-
gle goal: to convey the Qur'an's message, en-
courage readers to consider basic faith-related
issues such as Allah's existence and unity and
the Hereafter; and to expose irreligious sys-
tems' feeble foundations and perverted
ideologies.
Harun Yahya enjoys a
wide readership in
many coun-
tries, from India to America, England to Indonesia, Poland to Bosnia, Spain to Brazil,
Malaysia to Italy, France to Bulgaria and Russia. Some of his books are available in English,
French, German, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Urdu, Arabic, Albanian, Chinese, Swahili,
Hausa, Dhivehi (spoken in Maldives), Russian, Serbo-Croat (Bosnian), Polish, Malay,
Uygur Turkish, Indonesian, Bengali, Danish and Swedish.
Greatly appreciated all around the world, these works have been instrumental in many
people recovering faith in Allah and gaining deeper insights into their faith. His books'
wisdom and sincerity, together with a distinct style that's easy to understand, directly af-
fect anyone who reads them. Those who seriously consider these books, can no longer ad-
vocate atheism or any other perverted ideology or materialistic philosophy, since these
books are characterized by rapid effectiveness, definite results, and irrefutability. Even if
they continue to do so, it will be only a sentimental insistence, since these books refute such
ideologies from their very foundations. All contemporary movements of denial are now
ideologically defeated, thanks to the books written by Harun Yahya.
This is no doubt a result of the Qur'an's wisdom and lucidity. The author modestly in-
tends to serve as a means in humanity's search for Allah's right path. No material gain is
sought in the publication of these works.
Those who encourage others to read these books, to open their minds and hearts and
guide them to become more devoted servants of Allah, render an invaluable service.
Meanwhile, it would only be a waste of time and energy to propagate other books that
create confusion in people's minds, lead them into ideological confusion, and that clearly
have no strong and precise effects in removing the doubts in people's hearts, as also veri-
fied from previous experience. It is impossible for books devised to emphasize the author's
literary power rather than the noble goal of saving people from loss of faith, to have such
a great effect. Those who doubt this can readily see that the sole aim of Harun Yahya's
books is to overcome disbelief and to disseminate the Qur'an's moral values. The success
and impact of this service are manifested in the readers' conviction.
One point should be kept in mind: The main reason for the continuing cruelty, conflict,
and other ordeals endured by the vast majority of people is the ideological prevalence of
disbelief. This can be ended only with the ideological defeat of disbelief and by conveying
the wonders of creation and Qur'anic morality so that people can live by it. Considering the
state of the world today, leading into a downward spiral of violence, corruption and con-
flict, clearly this service must be provided speedily and effectively, or it may be too late.
In this effort, the books of Harun Yahya assume a leading role. By the will of Allah,
these books will be a means through which people in the twenty-first century will attain
the peace, justice, and happiness promised in the Qur'an.
CONTENTS
K The Morphological Homology Myth . . . .61
Morris, John . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Mosaic Creatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Kanapoi Elbow Fossil Fraud, The . . . . . . .11 Mother Nature; An Irrational Concept . . .62
Kenyanthropus platyops . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Mutagenic Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
KNM-ER 1470 Fraud, The . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Mutant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
KNM-ER 1472 Lie, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Mutation: An Imaginary Mechanism . . . .64
KNM-WT 15000 (The oldest known
human fossil) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Knuckle Walking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
N
L Narrow Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Naturalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
Natural Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
Laetoli Human Footprints, The . . . . . . . . .19 Neanderthals: A Human Race . . . . . . . . .72
Lamarck, Jean B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 "Nebraska Man" Fraud, The . . . . . . . . . .74
Lamarckism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Neo-Darwinism Comedy, The . . . . . . . . .76
Law of Biogenetics, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Laws of Inheritance, The . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Le Chatelier's Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Leakey, Richard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 O
Left-Handed Amino Acids
(Levo-Amino Acids) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Octopus's Eye, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Lewontin, Richard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 OH 62: A Species of Ape . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Liaoningornis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny
"Life Comes from Life" Thesis, The . . . . .28 Theory, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Linnaeus, Carolus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Oparin, Alexander I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Lucy Deceit (Australopithecus Open System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
afarensis), The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Ordered System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Organized Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Orgel, Leslie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
M Origin of the Avian Lung . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Origin of the Bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Origin of the Bats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Macro-Evolution Myth, The . . . . . . . . . . .33 Origin of Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Macro-Mutation Myth, The . . . . . . . . . . .33 Origin of the Birds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Malthus, Thomas Robert . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Origin of the Bird Feathers . . . . . . . . . . . .98
Marx, Karl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Origin of the Fish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
Materialism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Origin of the Flies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
Mayr, Ernst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Origin of Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Mendel, Gregor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Origin of the Horses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Menton, David . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Origin of the Insects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Metamorphosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Origin of Instinct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
Micro-Evolution Myth, The . . . . . . . . . . .44 Origin of the Language . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
Miller Experiment, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Origin of the Mammals . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
Miller, Stanley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Origin of the Marine Mammals . . . . . . .115
Missing Link in the Evolutionary Origin of the Marine Reptiles . . . . . . . . .119
Chain, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Origin of the Quadrupeds . . . . . . . . . . .120
"Mitochondrial Eve" Thesis's Origin of Photosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . . .121
Inconsistencies, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Origin of the Plant Cells . . . . . . . . . . . .124
Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution Origin of Reptiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Myth, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Origin of Species, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
Modifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Origin of Turtles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Molecular Evolution Impasse, The . . . . . .56 Origin of Vertebrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
Nonsensical Nature of the Molecular Origin of Viruses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
Homology Thesis, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Origins of Bipedalism
Morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 (Walking Upright) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
Origin of Whales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137 "Selfish Gene" Theory, The . . . . . . . . . . .191
Origin of the Wings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 Self-Ordering Error, The . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
Orthogenesis Muddle, "Self-Organization" Nonsense, The . . . . .194
The (Directed Selection) . . . . . . . . . . . .142 Seymouria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
Ota Benga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142 Shapiro, Robert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
Sickle Cell Anemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
Single Cell to Multi-Cell Transition
P Myth, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
Social Darwinism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200
Speciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
Paleontology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147 Spencer, Herbert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
Paleoanthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 Spontaneous Generation . . . . . . . . . . . .204
"Panda's Thumb" Error, The . . . . . . . . . .150 Stasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204
Pangenesis Theory, The . . . . . . . . . . . . .152 Struggle For Survival, The . . . . . . . . . . .204
Panspermia Theory, The . . . . . . . . . . . .152 Synthetic Evolution Theory, The . . . . . .205
Parallel Evolution Impasse, The . . . . . . .154 Systematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
Pasteur, Louis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154
Peking Man Fraud, The . . . . . . . . . . . . .155
Pentadactyl Homology . . . . . . . . . . . . .157
Peptide Bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157 T
Phylogeny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
Phylum (Plural: Phyla) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 Taung Child Fossil, The . . . . . . . . . . . . .207
Piltdown Man Fraud, The . . . . . . . . . . .160 Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209
Pithecanthropus erectus . . . . . . . . . . . . .162 Tetrapod Finger Structure, The . . . . . . .210
Plasmid Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210
Platypus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163 Theropod Dinosaurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212
Pleiotropic Effect, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163 Transition From Jungle to Open
Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 Savanna Myth, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
Pre-Adaptation Myth, The . . . . . . . . . . .165 Transition from Land to Air Myth, The . .215
Primeval Atmosphere, The . . . . . . . . . . .166 Transition from Sea to Land
Primeval Earth, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168 Thesis, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216
Primeval Soup, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168 Transition from Water to Land
Theory of Favored Races, The . . . . . . . .169 Dilemma, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216
Primordial Soup Fantasy, The . . . . . . . . .169 Transitional Forms, The
Protein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 (The Transitional Species) . . . . . . . . . . .220
Prokaryotic Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172 Tree of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
Protoavis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172 Trilobites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224
Punctuated Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . .173 Turkana Boy Fossil, The . . . . . . . . . . . . .227
Punctuated Model of Evolution
Myth, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
U
R Urey, Harold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
Urey-Miller Experiment, The . . . . . . . . .229
Ramapithecus Error, The . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Recapitulation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
Recombination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
Reconstruction (Imaginary Pictures) . . .178
V-W
Reductionism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
Regulatory Gene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181 Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
Ribosome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182 Vestigial Organs Thesis, The . . . . . . . . . .233
Right-Handed (Dextro) Amino Acids . . .182 Wallace, Alfred Russell . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
RNA World Scenario, The . . . . . . . . . . . .182 Watson, James . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236

S-Ş Y-Z
Schindewolf, Otto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187 Zinjanthropus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239
Second Law of Thermodynamic, Thes
(The Law of Entropy) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
Kanapoi Elbow Fossil Fraud, The 11

KANAPOI ELBOW FOSSIL close to the means of the human sam-


FRAUD, THE ple. 2

The best example of how evolu- Though admitting the close re-
tionists interpret fossils according to semblance to the bone of a present-
their own preconceptions is a fossil- day human, Howells and Patterson
ized elbow bone found in the still maintained that the fossil be-
Kenyan region of Kanapoi. This fos- longed to Australopithecus, because
sil, displayed in the Kenya National to them, it was unacceptable that
Museum – East Rudolf under the such an old fossil could belong to
number KP 271, consists of a part of Homo sapiens.
the upper arm bone near the elbow. But subsequently, studies per-
Unearthed in 1965 by Bryon formed by other researchers using
Patterson of Harvard University, it computers again revealed that the
has been exceedingly well pre- fossil KP271 was identical to a hu-
served. The latest tests carried out by man bone. As the result of his com-
evolutionists have shown it to be puter-assisted research, Henry M.
around 4.5 million years old.1 The McHenry of the University of
fossil is therefore known as the old- California published an article in
est hominid fossil discovered to 1975:
date. The results show that the Kanapoi
In 1967, the researchers Bryan specimen, which is 4 to 4.5 million
Patterson and W.W. Howells joined years old, is indistinguishable from
forces to describe KP 271. They sug- modern Homo sapiens… 3

gested that the fossil's anatomy was After this, various other research-
similar to that of human beings and ers (including David Pilbeam and
that it belonged to Australopithecus. Brigitte Senut) have also performed
Howells and his assistant Patterson experiments and comparative stud-
announced the report regarding ies proving that the bone is identical
their research in the 7 April, 1967 to H. sapiens. Yet despite all the evi-
edition of Science magazine, in which dence, even the evolutionists who
they stated: carried out all this research were un-
In these diagnostic measurements, able to admit, on account of their
Kanapoi Hominoid 1 [the original own preconceptions, that this fossil
name given to the fossil] is strikingly could belong to H. sapiens.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


12 Kenyanthropus platyops

KENYANTHROPUS Department commented on


PLATYOPS Kenyanthropus platyops in an article
in Nature magazine:
In Kenya, a team led by Meave
Leakey discovered a fossilized skull The evolutionary history of humans is
that was referred to as "Flat-faced complex and unresolved. It now looks
set to be thrown into further confusion
Man" because of the shape of its fa-
by the discovery of another species and
cial bones. The fossil was given the
genus, dated to 3.5 million years ago. .
scientific name of Kenyanthropus plat-
. The nature of Kenyanthropus platy-
yops. This 3.5 million-year-old fossil
ops raises all kinds of questions, about
overturned evolutionists' imaginary human evolution in general and the
evolutionary scenarios because behaviour of this species in particular.
some extinct ape species (such as Why, for example, does it have the un-
"Lucy") that lived after usual combination of small cheek teeth
Kenyanthropus platyops were more and a big flat face with an anteriorly
primitive than it according to evolu- positioned arch of the cheekbone? All
tionist criteria.4 (See Lucy Deceit, other known hominin species with big
The.) faces and similarly positioned cheek-
In fact, when one looks at all of bones have big teeth. I suspect the chief
the fossils discovered to date, it be- role of K. platyops in the next few years
will be to act as a sort of party spoiler,
comes clear that there is no evolu-
highlighting the confusion that con-
tionary progression, beginning from
fronts research into evolutionary rela-
a common ancestor and slowly turn-
tionships among hominins. 5
ing into apes and present day man.
The BBC reported the story un-
Daniel E. Lieberman of Harvard
der such headlines as "Flat-Faced
University's Anthropology
Man a Puzzle," "A Confusing
Picture" and "A Scientific
Contradiction" and went on to say
that:
The discovery by Meave Leakey, of the
National Museums of Kenya, and col-
leagues threatens to blur still further
the already murky picture of man's ev-
The 3.5-million-year-old Kenyanthropus
olution. 6
platyops fossil skull overturned evolu-
tionists' imaginary evolutionary tree. Fred Spoor, the famous evolu-

The Evolution Impasse II


KNM-ER 1470 Fraud, The 13

tionist in University College London It was later sent to the Kenya


said that "the fossil raises a lot of National Museum – East Rudolf and
questions." 7 classified as Homo habilis. (See Homo
As can be seen from these state- habilis.)
ments and admissions, the theory of Homo habilis shares many fea-
evolution is facing a major dilemma. tures with the apes known as
In particular, every new discovery in Australopithecus. Like them, H. habilis
the field of paleontology presents a has a long-armed, short-legged and
new contradiction for the theory of ape-like skeletal structure. Its hands
evolution to explain. Evolutionists and feet are well suited to climbing.
who produce diagrams of the sup- These characteristics show that H.
posed evolution of mankind seek to habilis spent most of its time in the
incorporate new discoveries by set- trees.
ting the fossils out among extinct The volume of the majority of
species of ape and to human races. skulls classified as H. habilis does not
However, no fossil fits in with exceed 650 cubic centimeters. This
their diagrams, simply because hu- brain size is very close to that of pre-
man beings and apes did not evolve sent-day gorillas. On the other hand,
from any common ancestor. Human its jaw structure closely resembles
beings have always been human be- that of present-day apes, definitely
ings, and apes have always been proving that it was an ape.
apes. For that reason, the theory of In terms of general skull features,
evolution faces an ever greater di- it bears a closer resemblance to
lemma with every new scientific dis- Australopithecus africanus. Like A. af-
covery. ricanus, H. habilis has no eyebrow
protrusions. Previously, this feature
led to its being misinterpreted and
KNM-ER 1470 FRAUD, THE depicted as a human-like creature.
In 1972, a fossil was discovered in KNM-ER 1470's long, broad fore-
East Rudolf that would lead to de- head, its less obvious eyebrow pro-
bates in paleoanthropology. This trusions, the lack of the structure in
was a complete skull, lacking only the gorilla skull known as the sagit-
the lower jaw, but broken into some tal crest, and its 750 cubic centimeter
300 parts, which were assembled by brain volume show that it did not re-
Richard Leakey and his wife, Meave. semble human beings. J. E. Cronin

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


14 KNM-ER 1470 Fraud, The

describes why: ER 1470 was interpreted as human


However its relatively robustly con- for a while lies in the biased and
structed face, flattish naso-alveolar leading interpretation of its discov-
clivus (recalling australopithecine erer, Richard Leakey. He sought to
dished faces), low maximum cranial give the impression that although
width (on the temporals), strong ca- the fossil had ape-like features, the
nine juga and large molars (as indicat- skull was too large to be that of an
ed by remaining roots) are all relative- ape. The aim was to describe the
ly primitive traits which ally the spec-
creature as an intermediate form.
imen with members of the taxon A. af-
Professor Tim G. Bromage, a re-
ricanus . . . KNM-ER 1470, like other
searcher into the anatomy of the hu-
early Homo specimens, shows many
man face, summarizes the facts he
morphological characteristics in com-
mon with gracile australopithecines
revealed with computer-aided simu-
that are not shared with later speci- lations in 1992:
mens of the genus Homo. 8 When it [KNM-ER 1470] was first re-
constructed, the face was fitted to the
C. Loring Brace of the Museum of
cranium in an almost vertical position,
Anthropology, Michigan University
much like the flat faces of modern hu-
says this on the same subject:
mans. But recent studies of anatomical
. . . from the size of the palate and the relationships show that in life, the face
expansion of the area allotted to molar must have jutted out considerably, cre-
roots, it would appear that ER 1470 re- ating an ape-like aspect, rather like the
tained a fully Australopithecus -sized faces of Australopithecus. 11
face and dentition. 9
KNM-ER 1470's 750-cubic centi-
Another well known paleontolo-
meter skull does not in any way
gist, Bernard Wood, makes this com-
make it a hominid and prevent it
ment:
from being an ape species, because
There is no evidence that this cranium there are apes with just such a skull
particularly resembles H. sapiens or H. volume. In referring to ape skulls,
erectus according to either phenetic or
evolutionists generally point to
cladistic evidence. Phenetically, KNM-
chimpanzees, with a smaller-sized
ER 1470 is closest to the remains from
brain, but never mention gorillas.
Olduvai [considered apes by creation-
Chimpanzees have an average brain
ists] referred to as H. habilis. 10
volume of 400 cubic centimeters.
The reason why the fossil KNM-
Gorillas have an average brain size

The Evolution Impasse II


KNM-WT 15000 (The oldest known human fossil) 15

of 500 cubic centimeters, although in KNM-ER 1472


larger individuals, this may rise to LIE, THE
700 and even 750 cc centimeters.
KNM-ER 1472 is
Therefore, KNM-ER 1470's large
the identifying "serial
brain size shows that it was a large
number" given to a
ape (estimated to be a male), rather
thigh bone that is identi-
than a hominid. Indeed, the fact that
cal to one of modern
KNM-ER 1470 has large teeth and a
man. That this bone was
broad skull volume indicates that its
found in the same stratum
body was correspondingly large.
as Homo habilis fossils, but
From all this, it appears that
a few kilometers away
structurally, KNM-ER 1470 was an
from them, led to the false
ape resembling Australopithecus.
interpretation that H. habi-
Many features, such as its forward-
lis was a two-legged crea-
looking face, abnormally large mo-
ture. The fossil OH 62, dis-
lars and brain volume too small to
covered in 1987, showed
belong to a human being, reveal this
that contrary to what had
clearly. In addition, KNM-ER 1470's
been thought H. habilis did
teeth are identical to those of
not walk on two legs.
Australopithecus. 12
KNM-ER 1472 was thus
This indicates that there is no sig-
included under the classi-
nificant difference between fossils of
fication Homo erectus. (See
the Homo habilis class and those of
Homo erectus.)
the Australopithecus class. These all
consist of different species of ape
that were unable to walk on two feet KNM-WT 15000 (THE OLD-
and had smaller brains compared EST KNOWN HUMAN FOS-
with those of man. All evolutionists SIL)
do is to pick out certain features of
KNM-WT 15000, otherwise
these and use them as anatomical
known as the Turkana Boy skeleton,
links in the myth of evolution from
is perhaps the oldest and most fully
ape to man.
preserved human remain found to
date. (See The Turkana Boy.)
Research into the fossil, said to be

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


Knuckle Walking

some 1.6 million years old, has


shown that it belonged to an indi-
vidual aged around 12, who would
have been some 1.80 meters (5'11)
tall on reaching adulthood. This
fossil, which exhibits close similar-
ities to the Neanderthal skeletons,
is one of the most striking proofs to
undermine the myth of human ev-
olution. (See Neanderthal Man: A
Human Race.)

KNUCKLE WALKING
—See Bipedalism
KP 271 (Kanapoi Hominid or
Kanapoi Elbow Fossil) — See
Kanapoi Elbow Bone Fossil Fraud,
The

Turkana Boy skeleton is the most complete


example of Homo Erectus up till now.
It is interesting that this 1.6 year-old skele-
ton and that of present day humans
has no distinct difference.
The Evolution Impasse II
Laetoli Human Footprints, The 19

LAETOLI HUMAN The famous paleoanthropologist


FOOTPRINTS, THE Tim White, who worked with Mary
Leakey, said this on the subject:
In 1978, Mary Leakey discovered
a number of footprints in a layer of Make no mistake about it . . . They are
volcanic ash in Laetoli in Kenya. like modern human footprints. If one
were left in the sand of a California
These prints were employed as an
beach today, and a four-year-old were
important part of the evolutionist
asked what it was, he would instantly
propaganda regarding the well-
say that somebody had walked there.
known fossil "Lucy" (See The Lucy
He wouldn't be able to tell it from a
Deceit,). Evolutionists portrayed the hundred other prints on the beach, nor
Laetoli footprints as concrete proof would you. 13
that Lucy—which
After examining
they regarded as the
the prints, Louis
common ancestor of
Robins from
man and ape—walk-
University of
ed on two legs. It was
California said:
announced that the
The arch is raised—the
prints were the same
smaller individual had a
age as Lucy, approxi-
higher arch than I do . . .
mately 3.6 millions
The toes grip the ground
years, and that they like human toes. You do
represented evidence not see this in other ani-
of bipedalism. mal forms. 14
The footprints
In short, it was
were indeed of the A Laetoli footprint
impossible for these
same age as Lucy,
3.6-mil lion-year-old
they had clearly been left by a crea-
prints to belong to Lucy. Lucy had
ture that walked upright. Yet there
curved hands and feet and used her
was no evidence to show that the
forearms when walking. She could
prints belonged to Australopithecus
not have left behind such prints,
afarensis, a supposed intermediate-
which can only belong to a human
form classification, like Lucy. They
being. The only reason why they
had evidently been left by a true hu-
were thought to have been left by
man being.
Australopithecus afarensis was the vol-

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


Human footprints 3.6 million
years old, found in Laetoli,
Tanzania
Lamarck, Jean B. 21

canic layer in which they were antelope-like creatures; their necks


found, estimated as being 3.6 million had grown longer and longer over
years old. They were ascribed to A. the generations as they sought to
afarensis from the idea that human reach leaves from tall trees. Darwin
beings could not have lived so far also made use of Lamarck's thesis of
back in the past. the transmission of acquired charac-
Independent examinations de- teristics as a factor that impelled ev-
fined that 20 of the fossilized prints olution.
belonged to a 10-year-old human be- This "transmission of acquired
ing, and 27 prints belonging to a traits" model lost all validity with
younger human. These were defi- the discovery of the laws of inherit-
nitely normal human beings, just ance. (See The Laws of Inheritance.)
like us. In other words, modern hu- With the discovery of DNA in the
mans were living at a time in which mid-20th century, science realized
evolutionists claim that our oldest that living things possess very spe-
ancestors were alive. In other words, cial genetic information encoded in
man's ancestor is man! the cell's nucleus, and that this infor-
mation cannot be altered by behav-
ior or striving. (See DNA.) Therefore,
LAMARCK, JEAN B. even if a living animal's neck did
Though the theory of evolution's elongate by a few centimeters (an
philosophical roots go back as far as inch or two) as a result of constantly
Ancient Greece, it entered the agen- stretching up into the trees, it would
da of the scientific world in the 19th still give birth to young with the
century. In his book Zoological standard neck measurements
Philosophy, the French biologist for its species.
Jean B. Lamarck hypothesized The theory proposed
that living species had by Lamarck was refuted
evolved from one another. by the scientific findings,
According to him, living and went down in history
things pass along the fea- as an incorrect hypothe-
tures they acquire during sis.
their lives, and evolve in
Jean B. Lamarck
this way. Giraffes, for ex-
ample, had descended from

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


22 Lamarckism

LAMARCKISM ternal conditions' causing variation


but subsequently these conditions are
Charles
described as directing variation and
Darwin
cooperating with natural selection in
made use of
directing it. . . Every year he attribut-
Lamarck's thesis ed more and more to the agency of use
of the "transmission or disuse. . . By 1868, when he pub-
of acquired traits" as a lished Varieties of Animals and Plants
factor giving rise to ev- under Domestication, he gave a whole
olution. (See Lamarck, series of examples of supposed
Jean B.) Lamarckian inheritance: such as a man
Gordon Rattray losing part of his little finger and all
Taylor, a researcher and his sons being born with deformed lit-
proponent of evolution, tle fingers and boys born with fore-
described Lamarckism in skins much reduced in length as a re-
sult of generations of circumcision. 15
his book The Great Evolution
Mystery, and explained why
Darwin was so heavily influ-
enced by it: LAW OF BIOGENETICS, THE
Lamarckism is known as the in- —See Ontogeny Recapitulates
heritance of acquired character- Phylogeny
istics . . . Darwin himself, as a
matter of fact, was inclined to
believe that such inheritance LAWS OF INHERITANCE,
occurred and cited the reported THE
case of a man who had lost his
fingers and bred sons without fin- In the period during which
gers . . . [Darwin] had not, he said, Darwin developed the theory of ev-
gained a single idea from Lamarck. olution, the question of how living
This was doubly ironical, for Darwin things transmitted their characteris-
repeatedly toyed with the idea of the in- tics to later generations was un-
heritance of acquired characteristics known. Therefore, primitive conjec-
and, if it is so dreadful, it is Darwin tures such as traits being transmitted
who should be denigrated rather than by way of the blood were widely ac-
Lamarck. . . In the 1859 edition of his cepted. This uncertainty about the
work, Darwin refers to ‘changes of ex-
mechanisms of heredity led Darwin

The Evolution Impasse II


Le Chatelier's Principle 23

to predicate his theory on a range of for Darwin's theory, which he had


completely erroneous assumptions. based on Lamarck's "beneficial
He pointed to natural selection as traits."
the basis of the evolutionary mecha- For that reason, scientific adher-
nism. Yet if beneficial attributes ents of Darwinism in the first quar-
were chosen by means of natural se- ter of the 20th century sought to de-
lection (the survival of the fittest"), velop a new model of evolution.
how could they be transmitted from Thus neo-Darwinism was born. (See
one generation to another? At this The Neo-Darwinism Comedy.)
point, Darwin embraced the thesis,
which Lamarck had proposed, of
"the transmission of acquired char- LE CHATELIER'S PRINCIPLE
acteristics." As amino acids chemically com-
However, Lamarck's thesis was bine to form a protein, they build
refuted when the laws of inheritance what is known as the peptide bond. In
discovered by the Austrian botanist building this bond, a water molecule
and also a priest Gregor Mendel. is released. This totally invalidates
This meant that beneficial traits the evolutionist account of primitive
could not be passed along. Genetic life emerging in the sea. According
laws demonstrated that acquired to the law known as Le Chatelier's
features were not handed on, and Principle, it is impossible for a so-
that inheritance took place according called condensation reaction—a re-
to immutable rules—which by im- action that gives off water—to take
plication supported the idea of the place in an environment that con-
immutability of species. tains water. The probability of a
The laws of inheritance, deter- chemical reaction taking place in a
mined by Gregor Mendel after watery environment is described as
lengthy experiments and observa- the lowest possible.
tions, were published in 1865. Therefore, the oceans—where ev-
However, these laws attracted the olutionists say life began and where
interest of the scientific world only amino acids had to form—are totally
towards the end of the century. unsuited to the formation of pro-
Scientists accepted the validity of teins. The chemist Richard E.
these laws in the early 20th century. Dickerson explains why:
This represented a serious impasse

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


24 Leakey, Richard

If polymeric chains of proteins and nu-


cleic acids are to be forged out of their
precursor monomers, a molecule of
water must be removed at each link in
the chain. It is therefore hard to see
how polymerization could have pro-
ceeded in the aqueous environment of
the primitive ocean, since the presence
of water favors depolymerization rath-
er than polymerization. 16
But in the face of this, it is also
impossible for evolutionists to alter
their claim and to maintain that life
began on land, because the seas
were supposedly the only environ-
ment capable of protecting the ami- Richard Leakey's claims regarding the
no acids from harmful ultraviolet fossils he found by the shores of Lake
Turkana in northern Kenya misled the
rays. Amino acids formed in the
world of paleoanthropology several
primitive atmosphere on land times.
would be broken down by ultravio-
let rays. ticularly along the shores of Lake
Yet Le Chatelier's principle Turkana in Northern Kenya. Yet
makes it impossible for amino acids more than once, his suggestions re-
to have emerged in the sea! This is garding these fossils have misled the
yet another insoluble dilemma fac- world of paleoanthropology.
ing the theory of evolution. For example, he described a fossil
skull he dated at 2.8 million years
old as the greatest discovery in the
LEAKEY, RICHARD history of anthropology, though it
As well as being an anthropolo- was later realized that this skull's
gist and paleontologist, Richard human-like face was the result of a
Leakey is also a well known evolu- deliberately falsified reconstruction.
tionist writer. He is best known for (See Homo rudolfensis.)
his fossil-hunting activities, having Leakey was strongly biased in fa-
discovered a great many fossils, par- vor of the theory of evolution, and

The Evolution Impasse II


Left-Handed Amino Acids (Levo-Amino Acids) 25

never changed his attitude in the Despite being an evolutionist,


face of the evidence against it. One Leakey goes on to state that the dif-
example of this was his statements ferences between Homo erectus and
regarding the Turkana Boy. In evo- modern man are not all that signifi-
lutionists' imaginary family tree, cant:
they advanced the concept of Homo One would also see differences: in the
erectus, meaning "upright-walking shape of the skull, in the degree of pro-
human," in order to suggest a transi- trusion of the face, the robustness of
tion from ape to man, though the the brows and so on. These differences
skeleton of Homo erectus is identical are probably no more pronounced than
to that of any modern man. we see today between the separate geo-
The best known fossil included graphical races of modern humans.
Such biological variation arises when
under that classification is the
populations are geographically sepa-
Turkana Boy. Later it was deter-
rated from each other for significant
mined that, contrary to evolutionist
lengths of time. 18
claims, the fossil belonged to a 12-
year-old boy, who would have
reached a height of some 1.83 meters
LEFT-HANDED AMINO
when fully grown. In addition,
ACIDS (LEVO-AMINO
shortly after the fossil was discov-
ACIDS)
ered, it was determined that its up-
right skeleton was identical to that of The appropriate amino acids be-
modern human beings. ing arranged in the correct sequence
In an article titled "Modern and is not sufficient to form a protein
Tall," Leakey described the incon- molecule in a living organism. In ad-
sistencies between the Turkana Boy dition, each one of the 20 varieties of
fossil and evolutionary theories: amino acid in a protein's structure
must be left-handed.
. . . the boy from Turkana was surpris-
ingly large compared with modern In chemical terms, there are two
boys his age; . . . he would probably go different forms of any one amino ac-
unnoticed in a crowd today. This find id; right-handed and left-handed.
combines with previous discoveries of They differ in that their three-dimen-
Homo erectus to contradict a long-held sional structures are mirror images
idea that humans have grown larger of each another, just like the right
over the millennia. 17 and left hands on human beings.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


26 Left-Handed Amino Acids (Levo-Amino Acids)

L- Left handed amino acid D- Right-handed amino acid

The question of how proteins distinguish left-handed amino acids, and how no right-
handed amino acids ever become mixed up in them, are ones that evolutionists can-
not answer. They can never account for such unique and rational selectivity.

Amino acids from either group Assume for a moment that life
can easily bind together with one an- did come into existence by chance,
other. However, research has re- as evolutionists maintain. If so, there
vealed a most astonishing fact: The should be equal amounts of right-
proteins in all living things, from the and left-handed amino acids in na-
simplest to the most complex, are ture, both being the results of
made up solely of left-handed amino chance. Therefore, there should be
acids. Even if just one right-handed varying levels of right- and left-
amino acid is added to a protein's handed amino acids in the bodies of
structure, that protein will become all living things, because chemically
functionless. amino acids from either group can
In some experiments, bacteria easily combine with one another.
have been given right-handed amino The fact remains, however, that
acids, but the bacteria have immedi- the proteins in living organisms con-
ately broken down these amino ac- sist solely of left-handed amino ac-
ids—and in some cases, have recon- ids.
structed from these fragments left- How do proteins select only left-
handed amino acids that they can handed amino acids? And why do
use. no right-handed ones ever creep in?

The Evolution Impasse II


Lewontin, Richard 27

This is a question that evolutionists many more, and more varied pro-
are unable to explain away, and can- teins, then the calculations become
not account for such a specialized, truly unfathomable.
conscious selectivity.
The amino acids of all living or-
ganisms on Earth, and the building LEWONTIN, RICHARD
blocks of complex polymers such as Richard Lewontin, a well known
proteins, all have the same left- geneticist and evolutionist from
handed asymmetry. This is tanta- Harvard University, admits that he
mount to tossing a coin a million is "a materialist first, a scientist sec-
times and having it always come up ond":
heads. It is impossible to understand It is not that the methods and institu-
why molecules become left-handed tions of science somehow compel us ac-
or right-handed, and that this choice cept a material explanation of the phe-
is fascinatingly related to the origin nomenal world, but, on the contrary,
of life on Earth. that we are forced by our a priori ad-
In conclusion, it is totally impos- herence to material causes to create an
sible to account for the origin of life apparatus of investigation and a set of
in terms of coincidences: If we calcu- concepts that produce material expla-
late the probability of an average- nations, no matter how counter-intui-
tive, no matter how mystifying to the
sized protein consisting of 400 ami-
uninitiated. Moreover, that material-
no acids being made up only of left-
ism is absolute, so we cannot allow a
handed amino acids, we obtain a fig-
Divine Foot in the door. 19
ure of 1 in 2400, or 1 in 10120.
The term a priori that Lewontin
In order to grasp some idea about
uses is particularly significant. This
this astronomical figure, we can say
philosophical term expresses a given
that the total number of electrons in
assumption, based on no experimen-
the universe is very much smaller
tal data. In the absence of any infor-
than this, having been calculated at
mation regarding the truth of an
around 1079. The chances of amino
idea, that idea is assumed to be true,
acids forming in the requisite se-
"from the beginning." As openly
quence and functional form, give
stated by the evolutionist Lewontin,
rise to a far larger number.
materialism is an a priori assumption
If we then add these probabilities
for evolutionists, one into which
and extend them to the formation of
they attempt to make science fit.
Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar
28 Liaoningornis

Since materialism necessitates


the rejection of a Creator, they cling
to the theory of evolution as the on-
ly remaining alternative. It makes no
difference how much the scientific
findings refute evolution, since
the scientists in question al-
ready regard evolution as a
fact, a priori. This biased attitude
leads to the belief that "unconscious
substances can regulate themselves,"
which is a violation of both science
and reason. A 130-million-year-old Liaoningornis
bird fossil, identical to modern birds.

LIAONINGORNIS
breastbone to which the flight mus-
The best-known of the claims re- cles are attached—a structure also
garding intermediate forms in the found in present-day birds. The only
context of reptile-bird evolution is difference is that it had teeth in its
the fossil known as Archaeopteryx. beak. This showed that, in contrast
However, it is now known that to evolutionist claims, that toothed
Archaeopteryx is not an intermediate birds did not have a primitive struc-
form at all, but that it was a flying ture.20 Indeed, in a text published in
bird, not much different from birds Discover magazine, Alan Feduccia
alive today. (See Archaeopteryx.) says that this fossil invalidates the
Archaeopteryx, which has been claim that the origin of birds can be
proposed as "the forerunner of mod- found in dinosaurs. 21
ern birds," lived approximately 150
million years ago. However, the dis-
covery in China in November 1996 "LIFE COMES FROM LIFE"
of a fossil known as Liaoningornis de- THESIS, THE
molished evolutionists' claims con-
—See Biogenesis.
cerning Archaeopteryx.
This bird, Liaoningornis, is around
130 million years old, possessed a

The Evolution Impasse II


Lucy Deceit (Australopithecus afarensis), The 29

LINNAEUS, CAROLUS for flight, and therefore, this ideal


structure must have been created
In 1735, the Swedish natural his-
separately for every species of bird.
torian Carolus Linnaeus published
This view is clearly predicated on
his Systema Naturae ("System of
the assumption that Allah creates
Nature"), in which he classified all
every living thing. (See
living species. He believed that
Creationism.)
species did not change, that
In fact, modern scien-
the species he had classified
tific findings show that
possessed characteristics
with regard to similar or-
that they would preserve
gans, the claim of a
down through future gener-
common ancestor is
ations. Linnaeus was a
not valid, and that the
pathfinder in botany
only possible explana-
and zoology, and the
tion is one of common
classifications he
creation. (See The
made for plants and
Carolus Linnaeus "Common Ancestor" Lie.)
animals are still used by
biologists today and con-
stitute the basis of their nomencla-
LUCY DECEIT
ture. 22
(AUSTRALOPITHECUS AFA-
Linnaeus first raised the matter of
RENSIS), THE
similar organs in animals, regarding
them as an example of common cre- "Lucy" is a fossil that Donald
ation. In his view, similar organs re- Johanson discovered in 1973. Its sci-
sembled one another not because entific name, Australopithecus afaren-
they had evolved by chance from sis, derives from the Afar region of
some common forerunner, but be- Ethiopia, where it was discovered.
cause they had been consciously de- For years, Lucy was portrayed as the
signed to fulfill a specific purpose. missing link in the human evolution
Different living things having simi- sequence. However, it no longer en-
lar organs stems from their being the joys that earlier esteem in evolution-
works of a single Creator. Why all ist sources, thanks to the latest scien-
birds have wings, for instance, is be- tific findings.
cause wings have the ideal structure The fact Australopithecus can no
longer be regarded as the ancestor of

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


30 Lucy Deceit (Australopithecus afarensis), The

"ADIEU, LUCY"
Scientific findings have shown that evolu-
tionist hypotheses regarding "Lucy," the
best-known specimen of the class
Australopithecus, are quite groundless.
In its February 1999 issue, the famous
French magazine Science et Vie admitted
this under the headline "Adieu, Lucy" and
agreed that Australopithecus couldnot be
regarded as an ancestor of man.

human beings was the cover story


for the May 1999 edition of the well-
known French scientific journal
Science et Vie. Under the heading
"Adieu Lucy [Goodbye to Lucy],"
the text described why, based on a
new Australopithecus finding known
as St W573, Australopithecus apes

The "Lucy" skull


Lucy Deceit (Australopithecus afarensis), The 31

needed to be removed from the hu-


man family tree:
A new theory states that the genus
Australopithecus is not the root of the
human race. . . The results arrived at
by the only woman authorized to ex-
amine St W573 are different from the
normal theories regarding mankind's
ancestors: this destroys the hominid
family tree. Large primates, considered
the ancestors of man, have been re-
moved from the equation of this family
tree . . . Australopithecus and Homo
(human) species do not appear on the
same branch. Man's direct ancestors
are still waiting to be discovered. 23

The "Lucy"
skeleton

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


Macro-Evolution Myth, The 33

MACRO-EVOLUTION MYTH, The second distortion is the claim


THE that macro-evolution—in other
words, development of one species
Evolutionists refer to the variety
into another—comes about as the ac-
or variation within species as "mi-
cumulation of micro-evolutions over
cro-evolution" and to the hypothesis
a long time. Yet when one realizes
of the formation of new species as
that there is no such thing as micro-
"macro-evolution." Evolutionists
evolution, the supposed basis for
seek to give the impression that mi-
macro-evolution disappears. If no
cro-evolution is a scientific fact that
such process as micro-evolution ever
which everyone agrees on, and that
takes place, macro-evolution must
macro-evolution is a result of micro-
logically be eliminated too.
evolution spread out over a longer
Many evolutionist biologists
time frame. Above all, the point that
have admitted that such various hy-
needs to be emphasized is that there
potheses based on these fictitious
is no such process as micro-evolu-
concepts provide no explanation of
tion.
the origin of species. The well-
As we've already seen, evolution-
known evolutionist paleontologist
ists try to create the impression that
Roger Lewin described his conclu-
variation within species is an evolu-
sions at a four-day symposium at-
tionary process by giving it the name
tended by 150 evolutionists held at
of "micro-evolution." In fact, howe-
the Chicago Natural History
ver, that this is an attempt to vali-
Museum in 1980:
date the concept of evolution by us-
ing an expression containing the The central question of the Chicago
word. Variation consists of the emer- conference was whether the mecha-
nisms underlying microevolution can
gence of various dominant genetic
be extrapolated to explain the phenom-
combinations as a result of geo-
ena of macroevolution . . . the answer
graphic isolation of individuals in a
can be given as a clear, No. 24
given species. But even with extreme
variation, no new information is
added to that species' gene pool.
Therefore, no such process as evolu- MACRO-MUTATION MYTH,
tion has taken place. (See The Micro- THE
evolution Myth.) Evolutionists' inability to find

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


34 Macro-Mutation Myth, The

any of the intermediate forms that damaging effects of mutation:


they claim must once have existed Being bombarded by mutation-causing
led them to come up with new the- radiation, would be like shooting a new
ses. One of these is the theory of car with a 30-caliber rifle . . .
punctuated evolution, which hy- Similarly, it would be highly unlikely
pothesizes that the mutations neces- that mutations would do anything oth-
sary to form a new species took er than damage you or an animal.
place, or that some individuals were Mutations caused by DNA copying er-
rors would have a similar result . . .
exposed to intense, consecutive mu-
Mutations are harmful by a ratio of at
tations.
least 10,000 to one. Radiation and cop-
One law revealed by Fisher, one
ying errors do not produce new fea-
of the century's best known geneti-
tures that are beneficial. ,26
cists, on the basis of experiment and
observation clearly invalidates that Clearly, mutations establish no
evolutionary progress, and this
hypothesis. In his book, The Genetical
fact represents a major dilemma
Theory of Natural Selection, Fisher
for both neo-Darwinism and for
states that "the likelihood that a par-
the theory of punctuated evolu-
ticular mutation will become fixed in
tion. Since mutation is a destruc-
a population is inversely proportion- tive mechanism, the macro-muta-
al to its effect on the phenotype."25 In tions that are the proponents of
other words, the greater the effect of punctuated evolution must have
a mutation, the less chance it has of a macro-destructive effect on liv-
becoming permanent in a popula- ing individuals.
tion. The geneticist Lane Lester and
In addition, mutations cause ran- the population geneticist Raymond
dom changes in living things' genet- Bohlin describe the mutation im-
ic data, and do not improve it. On the passe as follows:
contrary, individuals exposed to
The overall factor that has come up
mutations typically suffer serious again and again is that mutation re-
diseases and deformities. Therefore, mains the ultimate source of all genet-
the more an individual is affected by ic variation in any evolutionary model.
a mutation, the less that individual's Being unsatisfied with the prospects of
chances of survival. accumulating small point mutations,
Professor Walter L. Starkey of many are turning to macromutations
Ohio University writes about these to explain the origin of evolutionary

The Evolution Impasse II


Malthus, Thomas Robert 35

novelties. Goldschmidt's hopeful mon- Malthus suggested that food resour-


sters have indeed returned. However, ces increased arithmetically and the
though macromutations of many vari- human population geometrically—
eties produce drastic changes, the vast for which reason, he maintained, hu-
majority will be incapable of survival, man beings were necessarily in a
let alone show the marks of increasing
fight for survival. Darwin adapted
complexity. If structural gene muta-
this concept of the struggle for sur-
tions are inadequate because of their
vival to nature as a whole.
inability to produce significant enough
In the 19th century, Malthus'
changes, then regulatory and develop-
mental mutations appear even less use- ideas were adopted by a fairly wide
ful because of the greater likelihood of audience. Upper-class European in-
nonadaptive or even destructive conse- tellectuals in particular supported
quences. . . But one thing seems cer- his ideas. An article titled "The
tain: at present, the thesis that muta- Scientific Background to the Nazi
tions, whether great or small, are capa- Racial Improvement Program" de-
ble of producing limitless biological scribes the importance that 19th-cen-
change is more an article of faith than tury Europe attached to Malthus'
fact. 27 theories:
Experiment and observation In the opening half of the nineteenth
show that mutations do not improve century, throughout Europe, members
on genetic data but rather, damage of the ruling classes gathered to dis-
living things. So it is clearly incon- cuss the newly discovered "Population
sistent for the proponents of punctu- problem" and to devise ways of imple-
ated evolution to expect great suc- menting the Malthusian mandate, to
cesses from mutations. increase the mortality rate of the poor:
"Instead of recommending cleanliness
to the poor, we should encourage con-
MALTHUS, THOMAS trary habits. In our towns we should
ROBERT make the streets narrower, crowd more
people into the houses, and court the
The theories of the British statisti- return of the plague. In the country we
cian Thomas Robert Malthus were should build our villages near stag-
influential in shaping Darwin's ideas nant pools, and particularly encourage
that in nature, there is a deadly settlements in all marshy and un-
struggle for survival and that every wholesome situations," and so forth
living thing strives only for itself. and so on. 28

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


36 Marx, Karl

Under the "oppression of the


poor" program implemented in
Britain in the 19th century, the
strong crushed the weak in the
struggle for survival, and the rapid-
ly rising population would thus be
kept in balance. The struggle for sur-
vival that Malthus regarded as theo-
retically necessary led to millions of
poor people in Britain living wretch-
ed lives.

MARX, KARL
Karl Marx, the founder of communism
Karl Marx, the founder of
Communism, described Charles
Evolution, of course, was just what the
Darwin's book The Origin of Species,
founders of communism needed to ex-
which set forth the basis of the theo-
plain how mankind could have come
ry of evolution, as "a book which
into being without the intervention of
contains the basis of natural history
any supernatural force, and conse-
for our views." 29
quently it could be used to bolster the
Marx demonstrated his regard foundations of their materialistic phi-
for Darwin by dedicating his own losophy. In addition, Darwin's inter-
most important work, Das Kapital, pretation of evolution—that evolution
to him. His own handwriting in the had come about through the operation
German edition of the book read, of natural selection—gave them an al-
"Mr. Charles Darwin / On the part of ternative hypothesis to the prevailing
his sincere admirer / Karl Marx." 30 teleological explanation of the observed
The American researcher fact that all forms of life are adapted to
Conway Zirckle explains why Marx their conditions. 31
and Engels, the founders of The social scientist Tom Bethell,
Communism, so readily accepted who works at the Hoover Institute in
the idea of evolution after Darwin America, explains the fundamental
published The Origin of Species: reasons for the link between the two
theories:

The Evolution Impasse II


Marx, Karl 37

Marx admired Darwin's book not for production and production itself.
economic reasons but for the more fun- The economy determined every-
damental one that Darwin's universe thing else. This ideology described
was purely materialistic, and the expli- religion as a fairy tale invented for
cation of it no longer involved any ref- coercive economic purposes. In the
erence to unobservable, nonmaterial
eyes of this superstitious conception,
causes outside or ‘beyond' it. In that
religion was developed by the ruling
important respect, Darwin and Marx
classes to pacify those they ruled,
were truly comrades. 32
and was "the opium of the masses."
The bond between Marxism and
In addition, Marx thought that
Darwinism is an evident fact on
societies followed a process of devel-
which everyone agrees. This link is
opment. A slave-based society de-
set out in biographies of Marx, and is
veloped into a feudal society, and a
described in a biography of Marx
feudal society turned into a capitalist
brought out by a publishing house
one. Finally, thanks to a revolution, a
specializing in books with Marxist
socialist society would be construct-
views:
ed, whereupon the most advanced
Darwinism featured a series of facts social stage in history would be at-
that supported, proved the reality of tained.
and developed Marxist philosophy.
Marx's views were evolutionist
The spread of Darwinist, evolutionist
even before the publication of
ideas created a suitable groundwork for
Darwin's The Origin of Species.
Marxist thought to be understood by
However, Marx and Engels experi-
the working class in society as a whole.
. . Marx, Engels and Lenin attached enced difficulties in accounting for
great value to Darwin's ideas and in- how living things came into being.
dicated the scientific importance of That was because in the absence of a
these, thus accelerating the spread of thesis accounting for living things on
those ideas. 33 the basis of non-creation, it was im-
On the other hand, Marx based possible to maintain that religion
historical progress on economics. In was an invented falsehood and to
his view, society went through vari- base all of history on matter. For that
ous historical phases, and the factor reason, Marx immediately adopted
determining them was changes in Darwin's theory.
the relationship between means of Today, all forms of materialist
thinking—and Marx's ideas in par-

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


38 Materialism

ticular— have been totally discredit- emerged without creation but by


ed, because in the face of scientific chance and then later assumed or-
findings, the theory of evolution on der. Yet when the human mind per-
which materialism based itself has ceives order, it immediately realizes
been completely invalidated. Science that there must have been an entity
refutes the materialist assumption that performed the ordering.
that denies the existence of anything Materialist philosophy is a violation
apart from matter, and shows that of this most fundamental principle
all living things are the work of a of human intelligence, and produced
sublime creation. the evolution theory in the 19th cen-
tury. (See The Evolution Theory.)
We may also question the truth of
MATERIALISM materialism's claim of using scientif-
Materialist philosophy is one of ic methods. We can investigate
the oldest ideas in history, whose es- whether or not matter has existed for
sence is based on the existence of ever, whether matter is capable of
matter, and nothing else. According ordering itself in the absence of a
to this creed, matter has existed for Creator, and whether or not it can
ever, and everything that exists is give rise to life. When we do so, we
composed of physical matter. This see that materialism is actually in a
definition of course makes belief in a state of collapse.
Creator impossible. As a require- The idea that matter has always
ment of this logic, materialist philos- existed collapsed with the Big Bang
ophy has opposed all forms of belief theory, which proved that the uni-
in Allah and the revealed religions. verse had come into being from
The supposed "scientific" founda- nothing. (See The Big Bang Theory.)
tion of materialist philosophy, which Therefore, the evolution theory—in
maintains that nothing exists apart other words, the claim that matter
from matter, is the theory of evolu- organized itself and gave rise to
tion. life—has also collapsed.
Since materialism seeks to ex- However, materialist scientists
plain nature in terms of material fac- refuse to abandon their position,
tors alone and rejects creation right even though they clearly see that sci-
from the outset, it maintains that ev- ence has refuted the theory of evolu-
erything—living or inanimate— tion, since their devotion to this phi-

The Evolution Impasse II


Materialism 39

losophy is so important to them. On . . it exhibits in its raw primeval forms


the contrary, they seek to keep mate- neither intelligence nor "mind." Yet
rialism alive by supporting the theo- the living cell is really just a bag full of
ry of evolution in whatever way pos- projects, of teleonomy, and of concepts,
sible. and, therefore, of mind. The materialist
is forced to seek the origins of this pro-
Arthur Ernest Wilder-Smith, a
gramming and of these concepts of life
professor of chemistry, sets out these
in "nonmind," i.e., in matter and
facts in one of his books:
chance, because he believes that matter
. . . however, [since] materialistic phi- and time represent the total reality of
losophy does not permit us to see con- the universe. A considerable amount of
cepts such as "mind" or nonmaterial "mental acrobatics" is required to ob-
intelligence behind the origin of mate- tain programs magically, to conjure up
rial life, it automatically became neces- projects and concepts out of "non-
sary to search for the source of lan- mind," "nonprojects," and "nonpro-
guage, code, mind, and information in grams," i.e., out of matter and chance.
biological cells exclusively within mat- It is just these mental acrobatics which
ter and the laws of chance. are carried out support materialism
However, it is just this task which has that we need to consider more closely,
turned up so many major difficulties . for they are the basis of much that is of-

The Big Bang, in which the universe began, is a phenomenon that refutes the claims
of materialists and evolutionists and which confirms creation by showing that the
universe had a finite beginning.
40 Materialism

fered to our youngsters in our second- erned completely by physical law.


ary and high schools and taught in Physical law is the only law governing
universities as the sole scientific expla- our desires, our hopes, our ethics, our
nation of life and its codes. goals, and our destinies. Matter and
energy must be our primary focus, the
If a reasonable materialistic view of bi-
object of all of our desires and ambi-
ogenesis is to be taught as a fact, the
tions. Specifically, this means that our
problem of programming, simulation,
lives must be focused on acquiring ma-
language, code and translation of a
terial goods (including bodies), or at
code-obtained spontaneously from
least rearranging or exchanging them,
noncode-must be squarely faced. For
in order to produce the maximum ma-
matter, which is known to possess nei-
terial satisfaction and pleasure. We
ther plans, intelligence, nor program-
must expend all of our energy in this
ming, alleged by the materialists to
quest, for there can be no other goal.
have conjured them all up like a rabbit
And in all of this, we have no choice,
out of a hat. 34
because we are totally governed by
The eminent biologist Hubert physical law. We may feel trapped by
Yockey agrees: these beliefs and desires, but we cannot
Faith in the infallible and comprehen- shake them. They totally dominate us.
sive doctrines of dialectic materialism
A succinct, personalized, summary
plays a crucial role in origin of life sce-
statement of materialist philosophy is,
narios. . . That life must exist some-
"I am a body." 36
where in the solar system on ‘suitable
planets elsewhere' is widely and tena- This materialist dogma underlies
ciously believed in spite of lack of evi- the evolutionist propaganda that
dence or even abundant evidence to the one constantly encounters in some of
contrary. 35 the prominent media organizations
Stanley Sobottka, a professor of and well-known journals, as a result
physics from Virginia University, of such ideological and philosophi-
describes the distorted nature of ma- cal requirements. Since evolution is
terialism: crucial in ideological terms, it is ac-
cepted without any debate by the
The widespread belief in materialism
has profound effects in our lives and in materialist circles that determine the
our society. If we believe this way, we standards of science.
must conclude that everything, includ- Evolution is actually not a theory
ing ourselves and all of life, is gov- that emerged as a result of scientific
research. On the contrary, the theory

The Evolution Impasse II


Mayr, Ernst 41

was produced in line with the re-


quirements of materialist philoso-
phy, and was then made into a sa-
cred taboo that sought to impose it-
self despite the scientific facts. As is
apparent from evolutionist writings,
the clear objective behind all these
endeavors is to deny the fact that liv-
ing things were brought into being
Ernst Mayr
by a Creator.
Evolutionists refer to this aim as
being "scientifically objective." Yet Darwinism. Therefore, Ernst Mayr
they are referring not to science, but and the other founders of the theory
to materialist philosophy. (Theodosius Dobzhansky and Julian
Materialism rejects the non-material, Huxley) began being referred to as
or supernatural. Science, on the oth- neo-Darwinists.
er hand, is not obliged to accept any Ernst Mayr was one of the most
such a dogma. Science has a duty to significant adherents of the theory of
study nature, perform experiments, evolution in the 20th century. He
and duplicate results. If the results based his theory on mutation, and
reveal the fact that nature was creat- yet at the same time admitted the
ed, then science must accept that impossibility of this:
fact. A true scientist must not defend The occurrence of genetic monstrosi-
untenable scenarios by restricting ties by mutation . . . is well substanti-
himself to 19th century dogmas. ated, but they are such evident freaks
that these monsters can be designated
only as ‘hopeless.' They are so utterly
MAYR, ERNST unbalanced that they would not have
the slightest chance of escaping elimi-
Ernst Mayr, a well-known evolu- nation through stabilizing selection . .
tionist biologist, is also the founder . the more drastically a mutation af-
of the Modern Synthetic Theory of fects the phenotype, the more likely it is
evolution, which—proposed by to reduce fitness. To believe that such a
adding concept of mutation to drastic mutation would produce a via-
Darwin's natural-selection thesis— ble new type, capable of occupying a
was given the name of neo- new adaptive zone, is equivalent to be-

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


42 Mendel, Gregor

lieving in miracles . . . The finding of a accept the accura-


suitable mate for the ‘hopeless mon- cy of these laws.
ster' and the establishment of repro- This represent-
ductive isolation from the normal ed a major di-
members of the parental population lemma for
seem to me insurmountable difficul-
Darwin's
ties. 37
theory,
Mayr made another admission w h i c h
on the subject: Gregor Mendel
sought to ac-
. . . it is a considerable strain on one's count for the
credulity to assume that finely bal- concept of beneficial characteristics,
anced systems such as certain sense or- based on Lamarck.
gans (the eye of vertebrates, or the But Mendel opposed not only
bird's feather) could be improved by
Lamarck's model of evolution, but al-
random mutations. 38
so Darwin's model. As stated in an
Mayr, an adherent of Darwinism, article titled "Mendel's Opposition to
sought to cover up the gaps that Evolution and to Darwin," published
Darwinism never could by means of in the Journal of Heredity, Mendel was
claiming mutation. Yet the scientific against the theory of evolution.
impossibility of this can still be seen Darwin suggested that all life had
in his own admissions. evolved from a common ancestor,
while Mendel believed in creation. 39

MENDEL, GREGOR
In 1865, following the publication MENTON, DAVID
of Darwin's The Origin of Species, the David Menton, a professor of
Austrian botanist and monk Gregor anatomy from Washington
Mendel published his laws of inher- University, gave a lecture at the 2nd
itance, the result of long experiments international conference titled "The
and observations. (See The Laws of Collapse of the Theory of Evolution:
Inheritance.) However, these laws The Fact of Creation," held by the
attracted the attention of the scientif- Science Research Foundation on 5
ic world only toward the end of the July, 1998, in which he discussed the
century. Not until the early 20th cen- anatomical differences between bird
tury did the entire scientific world feathers and reptile scales. He re-

The Evolution Impasse II


Metamorphosis 43

vealed the invalidity of the thesis


that birds evolved from reptiles, and
summarized the facts:
I have been investigating the anato-
mies of the living creatures since 30
years. The only fact I met during my
researches is the flawless creation of Eggs
God. 40

METAMORPHOSIS
Frogs are hatched in water,
Tadpole
where they live for a while as tad-
poles. They then emerge onto land,
after growing limbs and losing their
tails, in a process known as meta-
morphosis. Some people regard
metamorphosis as evidence of evo-
lution, but the fact is that metamor-
phosis has nothing whatsoever to do
with evolution.
The only developmental mecha-
nism that the theory of evolution Young frog
proposes is mutations.
Metamorphosis, however, does not
take place through such chance
events, but these changes are al-
ready programmed in the frog's ge-
netic data. In other words, when a
tadpole is first hatched, it is already
determined that it will eventually
undergo a process of change and
come into possession of a frog's
body suited to life on land.
Abult frog

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


44 Micro-Evolution Myth, The

Eye

Antenna Leg

NORMAL MUTANT
The evolutionist biologs looked for an example of a useful mutation since the begin-
ning of the century. Yet only crippled, diseased and faulty flies were existing at the
end of their efforts. In the picture, a normal fruitfly's head and a mutated one that
has its legs coming out of its head are seen.

Recent research has shown that an animal crippled or dead, so there


metamorphosis is a very complex can be no question of a random
process controlled by different change. Metamorphosis must be
genes. In this process, for example, completed in a flawless manner.
during the disappearance of the tail It is impossible to maintain that
alone, "more than a dozen genes in- such a complex process, one that al-
crease their activity," according to lows no margin of error, emerged
the journal Science News. 41 through random mutations, as the
Evolutionist claims of a "transi- evolution theory claims.
tion from water to land run along
the lines that fish with the genetic
data for total life in water evolved by MICRO-EVOLUTION MYTH,
chance into terrestrial amphibians as THE
a result of random mutations. For Evolutionists seek to account for
that reason, metamorphosis repre- differentiation within species—in
sents evidence that actually under- other words, the emergence of varia-
mines evolution, rather than sup- tions—by means of an imaginary
porting it. The slightest error in the mechanism they refer to as micro-
process of metamorphosis will leave

The Evolution Impasse II


Micro-Evolution Myth, The 45

evolution. By accumulating over a claims also revealed that the varia-


long period of time, they maintain tions he thought accounted for the
that small changes can give rise to origin of new species actually bore
macro-evolution, in other words the no such meaning.
emergence of an entirely new spe- For that reason, evolutionist biol-
cies. (See The Macro-Evolution ogists needed to distinguish be-
Myth) In fact, however, there is tween variations within a species
nothing to do with evolution here. and the formation of a whole new
Variation within species occurs with species, and present these as two
the emergence of individuals with distinct concepts.
new and different physical charac- By using the concept of micro-ev-
teristics as a result of different com- olution, evolutionists seek to give
binations of existing genes, through the deceptive impression that varia-
cross-breeding of individuals. tions can eventually, gradually give
However, no new gene is ever add- rise to brand new species, families,
ed to the gene pool here. All that and orders. Indeed, many people
happens is that genes combine in with not much knowledge of the
offspring in new combinations. subject become taken in by the su-
Since the number and variety of perficial idea that when micro-evo-
genes in a given species is fixed, lution occurs over a long period of
there is a limit to the number of com- time, the result is macro-evolution.
binations that these can give rise to. One often encounters examples
In addition, variation within a spe- of this thinking. Some amateur evo-
cies never produces any new spe- lutionists suggest that since human
cies. For example, no matter how beings' average height has increased
many dogs of different breeds mate by 2 centimeters (0.78 of an inch)
together in different combinations, over a century, so all kinds of major
the results will always be dogs, nev- evolutionary changes may take
er horses or ferrets. This fixed bio- place over millions of years.
logical law has been proven through The fact is, though, that all varia-
experiment and observation. tions such as a change in average
Interestingly, Darwin construct- height take place within specific ge-
ed the backbone of his theory on var- netic limits, and these biological var-
iations he imagined to be micro-evo- iations entirely unrelated to evolu-
lution. But the advances in biology tion.
that gradually undermined Darwin's
Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar
46 Miller Experiment, The

In fact, present-day evolutionist never turn into another species of


authorities admit that the variations mammal, such as giraffes or ele-
they refer to as micro-evolution can- phants. The different chaffinches
not create new genetic information that Darwin saw on the Galapagos
and thus, cannot give rise to macro- Islands are, in the same way, exam-
evolution. The evolutionist biolo- ples of the variation that constitutes
gists Scott Gilbert, John Opitz and no evidence for evolution.
Rudolf Raff describe this position in Therefore, the origin of species will
a 1996 article published in the jour- remain a question that can never be
nal Developmental Biology: answered in terms of evolution.
The Modern Synthesis [the neo-
Darwinist theory] is a remarkable
achievement. However, starting in the MILLER EXPERIMENT, THE
1970s, many biologists began ques- Research into the origin of life to
tioning its adequacy in explaining ev- which evolutionists attach the great-
olution. Genetics might be adequate for
est esteem is the Miller experiment,
explaining microevolution, but micro-
carried out by the American re-
evolutionary changes in gene frequen-
searcher Stanley Miller in 1953. (The
cy were not seen as able to turn a rep-
experiment is also known as the
tile into a mammal or to convert a fish
into an amphibian. Microevolution
Urey-Miller Experiment, due to the
looks at adaptations that concern only contribution made by Miller's
the survival of the fittest, not the arriv- Chicago University supervisor
al of the fittest. As Goodwin (1995) Harold Urey.)
points out, "the origin of species— Miller's aim was to establish an
Darwin's problem—remains un- experimental environment to show
solved." 42 that amino acids, the building blocks
The variations that Darwinism of proteins, could have formed by
has regarded for a century or so as chance in the lifeless world of bil-
proof of evolution actually have lions of years ago.
nothing to do with the origin of spe- In his experiment, Miller used a
cies. Horses may be crossbred in dif- combination of gasses that he as-
ferent combinations for millions of sumed had existed in the Earth's pri-
years and different strains of horse mordial atmosphere (but which
may be obtained. Yet horses will were later determined not to have
existed in it), such as ammonia,

The Evolution Impasse II


Miller Experiment, The 47

the bottom of the jar and observed


that he had synthesized three of the
20 amino acids constituting the
building blocks of proteins.
The result of the experiment
caused great joy among evolution-
ists and was announced as a great
success. Indeed, some publications
went so far as to produce headlines
reading "Miller Creates Life." Yet all
that he had actually synthesized was
a few inanimate molecules.
With the courage they took from
this experiment, evolutionists imme-
diately produced new scenarios.
There was immediate speculation
about the stages that must have tak-
en place after the amino acids' for-
Stanley Miller's experimental setup. mation. According to the scenario,
these came together in the appropri-
methane, hydrogen and water va- ate order as the result of chance, and
por. Since under normal conditions, gave rise to proteins. Some of these
these gasses would not enter into re- proteins, the work of still more ran-
actions with one another, he added dom coincidences, installed them-
energy from the outside. The ener- selves inside structures resembling
gy—which he thought might have cell membranes—which also came
stemmed from lightning in the prim- into being in some way, and thus
itive atmosphere—he provided by gave rise to the cell. Cells gradually
means of an artificial electrical lined up alongside one another and
charge. gave rise to living organisms.
Miller heated this mixture of gas- The Miller experiment—the basis
ses at 100°C for a week, while also for this scenario, not one single stage
providing an electrical current. At of which is backed up by any evi-
the end of the week, Miller meas- dence at all—was nothing more than
ured the chemicals in the mixture at
48 Miller Experiment, The

a deception, whose invalidity in all amino acid had formed in the ab-
regards was subsequently proven. sence of any mechanism, that mole-
The experiment performed by cule would have been broken down
Miller to prove that amino acids under the conditions at the time. As
could give rise to living organisms the chemist Richard Bliss has stated,
under the conditions of the primor- "Without this cold trap, the chemical
dial Earth is invalid in several re- products would be destroyed by the
gards: [experiment's] energy source (elec-
1. Miller used a mechanism trical sparking)." 43
known as the cold trap to isolate In fact, Miller had failed to obtain
amino acids at the moment they even a single amino acid in earlier
formed. Otherwise, the very condi- experiments in which he did not use
tions in which the amino acids a cold trap.
formed would have immediately de-
stroyed them.
However, there was no such con-
scious arrangement in the primordi-
al world atmosphere. Even if any

Reaction cell

Methane, ammo-
nia water and hy-
Water is added to drogen gas
the condenser Vacuum

Water boils

The artificial atmosphere created by Miller in his experiment bore no resemblance to


that of the primordial Earth. For that reason, the experiment was regarded as invalid
by the scientific world.

The Evolution Impasse II


Miller Experiment, The 49

2. The primordial atmosphere face was 10,000 times higher than ev-
that Miller attempted to replicate in olutionists' estimates. That intense
his experiment was not realistic. In level would inevitably have given
1982, scientists agreed that instead of rise to oxygen by breaking down at-
methane and ammonia in the primi- mospheric water vapor and carbon
tive atmosphere, there must have dioxide.
been nitrogen and carbon dioxide. This completely discredited the
Indeed, after a long silence, Miller Miller experiment, which was car-
himself admitted that the primitive ried out without considering oxy-
atmosphere model he'd used was gen. Had oxygen been used in the
not realistic. 44 experiment, then the methane
The American scientists J.P. would have transformed into carbon
Ferris and C.T. Chen repeated dioxide and water, and the ammonia
Miller's experiment, using a mixture into nitrogen and water. On the oth-
of carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitro- er hand, in an atmosphere with no
gen and water vapor, but failed to oxygen—since no ozone layer had
obtain even a single amino acid mol- yet formed—the amino acids would
ecule. 45 have been directly exposed to ultra-
3. Another important point inval- violet rays and been immediately
idates the Miller experiment: At the broken down. At the end of the day,
time when the amino acids were the presence or absence of oxygen in
suggested to have formed, there was the primordial atmosphere would
so much oxygen in the atmosphere still make for an environment dead-
that it would have destroyed any ly for amino acids.
amino acids present. This important 4. At the end of the Miller experi-
fact that Miller ignored was deter- ment, a large quantity of organic ac-
mined by means of uranium and ox- ids also formed whose characteris-
idized iron deposits in rocks estimat- tics were damaging to the structures
ed to be around 3 billion years old. 46 and functions of living things. In the
Other findings later emerged to event that amino acids are not isolat-
show that the level of oxygen in that ed but are left together in the same
period was far higher than that environment as these chemical sub-
claimed by evolutionists. And re- stances, they will inevitably react
search showed that the level of ultra- with them and form new com-
violet rays reaching the Earth's sur- pounds.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


50 Miller Experiment, The

In addition, at the end of the ex- might have altered the course of the
periment, a high level of right-hand- reactions was included in the exper-
ed amino acids also emerged.47 (See imental apparatus. Oxygen that
Right-Handed Amino Acids.) The would hinder the formation of ami-
presence of these amino acids totally no acids is just one of these elements.
undermined the premise of evolu- Therefore, in the absence of the cold
tion by means of its own logic. trap mechanism, even under those
Right-handed amino acids are not ideal laboratory conditions, amino
used in living structures. Finally, the acids could not have survived with-
environment in which amino acids out being broken down.
emerged in the experiment was not With the Miller experiment, evo-
suited to life; but on the contrary, lutionists actually invalidated evolu-
was a mixture that would have bro- tion by their own efforts. Because the
ken down and oxidized useful mole- experiment demonstrated that ami-
cules. no acids could be obtained only in
All this points to the concrete fact specially arranged laboratory condi-
that Miller's experiment —a con- tions and with conscious interven-
scious, controlled laboratory study tion. In other words, the force giving
aimed at synthesizing amino acids— rise to life is creation, not random co-
does not prove that life could have incidences.
emerged by chance under primordi- The reason why evolutionists
al world conditions. The types and refuse to accept this stems from their
levels of the gasses he used were de- preconceptions. Harold Urey, who
termined at the ideal levels for ami- organized the experiment together
no acids to be able to form. The level with his student Stanley Miller,
of energy supplied was carefully made this admission:
regulated, neither too much nor too All of us who study the origin of life
little, to ensure that the desired reac- find that the more we look into it, the
tions would take place. more we feel it is too complex to have
The experimental apparatus iso- evolved anywhere. We all believe as an
lated so as not to harbor any element article of faith that life evolved from
that might be harmful, or prevent dead matter on this planet. It is just
the emergence of amino acids. No el- that its complexity is so great, it is
hard for us to imagine that it did. 48
ement, mineral or compound pre-
sent in the primeval world that This experiment is the sole proof

The Evolution Impasse II


"Mitochondrial Eve" Thesis's Inconsistencies, The 51

that supposedly verifies the molecu-


lar evolution suggested as the first
stage of the evolutionary process.
Although half a century has gone by
since, and great technological ad-
vances have been made, no new
progress has been made on the sub-
ject. The Miller experiment is still
taught in schoolbooks as an explana-
tion of the first emergence of life.
Evolutionists, aware that such en-
deavors will refute their claims rath-
er than supporting them, carefully
avoid embarking on any other such
experiments.

Stanley Miller with his experimental ap-


MILLER, STANLEY paratus
An American researcher, who at-
tempted to synthesize amino acids— MISSING LINK IN THE
the fundamental building blocks of EVOLUTIONARY CHAIN, THE
life—in a laboratory environment to- —See Evolutionary Gaps
gether with his supervisor, Harold
Urey, at Chicago University in 1953.
However, during the experiment, he "MITOCHONDRIAL EVE"
distorted the primitive atmosphere THESIS'S
hypothesized by evolutionists. This INCONSISTENCIES, THE
experiment, known as the Urey-
Popular scientific terminology is
Miller experiment, proved, contrary
often used to apply an authoritative
to what had been hoped, that life
veneer to evolution. Evolutionists
could not possibly come into exis-
make use of "DNA" in just this way.
tence spontaneously. (See The Miller
In addition to being present in
Experiment.)
the nucleus, DNA is also found in
mitochondria, energy-production

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


52 "Mitochondrial Eve" Thesis's Inconsistencies, The

organelles in the cell. The DNA in the chimpanzee is man's ancestor.


the nucleus forms as a result of the Over hundreds of thousands of
combination of DNA from the moth- years, according to this claim, ran-
er and father, but the mother is the dom mutations turned chimpanzee
sole source of the mitochondrial DNA into our present mitochondrial
DNA. Every human being's mito- DNA. Starting from that preconcep-
chondrial DNA is therefore identical tion, they then attempted to deter-
to his or her mother's, and therefore, mine where and when the present
the origin of man can be researched evolutionary family tree began.
by following this trail. The Berkeley University bio-
The "mitochondrial Eve" thesis chemists Wilson, Cann and
distorts this fact by interpreting it ac- Stoneking, who first proposed the
cording to the dogmas of the theory theory, set out with fundamental as-
of evolution. A few evolutionist sci- sumptions that were impossible to
entists have regarded the mitochon- prove:
drial DNA of the first humanoid as 1. The origin of mitochondrial
the DNA of chimpanzees, by view- DNA lies in hominids, in other
ing as indisputable scientific fact the words ape-like creatures.
claim that 2. Mutations must have caused
regular changes in mitochondrial
Cell
membrane DNA.
3. These mutations must have
taken place constantly and at a
Cytoplasm fixed rate.
Lysozome Taking these assump-
Mitochondria tions as their basis, the re-
Nucleus
searchers believed that
Endoplasmic
reticulum they could obtain a mo-
lecular clock to show
Chromosome how quickly a species
changed within the al-
leged process of evolu-

DNA
The Evolution Impasse II
"Mitochondrial Eve" Thesis's Inconsistencies, The 53

tion. In fact, the writers of the com- (mitochondrial DNA) study as gar-
puter program to calculate that clock bage49 in an article titled "Statistical
directed their research towards the Cloud over African Eden." In his ar-
result they wished to achieve. ticle, Gee stated that when the cur-
The assumptions they worked on rent 136 MtDNA series were consid-
were claims whose existence could ered, the number of family trees ex-
not be proven, of which no examples ceeded 1 billion! In other words, in
had ever been obtained by experi- this study, these 1 billion chance
ment or observation. Mutations, family trees were ignored, and only
caused by degeneration of DNA, that one tree compatible with the hy-
have only been observed to cause pothesis of evolution between chim-
deformity and death in living struc- panzees and human beings was se-
tures. Mutations can never impart lected.
progress by raising a living thing to Alan Templeton, the well-known
a higher level. (See Mutation: An Washington University biologist,
Imaginary Mechanism.) stated that it was impossible to set
The evolutionist researchers de- out any date for the origin of man
veloped a computer program that based on DNA series, because DNA
they hoped would camouflage their was highly mixed up, even in pre-
prejudices. They created their pro- sent human societies. 50
gram on the basis of evolution, fol- Considered in mathematical
lowing the most direct and effective terms, it means that it is impossible
path. This, however, is an imaginary to determine mtDNA as belonging
picture that conflicts with even the to a single human being in the fami-
basic assumptions of the theory of ly tree.
evolution. The most significant admission
Many scientists who supported came from the authors of the thesis
the theory of evolution agreed that themselves. Mark Stoneking, from
this thesis had no scientific value. the team that repeated the study in
Henry Gee, a member of Nature 1992, said in a letter to Science maga-
magazine's editorial board, de- zine that the "African Eve" thesis
scribed the results of the MtDNA was untenable,51 because it was

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


54 Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution Myth, The

clear that in all respects, the study is not the slightest indication, in ei-
had been aimed towards the desired ther the nucleus of the mitochondria,
result. to show the frequency with which
The mitochondrial DNA thesis DNA was subjected to mutation.
was developed on the basis of muta- In terms of its own logic, this the-
tions in DNA. But when the evolu- sis actually shows that once again,
tionists looked at human DNA, it there has been an attempt to use ev-
was unclear how they decided olution as evidence for evolution.
which DNA rungs had formed as the Seeking evidence for evolution in
result of mutation, and which were DNA is biased research, based on
original and unchanged. They had to the assumption that evolution took
start work from the original human place in any case.
DNA they claim must have existed. Why do evolutionists feel the
Yet the evolutionist deception here is need to pull the wool over people's
crystal-clear: They assumed chim- eyes in this way? The answer is
panzee DNA as their basis. 52 clear: Because there is no scientific
To put it another way, in a study evidence to support evolution.
looking for evidence that chimpan-
zee DNA turned into human DNA,
the chimpanzee is taken as the start- MODERN SYNTHETIC
ing point as the original prehistoric THEORY OF EVOLUTION
human. Right from the outset, the MYTH, THE
study is carried out on the assump- To the question of "What is the
tion that evolution took place, and source of the beneficial changes that
the result obtained is then depicted cause living things to develop?" sci-
as proof of evolution. In these cir- entists meeting at the American
cumstances, the study is far from be- Geological Association gave the an-
ing scientific. swer, "Random mutations." Darwin
In addition, if an evolutionist re- had given the same answer by
searcher is to employ regular, useful adopting the concept of mutation,
mutations that he claims occurred in based on Lamarck. But with adding
DNA in calculating the molecular the concept of mutation to Darwin's
clock, then he must also calculate the natural selection, the new theory
speed of these mutations. Yet there

The Evolution Impasse II


Modifications 55

that emerged was given the name of to the individual in question and
the Modern Synthetic Theory of cannot be transmitted to offspring.
Evolution. Darwin had claimed that living
This new theory soon became things could turn into other living
known as neo-Darwinism and its things under the effect of environ-
proponents as neo-Darwinists. (See mental conditions, but Mendel
Neo-Darwinism Comedy, The.) proved experimentally that environ-
mental influences could not change
living species and showed that he-
MODIFICATIONS redity took place only within specif-
Modifications are differences in ic bounds. Darwin's ideas remained
living things that are not inherited, a theory based on speculation, rather
but occur within limited bounds un- than on experimental evidence. But
der the influence of external factors. Mendel's laws of heredity which is
Reproduction between members of the result of a long and patient study
the same animal or plant species will and based on experiment and obser-
not give rise to other identical indi- vation, went down in the history of
viduals. The differences between science. Although they were roughly
them that are not hereditary are contemporaries, Mendel's genetic
known as modifications—differences studies were accepted by the scien-
that all biological entities exhibit due tific world only 35 years after
to external factors, but which still re- Darwin. That was because the sci-
main within specific boundaries. ence of genetics, for which Mendel
Though identical twins have ex- laid the groundwork, totally under-
actly the same hereditary material, mined the assumptions of
they never resemble one another Darwinism, but for a long time evo-
completely, because it is impossible lutionists refused to admit this.
for environmental conditions to af- However, scientific progress,
fect them both to exactly the same obliged them to accept Mendel's
degree. The external factors leading findings, and they came to see mak-
to modification in living things in- ing minor modifications to their the-
clude food, temperature, moisture ories as the only way of overcoming
and mechanical effects. But since this. (See The Neo-Darwinism
any impact exists in the body only Comedy.)
and not the DNA, it remains limited

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


56 Molecular Evolution Impasse, The

MOLECULAR EVOLUTION Although there is no consensus


IMPASSE, THE among evolutionists at this point, ac-
cording to what most of them main-
According to the theory of evolu-
tain, nucleic acids that also came in-
tion, gas molecules such as water va-
to being outside, by chance, settled
por, hydrogen, methane and ammo-
inside these bodies, known as coacer-
nia that represented the atmosphere
vates. And when the coacervates' or-
on the primordial world were com-
ganizational level had risen suffi-
bined out by ultraviolet rays from
ciently, they turned into the first liv-
the Sun, electricity from lightning,
ing cells.
radiation from radioactive rocks and
In the above scenario, evolution-
thermal energy from volcanoes.
ists admit of no conscious interven-
According to this non scientific sce-
tion in the formation of life from in-
nario, the atoms that then emerged
animate substances, and claim that
in new sequences combined together
everything happened as the result of
and produced the building blocks
blind coincidences. They point to the
that would form the first cell.
Miller experiment as the first step in
These compounds were later
the chance emergence of life from in-
transported to lakes and seas by
organic materials. Today, however,
rain. Organic compounds thus com-
it is recognized that the Miller exper-
bined together and the waters of the
iment's assumptions regarding the
Earth gradually grew richer in terms
chemical make-up of the early at-
of these substances. The amino acids
mosphere were incorrect, and Miller
and other organic substances in this
himself admitted as much. Despite
mixture then combined to produce
all evolutionist efforts, it is clear that
proteins, carbohydrate chains and
the theory of evolution has no scien-
other increasingly complex organic
tific support, neither on the molecu-
substances. Because of their tenden-
lar level nor in any other area.
cy to grow, the first large bodies that
Dr. Stephen C. Meyer, from
developed tried to absorb new mole-
Cambridge University, says that no
cules from around them. Thus bod-
credibility can be attached to any ex-
ies with more complex structures
planations of the origin of life that
and organization, and capable of
are based on chance:
growing and multiplying, gradually
emerged. While many outside origin-of-life biol-
ogy may still invoke "chance" as a

The Evolution Impasse II


Nonsensical Nature of the Molecular Homology Thesis, The 57

causal explanation for the origin of bi- things did not evolve from one an-
ological information, few serious re- other, but were created independ-
searchers still do. Since molecular biol- ently. A great many other scientific
ogists began to appreciate the sequence facts besides the fossil record, the
specificity of proteins and nucleic acids complex structures and systems in
in the 1950s and '60s, many calcula-
living things, and the lack of any ev-
tions have been made to determine the
olutionary mechanism have in any
probability of formulating functional
case long since demolished the theo-
proteins and nucleic acids at random.
ry of evolution's claims.
Even assuming extremely favorable
prebiotic conditions (whether realistic
or not) and theoretically maximal reac-
tion rates, such calculations have inva-
NONSENSICAL NATURE OF
riably shown that the probability of ob-
THE MOLECULAR
taining functionally sequenced bio- HOMOLOGY THESIS, THE
macromolecules at random is, in Evolutionists point to different
Prigogine's words, "vanishingly small living things having similar DNA
. . . even on the scale of . . . billions of codes or protein structures and in-
years. 53
terpret this as evidence that these
Thus the theory of evolution, species evolved from some common
which seeks to account for the origin ancestor. For instance, evolutionist
of life in terms of chance, collapses at sources often say that there is a great
the very outset. Science clearly re- similarity between the DNA of hu-
veals that since chance cannot repre- mans and apes, which they offer as
sent the origin of life, life must have evidence of an evolutionary link be-
been flawlessly created. Not only the tween the two. (See The Ape-Human
first life form, but all the different Genetic Similarity Lie.)
life forms on Earth have been creat- First off, it's only to be expected
ed separately. Indeed, the fossil that living things on Earth should
record confirms this, showing that have DNA structures similar to one
all the life forms on Earth emerged another. Their basic vital functions
suddenly and with their own partic- are the same, and since they all—hu-
ular characteristics, and that they mans included—have physical bod-
never underwent evolution. ies, one cannot expect human beings
Comparisons carried out at the to have a DNA structure totally dif-
molecular level show that living ferent from other living things. Like

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


58 Nonsensical Nature of the Molecular Homology Thesis, The

species and classes are compared, it


clearly emerges that any similarities
or differences are incompatible with
any evolutionary logic or link.
According to the evolutionist thesis,
there must be a gradual increase in
species' complexity, and so is also to
be expected that the number of chro-
mosomes establishing this genetic
information will gradually increase.
However, the data actually obtained
show that this is a mere fantasy.
Comparisons based on chromosome
numbers and DNA structures show that For example, although a tomato
no evolutionary relationship can be es- has 24 chromosomes, the copepod
tablished between different species..
crab—an organism with far more
complex systems—has only six. The
other organisms, our bodies develop
single-celled creature Euglena has 45
by consuming proteins, blood flows
chromosomes, compared to the alli-
through their bodies, and we pro-
gator, which has only 32. In addi-
duce energy at every moment by us-
tion, Radiolaria, microscopic organ-
ing of oxygen.
isms, have more than 800 chromo-
Therefore, the fact that living
somes.
things are genetically similar cannot
Theodosius Dobzhansky, a fa-
be used to argue that they evolved
mous evolutionary theoretician, says
from a common ancestor. If evolu-
that this unregulated relationship
tionists wish to verify the theory of
between living things and their
evolution from a common ancestor,
DNAs is a major problem that evolu-
they have to demonstrate a line of
tion cannot explain:
descent on the molecular level. Yet
More complex organisms generally
evolutionists have no such concrete
have more DNA per cell than do sim-
finding.
pler ones, but this rule has conspicu-
In fact, when the data obtained as
ous exceptions. Man is nowhere near
a result of the analysis of DNA and
the top of the list, being exceeded by
chromosomes belonging to various Amphiuma (an amphibian),

The Evolution Impasse II


Nonsensical Nature of the Molecular Homology Thesis, The 59

Protopterus (a lungfish), and even or- chromosomes.


dinary frogs and toads. Why this Other comparisons at the molec-
should be so has long been a puzzle. 54 ular level also offer examples that
Again according to the evolution- make evolutionist interpretations
ist homology thesis, the number of quite meaningless. The more protein
chromosomes should be expected to strings are analyzed in laboratories,
increase as living things grow—and the more unexpected and even as-
to decrease as the organism becomes tonishing results emerge. For in-
smaller. The fact is, however, that stance, while the human cyto-
living things of very different sizes chrome-C protein differs from that
and with very different structures, of a horse by 14 amino acids, it dif-
between which no evolutionary rela- fers from that of a kangaroo by only
tionship can possibly be claimed, eight. Analysis of cytochrome-C has
having the same number of chromo- shown that tortoises are much closer
somes totally undermines the super- to human beings than they are to rat-
ficial evolutionist logic built on chro- tlesnakes, even though both are
mosome similarities between organ- members of the reptile family.
isms. Interpreted from the evolutionist
To give some examples: both oak perspective, this produces utterly
trees and Macaques monkeys have meaningless results that not even ev-
42 chromosomes. The deer mouse olutionists can accept, such as tor-
has 48 chromosomes, the same num- toises being more closely related to
ber as the gorilla, which is many human beings than to snakes.
times larger. Another interesting ex- The difference of 21 amino acids
ample is that of the gypsy moth and between tortoises and rattlesnakes,
the donkey, both of which have 62 which are both members of the rep-

According to findings
from molecular biolo-
gy, each living class is
unique at the molecu-
lar level, different from
and independent of all
others. No organism is
the ancestor of any
other.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


60 Nonsensical Nature of the Molecular Homology Thesis, The

tile class, is significantly greater than mit that he hasn't been able to obtain
that between representatives of very any evidence for evolution at any
different classes. The above differ- point. In one article in Science maga-
ence, for example, is greater than the zine, he writes:
difference of 17 amino acids between Molecular evolution is about to be ac-
chickens and eels, the difference of cepted as a method superior to paleon-
16 amino acids between horses and tology for the discovery of evolutionary
sharks, or even the difference of 15 relationships. As a molecular evolu-
amino acid between dogs and worm tionist, I should be elated. Instead, it
flies, which are members of two to- seems disconcerting that many excep-
tally different phyla. tions exist to the orderly progression of
species as determined by molecular ho-
A similar state of affairs also ap-
mologies: so many in fact, that I think
plies to hemoglobin. The sequence of
the exception, the quirks, may carry
this protein in human beings differs
the more important message. 56
from that in lemurs by 20 amino ac-
Schwabe's research into relaxin
ids and from that in pigs by only 14.
produced most interesting results:
The position is more or less the same
for other proteins. 55 Against this background of high varia-
Evolutionists should therefore bility between relaxins from purport-
edly closely related species, the relax-
conclude that in evolutionary terms,
ins of pig and whale are all but identi-
a human being is closer to the kanga-
cal. The molecules derived from rats,
roo than the horse or to the pig than
guinea-pigs, man and pigs are as dis-
the lemur.
tant from each other (approximately
Dr. Christian Schwabe is a pro- 55%) . . . Insulin, however, brings
fessor at department of biochemistry man and pig phylogenetically closer
at Medical University of South together than chimpanzee and man. 57
Carolina and a scientist who has de-
Schwabe states that his compari-
voted many years to seeking evi-
son of lysozymes, cytochromes and
dence of evolution in the molecular
many hormones and amino acid
sphere. In particular, he has carried
strings revealed unexpected results
out studies on the proteins insulin
and abnormalities from the evolu-
and relaxin in an attempt to con-
tionary point of view. Based on all
struct evolutionary relationships be-
this evidence, Schwabe maintains
tween living things. Several times,
that all proteins possess their same,
however, he has been forced to ad-

The Evolution Impasse II


Morris, John 61

initial structures, without having un- sues that make up organs; cytology,
dergone any evolution—and that, the study of the microscopic struc-
just as with fossils, no intermediate ture of the cells that make up tissues;
form among molecules has ever and embryology, the study of all the
been found. phases between the fertilized egg
Michael Denton bases this com- (zygote) and the emergence of an in-
ment on results obtained from the dependent organism. 60
field of molecular biology: Comparisons between the ho-
Each class at a molecular level is mologous or analogous organs of
unique, isolated and unlinked by inter- living things are performed on the
mediates. Thus molecules, like fossils basis of findings obtained from mor-
have failed to provide the elusive inter- phology. (See Homologous Organs;
mediates so long sought by evolutiona- Analogous Organs.) All living
ry biology. 58 things with similar morphologies
In short, the homological hypoth- are regarded as homologous in or-
esis that looks for anatomical or der to construct a supposed evolu-
chemical similarities in living things tionary relationship between them.
and attempts to portray them as evi- However, there is no scientific basis
dence for evolution has been invali- for this. Indeed, there are many ex-
dated by the scientific facts. amples of species that resemble each
other very closely, but between
MORPHOLOGY which no so-called evolutionary re-
This is the branch of science that lationship can be constructed—and
studies the shape and structure of this represents a major inconsistency
organisms as a whole. With plants, it from the point of view of evolution-
investigates the structures and com- ist claims.
mon organization of the root, stem,
leaves and fruits; and with animals
and human beings, compares and
THE MORPHOLOGICAL
analyzes their physical structure. 59
HOMOLOGY MYTH
Sub-branches of morphology in- —See Homology
clude anatomy, the study of the visi-
ble internal and external structures MORRIS, JOHN
of organisms; histology, the study of Professor John Morris is the di-
the microscopic structure of the tis- rector of the Institute for Creation

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


62 Mosaic Creatures

Research and Such prominent evolutionist pa-


a well-known leontologists as Stephen J. Gould
geologist. At and Niles Eldredge admit that mosa-
the second in- ic creatures cannot be regarded as
ternational intermediate forms. 62
conference With its exceedingly specialized
held by the structures, the platypus also refutes
S c i e n c e this claim. (See Platypus, The.)
John Morris
Research
Foundation on 5 July 1998, titled
"The Collapse of the Theory of MOTHER NATURE; AN
Evolution: The Fact of Creation," he IRRATIONAL CONCEPT
described the ideological and philo- The intellectual movement that
sophical conditions behind evolu- influenced Darwin—and encour-
tion, the way this theory became a aged him to look for an explanation
dogma, and how its proponents be- for the living things he encountered
lieve in Darwinism as if it were a re- other than one based on creation—
ligion. 61 was naturalism, one of the main phil-
osophies of the 19th century's atheis-
MOSAIC CREATURES tic climate. Naturalism was a move-
Using one-sided interpretations, ment that recognized no other reality
evolutionists sometimes present liv- than nature and the world perceived
ing things as actually constituting in- by the five senses. According to this
termediate forms. However, the fact perverted view, nature was its own
that a species has features belonging creator and ruler. Concepts such as
to another living group does not Mother Nature or clichéd expressions
make it an intermediate form. such as "Nature gave humans this
For example, the Australian ability," or "Nature created this crea-
duck-billed platypus is a mammal, ture in this way" result from precon-
but lays eggs, just like reptiles. In ad- ceptions placed in the mind of socie-
dition, it has a beak just like a bird. ty by naturalism.
However, its fur, milk glands and in- Evolutionists say that Mother
ner ear structure define it as a mam- Nature gave living things the fea-
mal. Scientists therefore refer to the tures they possess. But nature con-
platypus as a mosaic creature. sists of such familiar components as

The Evolution Impasse II


Mutant 63

stone, soil, trees, and plants. It is im- DNA. When high-energy particles
possible for these natural elements strike DNA bases, they alter their
to perform conscious, intelligent ac- structure, and usually cause changes
tions or to program living things, be- of such dimensions that the cell can-
cause everything we see in nature not repair them. (See Mutation: An
has been created and therefore, can- Imaginary Mechanism.)
not be their creator.
Since living things do not create MUTANT
the superior characteristics they pos- Mutant is the name given to any
sess through their own intelligence. living thing, cell or gene that has un-
Since they are born with these attrib- dergone obvious changes in its
utes, then there must be a creator DNA. Mutations are breaks and
who endows them with these fea- shifts that occur as a result of physi-
tures and who impels them to dis- cal (for example, radiation) or chem-
play such behavior. Almighty Allah ical effects in the DNA molecule,
is our Creator. found in the cell nucleus that carries
genetic data. Mutations damage the
nucleotides that make up DNA. The
MUTAGENIC FACTORS components making up genetic in-
Breaks and shifts in the genetic formation are either detached from
data in living things are described as their locations, damaged or else
mutation. These affect and damage transported to different sites in the
the DNA in the cell nucleus. Every DNA. They cause damage and other
cause giving rise to mutation—gen-
erally, some form of chemical effects
or particle emissions—is known as a
mutagenic factor.
Substances such as mustard gas
and nitric acid may be given as ex-
amples of chemical mutagenic fac-
tors. X-rays or the radiation leaking
from a nuclear power station are ex-
amples of radioactive mutagenic ef-
fects. Particles emitted from a radio-
active element can cause damage to
A physically defective mutant lamb.
Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar
64 Mutation: An Imaginary Mechanism

changes that are usually too severe MUTATION: AN IMAGINARY


for the cell to repair. Cells or living MECHANISM
things subjected to such mutations—
Mutations are breaks and shifts
99% of which are harmful and the
that occur as a result of radioactive
other 1% neutral or silent— are
or chemical damage to the DNA
known as mutants. (See Mutation:
molecule that carries genetic data.
An Imaginary Mechanism)
Mutations damage the nucleotides
Although mutations have clearly
that make up DNA, or else cause
destructive effects, evolutionists re-
them to change places, causing chan-
gard random mutations occurring in
ges that are usually too severe for
living things' genetic structures as
the cell to repair.
the source of the positive evolution-
Therefore, contrary to what many
ary changes that they assume took
people imagine, the mutations that
place. Yet mutations can never be-
evolutionists depend on are not,
stow a new organ or new character-
magic wands that lead living things
istic on a living thing by adding new
to progress and perfection.
information to its DNA. They mere-
Mutations' net effects are harmful.
ly cause abnormalities, such as (on a
The only changes brought about by
fruit fly) a leg emerging from the
mutations are of the kind suffered by
back of the insect.
the offspring born to inhabitants of
Can new information emerge as
Hiroshima, Nagasaki or Chernobyl;
the result of mutations? Professor
in other words, death or deformity.
Werner Gitt responds to the ques-
The reason for this is elementary:
tion:
Any random impact on the very
This idea is central in representations complex structure of the DNA mole-
of evolution, but mutations can only cule can only harm it.
cause changes in existing information.
The American geneticist B.G.
There can be no increase in informa-
Ranganathan explains:
tion, and in general the results are in-
First, genuine mutations are very rare
jurious. New blueprints for new func-
in nature. Secondly, most mutations
tions or new organs cannot arise; mu-
are harmful since they are random,
tations cannot be the source of new
rather than orderly changes in the
(creative) information. 63
structure of genes; any random change
in a highly ordered system will be for
the worse, not for the better. For exam-

The Evolution Impasse II


Mutation: An Imaginary Mechanism 65

These photographs show some of the


damaging effects of mutation on the
human body.
A process that cripples individuals or
leaves them ill cannot, of course, give
rise to any progress.

ple, if an earthquake were to shake a from mutations, practically all of


highly ordered structure such as a which are harmful? 65
building, there would be a random All the mutations observed in hu-
change in the framework of the build-
man beings are harmful. Medical
ing, which, in all probability, would
textbooks describe physical or men-
not be an improvement. 64
tal defects such as mongolism,
No examples of beneficial muta- Down Syndrome, albinism, dwarf-
tions have ever been observed. The ism and sickle cell anemia, or diseas-
evolutionist scientist Warren es such as cancer as examples of mu-
Weaver said the following about a tation. A process that cripples or
report prepared by the Committee sickens cannot, of course, be any ev-
on Genetic Effects of Atomic olutionary mechanism.
Radiation, set up to examine the mu- In a scientific paper, David
tations arising as a result of nuclear Demick, an American pathologist,
weapons in the wake of the Second wrote this to say about mutations:
World War:
Literally thousands of human diseases
Many will be puzzled about the state- associated with genetic mutations have
ment that practically all known mu- been catalogued in recent years, with
tant genes are harmful. For mutations more being described continually. A
are a necessary part of the process of recent reference book of medical genet-
evolution. How can a good effect — ev- ics listed some 4,500 different genetic
olution to higher forms of life — result diseases. Some of the inherited syn-

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


66 Mutation: An Imaginary Mechanism

dromes characterized clinically in the aged or carried to other locations in


days before molecular genetic analysis the DNA. Yet mutations can never
(such as Marfan's syndrome) are now cause a living thing to acquire a new
being shown to be heterogeneous; that organ or attribute.
is, associated with many different mu- 3. For a mutation to be transmitted
tations.
to a subsequent generation, it must take
With this array of human diseases that place in the reproductive germ cells. No
are caused by mutations, what of posi- change arising in any other cell of
tive effects? With thousands of exam- the body can be passed along to lat-
ples of harmful mutations readily er generations. For example, an em-
available, surely it should be possible bryo's eye may depart from its origi-
to describe some positive mutations if
nal form by being subjected to radia-
macroevolution is true. These would be
tion and other similar effects, but
needed not only for evolution to great-
this mutation will not manifest itself
er complexity, but also to offset the
in subsequent generations.
downward pull of the many harmful
mutations. But, when it comes to iden-
tifying positive mutations, evolutiona-
ry scientists are strangely silent. 66
The reasons why mutations can-
not support evolutionist claims may
be summarized under three main
headings:
1. Mutations are always harmful.
Since they occur at random, they al-
ways damage living things.
Logically, any unconscious interven-
tion in a perfect and complex struc-
ture will damage it, rather than caus-
ing it to develop. Indeed, no useful
mutations have ever been observed.
2. No information can be added to
DNA as a result of mutation. The com-
ponents of the genetic information
are removed and dismantled, dam-

The Evolution Impasse II


Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar
Narrow Population 69

NARROW POPULATION ing and giving rise to new species,


narrow populations actually cause
One of the views held by the pro-
severe genetic impairments, since in-
ponents of punctuated evolution is
dividuals must constantly reproduce
the concept of narrow populations.
within a restricted gene pool. As re-
This postulates that new species
sult, normally heterozygotic individu-
form in communities consisting of
als become increasingly homozygotic.
very small numbers of animals or
Impaired or defective genes, normal-
plants. According to this claim, pop-
ly recessive become dominant, and
ulations containing large numbers of
the population suffers increasing ge-
animals exhibit no evolutionary de-
netic diseases. 67
velopment, but remain in a state of
In order to investigate this, one
stasis. However, small groups that
study on chickens was conducted
separate from this population and
over 35 years. Chickens kept in a
become isolated (generally because
narrow population were seen to be-
of geographical conditions), will re-
come genetically weakened. Egg
produce solely among themselves.
production fell from 100% to 80%,
Macro-mutations then occur in these
and reproduction levels from 93% to
groups and rapid speciation takes
74%.
place.
However, this genetic regression
Proponents of punctuated equi-
was halted through conscious hu-
librium insist on the concept of nar-
man intervention. When chickens
row populations simply because
were brought in from other regions
they cannot account for the lack of
and the augmented chicken popula-
any evidence in the fossil records.
tion reassumed normal trends. 68
That is why they imagine that evolu-
This and similar findings show
tionary changes took place very rap-
that the claim of punctuated evolu-
idly and in narrow populations, for
tion—that narrow populations are
which reason no fossil traces have
the source of evolutionary develop-
been left behind.
ment—has no scientific validity. (See
In recent years, however, scientif-
The Punctuated Evolution Model.)
ic experiments and observations
have revealed that narrow popula-
tions are a disadvantage rather than
an advantage. Rather than develop-

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


70 Naturalism

NATURALISM derlay it. It therefore received sup-


port and was imposed on society as
In general terms, naturalism is a
if it were a major scientific truth.
philosophy that recognizes no other
Otherwise, it would have been re-
reality aside from nature and the
garded as the speculation of an ama-
world perceived by the five senses.
teur biologist and quickly forgotten.
Naturalism, one of the most signifi-
cant products of the 19th century
atheistic atmosphere, influenced
NATURAL SELECTION
Darwin and drove him to offer an
atheistic explanation for life. Natural selection is based on the
According to this way of thinking, hypothesis that there is a constant
nature itself was regarded as its own struggle for survival among species
creator and arbiter. Concepts such as and those living things that are
Mother Nature or clichés such as strongest and best adapted to natu-
"Nature gave some people superior ral conditions survive that struggle
abilities; nature made humans what and live to propagate themselves.
they are," are still widely employed For example, in a herd of deer, those
today, but are the result of precon- animals that are naturally able to run
ceptions imposed by naturalism. fast will escape predators and sur-
Naturalists were great admirers vive. Naturally, this herd will soon
of the perfection in the physical consist of deer that are all able to run
world, yet found it difficult to give a quickly.
satisfactory answer to how this came But note that no matter how long
into being. Since they adopted posi-
tivist dogma, and believed only in
concepts whose existence could be
established by means of experiment
and observation, they fiercely reject-
ed the fact that nature was created
by Allah. In their view, nature creat-
ed itself.
Darwin's theory served natural-
ist/materialist philosophy, or to be
more accurate, the atheism that un-
Fossilized deer

The Evolution Impasse II


Natural Selection 71

this predator pressure lasts, the deer cannot evolve by way of natural se-
will never turn into any other spe- lection.
cies. Weak deer are eliminated and Darwin admitted as much when
the fittest survive; but no "evolution" he wrote, "Natural selection can do
of species takes place, because there nothing until favourable individual
is no change in the deer's genetic in- differences or variations occur." 69
formation. No matter how much Natural selection was a natural
herds of deer are subjected to natu- phenomenon known to biologists
ral selection, they will still remain before Darwin, but described as a
deer. mechanism that enables species to
This example applies to all other remain stable without being im-
species. Deformed or weak individ- paired. It was Darwin who first
uals in a population, or those unfit- claimed that this process was an ev-
ted to environmental conditions are olutionary force and thus construct-
eliminated by way of natural selec- ed his whole theory on that basis.
tion. But no new species, genetic in- The name he gave his book—The
formation or organs will emerge as a Origin of Species, By Way of Natural
result. In other words, living things Selection—shows that natural selec-

No matter how much deers are sub-


jected to natural selection, they will
always give birth to more deer.
72 Neanderthals: A Human Race

tion represented the foundation of years ago, and disappeared, or else


Darwin's theory. were assimilated by mixing with
Stephen Jay Gould, one of the other human races, silently and just
best-known contemporary evolu- as quickly about 35,000 years ago.
tionists, says this about Darwinism's The only difference between them
grave error: and present-day humans is that their
The essence of Darwinism lies in a sin- skeletons are rather sturdier and
gle phrase: natural selection is the cre- their brain volumes slightly larger.
ative force of evolutionary change. No Neanderthals were a well-built hu-
one denies that selection will play a man race, as is now agreed by just
negative role in eliminating the unfit. about everyone.
Darwinian theories require that it cre- Evolutionists, on the other hand,
ate the fit as well. 70
In an article published in
American Scientist magazine, the ev-
olutionist C. Loring Brace describes
how Darwinism has been refuted by
scientific discoveries and states that
we cannot regard natural selection
as an evolutionary mechanism:
Readers of American Scientist may
not realize the extent to which a major
part of the field of biology and almost
all of paleontology has rejected
Darwin's insights concerning organic
evolution. Natural selection is dis-
missed as contributing nothing more
than "fine-tuning," and adaptation is
largely ignored in practice. 71

NEANDERTHALS:
A HUMAN RACE
The Neanderthals emerged sud-
denly in Europe around 300,000
A fossil belonging to a Neanderthal
Neanderthals: A Human Race 73

have made great efforts to portray skeletal remains with those of modern
these people as a "primitive" species, humans have shown that there is noth-
although all the facts show ing in Neanderthal anatomy that con-
Neanderthal Man to be no different clusively indicates locomotor, manipu-
to a fairly stocky human walking lative, intellectual, or linguistic abili-
ties inferior to those of modern hu-
around today. The New Mexico
mans. 72
University paleoanthropologist Erik
Trinkaus, regarded as an eminent Therefore, many modern re-
authority on the subject, writes: searchers describe Neanderthal Man
as a sub-group of modern man and
Detailed comparisons of Neanderthal

Although the fossil findings show that Neanderthal


Man was a human, with nothing primitive about him
compared to ourselves, evolutionists still portray
Neanderthals as ape-men. This is just one of the many
indications that Darwinism is based not on scientific
findings, but on prejudice and propaganda.

FALSE
74 "Nebraska Man" Fraud, The

refer to him as Homo sapiens neander- near Snake Valley in Nebraska, he


talensis. Recent discoveries show that had found a molar tooth that bore
the Neanderthals buried their dead, common human and ape features,
made various musical instruments dating back to the Pliocene Period.
and shared a culture as developed as Before long, a profound scientific de-
that of modern man, Homo sapiens sa- bate on the subject had begun. Some
piens. people regarded this tooth as be-
longing to Pithecanthropus erectus,
while others said it was closer to be-
"NEBRASKA MAN" FRAUD, ing fully human. This fossil was giv-
THE en the popular name of Nebraska
In 1922, Henry Fairfield Osborn, Man and the scientific name of:
director of the American Museum of Hesperopithecus haroldcookii.
Natural History, announced that Based on this single tooth,

The Neanderthals:
A Human Race

To the above can be seen


the Homo sapiens nean-
derthalensis Amud 1
skull, discovered in
Israel. It is estimated that
the owner of this skull
would have stood 1.80
meters (5 feet, 11 inches)
tall. Its brain volume is
the largest so far encoun-
tered for Neanderthals, at
1,740 cubic centimeters.

The Evolution Impasse II


"Nebraska Man" Fraud, The 75

FALSE

The reconstruction above, produced on the basis of a single tooth, was published in
the 24 June 1922 edition of the Illustrated London News. Shortly afterwards, howe-
ver, it was realized that the tooth actually belonged to an extinct species of wild
boar, and not to an ape-like creature or human being at all. This inflicted a major dis-
appointment on evolutionists.

Nebraska Man's skull and body a single tooth, he attracted the most
were reconstructed in artists' con- terrible fury.
ceptions. Pictures were even pub- However, other parts of the skel-
lished of Nebraska Man in his natu- eton were discovered in 1927. In the
ral habitat, together with his wife light of these remains, this tooth was
and children. This whole scenario found to belong neither to an ape
was spun out from a single tooth. nor to a human being, but to an ex-
Evolutionists so believed in this ho- tinct species of American wild boar
minid made from whole cloth that known as prosthennops. Science
when a researcher by the name of magazine covered the story under
William Bryan cast doubt upon all the title "Hesperopithecus Apparently
these firmly held opinions based on Not an Ape Nor a Man." 73

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


76 Neo-Darwinism Comedy, The

As a result, all pictures of cause living things to develop?"—


Hesperopithecus haroldcookii were which Darwin had been unable to
swiftly removed from the literature. answer, but had sought to resolve
based on Lamarck—these people re-
plied, "Random mutations." They
NEO-DARWINISM COMEDY, advanced a new theory by adding
THE the concept of mutation to Darwin's
With the genetic laws discovered thesis of natural selection; which
in the first quarter of the 20th centu- new theory began to be known as
ry, Darwin's theory reached a com- neo-Darwinism (or the Modern
plete impasse. At this, a group of sci- Synthetic Theory of Evolution,
entists determined to remain loyal to which see).
evolution theory came together at a The decades that followed saw
meeting held by the American hopeless attempts to prove neo-
Geology Association in 1941. After Darwinism. Mutations were well
lengthy discussions by geneticists known to be breaks, shifts and de-
such as G. Ledyard Stebbins and fects occurring in living organisms'
Theodosius Dobzhansky, zoologists genes as the result of external fac-
such as Ernst Mayr and Julian tors, which give rise to serious dam-
Huxley, and paleontologists such as age on practically every occasion.
George Gaylord Gibson and Glen L. Nevertheless, neo-Darwinists car-
Jepsen, the decision was reached to ried out thousands of experiments to
patch up Darwinism. try to establish an example of a use-
To the question of "What is the ful mutation—endeavors that invari-
source of beneficial changes that ably ended in fiascos. (See Mutation:

The Evolution Impasse II


Neo-Darwinism Comedy, The 77

An Imaginary Mechanism.) record. In long years of excavations,


At the same time, neo-Darwinists no intermediate forms—that should,
also sought to prove that the first liv- according to neo-Darwinist theory,
ing organisms could have emerged have demonstrated that primitive
by chance under the conditions of species gradually evolved into more
the primeval Earth—as required by advanced ones—were found any-
the theory. The same fiascos were where. Comparative anatomical
experienced in that field, too. All the studies showed that living things
experiments intended to prove that once assumed to have evolved from
life emerged by chance ended in fail- one another in fact possessed very
ures. Probability calculations different anatomical features and
showed that not a single protein, the could never be one another's fore-
basic building blocks of the cell, runners or later descendants.
could form by chance. As for the cell Neo-Darwinism was not a scien-
itself, the smallest living unit, not a tific theory, but rather an ideological
single one could be formed even in dogma. For that reason, evolution's
laboratories with the most highly adherents still continue to support
advanced 20th century technology. the theory in the face of all the evi-
Then how could a cell have come dence against it. In their view, evolu-
about as the result of chance in the tion is a belief that can never be
primitive, uncontrolled conditions abandoned.
of the primeval world, as evolution-
ists claimed?
Neo-Darwinist theory was also
dealt a fatal blow by the fossil
Octopus's Eye, The 79

OCTOPUS'S EYE, THE tions of the theory of evolution. This


in turn shows that there is nothing
Evolutionists maintain that all
scientific about the evolutionist
living things with similar structures
claim based on similarities.
and organs share an evolutionary re-
All evolutionists seek to do is to
lationship. One of the perfectly clear
interpret the findings they discover
examples that invalidate this claim,
against the terms of evolution dog-
known as homology, is the octopus
ma, which they assume to be true
eye. (See Homology.) According to
right from the outset. Yet the inter-
evolutionists' imaginary tree of life,
pretations they come up with are
octopi —being mollusks—are one of
highly inconsistent. Because some-
the life forms furthest removed from
times organs they are forced to re-
human beings. Although the octo-
gard as analogous resemble one an-
pus and man are very different life
other so closely, despite their ex-
forms, between which no so called
traordinarily complex structures,
evolutionary relationship can exist,
that it is utterly illogical to suggest
their eyes have exactly the same
that such resemblances came about
structure! This is a clear sign that
as the result of random mutations. If,
similar structures do not constitute
as evolutionists claim, the octopus's
proof of evolution.
eye emerged as the result of chance,
Confronted by this situation, evo-
then the vertebrate eye should have
lutionists say that these organs are
emerged by repeating those exact
not homologous (that is, descended
same coincidences.
from a common ancestor) but rather
The well-known evolutionist
analogous—similar, despite the ab-
Frank Salisbury writes:
sence of any evolutionary relation-
ship. See Homologous Organs and Even something as complex as the eye
Analogous Organs.) In their view, has appeared several times; for exam-
ple, in the squid, the vertebrates, and
for instance, the human eye and the
the arthropods. It's bad enough ac-
octopus eye are analogous organs.
counting for the origin of such things
However, the question of wheth-
once, but the thought of producing
er a particular organ should be in-
them several times according to the
cluded in the homologous or the modern synthetic theory makes my
analogous category is answered head swim. 74
solely according to the preconcep-
According to the theory of evolu-

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


80 OH 62: A Species of Ape

tion, completely independent muta- ONTOGENY


tions must have produced these life RECAPITULATES
forms twice, by chance! This fact pla- PHYLOGENY THEORY, THE
ces evolutionists in an even worse
(See also The, Biogenetic Law and
dilemma. Extraordinary similarities
Theory of Recapitulation,)
like these, which conflict with the
The evolutionist biologist Ernst
evolutionist thesis of homology,
Haeckel proposed this theory to-
show that similar organs represent
ward the end of the 19th century.
no evidence for having evolved from
The term recapitulation is used to
a common ancestor. Indeed, the ex-
summarize the theory.
act opposite can be observed in some
Haeckel claimed that during their
life forms: Some living things, de-
developmental phases, embryos re-
spite being regarded by evolution-
peated the evolutionary process that
ists as very closely related, have
their alleged ancestors had under-
some organs that are completely dif-
gone. For example, he maintained
ferent from one another.
that during its development in the
mother's womb the human embryo
exhibited first fish-like gills and then
OH 62: A SPECIES OF APE
reptile characteristics before finally
Evolutionists long suggested that "evolving" into a human baby.
the fossil creature to which they However, as time passed, it emerged
gave the name Homo habilis was ca- that this scenario was totally imagi-
pable of walking upright. They thus nary.
thought that they had found a link Evolutionists also admit this. One
between ape and man. However, the article in American Scientist read:
new H. habilis fossils discovered by Surely the biogenetic law [the recapit-
Tim White in 1986 and given the ulation theory] is as dead as a doornail.
name OH 62 demolished that claim. It was finally exorcised from biology
These fossil parts showed that, just textbooks in the fifties. As a topic of se-
like present-day apes, H. habilis had rious theoretical inquiry it was extinct
long arms and short legs. This fossil in the twenties. 75
put an end to the claim that H. habi- To support his theory of recapitu-
lis was capable of walking upright. It lation, Ernst Haeckel produced
was nothing more than a species of faked drawings, attempting to por-
ape. tray fish and human embryos as re-

The Evolution Impasse II


Open System 81

sembling one another. When these study of the evolution of organisms."


77
frauds were exposed, he had no oth-
er defense other than to say that oth- Ever since Oparin, evolutionists
er evolutionists did exactly the have carried out
same thing: countless exper-
After this compromising con- iments, studies
fession of ‘forgery' I should be and observa-
obliged to consider myself con- tions to prove
demned and annihilated if I had that the cell
not the consolation of seeing could have
side by side with me in the pris- come into exis-
oner's dock hundreds of fellow- tence by chance.
culprits, among them many of
However, every
the most trusted observers and Alexander I. Oparin study has un-
most esteemed biologists. The
dermined evo-
great majority of all the diagrams in
lutionists' assumptions by revealing
the best biological textbooks, treatises
and journals would incur in the same
in ever-greater detail the complex
degree the charge of ‘'forgery,' for all of creation in the cell.
them are inexact, and are more or less
doctored, schematised and constructed.
76 OPEN SYSTEM
The term "open system" refers to
a thermodynamic system with an ex-
OPARIN, ALEXANDER I. ternal energy source, into which
The Russian biologist Alexander matter enters and departs. Since the
I. Oparin, founder of the concept of theory of evolution conflicts with the
"chemical evolution," could not ob- Second Law of Thermodynamics
tain any findings to shed light on the (the Law of Entropy), evolutionists
origins of life, despite all his theoret- maintain that this entropy applies
ical research. In his 1936 book The only to closed systems. They resort to
Origin of Life, he wrote, a deception, maintaining that open
"Unfortunately . . . the problem of systems lie outside this law. They
the origin of the cell is perhaps the suggest, further, that the Earth's bio-
most obscure point in the whole sphere is an open system, being ex-
posed to a constant flow of energy

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


82 Open System

from the Sun; and that therefore, the energy-conversion system be it open
Law of Entropy does not apply to or closed, will offer no advantage for
the Earth, and that ordered, complex evolution. No one claims that any
living things can indeed emerge such complex and conscious mecha-
from disordered, simple and inani- nism existed in the conditions of the
mate structures. primeval Earth. At this point, evolu-
Yet there is a very clear distortion tionists cannot account for how com-
of the facts here, because energy en- plex energy conversion systems,
tering a system from outside is not such as photosynthesis, which even
sufficient to make that system into modern technology cannot repro-
an ordered one. To make that energy duce — emerged in the first place.
capable of being used, special mech- Whatever solar energy reached
anisms are needed. For example, the primeval Earth had no way of
control mechanisms, an engine and giving rise to order. For one thing,
transmission systems are needed to the higher the temperature rises, the
harness the energy generated from more amino acids—the building
the fuel in an internal combustion blocks of life—resist forming bonds
engine. In the absence of such trans- in regular sequences. Energy alone is
formation systems, it will be impos- not sufficient for amino acids to
sible to use that fuel's energy. form the far more complex molecu-
The same applies to living things, les of proteins, and for proteins to
which receive their energy from the give rise to cell organelles, which are
Sun. This solar energy is turned into more complex still. This manifest or-
chemical energy thanks to extraordi- der is only possible through our om-
narily complex energy-conversion niscient Lord's creation.
systems such as photosynthesis in In fact, many evolutionists openly
plants and the digestive systems in admit that the claim about open sys-
animals and human beings. In the tems is invalid and that it conflicts
absence of any of these conversion with thermodynamics. Although
systems, no organism can survive. Professor John Ross of Harvard
For a living thing with no energy- University holds evolutionist views,
conversion system, the Sun will be he writes in a paper in Chemical and
simply a source of destructive heat Engineering News that this claim is
and UV radiation. unrealistic and unscientific:
Therefore, any system without an . . . there are no known violations of the

The Evolution Impasse II


Ordered System 83

second law of thermodynamics. dust particles can never order them-


Ordinarily, the second law is stated for selves by using the energy of the
isolated systems, but the second law wind to produce a recognizable im-
applies equally well to open systems. . age of, say, a human being.
. . there is somehow associated with the Similarly, when the A key on a
field of far-from-equilibrium phenome-
keyboard is pressed repeatedly
na the notion that the second law of
(with a corresponding flow of ener-
thermodynamics fails for such sys-
gy entering the system), the result is
tems. It is important to make sure that
dozens of repetitions of the letter, as
this error does not perpetuate itself. 78
in aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa . . . However,
this constant repetition contains no
ORDERED SYSTEM information, no complexity. For a se-
quence of letters to contain informa-
The theory of evolution clearly tion in the form of a meaningful sen-
conflicts with the second law of ther- tence, paragraph or book, an intelli-
modynamics (the law of entropy), gent, ordering mind is absolutely es-
one of the most basic laws of phys- sential.
ics. (See The Second Law of As a result, no complex, orga-
Thermodynamics) nized system can ever arise through
According to this experimentally natural processes, although simple
proven theory, all systems in the combinations of the kind described
universe, left to their own devices, above may occur from time to time.
will suffer disorder, disruption and These arrangements never go be-
impairment in direct relation to the yond specific limits, however.
passage of time. Yet evolutionists depict examples
In order not to violate this scien- of self-ordering that arise spontane-
tific law, evolutionists use various ously in this way as significant evi-
concepts in a misleading manner. dence for evolution, portraying them
They maintain that specific order can as supposed examples of self-organi-
arise in systems undergoing constant zation. As a result of this misconcep-
exchanges of matter and energy. tion, they suggest that living systems
For example, when wind enters a can emerge spontaneously as a result
dusty room, it may move all the dust of natural chemical reactions.
that has settled and deposit it in one However, ordered systems and
corner of the room. However, these organized systems have totally dis-

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


84 Ordered System

tinct structures. Ordered systems in- taking place spontaneously.


clude simple arrangements and rep- It has often been argued by analogy to
etitions, while organized systems water crystallizing to ice that simple
contain very complex and intercon- monomers may polymerize into com-
nected structures and functions. plex molecules such as protein and
Knowledge and conscious design DNA. The analogy is clearly inappro-
are essential if they are to emerge. priate, however . . . The atomic bond-
Ilya Prigogine resorted to this de- ing forces draw water molecules into
an orderly crystalline array when the
liberate conceptual confusion and
thermal agitation (or entropy driving
referred to molecules that arranged
force) is made sufficiently small by
themselves as energy passed
lowering the temperature. Organic
through them as "spontaneously
monomers such as amino acids resist
self-organizing." In their book The combining at all at any temperature,
Mystery of Life's Origin, the however, much less [forming] some or-
American scientists Thaxton, derly arrangement. 80
Bradley and Olsen describe the posi-
Prigione devoted his whole ca-
tion in these terms:
reer to trying to square thermody-
In each case random movements of namics with the theory of evolution.
molecules in a fluid are spontaneously
But even he admitted that there was
replaced by a highly ordered behaviour.
no resemblance between the crystal-
Prigogine, Eigen, and others have sug-
lization of water and the emergence
gested that a similar sort of self-organ-
of complex biological structures:
ization may be intrinsic in organic
chemistry and can potentially account The point is that in a non-isolated sys-
for the highly complex macromolecules tem there exists a possibility for forma-
essential for living systems. But such tion of ordered, low-entropy structures
analogies have scant relevance to the at sufficiently low temperatures. This
origin-of-life question. A major reason ordering principle is responsible for the
is that they fail to distinguish between appearance of ordered structures such
order and complexity. . . . 79 as crystals, as well as for the phenome-
na of phase transitions. Unfortunately,
Those same scientists also de-
this principle cannot explain the for-
scribe the logical superficiality and
mation of biological structures. 81
distortion of some evolutionists'
claim that water turning into ice is
an analogy of biological ordering

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of the Avian Lung 85

ORGANIZED SYSTEMS
—See Ordered System

The lungs of terrestrial


ORGEL, LESLIE animals have a two-way struc-
ture: During inhalation, air travels
Probability calculations
down into the lungs through in-
show that complex molecules such
creasingly narrower channels, halt-
as proteins and nucleic acid (RNA
ing at tiny air sacs, where the ex-
and DNA) cannot possibly come in-
change of oxygen and carbon diox-
to being separately and by chance.
ide takes place. Later, this CO2-lad-
Prominent evolutionists admit
en air moves in the opposite direc-
this. For example, Stanley Miller and
tion, leaving the lung by the same
Francis Crick's colleague from San
path through which it entered, and
Diego University, the well-known
is expelled through the main bron-
evolutionist Dr. Leslie Orgel, says:
chial passage.
It is extremely improbable that pro-
In birds, on the other hand, the
teins and nucleic acids, both of which
air travels in one way only along the
are structurally complex, arose sponta-
so-called pulmonary canal. The
neously in the same place at the same
lungs' entry and exit canals are dif-
time. Yet it also seems impossible to
have one without the other. And so, at ferent from one another, and air al-
first glance, one might have to con- ways travels in the same direction,
clude that life could never, in fact, have thanks to the special air sacs extend-
originated by chemical means. 82 ing along the passages. This means a
bird can absorb oxygen in the air
non-stop, meeting its high energy re-
ORIGIN OF THE AVIAN quirements.
LUNG This unique respiratory system,
known as the avian lung, is described
Another factor that makes the
in these terms by Michael Denton, a
scenario of evolution from dinosaur
molecular biologist from Otega
to bird impossible is the unique
University in Australia:
structure of the avian lung, which
cannot be explained in evolutionary In the case of birds, the major bronchi
break down into tiny tubes which per-
terms.
meate the lung tissue. These so-called

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


86 Origin of the Avian Lung

parabronchi eventually join up togeth- structures is possible. Any verte-


er again, forming a true circulatory brate must breathe in order to sur-
system so that air flows in one direc- vive, and the first step in any change
tion through the lungs. . . [T]he struc- of pulmonary structure would lead
ture of the lung in birds and the over- to the death of that intermediate
all functioning of the respiratory sys-
stage.
tem is quite unique. No lung in any
Furthermore, the theory of evolu-
other vertebrate species is known
tion maintains that all changes took
which in any way approaches the avi-
place gradually, over millions of
an system. Moreover, it is identical in
all essential details in birds as diverse years. Yet no creature whose lungs
as humming birds, ostriches and do not function can survive for more
hawks.83 than a few minutes.
In his book A Theory in Crisis,
It is impossible for the reptilian
Michael Denton sets out the impossi-
lung, with its two-way air flow, to
bility of explaining the origin of the
have evolved into the avian lung,
avian lung from an evolutionary
with a one-way flow. No transitional
perspective:
stage between these two pulmonary
Origin of the Avian Lung 87

This one-directional flow of air is In addition, reptiles have a dia-


maintained in breathing in and breath- phragmatic respiratory system,
ing out by a complex system of inter- while birds have no diaphragm. The
connected air sacs in the bird's body, differing structures also make evolu-
which expand and contract in such a tion between the two types impossi-
way as to ensure a continuous delivery
ble. John Ruben, an authority on re-
of air through the parabronchi . . . The
spiratory physiology, comments:
structure of the lung in birds, and the
The earliest stages in the derivation of
overall functioning of the respiratory
the avian abdominal air sac system
system, are quite unique. No lung in
from a diaphragm-ventilating ancestor
any other vertebrate species in any
would have necessitated selection for a
way approaches the avian system.
diaphragmatic hernia in taxa transi-
Moreover, in its essential details, it is
tional between theropods and birds.
identical in [all] birds. 84
Such a debilitating condition would
In short, a transition from one
have immediately compromised the en-
type of lung to the other is not possi- tire pulmonary ventilatory apparatus
ble, because no "transitional" lung and seems unlikely to have been of any
could function properly. selective advantage. 85
88 Origin of the Avian Lung

REPTILE LUNG BIRD LUNG

air in out air out

bronchia
alveol air in
parabronchia

The anatomy of birds is very different from that of reptiles, their supposed ancestors.
Birds lungs funtion in a totally different way from those of land-dwelling animals. Land-
dwelling animals breathe in and out from the same air vessel. In birds, while the air en-
ters into the lung from front, it goes out from the back. This distinct system is special-
ly made for birds, which need great amounts of oxygen during flight. It is impossible for
such a structure to evolve from the reptile lung.

Still another feature refuting the one of the world's authorities in this
evolution of the avian lung is that its field, explains, because first, the avian
structure leaves it never empty of lung is fixed rigidly to the body wall
air, and faces the danger of collapse and cannot therefore expand in volume
if it should become empty. Michael and, second, because of the small diam-
eter of the lung capillaries and the re-
Denton has this to say:
sulting high surface tension of any liq-
Just how such a different respiratory
uid within them, the avian lung can-
system could have evolved gradually
not be inflated out of a collapsed
from the standard vertebrate design
state, as happens in all other
without some sort of direction is,
vertebrates after birth. The
again, very difficult to envisage, es-
air capillaries are never col-
pecially bearing in mind that the
lapsed as are the alveoli of other
maintenance of respiratory
vertebrate species; rather, as they
function is absolutely vital
grow into the lung tissue, the par-
to the life of the organ-
abronchi are from the begin-
ism. Moreover, the
ning open tu bes filled with
unique function and
either air or fluid. 86
form of the avian
lung necessitates This system, totally dif-
a number of ad- ferent from the lungs of reptiles and
ditional unique adaptations during other terrestrial vertebrates, cannot
avian development. As H. R. Dunker, have formed gradually through un-

The Evolution Impasse II


BIRDS’ SPECIAL RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

WHEN INHALIING
The air which enters the
birds’ respiratory passages
goes to the lungs, and to
air sacs behind them. The
air which is used is trans-
ferred to air sacs at the
front.

WHEN EXHALING
When the bird exhales,
clean air collected in the
rear air sacs flows into the
lung. Thanks to this sys-
tem, the flow of fresh air in-
to the avian lung continues
without interruption.

There are a great many other details in this respiratory system, which this diagram depicts
in very simplified form. in. For instance, at the points where the air sacs are connected to
the lungs, there are special valves and plugs to ensure the air travels in the right direction.
These all represent a fatal blow to the idea of evolution, as well as being evident proofs of
creation. Allah has created birds together with all their flawless characteristics. Allah is the
Almighty Creator.
90 Origin of the Bacteria

Parabronchial tubes, which enable air to circulate in the right direction in birds’
lungs. Each of these tubes is just 0.5 mm. in diameter.

conscious mutations, as evolution ORIGIN OF THE BACTERIA


maintains. Denton states that the
The oldest fossils are those of 3.5
avian lung's structure invalidates
billion year-old bacteria. From these
Darwinism:
remains, evolutionists claim that
The avian lung brings us very close to lifeless matter produced the first sin-
answering Darwin's challenge: "If it gle-celled bacterium and claim, fur-
could be demonstrated that any com-
ther that the first bacteria changed
plex organ existed, which could not
into multi-celled creatures over the
possibly have been formed by numer-
course of time and became the an-
ous, successive, slight modifications,
cestors of today's highly complex
my theory would absolutely break
down." 87
plants and animals. But with no sci-
entific proof for these claims, evolu-
tionists cannot explain how lifeless

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of the Bacteria 91

matter could have produced bacte- ing down the absorbed nutrients.
ria. Like all living cells, bacteria con-
Until recently, many scientists re- tain DNA that controls the growth,
garded bacteria as a simple life form. reproduction and other activities. In
But detailed research has shown that bacteria, DNA moves freely in the
they are quite complex, even though cell's cytoplasm. Apart from cells
they are minute, single-celled crea- without nuclei (called prokaryotes),
tures. every cell contains DNA in its nucle-
Nearly all species of bacteria are us, separated from the cytoplasm by
surrounded by a protective wall that a membrane.
shapes their cells and allows them to Within these cells occur vital bio-
thrive in quite different environ- chemical activities that ensure the
ments. Some species of bacteria pos- continuation of life on Earth.
sess a thin layer which surrounds Bacteria perform essential functions
the cell wall. Within the cell wall of in the planet's ecological system. For
all bacteria, there is an elastic cell example, some bacteria break down
membrane. Tiny nutrient molecules dead plant and animal matter, con-
enter the cell through pores on the verting them into basic "raw" chemi-
surface of this membrane, through cal compounds that living organ-
which larger molecules cannot pass. isms can reuse. Some bacteria in-
Inside the membrane is a soft, crease the fertility of the soil. Others
gelatin-like substance called cyto- convert milk into cheese, produce
plasm, which contain proteins called antibiotics for use against other
enzymes. These provide the cell with harmful bacteria, and synthesize vi-
the raw materials it needs by break- tamins.
These are only a few of the count-
Despite being very small less purposes that bacteria serve. A
and single-celled, bacte- close look at these bacteria's genetic
ria have a very complex
structure shows that they are not
structure.
simple life forms at all.
Besides all their hundreds of
characteristics, bacteria contain the
DNA that is evidence of creation. In
theta-x-174, the smallest known bac-
teria, there are 5375 nucleotides—the

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


92 Origin of the Bacteria

These 1.9-million-year-old fossilized bacteria, discovered in western Ontario, have the


same structure as bacteria living today.

building blocks of the nucleic acids only about 1 to 5 microns in size, is


that control all the hereditary char- 1,400 microns 89 (A micron is 0.001 of
acteristics of living creatures. A nor- a millimeter, or 0.000039 of an inch.)
mal-sized bacterium contains as By special design, this wonderful
many as 3 million nucleotides. 88 chain of information is folded and
Since the beginning of the 1900s, packed to fit inside a tiny organism
various studies of the intestinal bac- thousands of times smaller than it-
teria Escherichia coli have shown that self.
one of its chromosomes contains As you can see, the slightest
5,000 genes. (Genes are special areas problem in the gene coding would
formed by particles on the DNA de- result in the failure of its operational
termining the function of an organ system. Bacteria would not survive,
or a protein.) and their lineage would come to an
This information is encoded in end. As a result, the critical ecologi-
the DNA of every bacterium and is cal balance would be broken, and
vital for its survival; the slightest the entire world of living things
change in it would destroy the bacte- would be upset. Considering these
rium's whole functioning system. If complex characteristics, we under-
stretched out, the length of the infor- stand—contrary to what evolution-
mation-carrying chromosome inside ists claim — that bacteria are not
a typical bacterial cell, which itself is primitive at all.

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of the Bats 93

Moreover, again contrary to the ing characteristics is the complex so-


evolutionist claims, the evolution of nar system they possess, thanks to
bacteria into the so-called eukaryotic which bats are able to fly and per-
cells of plants and animals goes form aerobatic maneuvers in pitch
against every biological, physical darkness, where they cannot see at
and chemical law. Even though sup- all. They are able to detect and catch
porters of the evolutionary theory a tiny caterpillar on the floor of a
are completely aware of this, they do pitch-black room.
not abandon their untenable claims. The bat works this sonar by emit-
For example, Dr. Ali Demirsoy, an ting a constant stream of high-fre-
evolutionist professor, admits that quency sounds, analyzing the ech-
these bacteria cells, claimed to be oes made by them, and thus obtain-
primitive, cannot change into eukar- ing a detailed perception of its sur-
yotic cells: roundings. It does this at an extraor-
One of the most difficult stages of evo- dinary speed, non-stop and perfectly
lution to explain scientifically is how during the time it spends in flight.
organelles and complex cells could de- Research into the sonar system in
velop from these primitive life forms. bats has revealed even more aston-
Actually, a transitional form between ishing discoveries. The frequency
these two forms has not been found. range the bat can detect is very nar-
Single-celled and multi-celled have row, and since it can perceive
this complex structure. No single life
sounds only within a specific range,
form or group of life forms has been
a very important problem arises.
found that is more primitive or has or-
According to the physical phenome-
ganelles with a simpler structure. That
non known as the Doppler Effect,
is, the carried organelles developed
with all their characteristics. There is
the frequency of a sound changes
no simple or primitive form. 90 when it reflects off a moving body.
Therefore, when a bat emits
sound waves in the direction of a
ORIGIN OF THE BATS moth flying away from it, the return-
ing sound waves will be below the
Bats, the only flying mammals,
frequency that the bat can detect. For
are without doubt one of the most
that reason, the bat should have
interesting creatures in their class.
enormous difficulty in detecting its
Heading the list of bats' fascinat-
moving prey.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


94 Origin of the Bats

Yet that is not actually the case, ing commands to particular muscles.
and bats continue to detect all kinds These two types of neuron work to-
of moving object with no problem at gether, so that when the frequency
all, because they raise the frequency of the echoes changes, the first neu-
of the sound waves they emit to- ron detects this and causes the other
wards moving objects, just as if they neuron to adapt to the echo's fre-
were taking the Doppler Effect into quency, either by suppressing or
account. For example, a bat will emit stimulating it. As a result, the bat
the highest frequency sounds in the changes its frequency according to
direction of a fly moving away from its surroundings, using it in the most
it, so that when the sound echoes efficient manner.
back, it will not fall below a detecta- It is easy to realize the lethal blow
ble frequency. that this system deals to the theory
Two types of neurons or nerve of evolution's explanation of gradual
cells in the bat's brain supervise the improvements by way of random
sonar system; one of these perceives mutations. The sonar system in bats
the ultrasound emitted, and the oth- has an exceedingly complex struc-
er adjusts the bat's squeaks by issu- ture, and can never be accounted for

The oldest known fossil bat, found in Wyoming in the USA. This fossil, some 50 mil-
lion years old, is identical to modern bats.

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of Behavior 95

in terms of random mutations. In or- Icaronycteris tells us nothing about the


der for the system to function, it evolution of flight in bats because it
must exist fully formed and com- was a perfectly good flying bat. 92
plete, right down to the smallest de- It is impossible for the bat's com-
tails. The sonar will work only if the plex bodily systems to have emerged
bat has the proper structure for emit- through evolution, and the fossil rec-
ting high-frequency sounds, the or- ords confirm that no such evolution
gans with which to detect and ana- ever took place. On the contrary, the
lyze these, and a system capable of first bats that came into being on
varying the frequency, depending of Earth were exactly the same as their
changes in movement. Such sophis- present-day counterparts. Bats have
tication cannot, of course, be ex- always existed as bats.
plained in terms of random chance,
but actually shows that the bat was
created in the most perfect manner. ORIGIN OF BEHAVIOR
In addition, the fossil record also Evolutionists regard all animal
shows that bats appeared suddenly and human behavior as having spe-
on Earth, and with all their present- cific evolutionary origins, believing
day characteristics. The evolutionist that the present characteristics they
paleontologists John Hill and James possess have been passed down
Smith make the following confes- from their supposed ancestors, from
sion: the first cell through to their present-
The fossil record of bats extends back to day forms.
the early Eocene . . . and has been doc- Again according to evolutionists,
umented . . . on five continents . . . the oldest form of behavior in ani-
[A]ll fossil bats, even the oldest, are mals is food-gathering, which be-
clearly fully developed bats and so they havior is common to all living
shed little light on the transition from
things, from the first cells up to hu-
their terrestrial ancestor. 91
man beings. Impulses to survive
On the same subject, the evolu- (self-preservation) and to reproduce
tionist paleontologist L. R. Godfrey and preserve the race or species
writes: emerged later.. According to evolu-
There are some remarkably well pre- tionists, all behavior has one origin
served early Tertiary fossil bats, such and one single cause, and under-
as Icaronycteris index, but

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


96 Origin of the Birds

vanced engineering calculations,


across a river in order to stop the
flow of water. It possesses the ability
to do this from the moment of its
birth.
Evolutionists sometimes claim
that animals acquire some forms of
behavior through experience, and
A butterfly that resembles a dry leaf the most effective behaviors become
"fixed" by way of natural selection.
went appropriate changes during
These effective forms of behavior are
adaptation to various environmental
subsequently passed on to later gen-
conditions.
erations through genetic inheritance.
However, nothing about behav-
However, living things cannot
ior squares with an evolutionary sce-
survive in the absence of these in-
nario. Because living things lack the
stinctive forms of behavior. And
reasoning abilities to learn by trial
therefore, they have no time in
and error, and then record these les-
which to learn them. A living thing
sons as "instinct" in the genes, and
has to possess this behavior from the
transmit them to subsequent genera-
moment it is born. The idea that such
tions. Right from birth, they possess
behavior can "evolve" is therefore in-
such innate forms of behavior as de-
consistent right from the start, be-
fending themselves and nest -build-
cause evolutionist hypotheses allow
ing..
for no consciousness to make any
Allah creates all living things
such selection. Living things are
with their own unique attributes and
born possessing of various charac-
forms of behavior. It is impossible,
teristics and instinctive forms of be-
for instance, for a butterfly to decide
havior that allow them to survive.
to assume the appearance of a dead
leaf in order to camouflage itself and
increase its chances of survival, and ORIGIN OF THE BIRDS
then refine the changes in its wings
The theory of evolution main-
with that goal in mind. There can be
tains that birds descended from
no question of a beaver learning to
small, carnivorous theropod dino-
build a dam, requiring highly ad-
saurs—in other words, from reptiles.

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of the Birds 97

In fact, however, comparison of Sun's rays. Reptiles consume the


birds and reptiles reveals that these least energy, and birds the most.
classes are very different from one Despite being an evolutionist,
another, and that no evolution be- North Carolina University's
tween them is possible. Professor Alan Feduccia opposes the
There are many structural differ- theory that birds are related to dino-
ences between birds and reptiles, saurs. His opposition to the dino-
one of the most important of which bird claims is based on scientific
is bone structure. The bones of dino- findings:
saurs are thick and solid. In contrast, "All in all, I find the
the bones of both living and whole dino-bird busi-
extinct species of birds ness a total hoax." 93
are hollow, which Larry Martin,
makes them very a Kansas
light. Reptiles University au-
have the slowest metabolism in the thority on ancient
living world, while birds hold the birds, also opposes the
record for the fastest. For example, theory that birds are
due to its rapid metabolism, a spar-
row's body temperature may
sometimes reach 48 degrees
Celsius. But reptiles are unable to
produce their own body heat, warm-
ing themselves by means of the

Because of their heavy, bulky bodies,


dinosaur bones are very thick and
solid. On the other hand, the bones of
all birds living today and that have so
far been discovered as fossils are
hollow and thus very light.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


98 Origin of the Bird Feathers

descended from dinosaurs. In refer- stance, had short legs, an enormous


ence to the dilemma in which evolu- body and skin covered in armor-like
tion finds itself, Martin says: scales, but is a bird-type hip-boned
To tell you the truth, if I had to support dinosaur belonging to the
the dinosaur origin of birds with those Ornithischian group. On the other
characters, I'd be embarrassed every hand, Struthiomimus, some of whose
time I had to get up and talk about it. 94 anatomical features may be com-
In the face of all the scientific pared to birds, was thin with long
findings, however, the dinosaur- back legs and short forearms, and
bird evolution scenario, based on no belongs to the Saurischian group,
concrete evidence whatsoever, is still with reptile-type hip bones.
stubbornly defended. Certain con- Hip bone structure, therefore,
cepts that represent no evidence for represents no apparent evidence
this scenario are superficially por- that dinosaurs and birds are related.
trayed as "evidence" for the link be- The definition of "bird-type" hip-
tween birds and dinosaurs. boned dinosaurs is one based solely
Some evolutionist publications, on similarities, and other major ana-
for instance, suggest that, based on tomical gulfs between the two
differences in dinosaurs' hip bones, groups make it impossible to inter-
birds evolved from dinosaurs. The pret that one similarity from an evo-
hip bone difference in question is lutionist perspective.
that between the Saurischian (reptile-
type hip-boned) and Ornithischian
(bird-type hip-boned) groups. This
ORIGIN OF THE BIRD
concept of dinosaurs with bird-type
FEATHERS
hips is sometimes perceived as evi- The theory of evolution main-
dence for dinosaur-to-bird evolu- tains that birds evolved from rep-
tion. tiles, but is totally unable to account
In fact, however, this provides no for the enormous differences be-
support for the claim that dinosaurs tween these two separate living
are the forerunners of birds. Certain classes. One feature that widens the
dinosaurs belonging to the unbridgeable gulf between birds
Ornithischian group do not resem- and reptiles is feathers, which are
ble birds at all in their other anatom- unique to birds.
ical features. Ankylosaurus, for in- The structure of bird feathers is

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of the Bird Feathers 99

far too complex to be explained by the feather its aerodynamic proper-


means of any evolutionary process. ties. Even more interestingly, on
The well known ornithologist Alan each barb are even smaller struc-
Feduccia does not consider it proba- tures known as barbules, too small
ble that a tissue so well suited for to be seen with the naked eye. On all
flight could have emerged initially of these barbules are tiny hooks,
to serve another purpose (for exam- thanks to which the barbules are
ple, insulation, as is claimed by evo- held together tightly, as if by zip-
lutionists). As he says: "Everything pers.
about them indicates an aerodynam- There are 650 barbs on either side
ic function... They're lightweight, of a stork feather's stem. Each one
they're excellent airfoils, they pro- has 600 contraposed barbules, at-
duce high lift at low speeds, and tached to one another by 390 hooks
they have a Velcro-like quality that which, again, cling together like the
lets them be reassembled." 95 two sides of a zipper. If the hooks
In addition, a long, stiff tube runs become detached from one another,
along the center of the feather. From the bird has only to shake itself or
both sides of this tube emerge hun- groom its feathers with its beak for
dreds of barbs. These barbs, which them to reattach.
have differing lengths and de- To maintain that such a complex
grees of softness, give structure evolved as the result of
random mutations from reptile
scales is simply a dogmatic belief,
based on no scientific foundation at
all.

The scales covering the bodies of rep-


tiles are different from bird feathers in
every respect. Unlike feathers, scales
do not extend beneath the skin, con-
sisting solely of a hard layer on the
surface of on animal's skin. They bear
no resemblance to bird feathers, genet-
ically, biochemically, nor anatomically.
This enormous difference between
scales and feathers wholly invalidates
the scenario of evolution from reptiles
to birds.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


the com plex struc ture of birds’ feath ers

When bird feathers are examined in detail,


it is clear that they result from a very su-
perior creation. There are even small-
er filaments in every feather, as
well as special hooks that attach
them together. The picture
shows a magnified close-
up of a feather.

The Evolution Impasse II


A. H. Brush, a Connecticut
University professor of physiology
and neurobiology, described the
profound differences between rep-
tile scales and bird feathers:
A Mesozoic Era fossil fish.
Every feature from gene structure The fossil record shows that, like fish, all
and organization, to development, other living classes also appeared sud-
denly and with their different structures
morphogenesis and tissue organiza-
complete and fully formed.
tion is different [in feathers and scales.
. . the protein structure of bird feathers
and are unique among vertebrates . . .
ORIGIN OF THE FISH
Feathers appear suddenly in the fossil Evolutionists maintain that in-
record. . . . 96 vertebrate marine creatures that
This superior creation in feathers arose during the Cambrian Period
gave Charles Darwin considerable developed into fish over the course
pause for thought. The magnificent of tens of millions of years.
beauty in peacock feathers actually However, in the same way that
made him "cold all over," as he put Cambrian Period invertebrates had
it. In a letter to his friend Asa Gray no ancestors neither are there any in-
dated 3 April, 1860, he wrote: termediate form to indicate any evo-
. . . I remember well the time when the lution between these same inverte-
thought of the eye made me cold all brates and fish. (See The Cambrian
over. 97 Period.) Yet the very considerable
Whales
have been created
with the most appropri-
ate structures and total-
ly unique sensory
systems for their
surroundings.
Origin of the Flies 103

transition between invertebrates— emerged suddenly and with all their


lacking skeletons and the hard parts different structures intact. Fish were
of whose bodies are on the outside— created in a single moment, with no
and fish, whose hard parts act as evolutionary process behind them.
supports in the middle of their bod- Allah is the All-Powerful Creator.
ies, should have left behind a vast
number of fossilized intermediate
forms. Yet all the different categories ORIGIN OF THE FLIES
of fish appear suddenly in the fossil One explanation offered for the
record, with no forerunners or origin of birds is the cursorial theo-
"primitive" versions. ry, according to which reptiles' fore-
For 140 years, evolutionists have arms developed into wings as they
been combing the fossil strata in needed speed in their attempts to
their search for these imaginary in- catch insects. This theory lacks any
termediate forms. Although millions scientific evidence. Moreover, in-
of invertebrate fossils and millions sects are definitely able to fly, which
of fish fossils have been discovered, means that evolutionists face the
no one has found even a single inter- problem of the origin of insects. (See
mediate form. In an article titled The Cursorial Theory.)
"Evolution of the Lung and the Flies emerge also suddenly and
Origin of Bony Fishes: A Casual with their own unique structures in
Relationship," the evolutionist pale- the fossil record. For example, a
ontologist Gerald T. Todd sets out great many dragonfly fossils from
the following questions that demon- the Pennsylvanian period have been
strate evolutionists' despair: discovered, all identical to present-
All three subdivisions of the bony fish- day specimens.
es first appear in the fossil record at ap- The interesting fact here is that
proximately the same time . . . How did both dragonflies and flies appear at
they originate? What allowed them to the same time as species of wingless
diverge so widely? How did they all insects. This invalidates the hypoth-
come to have heavy armor? And why is
esis that wingless insects gradually
there no trace of earlier, intermediate
developed wings.
forms? 98
R. Wootton and C. Ellington
The fossil record shows that just write on the subject in an article in
like other living classes, fish the book Biomechanics in Evolution:

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


104 Origin of Flight

When insect fossils first appear, in the Cursorial Theory, and The
Middle and Upper Carboniferous, they Transition from Land to the Air
are diverse and for the most part fully Myth.
winged. There are a few primitively
wingless forms, but no convincing in-
termediates are known. 99 ORIGIN OF THE HORSES
One important feature of those Until recently, schematic illustra-
flies that emerge suddenly in the fos- tions of the evolution of horses have
sil record is their extraordinary flight been a prominent proof of the theory
techniques. Human beings cannot of evolution. Today, however, many
raise and lower their arms ten times evolutionists have openly refuted
a second, yet the average fly can flap the validity of this scenario. In 1980,
its wings 500 times a second. 150 evolutionists attended a four-
Moreover, both wings beat simulta- day meeting at the Chicago Museum
neously. The slightest irregularity in of Natural History in which the
wing beats will upset the insect's bal- problems associated with stage-by-
ance, but this never occurs. stage evolution were discussed. At
In an article titled "The that meeting, Boyce Rensberger stat-
Mechanical Design in Fly Wings," R. ed that there was no support in the
Wootton writes: fossil record for the stage-by-stage
The better we understand the function- evolution of horses:
ing of insect wings, the more subtle
The popularly told example of horse ev-
and beautiful their designs appear . . .
olution, suggesting a gradual sequence
Insect wings combine both in one, us-
of changes from four-toed fox-sized
ing components with a wide range of
creatures living nearly 50 million
elastic properties, elegantly assembled
years ago to today's much larger one-
to allow appropriate deformations in
toed horse, has long been known to be
response to appropriate forces and to
wrong. Instead of gradual change, fos-
make the best possible use of the air.
sils of each intermediate species appear
They have few if any technological par-
fully distinct, persist unchanged, and
allels--yet. 100
then become extinct. Transitional
forms are unknown. 101
About the "evolution of the
ORIGIN OF FLIGHT
horse" diagrams, the noted paleon-
—See The Arboreal Theory, The tologist Niles Eldredge said :

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of the Horses 105

There have been an awful lot of stories, lution occurred at different times in
some more imaginative than others, India, South America, North
about what the nature of that history America and Europe. Various evolu-
[of life] really is. The most famous ex- tionists proposed more than 20 dif-
ample, still on exhibit downstairs, is ferent horse-evolution scenarios, but
the exhibit on horse evolution prepared
there is no agreement among them
perhaps fifty years ago. That has been
on the different proposed family
presented as the literal truth in text-
trees. The only point they agreed on
book after textbook. Now I think that
is that the 55-million-year-old dog-
that is lamentable, particularly when
the people who propose those kinds of like creature called Eohippus
stories may themselves be aware of the (Hyracotherium) was the first so-
speculative nature of some of that called ancestor of horses. (See
stuff.102 Eohippus.) However, this so-called
In spite of the lack of any scientif- ancestor of horses—supposed to
ic support, to create this horse-evo- have become extinct millions of
lution scenario, fossils from different years ago—is almost identical to a
species were arranged in a series creature called the hyrax that still
from the smallest to the largest. lives in Africa, but is no relation to a
Evolutionists claimed that this evo- horse. 103

'The evolution of horses' exhibit at the British Natural History Museum. This and the like
schemas of 'the evolution of horses' are constructed based on a totally sided point of view
and by the extremely biased successive lining of the independent living kinds that have
lived on different geographic areas in different epochs. In reality there is no scientific evi-
dence on 'the evolution of horses'.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


106 Origin of the Horses

Every day that passes, a new fos- But perhaps the most serious weakness
sil is discovered that clearly demon- of Darwinism is the failure of paleon-
strates the discrepancy of these tologists to find convincing phyloge-
claims about the evolution of horses nies or sequences of organisms demon-
especially since Eohippus fossils have strating major evolutionary change. . .
The horse is often cited as the only ful-
been found in the same stratum as
ly worked-out example. But the fact is
two modern horse species, Equus ne-
that the line from Eohippus to Equus is
vadensis and E. occidentalis.104 This
very erratic. It is alleged to show a con-
shows that horses living today lived
tinual increase in size, but the truth is
at the same time as their supposed that some variants were smaller than
ancestors, proving that the so-called Eohippus [the first in the sequence],
evolution of horses never occurred. not larger. Specimens from different
In his book The Great Evolution sources can be brought together in a
Mystery, the evolutionist writer convincing-looking sequence, but there
Gordon R. Taylor examined topics is no evidence that they were actually
that Darwinism could not explain. ranged in this order in time. 105
About the mythical horse series, he All these facts show that one of
writes: the basic proofs for the series schema
Origin of the Insects 107

of horse evolution is totally imagi- suddenly and with the same struc-
nary. Like other species, horses also tures they have now. Betty Faber of
come into existence without leaving the American Museum of Natural
any evolutionary ancestor in the fos- History says that the cockroaches of
sil record. 350 million years ago are exactly the
same as those of today. 106
Spiders, ticks and centipedes are
ORIGIN OF THE INSECTS not really insects, although they are
With regard to the origin of birds, generally referred to as such. At the
evolutionist biologists claim that cer- 1983 annual meeting of the
tain reptiles that used their front legs American Association for the
developed wings to catch insects Advancement of Science, exceeding-
and evolved into birds. According to ly important fossil findings regard-
this speculative thesis, known as the ing these organisms were presented.
cursorial theory, the forearms of the The 380-million-year-old spider, tick
reptiles in question gradually elon- and centipede fossils were identical
gated into wings as they attempted
to catch flies. (See The Cursorial
Theory.) The most important ques-
tion regarding this theory, which is
based on no scientific findings at all,
is how insects, which were already
able to fly, developed their wings.
Insects, flies included, represent yet
another dilemma for evolutionists.
In the classification of living
things, insects represent a sub-phy-
lum, Insecta, within the arthropod
phylum (organisms with jointed
legs). The oldest fossil insects belong
to the Devonian Period. In the sub-
sequent period, the Pennsylvanian,
a large number of different insect A 35-million-year-old fly preserved in amber (fossil-
species emerge suddenly. Fossilized ized tree resin). This fossil, discovered near the Baltic
cockroaches, for instance, appear Sea, is identical to specimens living today.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


108 Origin of Instinct

There is no difference between this 320-mil-


lion-year-old fossil cockroach and modern
specimens. To the right can be seen a 145-
million-year-old fossilized fly.

to specimens alive today. One scien- "How did they acquire these in-
tist who examined these findings stincts?" "How did instinctive behav-
commented that they "looked like ior first emerge? "how is such behav-
they might have died yesterday." 107 ior transmitted from one generation
Of course, the way that these to another?" always go unanswered.
creatures, possessing flawless de- The evolutionist geneticist
signs, appeared suddenly on Earth Gordon Rattray Taylor makes this
cannot be explained in terms of evo- admission regarding the dilemma
lution. (See, Origin of the Flies.) For represented by instincts: "When we
that reason, evolutionist scientist ask ourselves how an instinctive pat-
Paul Pierre Grassé, says that "We are tern of behaviour arose in the first
in the dark concerning the origin of place and became hereditarily fixed,
insects."108 In conclusion, the sudden we are given no answer." 109
appearance of insects clearly con- Certain other evolutionists do not
firms the fact of creation. make such admissions. They try to
gloss over these questions with
veiled answers that do not actually
ORIGIN OF INSTINCT mean anything at all. According to
Evolutionist scientists use the evolutionists, instincts are behaviors
word instinct is to describe certain programmed in living things' genes.
behavior that animals possess from According to this explanation, a
birth. However questions such as honeybee, for example, instinctively

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of Instinct 109

builds its marvelous hexagonal overthrow my whole theory. 110


combs that are marvels of mathe- The difficulty that he experienced
matics. To put it another way, the with regard to instincts is described
genes of all the honeybees in the in the book The Life and Letters of
world are programmed with the in- Charles Darwin, a collection of his
stinct to construct perfect hexagonal correspondence collected by his son,
combs. If living things perform the Francis Darwin:
majority of their behaviors because Chapter III. of the Sketch, which con-
they are programmed to do so, then cludes the first part, treats of the vari-
who programmed them? Since no ations which occur in the instincts and
program can come into being of its habits of animals . . . It seems to have
own accord, this program must have been placed thus early in the Essay to
a programmer. What evolutionists prevent the hasty rejection of the whole
attempt to explain in terms of "in- theory by a reader to whom the idea of
stinct" or by saying "Animals have natural selection acting on instincts
been programmed to do this," is ac- might seem impossible. This is the
tually the inspiration of Allah. more probable, as the Chapter on
Instinct in the Origin is specially men-
Charles Darwin, who first pro-
tioned (Introduction, page 5) as one of
posed the theory of evolution, real-
the "most apparent and gravest diffi-
ized that animal behavior and in-
culties on the theory." 111
stinct represented major threats to
When left without an answer, ev-
his theory. In The Origin of Species,
olutionists sometimes claim that ani-
he openly admitted as much, several
mals learn some behavior by way of
times:
experience, and the best of that be-
Many instincts are so wonderful that
havior is favored by natural selec-
their development will probably appear
tion. This good behavior is later
to the reader a difficulty sufficient to
handed on to subsequent genera-
tions by way of heredity.
The logical flaws and unscien-
tific thinking in this claim are
quite clear:
1. The erroneous claim that
"useful behavior is favored by
natural selection."
110 Origin of Instinct

This thesis implies that Nature is Professor Cemal Yıldırım, one of


a conscious force able to distinguish Turkey's leading evolutionists, ad-
between useful and harmful behav- mits that behavior such as a mother's
iors and of making decisions. No love for her young cannot be ex-
consciousness or force in nature is plained by natural selection:
capable of this distinction. An ani- Is there any possibility of accounting
mal itself may decide what behavior for a mother's love for her young
is useful, but it cannot pass this in- through any "blind" order [natural se-
sight along through its genes alone. lection] not including a spiritual ele-
Only an Entity possessed of con- ment? It is certainly hard to say that
sciousness and reason—namely, the biologists [at this point Darwinists]
Creator of nature and the life have given a satisfactory reply to
this question. 113
form in question—can make
that selection. Since these or-
Darwin himself ad- ganisms, lacking
mitted the impossibili- any reason and
ty of complex and foresight, have
beneficial behavior a number of
being acquired miraculous fea-
through natural selec- tures; and since
tion, although he stat- it is not possible
ed that he persisted in for them to have
that claim despite it be- acquired these
ing nonsensical: features of their
Finally it may not be a logical own will, some power
deduction, but to my imagination it must have bestowed these
is far more satisfactory to look at such features on them. The mechanism of
instincts as the young cuckoo ejecting natural selection and nature itself
its foster-brothers, ants making slaves . has no consciousness and no such
. . not as specially endowed or created spiritual features, for which reason
instincts, but as small consequences of these cannot be the source of the
one general law leading to the ad- characteristics these creatures pos-
vancement of all organic beings— sess. The obvious truth is this: all liv-
namely, multiply, vary, let the strong-
ing things exist by the will and un-
est live and the weakest die. 112
der the control of Allah. For this rea-

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of Instinct 111

son, we frequently see exceedingly can be clearly shown that the most
conscious and astonishing behavior wonderful instincts with which we are
in nature, inhabited by unconscious acquainted, namely, those of the hive-
entities, of the kind that makes peo- bee and of many ants, could not possi-
ple ask. "How does this animal bly have been acquired by habit. 114

know how to do that?" or "How did If a working ant or other neuter insect
this creature ever think of doing had been an ordinary animal, I should
that?" have unhesitatingly assumed that all
2. It is impossible for behavior its characters had been slowly acquired
acquired through natural selection through natural selection; namely, by
to be transmitted genetically to sub- individuals having been born with
slight profitable modifications, which
sequent generations.
were inherited by the off-spring; and
In the second phase of evolution-
that these again varied and again were
ists' claims, behavior acquired
selected, and so onwards. But with the
through natural selection must be
working ant we have an insect differ-
genetically handed on to subsequent ing greatly from its parents, yet abso-
generations. However, such claims lutely sterile; so that it could never
are full of various inconsistencies. have transmitted successively acquired
First, , even if animals learned be- modifications of structure or instinct
havior through experience, it is im- to its progeny. It may well be asked
possible for subsequently acquired how is it possible to reconcile this case
behavior to be passed on genetically. with the theory of natural selection? 115
Learned behavior belongs uniquely
to the animal that learned it. It is ab-
solutely impossible for any learned
behavior to be encoded into a living
thing's genes.
Evolutionists today are still una-
ble to resolve that same contradic-
tion posed by Darwin 150 years ago:
[I]t would be a serious error to suppose
that the greater number of instincts
have been acquired by habit in one gen-
eration, and then transmitted by inher-
itance to succeeding generations. It

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


112 Origin of Instinct

3. The invalidity of the claim and nest-building. These characteris-


that instincts evolve together with tics have been perfectly regulated ac-
living things cording to underwater conditions. In
Darwin was aware of the incon- their mating season, some fish ad-
sistencies and impossibilities regard- here their eggs to an undersea rock
ing evolutionary explanations for in- and provide them with oxygen by
stincts and questioned the claim that fanning their fins.
instincts, following their acquisition, In that case, according to evolu-
changed through natural selection: tion theory, as these fish evolved
[C]an instincts be acquired and modi- their instincts must also have under-
fied through natural selection? What gone great changes. Indeed, their in-
shall we say to the instinct which leads stincts would have to change almost
the bee to make cells, and which has entirely for these fish to start clear-
practically anticipated the discoveries ing perfect round nests, in much the
of profound mathematicians? 116 same way terrestrial animals do for
This inconsistency can be made the protection of their eggs.
clearer by citing examples of fish, In The Origin of Species, Darwin
which have their own unique ways devoted some space to this criticism
of reproducing, hunting, defense of his own theory:
Origin of the Mammals 113

It has been objected to the foregoing words, they have a special built-in
view of the origin of instincts that the ability. 118
variations of structure and of instinct The way that all babies in the
must have been simultaneous and ac- world produce similar sounds
curately adjusted to each other, as a shows that they are all born with a
modification in the one without an im-
special inspiration toward speech.
mediate corresponding change in the
That human beings are created with
other would have been fatal." 117
this feature, not found in any other
As you have seen, instinctive be- living thing, is Allah's sublime artist-
havior in animals cannot be ex- ry.
plained in terms of any evolutionary
process, chance, or "Mother nature".
The source of animals' behavior lies ORIGIN OF THE MAMMALS
neither in their own bodies nor in
The theory of evolution main-
nature. Under the inspiration of
tains that a number of living things
Allah, all living things behave in the
evolved by emerging from the sea,
manner most suited to their own
turning into amphibians and then
structures and to their surroundings.
into reptiles, and that birds evolved
from those reptiles. According to the
ORIGIN OF THE LANGUAGE same scenario, reptiles are the ances-
tors not only of birds but also of
Regarding the origin of language, mammals. Yet there are vast struc-
there are two different views.. The tural gulfs between cold-blooded
first is that a human is born with a reptiles, whose bodies are covered in
"blank slate" mind and merely learns scales and which reproduce by lay-
to speak from observing those ing eggs, and warm-blooded mam-
around him. However, the famous mals, which are covered in fur and
linguist Noam Chomsky has put for- give birth to live young.
ward a very different conclusion One example of these gulfs in-
based on scientific facts, statistics volves the jaw structures of reptiles
and observations. In his view, the and mammals. The mammalian low-
human mind has an innate propensi- er jaw consists of a single arc of
ty to learn language and to speak. bone, in which the teeth are set. A
Human beings are programmed in reptile's lower jaw, on the other
advance for language—in other hand, consists of three small bones

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


114 Origin of the Mammals

There is no structural difference between mammal fossils dating back tens of mil-
lions of years exhibited in natural history museums and specimens alive today.
Moreover, these fossils appear suddenly in the Earth's strata, with no links to earli-
er species.

on each side. Another fundamental unanswered.


difference is that in the middle ears Indeed, no intermediate form
of all mammals, there are three small that could link reptiles to mammals
bones: the so-called anvil, hammer has ever been found. That explains
and stirrup. In contrast, in the mid- why the evolutionist paleontologist
dle ear of all reptiles, there is but a Roger Lewin was forced to say, "The
single bone. transition to the first mammal . . . is
Evolutionists maintain that the still an enigma." 119
reptiles' jaw and ear gradually George Gaylord Simpson, one of
evolved into the mammalian jaw the 20th century's most eminent au-
and ear. Of course, the question of thorities on evolution and one of the
how this came about goes unans- founders of neo-Darwinist theory,
wered. How did an ear consisting of makes an astonishing confession
one bone turn into one consisting of from the evolutionist point of view:
three? And how did the sense of The most puzzling event in the history
hearing continue during this proc- of life on earth is the change from the
ess? These other questions also go Mesozoic, the Age of Reptiles, to the

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of the Marine Mammals 115

Age of Mammals. It is as if the curtain species appeared in a particular or-


were rung down suddenly on the stage der as an indication that they
where all the leading roles were taken evolved. In fact, since no evolution
by reptiles, especially dinosaurs, in ever took place, the order in which
great numbers and bewildering varie- living things emerged is the order of
ty, and rose again immediately to re-
creation. Fossils show that by means
veal the same setting but an entirely
of a sublime and flawless creation,
new cast, a cast in which the dinosaurs
the Earth was filled first with marine
do not appear at all, other reptiles are
animals and then with terrestrial
supernumeraries, and all the leading
parts are played by mammals of sorts ones, and that human beings came
barely hinted at in the preceding into existence after all these.
acts.120 Human life on Earth began sud-
denly and in a perfect form, contrary
In addition, the mammals that
to the "ape-man" myth that evolu-
suddenly appeared are very differ-
tionists seek to impose on the public.
ent from one another. The bat, horse,
mouse and whale all emerged in the
same geological period. It is impossi-
ORIGIN OF THE MARINE
ble, even with the most powerful im-
MAMMALS
agination, to construct an evolution-
ary relationship between these Whales and dolphins are classi-
mammals. The evolutionist zoolo- fied as mammals because, just like
gist Eric Lombard writes in the jour- terrestrial mammals, they give live
nal Evolution: birth, suckle their young, breathe
with lungs and are warm-blooded.
Those searching for specific informa-
tion useful in constructing phyloge- But the origin of marine mammals is
nies of mammalian taxa will be disap- one of the most difficult questions
pointed. 121 facing evolutionists.
Most evolutionist sources de-
All this goes to show that living
scribe how the land-dwelling ances-
things emerged on Earth suddenly
tors of seagoing mammals evolved
and perfectly formed, as the result of
in such a way as to move over to a
no evolutionary process,. This is
marine environment as the result of
concrete evidence that they were
a lengthy evolutionary process.
created. Evolutionists, however,
According to this claim, marine
seek to interpret the fact that living
mammals followed a path diametri-

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


116 Origin of the Marine Mammals

cally opposed to the transition from form changes. We have to assume that
water to dry land, returning to a ma- the return to the sea took place not
rine environment as the result of a through a long-term, slow transition
second process of evolution. as claimed by Darwinism, but in mo-
However, this theory is based on no mentary leaps. Paleontologists today
lack sufficient information as regards
paleontological evidence—and is al-
which mammal species whales are
so logically inconsistent.
evolved from. 122
Mammals are regarded as the top
rung of the evolutionary ladder. It's difficult indeed to imagine
That being so, the question arises of how, as the result of any evolutiona-
how these creatures moved back to a ry process, a small terrestrial mam-
marine environment. A subsequent mal could become a whale 30 meters
question is that of how they adapted (98 feet) long and weighing 60 tons..
to that environment even better than On this subject, all that Darwinists
fish. Dolphins, which are mammals are able to do is, as in the account
and thus possess lungs, are even bet- published in National Geographic
ter adapted to their environment magazine cited below, to exercise
than fish, which breathe in water. their imaginations:
It is perfectly obvious that the im- The whale's ascendancy to sovereign
aginary evolution of marine mam- size apparently began sixty million
mals cannot be explained in terms of years ago when hairy, four-legged
mammals, in search of food or sanctu-
mutations and natural selection. One
ary, ventured into water. As eons
article published in GEO magazine
passed, changes slowly occurred. Hind
refers to the origin of the blue whale,
legs disappeared, front legs changed
stating the despairing position of
into flippers, hair gave way to a thick
Darwinism on the subject: smooth blanket of blubber, nostrils
Like blue whales, the bodily structures moved to the top of the head, the tail
and organs of other mammals living in broadened into flukes, and in the buoy-
the sea also resemble those of fish. ant water world the body became enor-
Their skeletons also bear similarities to mous. 123
those of fish. In whales, the rear limbs
Bearing in mind the adaptations
that we can refer to as legs exhibited a
that a mammal, using lungs to
reverse development and did not reach
breathe with, would have to under-
full growth Yet there is not the slight-
go in order to thrive in a marine en-
est information about these animals'

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of the Marine Mammals 117

vironment, it can be seen that even ter way than in humans, thus reduc-
the word impossible fails to do justice ing water loss to a minimum. Water
to the situation. The absence of even conservation reveals itself in even
one rung of the ladder in such an ev- the smallest details. For example, the
olutionary transition would deny mother whale feeds her young with
the animal the ability to survive, and milk of a dense consistency like that
bring the evolutionary process to an of cottage cheese, and which is some
end. tens of times more fatty than human
Marine Mammals and Their milk. There are number of chemical
Unique Structures reasons why the milk should have
The adaptations that marine ani- such a high fat content. As the young
mals would have to undergo during processes the fat it releases water as
a transition to a water environment a byproduct. In this way, the mother
can be enumerated as follows: is able to meet her young's water re-
1. Water Conservation. Marine quirements with a minimal water
mammals are unable to meet their loss of her own.
water requirements in the same way 2. Sight and Communication. The
as fish do, by using salt water. They differences between the eyes of ma-
need fresh water in order to live. rine mammals and those of terrestri-
Although the water sources of ma- al life forms are surprising. On land,
rine animals are not well known, it is physical blows and dust represent
thought that they meet a large part threats to the eye, and for that rea-
of their water requirements by eat- son, terrestrial animals have eyelids.
ing creatures that contain up to one- In a marine environment, however,
third as much salt as exists in the the main dangers are salt level, the
ocean. For marine mammals, it increasing pressure when diving
is of great importance to con- down to great
serve as much fresh water as
possible. For that reason, they
possess water conservation mech-
anisms like that seen in camels.
Like camels, marine mammals
do not sweat. Their kidneys pro-
vide water for them by concen-
trating urine in a much bet-

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


118 Origin of the Marine Mammals

depths, and marine currents. The more important to them. Vision re-
creature's eyes are positioned on the quires light, but many whales and
sides of the head in order to avoid dolphins hunt in dark regions under
direct contact with the current. the sea thanks to a kind of natural
In addition, marine mammals sonar. Toothed whales in particular
have a hard layer to protect the eye are able to "see" by means of the
during deep dives. Since there is in- sound waves returning to them,
creasing darkness beneath a depth of much as a bat can. Sound waves are
9 meters (29 feet), the mammals' eyes focused and sent to one point. The
have been equipped with a number returning waves are then analyzed
of features that enable them to adapt and interpreted in the animal's
to such a dark environment. The lens brain. This analysis quite clearly
is spherical. There are many more gives the shape, size, speed and po-
light-sensitive rod cells than cone sition of an object. These animals' so-
cells, which are sensitive to color nar system is exceedingly sensitive.
and detail. Moreover, the eye has a Dolphins, for example, can detect a
special layer containing phosphorus. person's inside diving into the wa-
For these reasons, marine mammals ter. They use sound waves for com-
can see very well in dark environ- munication as well as for direction-
ments. finding. Two whales hundreds of
Then again, sight is not marine kilometers apart can communicate
mammals' primary sense. Unlike by the use of sound.
land mammals, hearing is much How do these animals produce
Origin of the Marine Reptiles 119

sounds for communication and di- Cretaceous placentals. Like the bats,
rection finding? That question is still the whales (using the term in a gener-
unanswered. Among other things, al and inclusive sense) appear sudden-
however, we do know one very sur- ly in early Tertiary times, fully adapt-
prising detail: The dolphin's skull is ed by profound modifications of the ba-
sic mammalian structure for a highly
especially sound-proofed to protect
specialized mode of life. Indeed, the
its brain from being damaged by
whales are even more isolated with re-
sound waves it emits so constantly
lation to other mammals than the bats;
and powerfully.
they stand quite alone. 124
There is absolutely no possibility
As with all other fundamental
of all these astonishing characteris-
living groups, no findings support
tics of marine mammals having aris-
the claim of marine mammals' so-
en by way of mutation and natural
called evolution. It is impossible for
selection—the theory of evolution's
them to have evolved from the land
only two mechanisms. Those who
mammals that supposedly consti-
suggest that fish appeared in water
tute their ancestors, but also, there
by chance, and then later—again by
are no transitional forms to show
chance— emerged onto dry land
that such evolution ever took place.
and evolved into amphibians, rep-
tiles and mammals; and that these
mammals then returned to the water ORIGIN OF THE MARINE
and acquired the anatomy necessary REPTILES
for life there, cannot account for
even one of these stages. The great majority of marine rep-
Indeed, the fossil record shows tiles are now extinct, though turtles
that whales and other marine mam- still survive as representatives of this
mals appeared in the seas in a single group. The origin of these creatures
moment and with no ancestors be- cannot be explained through any ev-
hind them. Edwin Colbert, an au- olutionist approach. The most signif-
thority in the field of paleontology, icant known marine reptile is
describes this fact: Ichthyosaurus. Edwin Colbert and
Michael Morales admit that there
These mammals must have had an an-
can be no evolutionary explanation
cient origin, for no intermediate forms
are apparent in the fossil record be- for these creatures' origin:
tween the whales and the ancestral The Ichthyosaurs, in many respects the

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


120 Origin of the Quadrupeds

A 250-million-year old Ichthyosaur fossil belonging to the species Stenopterygius

most highly specialized of the marine long time for their development and
reptiles, appeared in early Triassic hence a very early origin for the group,
times. Their advent into the geologic but there are no known Permian rep-
history of the reptiles was sudden and tiles antecedent to them. 126
dramatic; there are no clues in pre- In short, all the different marine
Triassic sediments as to the possible
reptiles appeared on Earth separate-
ancestors of the Ichthyosaurs . . . The
ly, with no evolutionary relationship
basic problem of Ichthyosaur relation-
among them. This constitutes mani-
ships is that no conclusive evidence
fest scientific proof that all living
can be found for linking these reptiles
things are created.
with any other reptilian order. 125
Alfred Romer, another expert on
vertebrate history, writes: ORIGIN OF THE
No earlier forms [of ichthyo- QUADRUPEDS
saurs] are known. The
Quadrupeds (or tetrapods) is the
peculiarities of
ichthyosaur
name given to four-footed land-
structure dwelling vertebrates. This general
would seem- classification includes amphibians,
ingly re- reptiles and mammals. The
quire a Darwinists' explanation is that quad-
rupeds evolved from fish. However,
this claim is physiologically
and anatomically

An Ichthyosaur fo-
sil, approximately 200 million .years old
The Evolution Impasse II
Origin of Photosynthesis 121

not for photosynthesis, there would


Tetrapod fossil
be no plants, and if there were no
plants there would be little oxy-
gen—and no animals and human
beings. This chemical reaction,
which cannot be replicated in any
laboratory, represents one of the ba-
sic conditions for life.
In addition, there is a total bal-
ance between the photosynthesis
untenable—and also, has no founda-
performed by plants and the energy
tion in the fossil record.
consumed by animals and human
In order for a fish to adapt to life
beings. Plants provide us with glu-
on dry land, it would have to under-
cose and oxygen. In our cells, we
go tremendous changes in its respir-
combine that glucose with oxygen
atory system, excretory system and
and oxidize it, thus releasing and us-
skeletal structure. Its gills would
ing the solar energy that plants orig-
have to be supplemented by lungs;
inally used to form glucose.
its fins would have to acquire sturdi-
What we're actually doing is re-
ness capable of bearing the weight of
versing the process of photosynthe-
its body. Kidneys to dispose of bodi-
sis. As a result, carbon dioxide is giv-
ly wastes would need to form, and
en off as a waste product, which we
its skin would have to acquire a
release into the atmosphere through
structure to prevent loss of moisture.
our lungs. This carbon dioxide is
So long as all these changes fail to
then used again by plants in further
take place, a fish could survive on
photosynthesis. And so this immac-
dry land for only a few minutes. (See
ulate cycle continues.
also The Transition from Water to
As you see, photosynthesis is one
Land Thesis.)
of the most fundamental processes
of life on Earth. Thanks to the chlo-
ORIGIN OF roplasts inside them, plant cells pro-
PHOTOSYNTHESIS duce starch by combining water and
carbon dioxide, with the energy
Photosynthesis is a major factor
from sunlight. Animals, unable to
in sustaining life on Earth. Were it
produce their own nutrients, use the

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


122 Origin of Photosynthesis

Skin membrane

Epidermis

Tissue containing
pho to syn the siz ing
cells
Cross-section of leaf Pore (stoma)

Chloroplast
Thylacoids

Outer mem-
brane
Inner membrane
Photosynthetic cell
Main tissue
Thin scale Granum
Granum

Plant cells perform photosynthesis, a process that cannot be carried out in any laboratory.
Thanks to an organelle in the cell known as the chloroplast, plants use water, carbon dioxide
and the energy from sunlight to manufacture starch. This nutrient is the first link in the Earth's
food chain and the source of nourishment for all living things on Earth. The details of this high-
ly complex process have still not been fully deciphered.

starch that comes from plants. For of natural events. The evolutionist
that reason, photosynthesis is essen- hypothesis is that in order to per-
tial for any complex life forms—yet form photosynthesis, plant cells
photosynthesis's highly complex swallowed photosynthesizing bacte-
process is not yet fully understood. ria and turned them into chloro-
Modern technology has not even un- plasts, much as modern-day lichens
raveled its details, let alone been are a symbiotic combination of algae
able to replicate it. and fungi. However, the question of
According to the theory of evolu- how bacteria learned to carry out
tion, this complex process is a result such a complex process as photosyn-

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of Photosynthesis 123

thesis heads the list of those that the knowledge cannot perform, was in
evolutionary scenario leaves unans- some way discovered by bacteria.
wered. These accounts are no different from
Evolutionist sources say that this fairy tales and are of absolutely no
process, which humans even with all scientific worth. Those who look at
their advanced technology and the subject in any great detail have to

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


admit that photosynthesis consti- ORIGIN OF THE PLANT
tutes a major dilemma for the theo- CELLS
ry of evolution.
Plant and animals are composed
For instance, evolutionist
of a type of cell known as eukaryot-
Professor Ali Demirsoy makes the
ic. Eukaryotic cells' main distin-
following admission:
guishing features are that they pos-
"Photosynthesis is a highly com-
sess a nucleus, inside which is
plex process, and it would appear
found the DNA molecule that en-
impossible for it to appear in an or-
codes genetic information. Some
ganelle inside a cell—because it is
single-celled organisms such as
impossible for all the phases to ap-
bacteria, on the other hand, have no
pear at once, and meaningless for
cell nuclei, and their DNA molecu-
them to do so one by one." 127
les are in a free state inside the cell.
The German biologist Hoimar
(See Bacteria.)
von Ditfurth states that photosyn-
This second cell type is known
thesis is a process that could not be
as prokaryotic—an ideal cell struc-
learned by a cell that lacked such
ture for bacteria, because plasmid
ability in the first place:
transfer (the transfer of DNA from
No cell possesses the literal ability to cell to cell)— an exceedingly im-
"learn" a biological process. A cell is portant process from the point of
not in the position to function during
view of bacteria populations—is
the birth of a process such as respira-
made possible thanks to DNA be-
tion or photosynthesis and to dis-
ing free within the prokaryotic cell.
charge this during a subsequent vital
Since the theory of evolution is
process, and it is impossible for it to
acquire the ability to do so. 128
obliged to arrange life from the
primitive to the complex, it as-
Since photosynthesis cannot de-
sumes that prokaryotes are primi-
velop as the result of chance and
tive cells, and that eukaryotes
cannot be learned by any cell, then
evolved from them.
the first plant cell on Earth must
Before addressing the invalidity
have already possessed this ability.
of this claim, it's useful to state that
In other words, Allah created
prokaryotic cells are not primitive
plants together with their ability to
at all. A bacterium has almost 2,000
make photosynthesis.
Plants represent the foun-
dation of life on Earth.
Because they produce
food for animals as well as
providing the atmospheric
oxygen they need to
breathe, they represent an
indispensable precondi-
tion for life..

genes, and each gene contains up to changes, the lack of any intermedi-
1,000 letters of genetic code. This ate form between bacteria and eu-
means that the information in a bac- karyotic cells totally invalidates any
terium's DNA is at least 2 million claim of evolution. The Turkish ev-
"letters" long. Accordingly, the in- olutionist Professor Ali Demirsoy
formation contained in the DNA of admits that the scenario of bacteria
a single bacterium is equivalent to cells evolving into eukaryotic
20 volumes of 100,000 words each.129 cells—from which more complex
Any change in this encoded in- life forms then emerged—is invalid:
formation may damage the bacteri- One of the most difficult phases to ac-
um's entire operating system, spell- count for in evolution is the scientific
ing death for the bacterium. explanation of how complex cells with
In addition to DNA's sensitive organelles came into being from these
structure that withstands random primitive organisms. In fact, no tran-

There is no scientific basis to the evolutionist hypothesis that prok-


aryotic cells (left) gradually turned in eukaryotic ones (right).
126 Origin of the Plant Cells

sitional form between these two forms


has ever been found. Single-celled and
multi-celled organisms fully possess
this complex structure, and no group
or organism with simpler organelles or
which is more primitive than either of
these has ever been encountered. In
other words, the organelles they pos-
sess emerged fully developed. There are
no simple and primitive forms. 130
Bearing in mind the enormous
A 25-million-year-old plant fossil with
structural differences between the the same structure as plants living today.
bacterium cell and plant cells, the
impossibility of any such transition
cells is protected by a double-layer-
becomes crystal-clear:
ed membrane, while the DNA in the
● The bacterium cell wall con-
bacterium cell is free within it.
sists of polysaccharide and protein,
● In terms of appearance the bac-
whereas the plant cell wall is made
terium's DNA molecule resembles a
of cellulose, which has a completely
closed loop. The DNA molecule in a
different structure.
plant cell is linear.
● In a plant cell, there are various
● The DNA molecule in the bac-
organelles with highly complex
terium cell contains information re-
structures and surrounded by a
garding only that single cell, while
membrane, but no organelles in the
the plant cell's DNA carries informa-
bacterium cell. The bacterium cell
tion about the entire plant. All the in-
contains only very small ribosomes
formation concerning a fruit tree's
in a free state. In the plant cell, the ri-
roots, trunk, leaves, flowers and fruit
bosomes are much larger and con-
exists separately in the DNA in each
nected to the membrane. In addition,
cell nucleus.
each type of ribosome performs pro-
● Some species of bacteria are
tein synthesis in a different way. 131
photosynthetic, performing photo-
● The structures of the DNA in
synthesis. In contrast to plants, how-
the plant and bacterium cells are to-
ever, bacteria break down the com-
tally different.
pounds and do not emit oxygen.
● The DNA molecule in plant
Moreover, inside the chloroplasts in

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of Reptiles 127

photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacte- possible for the plant cell to have


ria, for instance), chlorophyll and evolved from a bacterium.
pigments do not exist. These are dis- Professor Demirsoy actually ad-
tributed throughout the cell, con- mits this: "Complex cells never de-
cealed in various membranes. veloped from primitive cells by a
● The messenger RNAs in the process of evolution." 134
bacterium and in the larger plant
and animal cells are very different
from one another in terms of bio- ORIGIN OF REPTILES
chemical structure. 132 Creatures such as dinosaurs, liz-
Messenger RNA performs a func- ards, tortoises and crocodiles all be-
tion that is vital to the cell's survival. long to the reptile family. Reptiles
However, although messenger RNA possess unique characteristics: They
plays the same essential role in both are all covered in scales. They are
eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, it cold-blooded and cannot produce
has a different biochemical structure their own body heat, for which rea-
in each. Darnell writes on this sub- son they need to warm their bodies
ject in an article in Science magazine: in the Sun every day. Their young
The differences in the biochemistry of hatch from eggs.
messenger RNA formation in eukaryo- Evolution theory faces another
tes compared to prokaryotes are so pro- major dilemma in explaining the or-
found as to suggest that sequential igin of these creatures. Darwinists
prokaryotic to eukaryotic cell evolution claim that reptiles evolved from am-
seems unlikely. 133
phibians, yet no concrete evidence
The enormous structural differ- supports this. On the contrary, a
ences between bacteria and plant comparison of reptiles and amphibi-
cells, of which we have listed a few ans shows enormous physiological
examples, represent a major impasse differences between the two groups,
for evolutionist biologists. Some bac- and that any half-reptile, half-am-
teria and plant cells do have some phibian would stand no chance of
features in common, but these struc- survival.
tures are generally very different One reason concerns the two
from one another. These differences, groups' different egg structures.
and the impossibility of any func- Amphibians deposit their eggs in
tional intermediate form, make it im- water, and they are ideally suited to

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


128 Origin of Reptiles

aqueous development. These eggs land, the amphibian's egg would


are highly porous, they have a trans- have to become an amniotic one
parent membrane and a jelly-like within a single generation. This
consistency. Reptiles, on the other could hardly occur through muta-
hand, lay their eggs on land, and tion and natural selection, the two
their eggs are ideally suited to dry suggested mechanisms of evolution.
conditions. The hard shell of the rep- On the other hand, the fossil
tile egg, known as an amniotic egg, record also removes the possibility
contains an air sac, and is imperme- of an evolutionary origin for reptiles.
able to water. The water needed by In an article, "Problems of the Origin
the young is contained inside the of Reptiles," the well-known evolu-
egg until it hatches. tionist paleontologist Lewis L.
Were amphibians to deposit their Carroll admits as much:
eggs on land, they would soon dry Unfortunately, not a single specimen
out and the embryos inside would of an appropriate reptilian ancestor is
die. This is a point that the evolution known prior to the appearance of true
theory, which maintains that reptiles reptiles. The absence of such ancestral
gradually evolved from amphibians, forms leaves many problems of the am-
cannot explain. To begin life on dry phibian-reptilian transition unans-
wered. 135
Robert L. Carroll, regarded
as an authority on verte-
brate paleontology,

Seymouria
fossil
130 Origin of Species, The

accepts that "The early amniotes are ORIGIN OF SPECIES, THE


sufficiently distinct from all
In 1859, Charles Darwin pub-
Paleozoic amphibians that their spe-
lished a book called The Origin of
cific ancestry has not been estab-
Species, By Means of Natural Selection
lished."136 Carroll also makes these
or, The Preservation of Favored Races in
comments in his book:
The Struggle for Life. In this book,
When they first appear in the fossil Darwin added his own errors of log-
record, both frogs and salamanders ap- ic to Lamarck's theory and advanced
pear essentially modern in their skele-
his thesis of natural selection. (See
tal anatomy. . . Despite these similari-
Natural Selection and
ties, frogs, salamanders, and caecilians
Lamarckism.)
are very different from one another in
In his book, which he described
skeletal structure and ways of life, both
now and throughout their known fossil
as a "long argument," Darwin
record . . . we have found no fossil evi- claimed that all living things on
dence of any possible antecedents that Earth shared a common origin and
possessed the specialized features com- that living things descended from
mon to all three modern orders. 137 one another by way of natural selec-
The most important creature that tion.
evolutionists have so far sought to In addition, Darwin said that on-
portray as the "ancestor of reptiles" ly those best able to adapt to their
is the fossil amphibian Seymouria. environment handed on their char-
Yet the discovery that reptiles were acteristics to subsequent genera-
alive 30 million years before tions. Over the course of time, these
Seymouria's appearance revealed beneficial changes would accumu-
that this cannot be an intermediate late, and living things would turn in-
species. (See Seymouria.) to other forms of life very different
It is of course impossible for "the from their ancestral species. Man
forerunner of reptiles" to have first was the most advanced product of
appeared long after them. The scien- so-called natural selection. Darwin
tific facts show that reptiles emerged thought he had found the origin of
on Earth not through the gradual species: The origin of any one spe-
change maintained by the theory of cies was another, earlier species.
evolution, but suddenly, with no an- Darwin's greatest difficulty was
tecedents. that paleontology, the science he

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of Turtles 131

hoped would provide answers to


the problems facing his theory,
would in fact only make them
worse.
To be fair, he was aware of at
least some of these problems. In the
appendix to his book, titled
"Difficulties of the Theory," he even
admitted them. However, the an-
swers he supplied to these problems
lacked any scientific validity. The
American physicist Lipson com-
ments on Darwin's "difficulties":
On reading The Origin of Species, I
found that Darwin was much less sure
of himself than he is often represented
to be; the chapter entitled "Difficulties
Remains of the oldest known sea turtle.
of the Theory," for example, shows
Found in Brazil, this 110-million-year-old
considerable self-doubt. As a physicist, fossil is indistinguishable from present-
I was particularly intrigued by his day specimens.
comments on how the eye would have
arisen. 138 highly successful order is obscured
Darwin hoped that as scientific by the lack of early fossils, although
research progressed, these difficul- turtles leave more and better fossil
ties would be resolved. On the con- remains than do other vertebrates.
trary, however, later scientific find- By the middle of the Triassic Period
ings only worsened them. (about 200,000,000 years ago), turtles
were numerous and in possession of
basic turtle characteristics. . .
ORIGIN OF TURTLES Intermediates between turtles and
Turtles, members of the reptile cotylosaurs, the primitive reptiles
family, emerge suddenly in the fossil from which turtles probably sprang,
record together with their unique are entirely lacking." 139
shells. As evolutionist sources put it, Robert Carroll, an expert on ver-
"Unfortunately, the origin of this tebrate paleontology, states that "im-
132 Origin of Vertebrates

er, they claim that the Chordata


evolved from another, inverte-
brate phylum. However, like
all phyla, members of the phy-
lum Chordata appeared sudden-
ly in the Cambrian Period, which
invalidates that theory right from
the outset. The oldest member
of the phylum, a sea creature
with a long body rather resem-
bling a worm's at first glance is,
A 45-million- known as Pikaia.. 141 It emerged at ex-
year-old fresh- actly the same time as species in all
water turtle
the other phyla that could be pro-
fossil.
posed as its ancestor, and with no
portant transitions and radiations previous intermediate form.
[are] still poorly known." 140 In his book Vertebrate Animals,
This living class appeared sud- the evolutionist biologist Professor
denly on Earth, which represents ev- Mustafa Kuru refers to the absence
idence that they were created by of such an intermediate form: "There
Allah. is no doubt that the Chordata
formed from invertebrate animals.
ORIGIN OF VERTEBRATES However, the absence of any fossil
One of the phyla that emerged that might shed light on the passage
suddenly in the Cambrian period is between invertebrates and Chordata
the phylum Chordata, These are a has caused many hypotheses on this
sub-class of vertebrates, with a cen- subject to be jettisoned." 142
tral nervous system. Vertebrates are If there is no intermediate form,
divided into such basic classes as how can one say that there is "no
fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and doubt" about this evolution? Blindly
mammals. accepting a hypothesis with no evi-
Since evolutionist paleontologists dence to support it is dogmatic rath-
regard every living phylum as the er than scientific. Indeed, after going
evolutionary continuation of anoth- into a lengthy account of evolution-
ist assumptions regarding the origin

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of Vertebrates 133

of vertebrates, Professor Kuru once The theory of evolution hypothe-


again has to admit that no evidence sizes that Chordata such as Pikaia
is available at all: "The views regard- gradually turned into fish. However,
ing the origin and evolution of the just as there is no intermediate form
Chordata expressed above have al- to support the idea of the evolution
ways been treated with suspicion, of Chordata, so there are none to
since they are not based on a fossil support that of the evolution of fish.
record." 143 On the contrary, all the different cat-
Evolutionist biologists some- egories of fish appear suddenly in
times offer the following sort of ra- the fossil record and with no ances-
tionale: There is no fossil record re- tors preceding them. There are mil-
garding the origin of the Chordata lions of invertebrate fossils, but no-
and other vertebrates because inver- body has ever found a single inter-
tebrates are soft-tissued and there- mediate-form fossil. Fish dating
fore leave no fossil traces behind. back to the Cambrian Period, espe-
But in fact, there are many fossil in- cially those discovered in China
vertebrate remains. All the living such as Haikouichthys and
things from the Cambrian Period are Myllokunmingia, invalidate evolu-
invertebrates, and they have left tens tionist claims of gradual develop-
of thousands of fossils behind them. ment. Philippe Janvier, a palaeontol-
Many fossils of soft-tissued crea- ogist from the Museum of Natural
tures have been found in the Burgess History in Paris, states that these life
Shale bed in Canada; scientists think forms found in China were "defi-
that in regions such as Burgess Shale nitely vertebrates" and sets
living things were quickly covered out their importance:
in layers of mud with low oxygen It's important
content and thus fossilized without
their soft tissues having broken
down. 144

The conjectural
anatomy of Pikaia,
the oldest known
chordate

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


134 Origin of Viruses

The oldest chordate Pikaia fossil to appear in the Cambrian Period

because up to now the vertebrates were small organisms. It was later estab-
absent from the big bang of life, as we lished in detailed studies conducted
call it—that is, the great early under the electron microscope that
Cambrian explosion, where all the ma- these were structurally very different
jor animal groups appeared suddenly and that they lived solely as parasites
in the fossil record . . . It is practically in the cell.
certain that these are vertebrates. 145
No matter how many virions one or a
few enzymes contain, this enzyme se-
ries is still insufficient for establishing
ORIGIN OF VIRUSES a virion. (virion, the state in which vi-
Some evolutionists maintain that ruses have the capacity to cause infec-
viruses represent the biological be- tion). 147

ginning of life: Viruses multiply as parasites in


When we look at the pre-cellular stages the cells of a foreign organism. They
of life, we see evolution here, too. The have no metabolisms beyond those
first, most primitive forms of biological of the host cells. Since viruses have
organisms are not cells, but viruses. 146 no metabolisms and ability to be
On the one hand, while evolu- stimulated they do not possess the
tionists seek to account for the origin features of independence unique to
of life in terms of viruses, they also life, and are therefore not truly alive,
say that viruses cannot represent the in the usual sense.
foundation of life. This impossibility Viruses are known as virions
is mentioned in a number of evolu- when they are still outside the cell.
tionist sources: Virions are not alive. Only two of the
Viruses were initially regarded as very
key processes in living things are
found in viruses: replication and

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of Viruses 135

A virus lives as a parasite in the cells of a foreign organism. Viruses have no metab-
olisms of their own outside the host cell. The diagram above shows how a virus
takes over a cell. It first attaches itself to the cell, then injects it with its own DNA.
The cell is thus forced into copying the virus. Eventually, the cell explodes and the
new virus particles are released.

mutation. Viruses cannot perform ruses and their development to date.


these functions independently out- At the same time, the existence of three
side the cell, in their form as virions. very different physical stages, and the
They need complete organisms in inability of any one of these to provide
order to "come to life."148 a fully satisfactory account regarding
viruses, makes any comment even
As you can see, viruses cannot be
more difficult. The comments summa-
regarded as a pre-life stage, because
rized below are based more on fiction
they can perform such key stages as
than on scientific foundations.
replication and mutation only in the
cells of the organisms they inhabit. Once upon a time, the origins of virus-
Viruses are unable to survive in the es were cellular organisms. These vital
cells entered other cells as parasites
absence of a complete organism. For
and gradually lost all their organelles.
that reason, there can be no question
of their constituting a preliminary The origins of viruses were a free-liv-
stage for bacteria, for example. ing pre-cell. Later, with the emergence
Professor Ali Demirsoy, a of cellular organisms, these primitive
forms began living inside them as par-
Turkish expert on evolution, refers
asites.
to the invalidity of the claims re-
garding the origins of viruses: Viruses are descended neither from
Our accumulated knowledge is far pre-cells nor form cellular organisms.
from telling us about the origin of vi- They emerged from fragments released

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


136 Origins of Bipedalism (Walking Upright)

from the genetic material of other or- walk on four legs.


ganisms. According to the classifications
Although the first concept was for long made in the imaginary human fami-
favored by microbiologists, it is now ly tree, it is claimed that apes classi-
regarded as the least likely. Because fied under the names
there are such profound differences be- Australopithecus and Homo habilis
tween the two groups that one cannot walked upright. However, through
be hypothesized as the origin of the oth- research into their fossil skeletons in
er. Although the second possibility ap- question by a great number of scien-
pears rather more attractive, it also ap- tists, the invalidity of these claims
pears impossible for the reasons cited has been revealed.
above. No intermediate form between
The claim of bipedalism is one
organisms and viruses has ever been
that evolutionist paleontologists
found. The last possibility appears
such as Richard Leakey and Donald
more reasonable. 149
Johanson have supported for dec-
As you can see from these com-
ades. Wide-ranging research into
ments, viruses do not represent the
Australopithecus specimens by two
beginning of life. Even evolutionist
world famous anatomists, Lord
biologists point the living organisms
Solly Zuckerman of Britain and
as the origin of viruses.
Professor Charles Oxnard of the
USA, showed that these beings were
not bipedal, but moved in the same
ORIGINS OF BIPEDALISM
way as present-day apes. Despite be-
(WALKING UPRIGHT)
ing an evolutionist himself, Lord
Human beings walk upright on Zuckerman, who for 15 years exam-
two legs in a way not encountered in ined the bones of these creatures
any other life form. (See with a team consisting of five ex-
Bipedalism,) Some other animals perts, backed by the British govern-
possess a limited ability to walk on ment, concluded that
two legs. Mammals such as the bear Australopithecus was an ordinary
and monkey can move on their hind species of ape and very definitely
legs for short periods of time, such did not walk upright. 150
as when they're reaching for some- Professor Oxnard, another evolu-
thing to eat). However, they have tionist anatomist well known for his
stooped skeletons and normally research on this subject, compares

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of Whales 137

the Australopithecus skeleton to that use lungs to breathe and warm their
of modern orangutans. 151 own bodies. The origin of marine
Finally in 1994, Liverpool mammals is one of the most difficult
University's Fred Spoor and his subjects for evolutionists to account
team carried out wide-ranging stud- for. Most evolutionist sources sug-
ies in order to arrive at a definitive gest that their forerunners lived on
conclusion regarding the dry land, evolved as the result of a
Australopithecus skeleton. During lengthy evolutionary process, in
that research, the inner ear struc- such a way as to return to a marine
tures of Australopithecus fossils were environment. According to this
examined. An organ known as the claim, marine mammals followed a
cochlea determines the body's posi- path which was the exact opposite of
tion relative to the ground in the in- the supposed transition from water
ner ears of human beings and other to land, via a second process of evo-
complex life forms. That organ's lution. However, this theory is based
function is similar to the bubble lev- upon no paleontological findings,
el used to maintain level surfaces by and is also logically inconsistent.
carpenters.. In order to determine Mammals are regarded as the
whether the creatures portrayed as creatures at the top of the evolution-
ancestors of man walked upright, ary ladder. That being so, it is very
Fred Spoor investigated this particu- hard to explain why these animals
lar organ. The comparison analyses reverted to a marine environment.
made on the balance centers re- The next question is, how did these
vealed that apes classified as Homo animals adapt to the marine envi-
habilis did not walk upright, but ronment even better than fish?
were bent forward. 152 Because creatures such as killer
whales, which are mammals and
therefore have lungs, exhibit an even
ORIGIN OF WHALES more perfect adaptation to their en-
Whales and dolphins comprise a vironment than fish, which actually
group known as marine mammals Just do breathe in water.
like mammals on land, they give In recent years, various fossils
birth to their young, suckle them, have been suggested as solution to

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


138 Origin of Whales

this dilemma, but in fact benefit the relationship between Pakicetus and
theory of evolution not at all. fish:
The first of these fossils is First, as National Geographic indirect-
Pakicetus inachus, extinct mammal ly makes clear by employing the words
first discovered in 1983. The finder "subtle clues in combination," some of
of the first specimen, Philip D. these features also exist in other land-
Gingerich and his colleagues had no dwelling mammals.
qualms about claiming it to be a In addition, none of the characteristics
primitive whale, even though they in question constitutes evidence for an
had discovered only a skull. evolutionary relationship. Most of the
However, the fossil had not the theoretical relationships between spe-
slightest connection to whales in any cies that evolutionists seek to establish
shape or form. The skeleton had a on the basis of anatomical similarities
four-footed structure, resembling are exceedingly flawed— as evolution-
that of modern wolves. The region ists themselves admit. Pakicetus is a
unique species with different anatomi-
where the fossil was discovered con-
cal features in its body. Robert Carroll,
tained seams of oxidized iron as well
an authority on invertebrate paleontol-
as fossils of such terrestrial animals
ogy, states that the family of
as snails, tortoises and crocodiles. In
Mesonychids, in which Pakicetus
other words, its environment had should be included, displays a combi-
been dry land, not a marine bed. nation of peculiar characteristics.
So why was this quadruped land Prominent evolutionists such as Gould
dweller deemed to be a primitive admit that such mosaic life forms can-
whale? The answer is supplied in not be regarded as intermediate forms.
National Geographic magazine, an ev- In an article titled "The
olutionist publication: Overselling of Whale Evolution," the
Subtle clues in combination—the ar- science writer Ashby L. Camp de-
rangement of cusps on the molar teeth, scribes the invalidity of the claim
a folding in a bone of the middle ear, that the Mesonychids, of which land
and the positioning of the ear bones mammals such as Pakicetus are a
within the skull—are absent in other
part, are the ancestors of
land mammals. 153
Archaeocetes, the extinct whales:
However, these features repre-
The reason evolutionists are confident
sent no evidence for constructing a that mesonychids gave rise to archaeo-

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of Whales 139

cetes, despite the inability to identify Ambulocetus were related to whales


any species in the actual lineage, is in any way. They are merely poten-
that known mesonychids and archaeo- tial ancestors which evolutionists,
cetes have some similarities. These obliged to find a terrestrial ancestor
similarities, however, are not sufficient for marine mammals as required by
to make the case for ancestry, especial-
their theory, have suggested on the
ly in light of the vast differences. The
basis of various limited similarities.
subjective nature of such comparisons
No evidence shows that these crea-
is evident from the fact so many groups
tures were related to the marine
of mammals and even reptiles have
been suggested as ancestral to mammals that emerge in the fossil
whales.154 record in a geological period very
soon after..
Pakicetus is followed in the evolu-
A number of true marine mam-
tionary tree by Ambulocetus natans.
mals are listed in the fictitious evolu-
This fossil, first announced in an ar-
tionary tree after Pakicetus and
ticle published in Science magazine
Ambulocetus: Archaeocetes ("ancient
in 1994, is a terrestrial animal that
whale") species such as Procetus and
evolutionists have attempted to
Rhodcetus. These creatures are ex-
force into a whale mould.
tinct mammals that genuinely did
The name Ambulocetus natans is a
live in water, as you shall see in sub-
combination of the Latin words am-
sequent sections. However, there are
bulare (to walk), cetus (whale) and
considerable anatomical differences
natans (swimming), and thus means
between Pakicetus and Ambulocetus
"a swimming and walking whale."
and these marine animals:
Obviously, this animal walked, be-
● In Ambulocetus, a four-footed land
cause like all terrestrial mammals, it
mammal, the backbone ends in the pelvic
had four feet, and even wide claws
bone, from which powerful leg bones ex-
on its feet and paws on its hind legs.
tend. This is the typical anatomy for land
Apart from evolutionist preconcep-
mammals. In whales, on the other hand,
tions, however, there is absolutely
the backbone continues right down to the
no foundation, for the idea that the
tail and there is no pelvic bone at all.
animal swam in water or that it lived
Basilosaurus, thought to have lived up to
both on land and in water, as hippos
10 million years after Ambulocetus, pos-
and alligators do. In fact, there is no
sesses just such an anatomy—in other
evidence that either Pakicetus or
words, it is a typical whale. There is no in-

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


140 Origin of Whales

termediate form between Ambulocetus, a Mchedlidze, a well-known expert on


typical terrestrial animal, and whales, disagrees with the descrip-
Basilosaurus, a typical whale. tion of Pakicetus, Ambulocetus natans
● Basilosaurus and sperm whales and similar quadrupeds as possible
(cachalots) have small bones independent ancestors of the whale, and regards
of the backbone in their lower bodies. Some them as a completely isolated group.
evolutionists claim that these are shrunken 157

leg bones. However, the bones in question This summarizes the invalidity of
assist with assuming the mating position the evolutionist claim that marine
in Basilosaurus, whereas in cachalot they mammals evolved from terrestrial
support the reproductive organs. 155 To de- life forms. Scientific findings show
scribe skeleton components that perform a no link between marine mammals
very important function as the vestigial and the two land mammals
organs of another function is simply evo- (Pakicetus and Ambulocetus natans)
lutionist prejudice. that evolutionists place right at the
In conclusion, it is clear that ma- beginning of this scenario.
rine mammals appeared with all In the remaining part of the sce-
their unique structures and with no nario, the theory of evolution is also
intermediate form between them at an impasse. The theory seeks to
and terrestrial mammals. Robert establish a family relationship be-
Carroll admits this, albeit reluctantly tween the extinct, genuine marine
and in evolutionist language, that mammal known as Archaeocetes ("ar-
there is no chain of evolution here.: chaic whale") and living dolphins
It is not possible to identify a sequence and whales.
of mesonychids leading directly to The fact is that experts in the field
whales. 156 think differently. The evolutionist pa-
Some rather more unbiased sci- leontologist Barbara J. Stahl writes:
entists, on the other hand, openly The serpentine form of the body and
admit that the animals that evolu- the peculiar serrated cheek teeth make
tionist sources refer to as "walking it plain that these archaeocetes [i.e.,
whales" are actually a completely Basilosaurus and related creatures]
separate group and have nothing to could not possibly have been ancestral
to any of the modern whales. 158
do with true whales.
The Russian scientist G. A. With regard to the origin of ma-

The Evolution Impasse II


Origin of the Wings 141

rine mammals, the evolutionist sce- In short, marine mammals all re-
nario is also contradicted by molecu- fute the imaginary family tree in
lar biology's findings. which evolutionists seek to locate
The classic evolutionist scenario them.
hypothesizes that the two major
whale groups, in order words
toothed whales (Odontoceti) and ba- ORIGIN OF THE WINGS
leen whales (Mysticeti), evolved How could the immaculate struc-
from a common ancestor. However, ture of wings have emerged as the
Michel C. Milinkovitch of Brussels result of consecutive random muta-
University opposed this view with a tions? That question is one that evo-
new theory, emphasizing that that lutionists are unable to answer. They
hypothesis, constructed on anatomi- are totally unable to explain how a
cal similarities, and was invalidated reptile's front legs could have turned
by molecular discoveries: into a flawless wings as the result of
Evolutionary relationships among the successive defects (mutations) aris-
major groups of cetaceans is more ing in its genes.
problematic since morphological and The Turkish evolutionist and sci-
molecular analyses reach very different entist Engin Korur describes the im-
conclusions. Indeed, based on the con- possibility of wings evolving:
ventional interpretation of the mor-
The common feature of eyes and wings
phological and behavioral data set, the
is that they can only fulfill their tasks
echolocating toothed whales (about 67
in the event that they are fully formed.
species) and the filter-feeding baleen
To put it another way, one cannot see
whales (10 species) are considered as
with a deficient eye, nor fly with half a
two distinct monophyletic groups . . .
wing. How these organs came into be-
On the other hand, phylogenetic anal-
ing has remained as one of the secrets
ysis of DNA... and amino acid. . . se-
of nature that has not yet been unrav-
quences contradict this long-accepted
eled. 160
taxonomic division. One group of
toothed whales, the sperm whales, ap-
pears to be more closely related to the
morphologically highly divergent ba-
leen whales than to other odontoce-
tes.159

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


142 Orthogenesis Muddle, The (Directed Selection)

ORTHOGENESIS MUDDLE, various parts of the world. In the


THE (DIRECTED early part of the 20th century, this
SELECTION) search for living intermediate forms
led to various shameful actions. One
Orthogenesis is an old thesis that
of these involved the pygmy Ota
is no longer accepted even by theory
Benga.
of evolution's own adherents. This
He was captured in Congo in
thesis assumes that living things
1904 by an evolutionist researcher
evolved not according to environ-
named Samuel Verner. Ota Benga,
mental conditions, but solely accord-
whose name meant friend in his own
ing to their own genetic structures.
language, was married with two
According to the orthogenetic
children. Yet he was chained, placed
view, a kind of internal program
in a cage like an animal and trans-
leads living things to evolve in a par-
ported to the U.S.A. There, evolu-
ticular way. This view also led to or-
tionist scientists put him in a cage
thogenesis being known as the prede-
with various apes at the St. Louis
termination theory. This hypothesis,
World Fair and exhibited him as the
based on no scientific evidence what-
closest intermediate form to man.
soever, lost all credence in the second
Two years later they took him to the
half of the 20th century.
Bronx Zoo in New York and exhibit-
ed him together with a few chim-
OTA BENGA panzees, a gorilla named Dinah and
an orangutan called Dohung as
After Darwin claimed that hu-
man's oldest ancestors.
man beings evolved from ape-like
The evolutionist director of the
creatures in his book The
zoo, Dr. William T.
Descent of Man, a search be-
Hornaday, made long
gan for fossils to back up
speeches about how
his theory. Some evolu-
honored he was to own
tionists, however, believed
this intermediate form,
that half-man, half-ape
and visitors to the zoo
creatures could be found
treated Ota Benga like
not only in the fossil
any other animal.
record, but still living in

The Evolution Impasse II


Ota Benga 143

Unable to withstand the treat- least sympathy and kindness from the
ment he was subjected to, Ota Benga whites of this country, after all the bru-
committed suicide. 161 tality it has suffered here …
An article published in The New It is shameful and disgusting that the
York Times at the time described misfortune, the physical deficiency, of
visitors' behavior: a human being, created by the same
40,000 visitors roamed the New York Force that puts us all here and en-
Zoological Park… the sudden surge of dowed with the same feelings and the
interest… was entirely attributable to same soul, should be locked in a cage
Ota Benga. The crowds were so enor- with monkeys and be made a public
mous that a police officer was assigned mockery. 163
full-time to guard Ota (the zoo claimed The New York Times also covered
this was to protect him) as he was "al- the way in which Ota Benga was put
ways in danger of being grabbed, yank- on display in the zoo in order to
ed, poked, and pulled to pieces by the demonstrate evolution. The defense
mob." 162
issued by the Darwinist zoo director
The 17 September 1906 edition of was lacking in all conscience:
The New York Times emphasized The exhibition of an African pygmy in
that although this was all done in or- the same cage with an orang outang at
der to prove evolution; it was actual- the New York Zoological Park last
ly a great injustice and act of cruelty: week stirred up considerable criticism.
Further, many of the ministers op- Some persons declared it was an at-
posed the theory of evolution, conclud- tempt on the part of Director
ing that "the exhibition evidently aims Hornaday to demonstrate a close rela-
to be a demonstration of the tionship between Negroes and mon-
Darwinian theory of evolution." keys. Dr. Hornaday denied this. "If the
little fellow is in a cage," said Dr.
These men, without thought and intel-
Hornaday, "it is because he is most
ligence have been exhibiting in a cage
comfortable there, and because we are
of monkeys, a small human dwarf from
at a loss to know what else to do with
Africa. Their idea, probably, was to in-
him. He is in no sense a prisoner, ex-
culcate some profound lesson in evolu-
cept that no one would say it was wise
tion.
to allow him to wander around the city
As a matter of fact, the only result without some one having an eye on
achieved has been to hold up to scorn him." 164
the African race, which deserves at

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


144 Ota Benga

Ota Benga's being put on show in negro boy, on exhibition in a monkey


the zoo alongside gorillas, just like cage . . .
an animal, made many people un- This whole pygmy business needs in-
easy. Some organizations declared vestigation . . . 165
that Ota Benga was a human being
and that such treatment was very
cruel, and applied to the authorities
to put an end to the situation. One of
these applications appeared in the 12
September 1906 edition of the New
York Globe:
Sir— I lived in the south several years,
and consequently am not overfond of
negro, but believe him human. I think
it a shame that the authorities of this
great city should allow such a sight as
that witnessed at the Bronx Park— a

The Evolution Impasse II


Ota Benga 145

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


Paleontology 147

PALEONTOLOGY Science magazine:

Paleontology is a branch of sci- A large number of well-trained scien-


ence that investigates fossils of or- tists outside of evolutionary biology
and paleontology have unfortunately
ganisms that lived in various geolog-
gotten the idea that the fossil record is
ical periods and helps provide infor-
far more Darwinian than it is. This
mation about species living in those
probably comes from the oversimplifi-
eras.166 Another definition of paleon-
cation inevitable in secondary sources:
tology is the branch of science that low-level textbooks, semipopular arti-
studies the fossils and biology of ex- cles, and so on. Also, there is probably
tinct organisms. The first paleonto- some wishful thinking involved. In the
logical research began in the 19th years after Darwin, his advocates
century, studying plant and animal hoped to find predictable progressions.
fossils to determine the life forms In general these have not been found
that existed in the geological past, as yet the optimism has died hard, and
well as their morphology, structure, some pure fantasy has crept into text-
books. 167
taxonomic relations with present-
day species, geographical distribu- The leading evolutionists N.
tion and environmental relation- Eldredge and I. Tattersall make an
ships. Information obtained from important comment:
paleontology is used to determine That individual kinds of fossils remain
the age of geological strata. recognizably the same throughout the
The theory of evolution most length of their occurrence in the fossil
commonly manifests itself in paleon- record had been known to paleontolo-
gists long before Darwin published his
tological research, because fossil
Origin. Darwin himself, . . . prophe-
findings have been highly prone to
sied that future generations of paleon-
evolutionists' distortions and biased
tologists would fill in these gaps by dil-
interpretations. History is full of for-
igent search . . . One hundred and
geries perpetrated in the search for twenty years of paleontological re-
supposed evidence for the theory of search later, it has become abundantly
evolution. (See The Piltdown Man clear that the fossil record will not con-
Fraud, The Nebraska Man Fraud, firm this part of Darwin's predictions.
and The Neanderthal Man Fraud.) Nor is the problem a miserably poor
The false impression that paleon- record. The fossil record simply shows
tology supports the theory of evolu- that this prediction is wrong. 168
tion is described in an article in The observation that species re-
Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar
One of the most important branches of science to shed light on the origin of life is paleon-
tology, the study of fossils. The fossil beds studied with enormous dedication over the last
100 years reveal a picture in stark contrast to Darwin's theory. Species did not emerge by
evolving, but appeared suddenly on Earth, with all their various structures fully formed.

main amazingly stable, and for very The American paleontologist


long periods of time, contains all the S.M. Stanley describes how this fact,
features of the story of "The revealed by the fossil record, is com-
Emperor's New Clothes." Everyone pletely ignored by the Darwinist
saw the truth, but all chose to ignore dogma that dominates the world of
it. Paleontologists were faced by a fos- science:
sil record that definitively refutes the The known fossil record is not, and
picture that Darwin imagined, but never has been, in accord with gradu-
openly turned their backs on the alism. What is remarkable is that,
truth. through a variety of historical circum-
stances, even the history of opposition

The Evolution Impasse II


Paleoanthropology 149

has been obscured… "The majority of our biases and preconceptions—a


paleontologists felt their evidence sim- process that is, at once, both political
ply contradicted Darwin's stress on and subjective.… paleoanthropology
minute, slow, and cumulative changes has the form but not the substance of a
leading to species transformation." . . . science. 170
[but] their story has been suppressed. Niles Eldredge of Harvard
169
University and Ian Tattersall of the
American Museum of Natural
History, two of the USA's leading
PALEOANTHROPOLOGY paleontologists, comment on pale-
Paleoanthropology is a branch of ontological findings:
science that studies the origin and It is a myth that the evolutionary his-
developmental process of man. tories of living things are essentially a
Studies in this field are backed up by matter of discovery. If this were true,
many other branches of science, but one could confidently expect that as
the greatest use is made of informa- more hominid fossils were found the
tion obtained from fossils. story of human evolution would be-
However, as in many other come clearer. Whereas if anything, the
opposite has occurred. 171
branches of science, fossils are inter-
preted in the light of the assump- Many other evolutionist experts
tions of the theory of evolution. on the subject also harbor pessimis-
Findings obtained from the fields of tic ideas about the very theory they
archaeology and ethnology are inter- support. Henry Gee, Nature maga-
preted in a biased manner so as to zine's best-known writer, says that
demonstrate the physical and men- "between about 10 and 5 million
tal development of man's supposed years ago—several thousand gener-
forerunners, who must have existed ations of living creatures—can be fit-
according to the claims of the theory ted into a small box." The conclusion
of evolution. Gee draws from this is very interest-
Despite being an evolutionist, the ing:
Arizona State University anthropol- To take a line of fossils and claim that
ogist Geoffrey Clark admitted as they represent a lineage is not a scien-
much in a text published in 1997: tific hypothesis that can be tested, but
an assertion that carries the same va-
We select among alternative sets of re-
lidity as a bedtime story—amusing,
search conclusions in accordance with

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


150 "Panda's Thumb" Error, The

perhaps even instructive, but not sci-


entific. 172
Why is this branch of science, of-
fering no evidence for the theory of
evolution, regarded as so important
by evolutionists? Why is every fossil
discovery interpreted in such a bi-
ased, exaggerated manner? At a
meeting held at the Biology
Teachers' Association, the evolution-
ist Greg Kirby described this men- As can be seen here, the bone that pro-
tality: trudes from the panda's wrist is not really a
bone at all, but a support making it easier
If you were to spend your life picking for the animal to cling onto bamboo stalks.
up bones and finding little fragments
of head and little fragments of jaw, on its wrist known as the radial ses-
there is a very strong desire there to ex- amoid bone.
aggerate the importance of those frag- In evolutionists' view, the pan-
ments. 173
da—originally a carnivore like dogs
No scientific paleoanthropologi- and cats—began feeding on bamboo.
cal findings provide any support for According to the evolutionist scenar-
evolution. All the "proofs" that evo- io, the sixth finger emerged so that
lutionists offer are fossils one-sided- the panda could grasp bamboo more
ly interpreted in order to deny the easily. A different evolutionist claim
existence of Allah, the supreme is that though this sixth finger is not
Creator. perfect, it's as good as natural selec-
tion could make it. But in fact, these
are claims made entirely in line with
"PANDA'S THUMB" ERROR, evolutionist preconceptions, devoid
THE of proof and explain nothing.
One of the classic evolutionist ar- Of pandas being descended
guments is that of the Panda's from carnivorous ancestors:
thumb, made famous by Stephen Jay Evolutionists include the panda
Gould. Along with its five fingers, among the carnivores because it has
the panda also has a bony protrusion wide jaws, teeth and strong claws.

The Evolution Impasse II


"Panda's Thumb" Error, The 151

They claim that the panda's alleged imals have evolved from any other
ancestors used these features against class. Evolutionists speculate on the
other animals. Yet the panda's only basis of similarities alone, and disa-
enemy is man; among other animals, gree with one another because their
it has no enemies. Its powerful teeth conjectures are sheer fantasy.
and jaws are for breaking off and Of the panda's thumb not being
chewing bamboo stems. Its strong perfect, being the work of chance:
claws serve for climbing up bamboo Evolutionists say that the panda's
stems. Therefore, there is not the thumb is not perfect, but still serves
slightest evidence that pandas— a purpose.
which generally eat bamboo and In fact, this sixth finger is a kind
fruit and other plants from time to of bone known as the radial sesamoid
time—evolved from carnivorous bone, which generally facilitates
forerunners. movement at the joints and prevents
Evolutionists have been unable to the tendons from tearing. This struc-
agree on which animal the panda ture, emerging from the wrist, is ac-
might have evolved from. Some evo- tually no finger at all, but a support
lutionists place the panda in the that helps the other fingers grip onto
same category as bears; others in the bamboo stalks. 174
same category as raccoons, because Evolutionists maintain
no findings suggest that these an- that this bone devel-

Evolutionists look for dishar-


mony or flaws in nature, in
their efforts to find evi-
dence for denying Allah's
flawless creation. As with the
subject of the panda's "thumb,"
however, these efforts have al-
ways been in vain.
152 Pangenesis Theory, The

oped in place of a finger, but does Aristotle maintained that one part of
not serve as one—saying, for exam- all the cells in the body came togeth-
ple, that it cannot strip shoots. er to form the egg and sperm. He al-
However, they also say that it is suf- so suggested that all the changes tak-
ficiently developed for grasping. ing place in the body throughout an
That is in any case the job of this organism's life could be passed
sixth finger, and the panda has along to later generations.
enough other fingers to perform oth- This idea was taken up by
er tasks perfectly.175 The idea that this Lamarck and Darwin in the 19th
structure's ideal shape would be that century, although it was eventually
of a complete finger is a groundless, shown to be false. Reproductive cells
based on evolutionist prejudices. are not a product of the body's cells,
The bone is perfectly suitable in its and changes in them do not affect
present state. the ovum and spermatazoa. (See
One study published in Nature Lamarck's Evolution Scenario.)
magazine in 1999 shows that in the
panda's natural habitat, its thumb is
highly efficient. The study, carried PANSPERMIA THEORY, THE
out by four Japanese researchers and Faced by the fact that amino acids
performed using computerized to- cannot form by chance, evolutionists
mography and magnetic resonance looked for a new explanation of how
imaging, concluded that the panda's life might have arisen spontaneously
thumb is "one of the most extraordi- under the conditions of the primeval
nary manipulation systems in mam- world. According to their new
malia." 176 claims, amino acids in meteors fall-
Evolutionists look for incompati- ing to Earth reacted with organic
bility or flaws in nature only to find substances and thus gave rise to life.
evidence for denying Allah's immac- According to this view, the first
ulate creation. Yet these efforts have organic substance originated beyond
always proved fruitless. The panda's the Earth, on another planet. The
thumb is yet another instance of this. spores or seeds of these organisms
were then carried to Earth by mete-
ors, and life thus began. In the light
PANGENESIS THEORY, THE of our current knowledge, however,
The ancient Greek philosopher it doesn't appear possible for spores

The Evolution Impasse II


It is impossible for meteors falling to Earth to carry living organisms with them because
of the high temperatures created as they enter the atmosphere and the severity of their
impacts. Above you can see a crater left by a meteorite in Arizona. Even if one postu-
lates the existence of life beyond Earth, there can still be no other explanation for its
origin than creation.

or seeds to withstand such outer- a small proportion of which are permit-


space conditions as cold, utter vacu- ted to pass through the atmospheric
um, and harmful radiation on their layer surrounding the Earth, represent
way to Earth—not to mention the in- the most serious danger to these micro-
tense heat and impact of passing organism spores with no defensive
mechanisms with which to protect
through the atmosphere. 177
themselves, and are sufficiently power-
Conditions in space make it im-
ful to kill them instantaneously. For
possible for life to survive. The well-
that reason, even a fictitious journey
known Russian scientist George
by these bacteria to the nearest planet
Gamow says: will still result in death. Another
. . . there is a still more serious threat study conducted in 1966 led to the
awaiting spores traveling through "out of space" hypothesis being totally
space than freezing to death. The Sun abandoned. The most highly resistant
is well known to emit a significant lev- micro-organisms were installed on the
el of ultraviolet rays. These rays, only outer surface of the spacecraft Gemini-

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


154 Parallel Evolution Impasse, The

9 and this was then launched into evolution independently of one an-
space. Examinations revealed that other.
these micro-organisms all died within According to evolutionists, these
seven hours. Yet according to this hy- living things developed in parallel to
pothesis, the bacteria that supposedly one another and came to possess
gave rise to life must have traveled for
similar organs; however this might
many years. 178
have come about. To cite one exam-
The crystal-clear fact that emer- ple, the structure of the eye in squid
ges is that it is impossible for micro- and vertebrates is identical, though
organisms to reach Earth from outer no attempt is made to construct an
space. However, even if large quan- evolutionary relationship among
tities of amino acids had come from these creatures. Evolutionists
space, and even if the entire surface claimed parallel evolution to ac-
of the primitive Earth world was count for the origin of these organs.
covered with them, this would still However hard it is to explain how
not account for the origin of life. It such developed organs came into ex-
would be impossible for amino acids istence once, it's quite impossible to
to combine randomly and haphaz- account for how they might have
ardly and form an exceedingly com- come into being twice, and inde-
plex, three-dimensional protein; for pendently.
proteins to form the organelles in Briefly, the only difference be-
cells; and then for these organelles to tween parallel evolution and other
produce the miraculous structure of forms of evolution is that the former
the cell itself. needs even more chances to come
about. The more flawless structures
appear in living things, the less sci-
PARALLEL EVOLUTION entific appear evolutionists' scenari-
IMPASSE, THE os.
One of the subjects that pose the
worst dilemmas for evolutionists is
those organs with exceedingly com- PASTEUR, LOUIS
plex structures. Evolutionists claim As a result of lengthy research
that living things with very complex and experiments, the famous French
organs in common but with no com- biologist Louis Pasteur concluded
mon ancestor must have undergone that: "Never will the doctrine of

The Evolution Impasse II


Peking Man Fraud, The 155

PEKING MAN FRAUD, THE


In 1921, Dr. Davidson Black dis-
covered two molar teeth in a depres-
sion near the village of Choukoutien,
attached to the Chinese city of Pekin
(Beijing). These two teeth were given
the name Sinanthropus pekinensis and
were suggested to belong to a homi-
nid, or human-like creature. Dr.
W.C. Pei found a third tooth in 1927,
and several skull fragments and two
Louis Pasteur's discoveries buried the pieces from the jaw in 1928. Black
idea that inanimate substances could give
claimed that these belonged to S. pe-
rise to life.
kinensis and announced that its skull
spontaneous generation recover volume was 900 cubic centimeters.
from the mortal blow struck by this Its age was estimated at 500,000
simple experiment." 179 years.
With his view that life comes on- In 1936 three skulls were discov-
ly from life, also known as biogene- ered in the same place by Pei and the
sis, Pasteur totally invalidated the American Professor Franz
belief in spontaneous generation Weidenreich. These skulls, too, were
that constituted the essence of declared to belong to S. pekinensis,
Darwin's evolution. (See and the skull volume was enlarged
Abiogenesis and Biogenesis.) to 1,200 cubic centimeters. Apart
Proponents of the theory of evo- from the two molars, all the materi-
lution long resisted Pasteur's find- als found as evidence disappeared
ings. However, as scientific advan- between 1941 and 1945. All that re-
ces revealed the complex structure mains is Weindenreich's plaster
of the living cell, their claim that life models of them.
could form spontaneously found it- Professor Duane Gish, known for
self in an ever- deeper impasse. his many years of research into the
invalidity of the theory of evolution,
says this:
Of most critical importance to an eval-

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


156 Peking Man Fraud, The

uation of this material is . . . that all of fashioned by Weidenreich. How relia-


this material except two teeth disap- ble are these models? Are they accurate
peared sometime during the period casts of the originals, or do they reflect
1941-1945, and none of it has ever what Weidenreich thought they should
been recovered. Many stories concern- look like? 180
ing the disappearance of this material Increasing discoveries in the
have circulated, the most popular be-
years that followed, and particularly
ing that it was either lost or seized by
after the 1990s, made it clear that no
the Japanese during an at-
such evolutionary process
tempt to move it from
as the tree of descent,
Peking to a U.S.
proposed by evolu-
Marine detach-
ment that was tionists, ever took
evacuating place. In terms of
China. None of their age, geographi-
these stories has been cal regions and ana-
verified. No living person tomical features, the
apparently knows what hap- fossils discovered
pened to the material. could not be placed in
As a result, we are totally Peking Man fossil any evolutionary se-
dependent on models and quence. Increasingly, there-
descriptions of this material left by a fore, the idea that Peking Man was
few investigators, all of whom were to- to the missing link lost support, and
tally committed to the idea that man evolutionists abandoned hope of
had evolved from animal ancestors. having found any missing link.
Even is a scientist is a completely ob- In the present day, there are no
jective as humanly possible, the model longer frequent claims of intermedi-
of description he fashions on the basis
ate forms imputed to Homo erectus,
of scanty and incomplete material with
under which Peking Man had been
reflect to a critical degree what he
classified. Many anthropologists em-
thinks the evidence ought to show.
phasise that H. erectus (and therefore
Furthermore, there is ample evidence
that objectivity was seriously lacking
Peking Man) was no different from
in the treatment and evaluation of the modern humans. H. erectus is not an
material recovered at Choukoutien. intermediate form, but an extinct hu-
man race.
All we have available are the models
This view was generally accepted

The Evolution Impasse II


Peptide Bond 157

at a conference attended by well- in terms of his physical characteris-


known palaeontologists and anthro- tics, was a genuine human being.
pologists in Germany. American This retreat once again shows that
Scientist magazine reported the de- the scenario of the human line of de-
velopments at the conference: scent has collapsed. The crystal real-
. . . most of the participants at the ity is that humans and apes are life
Senckenberg conference got drawn in- forms created separately by Allah.
to a flaming debate over the taxonomic
status of Homo erectus started by
Milford Wolpoff of the University of PENTADACTYL HOMOLOGY
Michigan, Alan Thorne of the
- See Five-Digit Homology.
University of Canberra and their col-
leagues. They argued forcefully that
Homo erectus had no validity as a spe- PEPTIDE BOND
cies and should be eliminated altogeth-
er. (Pat Shipman, "Doubting It's not enough for the varieties of
Dmanisi", American Scientist, amino acid necessary to form a pro-
November- December 2000, p. 491) tein to be in the appropriate number
The latest developments with re- and sequence and to have the need-
gard to H. erectus, under which ed three-dimensional structure.
Peking Man is classified, forced the They must also bond to one another
National Geographic's TV channel to by specific amino acid molecules
make an important admission. The with more than one arm. The bond
program quoted the physical anthro- formed in this way is known as a
pologist Gary Sawyer of the peptide bond.
American Museum of Natural Amino acids may attach to one
History as saying that Peking Man, another by a variety of different

No matter how powerful or how technologically ad-


vanced that car’s engine may be, that car will still
be unable to cover any distance. In the
same way, if just a single amino acid
in a protein molecule is at-
tached by some other
bond than a peptide
bond, the entire mol-
ecule will be use-
less.
158 Peptide Bond

H H H H
O C

H H N C C
N C C

C C
H R H R

Amino acid Amino acid

Amino acids are attached to one H H


another by peptide bonds. The C
main diffence betweens peptide
and other types of bonds is that the water
forner are insoluble, which makes
proteins very strong and resistant.
Peptide bond

H H C H
C

H N C C C C C

C
H R H R

Dipeptide molecule

bonds, but proteins can emerge only ing attached in a wrong way makes
from amino acids attached to one an- the whole car functionless. In the
other by peptide bonds. same way, if just a single amino acid
To use analogy, imagine that all in a protein molecule is attached by
the components of an automobile some other bond than a peptide
are present, and in just the right bond, the entire molecule will be
place. However, let one of the useless.
wheels be attached by a coil of wire Research has revealed that ran-
rather than by bolts. No matter how dom bonding of amino acids results
powerful or how technologically ad- in 50% peptide bonds at most, the
vanced that car's engine may be, that rest being attached by bonds that are
car will still be unable to cover any not found in proteins. Therefore, in
distance. Everything else appears to calculating the probability of a pro-
be in order, yet one of the wheels be- tein coming into being by chance, we

The Evolution Impasse II


Phylogeny 159

must include the requirement that to ascribe degrees of relatedness


all amino acids be left-handed, and among living things, to reveal all the
the fact that every amino acid can possible similarities and differences
only be attached to the others by a of a species or group and set out the
peptide bond. If we consider a 400- stages they underwent from their
amino acid protein, the chances of all supposed ancestors. (See Phylum,
the amino acids being attached to and Taxonomy.)
one another by peptide bonds alone By such means, evolutionists
is 1 in 2399 —a figure that cannot hope to indicate the lines of descent
possibly be achieved by random fac- they assume occurred among living
tors. things. In addition, based on various
similarities in species, they try to
place all living things on certain
PHYLOGENY branches of the evolutionary family
Phylogeny is the term used to de- tree. But this is all based on their pre-
scribe the supposed evolutionary conceptions. These are all fictitious
history of any group of living things. studies, devoid of any scientific evi-
Phylogeny is evolutionists' attempts dence.

Canlı grupları olan filumların tamamına yakını, Kambriyen devri olarak bilinen jeolojik
dönemde, hiçbir sözde evrimsel ataya sahip olmadan aniden ortaya çıkmışlardır. Bu,
evrim teorisini çürüten, yaratılışı destekleyen önemli bir delildir.
160 Phylum (Plural: Phyla)

PHYLUM (PLURAL: PHYLA) PILTDOWN MAN FRAUD,


Biologists classify living things
THE
into various separate groups. This In 1912, Charles Dawson, a fa-
classification, known as taxonomy or mous doctor and also an amateur
systematic biology, consists of hier- paleontologist, claimed to have dis-
archical categories. covered a jawbone and part of a
Living things are first divided in- skull in a gravel pit near the village
to kingdoms, such as the plant and of Piltdown in England. Although
animal kingdoms, which are then the jawbone resembled that of an
subdivided into phyla. ape, the teeth and skull resembled
In determining these phyla, each those of human beings. These speci-
of all the different basic body types mens were given the name of
has been considered. For instance, Piltdown Man, an age of 500,000 was
arthropods (jointed legs) are one estimated for them, and they were
separate phylum, and all the species exhibited in various museums as in-
in it have a similar body plan. The controvertible proof of evolution.
phylum known as Chordata con- For some 40 years, they were the
tains all those species with a central subject of many scientific papers,
nervous system. All the animals fa- analyses and reconstructions. Some
miliar to us, such as fish, birds, rep- 500 academics from various univer-
tiles and mammals represent a sub- sities all over the world prepared
division—vertebrates—of the phy- doctoral theses on the subject of
lum Chordata. Piltdown Man. 181
Among the different animal phy- On a visit to the British Museum
la there are very different categories, in 1935, the famous American paleo-
such as Mollusca, which include anthropologist H.F. Osborn pro-
soft-bodied creatures such as octo- claimed Piltdown "a discovery of
pus, and the phylum Nematode, transcendent importance to the pre-
which includes roundworms. The history of man," and added, "We
categories beneath phyla have basi- have to be reminded over and over
cally similar body plans, but phyla again that nature is full of paradoxes
are altogether different from one an- …" 182
other. In 1949, Kenneth Oakley of the
British Museum's

The Evolution Impasse II


Piltdown Man Fraud, The 161

AN ORANGUTAN JAW
TO A HUMAN SKULL
The Piltdown Man fossil
that deceived the world
of science for some 40
years was actually a fraud
concocted by evolutionists
putting together bones of a
man and an ape.

tive artifacts
found alongside
the fossils were
mere reproductions,
Paleoanthropology Department made with modern steel
sought permission to perform a new implements. 183
dating technique, the fluoride test, With the detailed analyses per-
on some old fossils. When it was car- formed by Weiner, this fraud was
ried out on the Piltdown Man fossil, definitively revealed in 1953. The
it was revealed that the jawbone skull was 500 years old and human,
contained no fluoride. This showed and the jaw belonged to a newly
that it had been underground for no dead orangutan! The teeth had been
more than a few years. The skull added later, and their joints abraded
contained a low level of fluoride, to give the impression they were hu-
making it only a few thousand years man. Later, all the parts had been
old. stained with potassium dichromate
Subsequent chronological inves- to give them an aged appearance.
tigations based on the fluoride meth- When the bones were placed in acid,
od confirmed that the skull was only the stains disappeared.
a few thousand years old. It was also Le Gros Clark, a member of the
realized that the teeth had been arti- team that uncovered the fraud, was
ficially abraded, and that the primi- unable to mask his astonishment:

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


162 Pithecanthropus erectus

dition to the main DNA strands, or


chromosomes. A plasmid is a small
DNA ring found outside the chro-
mosomes in many species of bacte-
ria. A rounded DNA molecule of no
fundamental importance to the bac-
terium, a plasmid—according to ev-
olutionists—provides selective ben-
efits. This plasmid DNA's round
shape enables it to enter or leave the
bacterium with ease. This feature of
plasmids led to DNA combination
A depiction of Piltdown Man, based on research.
the fraudulent fossil
Plasmid transfer is one of the
techniques that scientists discovered
"the evidences of artificial abrasion
for the purpose of combining DNA.
immediately sprang to the eye.
Research into newly combined (re-
Indeed so obvious did they seem it
combinant) DNA is performed by
may well be asked—- how was it
combining the DNAs of different or-
that they had escaped notice be-
ganisms to obtain large enough
fore?" 184
quantities of specific genes to be able
Piltdown Man, which had been
to study them. Many biologists re-
exhibited for the previous 40 years
gard this method as one of the most
or so, was then hurriedly removed
valuable means of biological re-
from the British Museum.
search yet discovered. 185
One of the discoveries revealed
by this technique is bacteria's antibi-
PITHECANTHROPUS EREC-
otic resistance. The genes of bacteria
TUS
that have proved resistant in the past
—see Nebraska Man Fraud, The. are transmitted to other bacteria by
way of plasmids. Resistant genes are
generally found in plasmids. In this
PLASMID TRANSFER
way, a resistant gene acquired by a
Bacteria contain a small DNA non-resistant bacterium can easily
molecule known as a plasmid in ad- be added onto its own DNA. This

The Evolution Impasse II


Pleiotropic Effect, The 163

means that from a single resistant but is far more complex. With its
bacterium, a resistant bacterial colo- own unique movements, the platy-
ny can emerge in a very short time. pus sets up an electrical current in
However, nothing about this the river waters and uses this to de-
mechanism provides evidence for termine the river surface.
evolution, because the genes that en- The platypus is a mosaic animal.
dow resistance in bacteria are not However, if it became extinct and if
formed as the result of mutations. traces of it were later found in the
All that occurs is the transmission of fossil record, evolutionists would
genes already existing among bacte- not hesitate to suggest that it was an
ria. intermediate form between reptiles
and mammals. All the supposed in-
termediate forms cited today are in
PLATYPUS fact the result of such distortions.
The platypus, a member of the
marsupial family that lives in
Australia, is an excellent example
PLEIOTROPIC EFFECT, THE
that invalidates evolutionist claims. One of the proofs that mutations
Despite being a mammal, covered in inflict only harm on living things is
fur and possessing milk glands, the the coding of the genetic code. In de-
platypus also lays eggs. More inter- veloped animals, almost all the
estingly, it has a bill like a duck. known genes contain more than one
Since this creature has mammali- piece of information about that or-
an, avian and reptilian features, evo- ganism. For example, a single gene
lutionists point to it as a simple ani- may control both height and eye col-
mal and as an intermediate form. Yet or.
the truth is very different. The molecular biologist Michael
So highly developed is the platy- Denton describes this feature,
pus that it possesses a literal sixth known as genes' pleiotropic effect:
sense. Since it lives in muddy wa- The effects of genes on development are
ters, it has been equipped with a often surprisingly diverse. In the house
mechanism that allows it to move by mouse, nearly every coat-colour gene
use of electrical signals. This electro- has some effect on body size. Out of
receptor system bears no similarity seventeen X-ray-induced eye colour
to the systems found in certain fish, mutations in the fruit fly Drosophila

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


164 Pleiotropic Effect, The

NORMAL DEVELOPMENT PLEIOTROPIC EFFECT

1- Wings do not
3 energe.
2- The feet are of
normal size, but
their ends fail to
1 develop fully
3- The is no soft-
4
feather tissue.
4,5- The is no lung,
despite the pres-
5
ence of a respiato-
7 ry tract.
6,7- There is no ur-
6
nary tract and no
way for the kidneys
to develop.

On the left can be seen normal development in a domestic chicken, and on the right,
the harmful effects caused by a pleiotropic gene mutation. Close inspection shows that
a mutation in a single gene can damage several organs at the same time. Even if we were
to admit that mutations did have a positive effect, the pleiotropic effect would eliminate
this advantage by damaging several different organs at once.

melanogaster, fourteen affected the studied in higher organisms has been


shape of the sex organs of the female, a found to effect more than one organ
characteristic that one would have system, a multiple effect which is
thought was quite unrelated to eye col- known as pleiotropy. As Mayr argues
our. Almost every gene that has been in Population, Species and Evolution:

The Evolution Impasse II


Pre-Adaptation Myth, The 165

"It is doubtful whether any genes that than individuals—and that individ-
are not pleiotropic exist in higher or- uals within that population were
ganisms." 186 nothing more than gene-carrying ve-
Due to this characteristic in living hicles—brought population genetics
things' genes, any defect occurring to the fore.
in any gene in the DNA as a result of
a chance mutation will affect more
than one organ. Thus the mutation PRE-ADAPTATION MYTH,
will have more than one destructive THE
effect. Even if one of these effects is Evolutionists' efforts to account
hypothesized to be beneficial, as the for the origin of species in terms of
result of an extremely rare coinci- transition from water to land, and
dence, the other effects' inevitable from land to the air, require wide-
damage will cancel out any advan- ranging changes. Consider, for in-
tage. (See Mutation: An Imaginary stance, how a fish emerging from
Mechanism.) water might adapt to dry land.
Therefore, it is impossible for liv- Unless it undergoes rapid changes in
ing things to have undergone evolu- its respiratory system, excretory
tion, because no mechanism exists mechanism and skeletal structure, it
that can cause them to evolve. will inevitably die. A series of muta-
tions must immediately endow the
fish with lungs, elongate its fins into
POPULATION feet, bestow kidneys on it, and give
Populations are aggregations of a its skin a water-retaining property. It
single species whose members often is essential that this entire string of
display considerable genetic variety. mutations takes place within the life-
The individuals in any population span of only a single animal.
determine that population's genetic No evolutionist biologist propos-
structure. In ecological terms, a pop- es such a chain of mutations, since
ulation is defined as a society con- the idea is too nonsensical and illog-
sisting of members of the same spe- ical. Instead, they refer to the con-
cies, spread over a specific area. cept of pre-adaptation. By this, they
The realization that hereditary mean is that fish underwent changes
features affected populations more necessary for them to live on land
while they were still living in water.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


166 Primeval Atmosphere, The

According to this theory, a fish ac- gasses consisted of ammonia, meth-


quired features that would permit it ane, hydrogen and water vapor. On
to live on land while it had no need that assumption, they carried out a
of them. Then when it was ready, it large number of experiments aimed
emerged onto dry land to begin liv- at synthesizing amino acid molecu-
ing there. les, the building blocks of life. These
Yet even within the theory of ev- experiments' objective was to simu-
olution's own hypotheses, there is no late those primeval atmospheric con-
logic to such a scenario. A sea crea- ditions in a laboratory environment.
ture acquiring features suitable for Nothing about these experiments
dry land gives it no advantage. (apart from the fact they pulled the
Therefore, there is no logic for claim- wool over people's eyes) provided
ing that these "just in case" features any backing for evolution. First of
emerged by means of natural selec- all, the laboratory environment was
tion. On the contrary, a living thing controlled in every way. Such an en-
undergoing pre-adaptation should vironment bore no resemblance to
be eliminated by means of natural the spontaneous, uncontrolled, dis-
selection, since as it acquires features ordered and destructive atmosphere
appropriate to the land, it will be of the primeval world.
progressively disadvantaged. The best-known of this series of
primitive atmosphere experiments
was the Miller Experiment. In that
PRIMEVAL ATMOSPHERE, experiment, Stanley Miller prepared
THE an artificial environment similar to
The term "primeval atmosphere" the primeval atmosphere in order to
is used to describe the atmosphere show that amino acids could have
when the Earth was first formed. For been synthesized by chance. To that
a long time, adherents of the theory end, he reacted ammonia, methane,
of evolution maintained that the hydrogen and water vapor—gasses
primitive atmosphere consisted of a he assumed were present in the pri-
mixture of gasses that permitted the meval atmosphere, but which subse-
spontaneous appearance of organic quently, were realized to not be pre-
compounds that would form the sent at all. As a result, he did indeed
building blocks of life. Evolutionists synthesize a few amino acid forms.
hypothesized that these primeval Yet research in later years revealed

The Evolution Impasse II


Primeval Atmosphere, The 167

that the mixture of gasses that Miller Geologists now think that the primor-
has assumed to have constituted the dial atmosphere consisted mainly of
primeval atmosphere did not reflect carbon dioxide and nitrogen, gases
the actual state of affairs. It was real- that are less reactive than those used in
ized that carbon dioxide and nitro- the 1953 experiment. And even if
Miller's atmosphere could have exist-
gen, present in the primitive atmos-
ed, how do you get simple molecules
phere, were not chemically suited to
such as amino acids to go through the
forming amino acids and other or-
necessary chemical changes that will
ganic compounds. An article titled
convert them into more complicated
"Life's Crucible" in the February compounds, or polymers, such as pro-
1998 edition of the well-known evo- teins? Miller himself throws up his
lutionist publication Earth admitted hands at that part of the puzzle. "It's a
this: problem," he sighs with exasperation.
168 Primeval Earth, The

"How do you make polymers? That's came into being spontaneously in


not so easy." 187 the environment of the primeval
Miller was now aware that his ex- Earth. However, apart from a few
periment was meaningless in terms chemical syntheses carried out con-
of accounting for the origin of life. sciously in regulated, controlled lab-
Another article, titled "The Rise of oratory conditions, there is no scien-
Life on Earth," in the March 1998 tific proof that amino acids can form
edition of National Geographic, con- spontaneously.
tained the following lines: Evolutionists then face an even
Many scientists now suspect that the greater problem than amino acids in
early atmosphere was different from the form of proteins—hundreds of
what Miller first supposed. They think different amino acids, the building
it consisted of carbon dioxide and ni- blocks of life, being added onto one
trogen rather than hydrogen, methane, another in a specific sequence.
and ammonia. It's even more illogical to claim
That's bad news for chemists. When that proteins form spontaneously
they try sparking carbon dioxide and under natural conditions than to
nitrogen, they get a paltry amount of suggest that amino acids can do so.
organic molecules—the equivalent of It is mathematically impossible for
dissolving a drop of food coloring in a amino acids to spontaneously as-
swimming pool of water. Scientists sume the necessary sequences to
find it hard to imagine life emerging form proteins. In addition, protein
from such a diluted soup. 188 formation is chemically impossible
In short, neither the Miller exper- under the conditions of the primeval
iment nor any other evolutionist en- Earth. (See The Primeval
deavors have answered the question Atmosphere, and The Chemical
of the origin of life on Earth. All the Evolution Deception.)
research reveals the impossibility of
life's coming into being by chance,
and thus shows that life was created. PRIMEVAL SOUP, THE
—See The Chemical Evolution
Deception and The Primordial Soup
PRIMEVAL EARTH, THE Fantasy.
Evolutionists claim that the ami-
no acids, the building blocks of life,

The Evolution Impasse II


Primordial Soup Fantasy, The 169

THEORY OF FAVORED theory of evolution from the outset.


RACES, THE Because as even evolutionists admit,
the structure of proteins is so com-
—See Darwinism and Racism.
plex that the chances of their form-
ing by chance is practically zero.
PRIMORDIAL SOUP One of the most important fig-
FANTASY, THE ures in this area, the geochemist
Jeffrey Bada from the San Diego
According to the theory of evolu-
Scripps Institute, wrote in the
tion, life emerged in the oceans be-
February 1998 edition of Earth mag-
tween 3.5 and 4 billion years ago in
azine:
an environment known as the "pri-
Today as we leave the twentieth centu-
mordial soup." According to the
ry, we still face the biggest unsolved
myth of evolution, primitive life be-
problem that we had when we entered
gan with proteins and subsequently
the twentieth century: How did life
with single-celled organisms, and
originate on earth? 189
continued in the oceans for some 2
Professor Klaus Dose, head of the
billion years, reaching its final point
Johannes Gutenberg University
with the evolution of fish with back-
Biochemistry Department in
bones.
Germany, stated in the Journal
After that point, according to the
Interdisciplinary Science Reviews:
tale, some of the fish felt the need to
progress to a dry land environment. More than 30 years of experimentation
on the origin of life in the fields of
And thus it was that life on dry land
chemical and molecular evolution have
began.
led to a better perception of the immen-
This entirely fictional tale, based
sity of the problem of the origin of life
on no evidence, actually faces a sep-
on earth rather than to its solution. At
arate dilemma at every different present all discussions on principal
stage. First of all, how did the first theories and experiments in the field ei-
protein come into being? And how, ther end in stalemate or in a confession
even before that, did the amino acids of ignorance. 190
that comprise proteins come into be- The claim put forward by
ing and manage to add on to one an- Darwinism, the result of the primi-
other in an ordered manner? These tive level of science in the 19th cen-
questions completely undermine the tury, that a cell will spontaneously

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


170 Protein

occur if organic substances combine


together, is totally unscientific.
Science manifests the fact that Allah
has flawlessly created living things.

PROTEIN
Proteins are giant molecules consisting of
Proteins are giant molecules con- specific numbers and types of smaller mol-
sisting of specific numbers and types ecules, known as amino acids, set out in
particular sequences. This structure of the
of smaller molecules, known as ami-
protein is a big deadlock for evolutionists.
no acids, set out in particular sequen-
ces. The simplest proteins consist of
average-sized protein molecule, may
around 50 amino acids, while others
be set out in 10300 ways. (This is the
may contain thousands.
astronomical figure of 1 followed by
The absence of even a single ami-
300 zeros.) However, only one of all
no acid in the protein structure or
these sequences can gives rise to the
one amino acid changing place, or
protein. All the remaining sequences
the addition of one amino acid too
are meaningless strings of amino ac-
many to the chain will make that
ids that are either useless, or may
protein a useless collection of mole-
even be harmful.
cules. For that reason, every amino
Therefore, the chances of just the
acid must be in exactly the right
"right" protein molecule forming by
place and in exactly the right order.
chance are 1 in 10300. In practical
The theory of evolution, however,
terms, this cannot happen. (In math-
suggests that life came into being by
ematics, any probability smaller
chance. In the face of this regularity,
than 1050 is regarded as zero proba-
it's in a hopeless position. So extraor-
bility.)
dinary is this regularity that it can-
Moreover, a protein consisting of
not possibly be explained in terms of
288 amino acids can be regarded as a
chance. Simple probability calcula-
rather humble structure, compared
tions easily show that proteins' func-
with giant proteins consisting of
tional structure can never come into
thousands of amino acids found in
being as the result of coincidences.
many living things. When the same
For instance, the 288 amino acids
probability calculations are applied
of 12 different kinds contained in an

The Evolution Impasse II


Protein 171

The illus-
tration
shows the
three-dimensional
structure of the myo-
globin protein and the
peptide groups among the
atoms. Such a flawless struc-
ture cannot be explained in
terms of chance.

to these giant molecules, even the square the probability calculation


word impossible fails to do justice to we carried out on just one protein by
the situation. 600. The figure that emerges goes
Moving up one rung in the devel- way beyond the concept of merely
opment of living things, we see that impossible.
a protein on its own means nothing. Nor can evolutionists object to
Mycoplasma hominis H39, one of the these figures. They also accept that
smallest known bacteria, has been the chances of a single protein com-
observed to possess 600 kinds of ing into being by chance are as slim
proteins. Therefore, we need to as those of "a monkey writing the

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


172 Prokaryotic Cells

history of mankind by randomly possible structures that could result


striking the keys of a typewriter." 191 from a simple random combination of
Yet rather than accept the true expla- amino acids in an evaporating primor-
nation—creation—they prefer dial pond, it is mind-boggling to be-
this utter impossibili- lieve that life could have originated
in this way. It is
ty.
more plausible
Many evolu-
that a Great
tionists admit
Builder with a
this. The evo-
master plan
lutionist sci- would be required for
entist Harold such a task. 194
Bloom, for in-
The three-dimensional struc-
stance, says, "The ture of a protein
spontaneous forma-
tion of a polypeptide of the size of PROKARYOTIC CELLS
the smallest known proteins seems
—See Origin of the Bacteria.)
beyond all probability." 192
Evolutionists claim that molecu-
lar evolution took a very long time PROTOAVIS
and that this time frame made the
impossible possible. But no matter In pointing to Archaeopteryx as an
how much time is allowed, it is still inter mediate form, evolutionists be-
impossible for amino acids to ran- gan with the assumption that it was
domly give rise to proteins. In his the earliest bird-like creature on
book Essentials of Earth History, the Earth. However, the discovery of
American geologist William Stokes certain far older bird fossils dis-
admits that "it would not occur dur- placed Archaeopteryx from its perch
ing billions of years on billions of as the ancestor of birds. In addition,
planets, each covered by a blanket of these creatures were flawless birds
concentrated watery solution of the with none of the supposed reptilian
necessary amino acids." features attributed to Archaeopteryx.
Professor of Chemistry Perry The most significant of them was
Reeves describes what all this actual- Protoavis, estimated at 225 million
ly means: 193 years old. The fossil, whose exis-
tence was announced in a paper in
When one examines the vast number of

The Evolution Impasse II


Punctuated Model of Evolution Myth, The 173

the August 1986 edition of the mag-


azine Nature, demolished the idea
that Archaeopteryx, 75 million years
younger was the forerunner of all
birds. Its bodily structure, with hol-
low bones as in all other birds, long
wings and traces of feathers on those
wings showed that Protoavis was ca-
pable of perfect flight.
N. Hotton of the Smithsonian in-
stitute describes the fossil thus:
"Protoavis has a well-developed fur-
cula bone and chest bone, assisting
The Protoavis fossil, estimated to be 225
flight, hollow bones and extended million years old, demolished the theory
wing bones . . . Their ears indicate that Archaeopteryx, a bird 75 million years
younger than it, was the ancestor of birds.
that they communicate with sound,
while dinosaurs are silent." 195
even older than the first dinosaurs
The German biologists Reinhard
on Earth. This means the absolute
Junker and Siefried Scherer describe
collapse of the theory that birds
the blow dealt to evolutionist theses:
evolved from dinosaurs!
"Because Archaeopteryx is 75 mil-
lion years younger than Protoavis, it
emerged that this was a dead end for
PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM
evolution. Therefore, the idea put
forward by the proponents of crea- —See Punctuated Model of
tion that there are no intermediate Evolution Myth, The below.
forms, only mosaic forms, has been
strengthened. The fact that Protoavis
resembles modern birds in many
PUNCTUATED MODEL OF
ways makes the gap between bird
EVOLUTION MYTH, THE
and reptile even more apparent." 196 When the theory of evolution is
Furthermore, the age calculated mentioned, the neo-Darwinist mod-
for Protoavis is so great that this el is still the first theory that comes
bird—again according to dating pro- to mind. (See The Neo-Darwinist
vided by evolutionist sources—is Comedy.) However, in the last few

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


174 Punctuated Model of Evolution Myth, The

decades, a different model was born: ture. 197 (See The Macro-Mutation
punctuated evolution. Deception.) According to the theory,
This model began with great fan- certain terrestrial animals might
fare by two American paleontolo- have turned into giant whales as a
gists, Niles Eldredge and Stephen result of sudden and comprehensive
Jay Gould, in the 1970s. These two changes, within a single generation.
evolutionist scientists were aware These claims conflict with all known
that the claims of neo-Darwinian genetic, biophysical and biochemical
theory were totally refuted by the laws, and were about as scientific as
fossil record. Fossils proved that liv- tales of princes turning into frogs.
ing things had not appeared on But some evolutionist paleontolo-
Earth through gradual evolution, gists, troubled by the crisis facing
but had appeared suddenly and per- the claims of neo-Darwinism, clung
fectly formed. Neo-Darwinists were to this theory even though it was
living with the hope that the fossils even more nonsensical than neo-
they sought would one day be Darwinism itself.
found—which indeed is still the case This theory's sole aim of was to
today. But Eldredge and Gould real- account for the fossil gaps that the
ized that this hope was unfounded. neo-Darwinist model was unable to
Since they were unwilling to aban- explain. However, it is completely ir-
don the dogma of evolution, they rational to explain away the fossil
therefore proposed a new model; gaps by claims along the lines that
punctuated evolution, the claim that "Birds suddenly emerged from rep-
evolution occurred not with small, tile eggs." For any species to evolve
gradual changes, but in very large into another, there must be a very
sudden ones. large and beneficial change in its ge-
This was actually a fantasy mod- netic data. Yet no mutation can devel-
el. For example, Otto Schindewolf op genetic information or add any
who had preceded Eldredge and new data to it. Mutations lead solely
Gould, had given a conjectural ex- to a loss of, or damage to, existing
ample of punctuated evolution, data. The wholesale mutations imag-
claiming that the first bird in history ined by the adherents of punctuated
emerged from a reptile egg through evolution would actually represent
a gross mutation—some giant, ran- reductions and defects in genetic in-
dom mutation in its genetic struc- formation.

The Evolution Impasse II


Punctuated Model of Evolution Myth, The 175

Like the neo-Darwinist model, within a narrow population, very


the punctuated evolution model col- few fossil traces, if any, are left be-
lapses at the outset when faced with hind.
the question of how the first living Close inspection shows that this
thing came into existence. Since a theory was proposed to answer the
single protein cannot come into be- question, of "How can evolution
ing by chance, organisms composed progress so fast as to leave no fossil
of trillions of proteins cannot emerge trace behind?" In developing an an-
in a punctuated or gradual manner. swer, two fundamental assumptions
At present, the punctuated evolu- are made:
tion theory maintains that living 1. That macro-mutations, wide-
populations exhibit no changes for raging mutations that cause major
long periods of time, remaining in a changes in genetic data, provided
kind of equilibrium. According to advantages for living things and
the claim, evolutionary changes take produced new genetic information.
place in very brief spaces of time (See The Macro-Evolution Deceit.)
among very narrow populations. 2. That narrow animal popula-
(Equilibrium is thus interrupted, or tions are genetically advantaged.
"punctuated.") Since the population (See Narrow Population.)
is so very small, mutations are Yet both assumptions conflict
quickly chosen by way of natural se- with the scientific facts.
lection, and the emergence of new
species is thus made possible.
According to this theory, a reptile
species can survive for millions of
years without undergoing any chan-
ges. However, one small group of
reptiles that somehow separates
away from the others is subjected, in
a manner that is not explained, to a
series of intense mutations. The
group evolves rapidly and soon
turns into a new reptile species, or
maybe even into mammals. Since
this process takes place very quickly

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


Ramapithecus Error, The 177

RAMAPITHECUS ERROR, tinct species of ape, and


THE Ramapithecus was quietly removed
from the imaginary human family
Evolutionists who suggested that
tree. 198
the Ramapithecus fossils discovered
The first Ramapithecus fossil dis-
in India go back some 15 million
covered consisted of an old jaw
years also proposed that these fossils
made up of two parts. Yet on the ba-
were a definite intermediate form in
sis of these parts, evolutionist artists
the scenario of human evolution.
somehow managed to draw pictures
However, it was realized that these
fossils actually belonged to an ex-

EVOLUTIONISTS'
SOURCE OF
INSPIRATION WAS A
SINGLE JAWBONE!

The first Ramapithecus fossil


discovered consisted of a par-
tial jaw, broken into two pie-
ces. Evolutionist artists, how-
ever, had no difficulty in por-
traying Ramapithecus and
even his family and habitat,
SE
FAL
based solely on these jaw
fragments.
178 Recapitulation Theory

of Ramapithecus in his natural habi- Variation.) Thus except in the case


tat, together with his family. of identical twins, two offspring are
never identical to one another, and
neither are their genetic contents ex-
RECAPITULATION THEORY actly the same as their parents'.
— See Ontogeny Recapitulates Some evolutionists interpret vari-
Phylogeny Theory, The. ation through recombination as an
evolutionary factor. 199 However, this
is not scientifically valid. Variation is
RECOMBINATION a natural process arising from genet-
Recombination means a new gen- ic mixing during reproduction. Yet
otype (or hereditary structure) being there is no question of a new species
produced by the genetic characters emerging through recombination, or
of the two genders combining. of new information being added be-
However, recombinations must not yond that already recorded in the
be confused with mutations. In mu- genes.
tation, in order for changes taking Studies on recombination occupy
place in the individual's genotype to a very important place in the under-
be effective, they must take place in standing of genetic mechanisms.
the reproduction genes. Recombination has guided scien-
Recombination, on the other tists' production of the chromosome
hand, is a constant process that gives map, identification of genetic abnor-
rise to new combinations of genes in malities, and in genetic transplants
every offspring, as a result of natural of one chromosome to another.
sexual reproduction. Recombination
results from the regrouping of genes
RECONSTRUCTION
from the mother and father during
(IMAGINARY PICTURES)
the formation of their reproductive
cells. Before cell division, the ferti- Using various propaganda tech-
lized egg always takes half its genet- niques, evolutionists seek to camou-
ic material from the mother and half flage their lack of any evidence to
from the father, but recombination support their theories. The most im-
plays a definitive and influential role portant of these techniques is recon-
in the formation of variety. (See struction, which involves an "artist's
conception" of what a living thing

The Evolution Impasse II


Reconstruction (Imaginary Pictures) 179

might have looked like, based on a with an imaginary being by shaping


piece of bone that has been un- those soft tissues however he sees fit.
earthed. All the ape-men one sees in As Earnst A. Hooton says:
newspaper and magazine illustra- To attempt to restore the soft parts is
tions are reconstructions. an even more hazardous undertaking.
However, since the fossil records The lips, the eyes, the ears, and the
regarding the origin of man are gen- nasal tip leave no clues on the
erally scattered and deficient, any underlying bony
estimations based on them depend
largely on imagination. Accordingly,
reconstructions of the fossils are de-
signed totally in line with the re-
quirements of the ideology of evolu-
tion. The Harvard University an-
thropologist David Pilbeam empha-
sizes this: "At least in paleoanthro-
pology, data are still so sparse that
theory heavily influences interpreta-
tions. Theories have, in the past,
clearly reflected our current ideolo-
gies instead of the actual data." 200
Only the very general features of
a creature can be produced based on
bone remains alone. The really dis-
tinguishing features are the
soft tissues, which soon dis-
appear over the course of
fossilization. It is easy for an
evolutionist to come up

This picture, based on a skull


bone, is a good example of the
imaginative way in which evo-
lutionists interpret fossils.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


180 Reductionism

parts. You can with equal facility mod- in the media and in academic sour-
el on a Neanderthaloid skull the fea- ces. Evolutionists may draw and
tures of a chimpanzee or the linea- paint imaginary beings, but the lack
ments of a philosopher. These alleged of any fossils belonging to those
restorations of ancient types of man creatures is a major stumbling block
have very little if any scientific value
for them. One of the methods often
and are likely only to mislead the pub-
used to resolve this problem has
lic… So put not your trust in recon-
been to manufacture whatever fos-
structions. 201
sils they have been unable to find.
The biased interpretation of fos-
Piltdown Man, a major scandal in
sils and the production of fantastic
the history of science, is one in-
drawings are evidence of how inten-
stance. (See Piltdown Man Fraud,
sively evolutionists resort to decep-
The.)
tion. Yet compared with the various
concrete frauds that have been per-
petrated over the past 150 years, REDUCTIONISM
these pale into insignificance.
Reductionism is the idea that
No concrete fossil evidence sup-
things that do not appear material
ports the picture of the ape-man
can be explained in terms of materi-
constantly propagated
al effects. The materialist philosophy
underlying the theory of evolution
assumes that everything that exists
consists solely of matter. (See
Materialism.) According to this phi-
losophy, matter has existed for all
time, and nothing exists apart from
matter. Materialists employ a logic
known as reductionism to support
these claims.
For example, the human mind
cannot be touched or seen. In addi-
FALSE tion, the mind is not centered any-
where in the human brain. This inev-
Reconstructions re- itably leads us to conclude that the
flect only the imagi-
mind is a super-material concept. In
nation of evolution-
ists, not the scientif-
ic facts. The Evolution Impasse II
Regulatory Gene 181

other words, the entity you refer to Punctuated Model of Evolution.)


as "me," which thinks, loves, feels Since mutations have a destructive
anger and sadness, and that experi- effect, then the macro-mutations re-
ences pleasure or pain, is not a mate- ferred to by the proponents of punc-
rial entity in the same way as a table tuated evolution would lead to ma-
or a stone is. jor damage in living things. Some
But materialists say that the mind evolutionists place their hopes in
can be reduced to matter. According mutations occurring in regulatory
to their claim, the way we think, genes. However, the destructive
love, feel sadness and all our other character that applies to other muta-
mental activities actually consist of tions also applies to these. The prob-
chemical reactions taking place lem is that any mutation is a random
among the neurons in our brains. change, and any random change in
Our love for another person is a such a structure as complex as DNA
chemical reaction produced by cer- gives rise to damaging consequen-
tain cells in the brain, and our feeling ces.
fear in the face of an appropriate The geneticist Lane Lester and
event is still another chemical reac- the population geneticist Raymond
tion. The well-known materialist Bohlin describe the mutation predic-
philosopher Karl Vogt described this ament:
logic in the famous words, "Just as However though macro-mutations of
liver secretes gall, so do our brains many varieties produce drastic chan-
secrete thought." 202 ges, the vast majority will be incapable
Gall is a material fluid, of course, of survival, let alone show the marks of
but there is no evidence to suggest increasing complexity. If structural
that thought is also just matter. gene mutations are inadequate because
of their inability to produce significant
enough changes, then regulatory and
REGULATORY GENE developmental mutations appear even
less useful because of the greater likeli-
It is evident that mutations give hood of nonadaptive or even destruc-
rise to no evolutionary develop- tive consequences. 203
ment, which places both neo-
Experiments and observations
Darwinism and the punctuated
show that mutations develop no
model of evolution in a very severe
new genetic information, but only
predicament. (See Mutation and The

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


182 Ribosome

damage the mutated individual, and tured through the reading of these
that it is clearly inconsistent for the codes, the ribosome to which the
proponents of punctuated evolution mRNA with the code will go and
to expect any such great successes bind to for production, a transporter
from mutations. RNA that carries the amino acids to
be used in production to the ribo-
some, and the exceedingly complex
RIBOSOME enzymes that ensure the countless
Proteins are produced as the re- other intermediate processes in the
sult of highly detailed processes in- same environment. Bear in mind
side the cell, with the assistance of that such a controlled environment
many enzymes, in an organelle needs to be completely isolated and
called the ribosome. The ribosome it- also to contain all the requisite ener-
self consists of proteins. This there- gy sources and raw materials, and
fore brings with it an unrealistic hy- the invalidity of the claims of chance
pothesis that the ribosome came into can be seen only too clearly.
being by chance. Even Jacques
Monod, a Nobel prize-winner and
well-known advocate of the theory
RIGHT-HANDED (DEXTRO)
of evolution, describes how protein
AMINO ACIDS
synthesis cannot be reduced solely — See Left-Handed Amino Acids
to information in nucleic acids:
The code [in DNA or RNA] is mean-
ingless unless translated. The modern RNA WORLD SCENARIO,
cell's translating machinery consists THE
of at least 50 macromolecular compo- Asked how the first cell came in-
nents, which are themselves coded in to being, evolutionists since the ear-
DNA: the code cannot be translated
ly 20th century have offered various
otherwise than by products of transla-
theories. The Russian biologist
tion themselves… When and how did
Alexander Oparin proposed the first
this circle become closed? It is exceed-
evolutionist thesis on this subject,
ingly difficult to imagine. 204
suggesting that proteins formed first
The genetic system requires the
with a number of random chemical
enzymes to read this code from the
reactions on the primeval Earth, and
DNA, the mRNA to be manufac-

The Evolution Impasse II


The ribosome "reads" the mes-
senger RNA and sets the ami-
no acids out in accordance
with the information it con-
tains. The diagrams show val,
cyc and ala amino acids set
out by the ribosome and
transporter RNA. All proteins
in nature are produced in this
sensitive manner. No protein
has come into being by
chance.

val valine

cys cycteine

ala alanine
184 RNA World Scenario, The

that these then combined together to ronmental conditions, this RNA


give rise to the cell. In the 1970s, it molecule suddenly began producing
was realized that even Oparin's most proteins. Later, when the need was
basic assumptions, which he made felt to hide their information in a sec-
in the 1930s were false: In the primi- ond molecule, the DNA molecule
tive world atmosphere scenario, he had somehow emerged.
included the gasses methane and Instead of accounting for the be-
ammonia that would permit the ginning of life, this scenario—every
emergence of organic molecules. Yet stage of which is distinctly impossi-
it was realized that the atmosphere ble and which is difficult to even im-
at the time was not rich in methane agine—made the problem even
and ammonia, but contained high worse. It raised a number of insolu-
levels of oxygen that would break ble questions:
down organic molecules. (See The 1- Not even one of the nucleoti-
Primitive Earth.) des that comprise RNA can be ac-
This dealt a serious blow to the counted for in terms of chance. Then
theory of molecular evolution. It how did nucleotides come together
meant that all the "primitive atmos- in the appropriate sequence to give
phere" experiments, carried by evo- rise to DNA?
lutionists such as Miller, Fox and The evolutionist biologist John
Ponnamperuma, were invalid. For Horgan admits the impossibility of
that reason, other evolutionist quests RNA forming by chance:
were launched in the 1980s, and the As researchers continue to examine the
RNA World scenario was put for- RNA-World concept closely, more
ward. This suggested that rather problems emerge. How did RNA ini-
than proteins, the RNA molecule tially arise? RNA and its components
containing protein information are difficult to synthesize in a laborato-
emerged first. According to this sce- ry under the best of conditions, much
nario—proposed in 1986 by the less under really plausible ones. 205

Harvard chemist Walter Gilbert— 2- Even if we assume that RNA,


billions of years ago, an RNA mole- consisting solely of a chain of nucle-
cule somehow capable of copying it- otides, did come into being by
self came into existence by chance. chance, how did it decide to copy it-
Later, under the influence of envi- self? By what mechanism did it suc-

The Evolution Impasse II


RNA World Scenario, The 185

ceed in doing so? Where did it find expecting a car to assemble itself.
the nucleotides it would use while This production cannot take place in
copying itself? the absence of a factory and workers.
The evolutionist biologists Dr. Leslie Orgel, a well-known
Gerald Joyce and Leslie Orgel state evolutionist biochemist and also
the hopelessness of the situation: known as one of the founding fa-
Our discussion has focused on a straw thers of the 'RNA world' hypothesis,
man: the myth of a small RNA mole- uses the term scenario for the chances
cule that arises de novo and can repli- of life beginning with RNA. Orgel
cate efficiently and with high fidelity sets out the features this RNA would
under plausible prebiotic conditions. need to possess, and the impossibili-
Not only is such a notion unrealistic in ty thereof, in an article titled "The
light of our current understanding of Origin of Life on Earth," in the
prebiotic chemistry, but it should
October 1994 edition of American
strain the credulity of even an opti-
Scientist:
mist's view of RNA's catalytic poten-
This scenario could have occurred, we
tial. 206
noted, if prebiotic RNA had two prop-
3- Even assuming that an RNA
erties not evident today: A capacity to
capable of copying itself did appear replicate without the help of proteins
in the primeval world, and infinite and an ability to catalyze every step of
amounts of all varieties of amino ac- protein synthesis. 207
ids that the RNA needed were avail- As you can plainly see, only evo-
able in the environment—if all these lutionist imagination and prejudice
impossibilities were somehow over- could expect these two complex
come, this is still not enough to form processes, which Orgel describes as
a single protein molecule. Because indispensable, from a molecule like
RNA is solely information about RNA. Scientific facts reveal that the
protein structure. Amino acids, on RNA World thesis, a new version of
the other hand, are raw materials. the claim that life was born by
Yet there is no mechanism here to chance, could never come true.
produce protein. Viewing the exis-
tence of RNA as sufficient for pro-
tein production is as nonsensical as
throwing the thousands of compo-
nents of a car onto a blueprint and

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


Schindewolf, Otto 187

SCHINDEWOLF, OTTO ral conditions, all systems in the uni-


verse will move towards irregulari-
Otto Schindewolf, a European
ty, disorder and corruption in direct
paleontologist, is known for the
relation to the passage of time. This
"Hopeful Monster" theory he pro-
is also known as the Law of Entropy.
posed in the 1930s. 208 (See The
In physics, entropy is a measurement
Hopeful Monster Fantasy.)
of the irregularity within a system. A
Schindewolf suggested that liv-
system's passage from a regular or-
ing things evolved through sudden
ganized and planned state to an ir-
and giant mutations, rather than by
regular, disordered and unplanned
the small step-by-step mutations ad-
one increases that system's entropy.
vocated by neo-Darwinists. As an
This means that the more irregulari-
example of his theory, Schindewolf
ty in a system, the higher its level of
claimed that the first bird in history
entropy.
emerged from a reptile egg through
This is something we all observe
a gross mutation—a giant, random
during the course of our daily lives.
mutation in its genetic structure.
For example, if you leave a car in the
According to the theory, certain
desert and go back to it some
large terrestrial animals might have
months later, of course you can't ex-
suddenly turned into whales as a re-
pect it to have become more ad-
sult of sudden and comprehensive
vanced and better maintained. On
changes. Schindewolf's fantastical
the contrary, you will find the tires
theory was later adopted in the
have gone flat, the windows are
1940s by the geneticist Richard
cracked, the metalwork has rusted
Goldschmidt of Berkeley University.
and the battery is dead.. Or if you
Yet so inconsistent was the theory
leave your home to its own devices,
that it was swiftly abandoned. 209
you will see that it becomes untidier
and dustier with every passing day.
SECOND LAW OF That process can be reversed only by
THERMODYNAMICS, THE conscious intervention—by your ti-
(THE LAW OF ENTROPY) dying and dusting it.
The Second Law of
The Second Law of
Thermodynamics, or the Law of
Thermodynamics states that left to
Entropy, has been definitively prov-
themselves and abandoned to natu-
en by theory and experiment. Albert

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


188 The Second Law of Thermodynamics (The Law of Entropy)

If you abandon a car to natural conditions, it will age, rust and decay. In the same way,
in the absence of a conscious order, all systems in the universe tend towards chaos.
This is an inescapable law of nature.

Einstein, described it as the first law intervention. There is evident order


of all the sciences. In his book in the universe, although the uni-
Entropy: A World View, the American verse's own laws should work to
scientist Jeremy Rifkin says: corrupt that order. From this, two
The Entropy Law will preside as the conclusions emerge:
ruling paradigm over the next period 1) The universe has not, as mate-
of history. Albert Einstein said that it rialists suggest, existed for all time.
is the premier law of all science: Sir Were that the case, the Second Law
Arthur Eddington referred to it as the of Thermodynamics would long ago
supreme metaphysical law of the entire have done its work, and the universe
universe. 210 would have become a homogeneous
The Law of Entropy definitively collection of matter with no order to
invalidates the materialist view that it at all.
the universe is an assembly of matter 2) The claim that after the Big
closed to all forms of supernatural Bang, the universe took shape with

The Evolution Impasse II


The Second Law of Thermodynamics (The Law of Entropy) 189

no supernatural intervention or con- entropy, the universe must have


trol is also invalid. In the universe been ordered by way of a supernatu-
that initially emerged in the wake of ral creation.
the Big Bang, only chaos ruled. Yet The order in the universe reveals
the level of order in the universe in- the existence of Allah, sublime ruler
creased, and the universe eventually of the universe. The Nobel Prize-
attained its present state. Since this winning German physicist Max
took place in violation of the law of Planck describes this order:

You can not think of a high-end car that you find among trees to be the outcome of the
randomly coming together of the various elements in the forest in millions of years.
Since the sudden and perfect appearance of a complex structure is a sign that it is cre-
ated by a conscious willpower.
190 The Second Law of Thermodynamics (The Law of Entropy)

At all events we should say, in sum- est recesses of the atom, we encounter
ming up, that, according to everything order. . . Central to the idea of a very
taught by the exact sciences about the special, orderly Universe is the concept
immense realm of nature in which our of information. A highly structured
tiny planet plays an insignificant role, system, displaying a great deal of or-
a certain order prevails—one inde- ganised activity, needs a lot of infor-
pendent of the human mind. Yet, in so mation to describe it. Alternatively, we
far as we are able to ascertain through may say that it contains much infor-
our senses, this order can be formulat- mation.
ed in terms of purposeful activity.
We are therefore presented with a curi-
There is evidence of an intelligent or-
ous question. If information and order
der of the universe. 211
always has a natural tendency to dis-
Materialism, which maintains appear, where did all the information
that the universe has existed for ever that makes the world such a special
and has never been ordered in any place come from originally? The
way, is today in an impasse in the Universe is like a clock slowly running
face of the universe's great equilibri- down. How did it get wound up in the
um. The well-known British physi- first place? 212
cist Paul Davies says: Einstein said that the order in the
Everywhere we look in the Universe, universe was something unexpected
from the far-flung galaxies to the deep- and stated that it needed to be re-
garded as a miracle:
Well, a priori one should expect that
the world would be rendered lawful

In order for the energy in a car's fuel to be


converted, there is a need for transmis-
sion systems and control mecha-
nisms to operate them, is be-
cause energy entering a
system from the out-
side is not enough
to make that
system an or-
dered, effi-
cient one.
"Selfish Gene" Theory, The 191

[obedient to law and order] only to the


extent that we [human beings] inter-
vene with our ordering intelligence...
[But instead we find] in the objective
world a high degree of order that we
were a priori in no way authorized to
expect. This is the "miracle" that is
strengthened more and more with the
development of our knowledge. 213
The order in the universe, which
contains such enormous informa-
tion, was brought into being by a su-
preme Creator and Lord of the uni-
verse. To put it another way, Allah
has created and ordered the entire
universe.

"SELFISH GENE" THEORY,


THE
The altruistic behavior seen in
living things cannot be explained by
evolutionists. (See Altruism.) For ex-
ample, male and female penguins
defend their offspring literally to the
death. The male penguin keeps its
young chick between its feet for an
uninterrupted period of four
months, eating nothing during that
time. Meanwhile, the female pen-
guin swims through the sea hunting
for food for her offspring, and car-
Male and female penguins defend their off-
ries what she finds in her craw. Such
spring literally to the death. . Such altruistic be-
altruistic behavior, of which a great havior, of which a great many examples can be
many examples can be seen in na- seen in nature, undermines the fundamental
premise of the theory of evolution.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


192 "Selfish Gene" Theory, The

ture, undermines the fundamental spring survive, there will be a great-


premise of the theory of evolution. er chance of her genes being handed
Indeed, the well-known evolu- on to the subsequent generations.
tionist Stephen Jay Gould describes According to this perspective, all
"the vexatious problem of altruism" living things, human beings includ-
214
in nature. The evolutionist ed, are gene machines. And every
Gordon Rattray Taylor writes that living thing's most important task is
the altruistic behavior in living to be able to hand on its genes to lat-
things "has long presented a chal- er generations.
lenge for Darwinism,"215 making it Evolutionists say that living
clear what a dilemma evolutionists things are programmed to continue
face in the area. Nature contains in- their own bloodlines and to wish to
stances of altruism and affection, pass on their genes, and so behave in
which are completely non-material a manner appropriate to that pro-
values, which deals a mortal blow to gramming. The following quote is
the materialist view that sees all of an example of the classic evolution-
nature as random interactions of ist account of animal behavior:
matter. What could account for potentially
However, unwilling to admit the self-destructive behavior? At least
invalidity of evolutionary scenarios, some altruistic acts are reputed to stem
some evolutionists came up with the from so-called selfish genes. Parents
so-called Selfish Gene Theory. that work themselves ragged to feed in-
According to this claim, whose lead- satiable offspring or go without food as
ing proponent was Richard long as a predator is near are probably
carrying out genetically programmed
Dawkins, one of the most avid pre-
behavior—behavior that increases the
sent-day proponents of evolution,
chances of parental genes within the
behavior that appears to be altruistic
offspring being passed on to yet anoth-
actually stems from selfishness, in
er generation. These innate, instinctive
exhibiting altruistic behavior, ani- responses to predators may seem "pur-
mals are actually thinking of pre- poseful" to the human observer, but in
serving their genes rather than of fact they are behavioral programs trig-
helping another living thing. In sac- gered by sights, sounds, odors, and
rificing her own life for that of her other cues. 216
offspring, a mother is actually pro- Consequently, evolutionists say
tecting her own genes. If her off-

The Evolution Impasse II


Self-Ordering Error, The 193

that at first sight, the behavior of liv- straight stretch of sand along the
ing things may appear to be deliber- seaside. The wind produces sand
ate. But in fact, living things engage dunes large and small. This is an or-
in such behavior unconsciously, not dering process. Yet that same wind
in a manner directed towards a par- cannot make a sandcastle. If you see
ticular objective, but because they a sandcastle, you can be are sure that
are programmed to do so. Yet the somebody has made it, because a
genes proposed as the source of this castle is an organized system, pos-
programming consist of coded pack- sessing information organized in a
ages of information, with no ability specific form. It has been made by
to think. Therefore, if an animal's someone with advanced planning.
genes possess an instruction that Complex and organized systems
predisposes it to altruistic behavior, can never come about through natu-
then the source of that instruction ral processes. Even if simple order-
cannot be the gene itself. That a liv- ing does occur from time to time,
ing thing is programmed to engage this never exceeds certain specific
in altruistic behavior to transmit its bounds.
genes on to subsequent generations Yet evolutionists say that self-or-
clearly shows the existence of a dering phenomena emerging spon-
Power possessed of reason and taneously as a result of natural proc-
knowledge to program those genes ess are significant evidence of evolu-
in such a way, and therefore clearly tion and are examples of self-organi-
demonstrates the existence of Allah. zation. (See The Self-Organization
Nonsense.) They then suggest that
living systems can come into being
SELF-ORDERING ERROR, as a result of natural phenomena
THE and chemical reactions.
Evolutionist claims and concepts But while ordered systems fea-
are generally employed in a decep- ture simple sequences and repeated
tive manner. One of these misrepre- structures, organized systems con-
sentations is the deliberate confusion tain exceedingly complex and inter-
of the concepts of "ordered" and "or- related structures and processes.
ganized." Consciousness, information and or-
To clarify this, imagine a long, ganization are essential for them to

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


194 "Self-Organization" Nonsense, The

emerge. This important difference is probabilities of survival and reproduc-


described by the evolutionist scien- tion.
tist Jeffrey Wicken: The weakest point in this explanation
"Organized" systems are to be careful- of life's origin is the great complexity
ly distinguished from "ordered" sys- of the initial entity which must form,
tems. Neither kind of system is "ran- apparently by random fluctuations, be-
dom," but whereas ordered systems are fore natural selection can take over. 218
generated according to simple algo-
rithms and therefore lack complexity,
organized systems must be assembled "SELF-ORGANIZATION"
element by element according to an ex- NONSENSE, THE
ternal "wiring diagram" with a high
information content . . . Organization, Evolutionists use the concept of
then, is functional complexity and car- self-organization to claim that inani-
ries information. 217 mate matter can so organize itself as
In their book The Mystery of to produce a living entity. This belief
Life's Origin, the American scientists flagrantly ignores all experiments
Thaxton, Bradley and Olsen clarify and observations that have shown
the issue: that matter possesses no such ability.
Sir Fred Hoyle, the famous British
The widespread recognition of the se-
astronomer and mathematician, de-
vere improbability that self-replicating
organisms could have formed from scribes how matter cannot spontane-
purely random interactions has led to a ously give rise to life with an exam-
great deal of speculation—speculation ple:
that some organizing principle must To press the matter further, if there
have been involved. In the company of were a basic principle of matter which
many others, Crick has considered that somehow drove organic systems to-
the neo-Darwinian mechanism of nat- ward life, its existence should easily be
ural selection might provide the an- demonstrable in the laboratory. One
swer. An entity capable of self-replica- could, for instance, take a swimming
tion is necessary, however, before nat- [pool] to represent the primordial soup.
ural selection can operate. Only then Fill it with any chemicals of a non-bio-
could changes result via mutations logical nature you please. Pump any
and environmental pressures which gases over it, or through it, you please,
might in turn bring about the domi- and shine any kind of radiation on it
nance of entities with the greatest that takes your fancy. Let the experi-

The Evolution Impasse II


"Self-Organization" Nonsense, The 195

The two famous advocates of the punctuated model of evolution; Stephen Jay Gould
and Niles Eldredge.

ment proceed for a year and see how mechanism of almost every major step,
many of those [vital] 2,000 enzymes from chemical precursors up to the
have appeared … I will give the an- first recognizable cells, is the subject of
swer, and so save the time and trouble either controversy or complete bewil-
and expense of actually doing the ex- derment. 220
periment. You would find nothing at Yet evolutionists insist on advo-
all, except possibly for a tarry sludge
cating such an unscientific scenario
composed of amino acids and other
as the self-organization of matter.
simple organic chemicals. 219
Their motive for this lies hidden in
The evolutionist biologist materialist philosophy, the basis of
Andrew Scott admits the same the theory of evolution. Materialist
thing: philosophy, accepting only the exis-
Take some matter, heat while stirring tence of matter, therefore must pro-
and wait. That is the modern version of duce an explanation for life based on
Genesis. The "fundamental" forces of matter alone. The theory of evolu-
gravity, electromagnetism and the
tion was born of that need and, no
strong and weak nuclear forces are pre-
matter how much it may violate sci-
sumed to have done the rest . . . But
entific findings, it is advocated sole-
how much of this neat tale is firmly es-
ly for the sake of that requirement.
tablished, and how much remains
hopeful speculation? In truth, the
Robert Shapiro, a professor of
chemistry and DNA expert from

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


196 Seymouria

New York University, describes the the extinct amphibian species


materialist dogma underpinning ev- Seymouria. However, it then
olutionists' belief in matter organiz- emerged that Seymouria could not be
ing itself it: an intermediate form, since reptiles
Another evolutionary principle is were living on Earth 30 million years
therefore needed to take us across the before Seymouria first appeared. The
gap from mixtures of simple natural oldest Seymouria fossils date back to
chemicals to the first effective replica- the Lower Permian stratum of 280
tor [DNA or RNA]. This principle has million years ago. Yet Hylonomus,
not yet been described in detail or dem- the oldest known reptile species (310
onstrated, but it is anticipated, and million years old) and Paleothyris
given names such as "chemical evolu-
(300 million years old) have both
tion" and "self-organization of mat-
been found in Early Pennsylvanian
ter." The existence of the principle is
strata, dating back 330 to 315 million
taken for granted in the philosophy of
years. 222
dialectical materialism, as applied to
the origin of life by Alexander Oparin.
It is of course impossible for the
221 ancestor of reptiles to have lived
long after reptiles themselves.

SEYMOURIA
SHAPIRO, ROBERT
The creature that was long pro-
Robert Shapiro, a New York
posed as the ancestor of reptiles was

Evolutionists once claimed that the Seymouria fossil above was an intermediate form
between amphibians and reptiles. According to this scenario, Seymouria was the prim-
itive ancestor of reptiles. But subsequent fossil discoveries proved that reptiles were liv-
ing on Earth 30 million years before Seymouria. This meant that evolutionists were
forced to withdraw their claims regarding Seymouria.

The Evolution Impasse II


Sickle Cell Anemia 197

University pro- SICKLE CELL ANEMIA


fessor of chemis-
The sole example of a "useful mu-
try and DNA ex-
tation" that evolutionist biologists
pert, calculated
refer to is the disease sickle cell ane-
the probability of
mia, in which the hemoglobin mole-
the 2,000 types of
cule responsible for transporting ox-
proteins in a sim-
ygen becomes deformed and chan-
Robert Shapiro
ple bacterium
ges shape. As a result, its ability to
coming into existence by chance.
transport oxygen is seriously im-
(The human cell contains around
paired.
200,000 different types of proteins. .)
Victims of sickle cell anemia suf-
The figure obtained is a probability
fer increasing respiratory difficul-
of 1 in 1040,000.223 (This is the astronom-
ties. Yet this example of mutation,
ical figure of 1 followed by 40,000 ze-
discussed under blood diseases in
roes.)
medical textbooks, is regarded as ad-
A bacterium's complexity refutes
vantageous by some evolutionist bi-
chance and clearly points to the exis-
ologists.
tence of a Creator. But this evident
Sufferers from this disease enjoy
truth is still denied because of blind
a partial immunity to malaria, and
devotion to the materialist world
this is described as an evolutionary
view. Robert Shapiro, a researcher
adaptation. Using that kind of incon-
into the origin of life, reveals this ir-
sistent logic, one could say that the
rational materialist stance in these
genetically lame were spared being
words:
killed in traffic accidents since they
Similarly, the existence of bacteria and could not walk, and that lameness is
other living beings, all of which are a useful genetic trait..
much more complex than a watch, im-
It is clear that mutations have on-
plies the existence of a creator, as only
ly destructive effects. Pierre Paul
a higher being could design creatures
Grassé, former president of the
so fit for their function. We will not
French Academy of Sciences, com-
take this escape route in our book, for
we are committed to seeking an answer
pares mutations to spelling mistakes
within the realm of science . . . We during the copying of a written text.
must look for another solution if we Like spelling mistakes, mutations
wish to remain within science. 224 add no further information, but rath-

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


198 Single Cell to Multi-Cell Transition Myth, The

The shape and function of red blood cells are distorted in sickle cell anemia. Their abil-
ity to transport oxygen is thus impaired.

er damage what is already there. nario, primitive single-celled organ-


Grassé goes on to say: isms that came into existence by
Mutations, in time, occur incoherent- chance were the original ancestors of
ly. They are not complementary to one all living things. Over the course of
another, nor are they cumulative in time, these organisms that formed
successive generations toward a given multiplied and gave rise to multi-
direction. They modify what preexists, celled organisms.
but they do so in disorder, no matter According to evolutionists, this
how . . As soon as some disorder, even was the first step in the passage from
slight, appears in an organized being,
one cell to many. Organisms at this
sickness, then death follow. There is no
stage of development became genu-
possible compromise between the phe-
inely multi-cellular with the division
nomenon of life and anarchy [disor-
of labor among cells in their colony.
der]. 225
Cells lost the ability to exist inde-
pendently once they gave rise to
multi-cellular organisms.
SINGLE CELL TO
The scenario continues thus: . At
MULTI-CELL TRANSITION
this stage of the evolutionary proc-
MYTH, THE
ess, as the need to act independently
According to the evolutionist sce-

The Evolution Impasse II


Single Cell to Multi-Cell Transition Myth, The 199

Despite being very small, bacteria pos-


sess exceedingly complex features, in
terms of both structure and function.

decreased—or as their chances of Sir James Gray, the well-known


survival improved by living as a British zoologist, says this about the
group—, the differences between bacteria that Darwinists described as
cells grew more distinct. For what- "simple":
ever reason, cells continued differen- A bacterium is far more complex than
tiating and increasing their division any inanimate system known to man.
of labor, giving rise to increasingly There is not a laboratory in the world
multicellular organisms. which can compete with the biochemi-
At the beginning of this fantasti- cal activity of the smallest living or-
cal view lie single-celled organisms ganism. 226
that are regarded as primitive and The evolutionist James A.
simple. Yet single-celled organisms Shapiro admits that these highly de-
are not simple life forms, as evolu- tailed characteristics features make
tionists suggest, but neither do they bacteria a complex form of life:
have the consciousness with which Although bacteria are tiny, they dis-
to make decisions and assume new play biochemical, structural and be-
duties. Single-celled organisms may havioral complexities that outstrip sci-
have a simpler structure than multi- entific description. In keeping with the
cellular ones, but by itself is not evi- current microelectronics revolution, it
dence that they are primitive. may make more sense to equate their
Indeed, although a single-celled bac- size with sophistication rather than
with simplicity. . . 227
terium still possesses a complexity
that amazes those who investigate it.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


200 Social Darwinism

SOCIAL DARWINISM survival in nature from Malthus:

One of the theory of evolution's In October, 1838, that is, fifteen


most basic claims is that the devel- months after I had begun my systemat-
ic inquiry, I happened to read for
opment of living things is based on a
amusement Malthus on population,
struggle for survival. According to
and being well prepared to appreciate
Darwin, there was a ruthless eternal
the struggle for existence which every-
conflict in nature. The strong always
where goes on from long continuous
vanquished the weak, thanks to observation of the habits of animals
which progress became possible. and plants, it at once struck me that
The subtitle to his book On The under these circumstances, favourable
Origin of Species summed up his variations would tend to be preserved
view: By Means of Natural Selection or and unfavourable ones to be destroyed.
the Preservation of Favored Races in the The result of this would be the forma-
Struggle for Life. tion of new species. Here, then, I had at
Darwin's source of inspiration on last got a theory by which to work. 228
this subject was the British econo- Influenced by Malthus, Darwin
mist Thomas Malthus's book An applied this view to the whole of na-
Essay on the Principle of Population, ture and suggested that in this con-
which implied a rather gloomy fu- flict, the strongest and fittest would
ture for the human race. Malthus cal- survive. Darwin's claim covered all
culated that, left to itself, the human plants, animals and human beings.
population would grow very fast, Moreover, he particularly empha-
doubling every 25 years. However, sized that the struggle for survival
food resources could not increase at was a legitimate, unchanging law.
nearly that quickly. The human race He encouraged people to abandon
would therefore face a constant their religious believes by denying
shortage of food. The main factors creation, and thus targeted all those
keeping population under control moral criteria that might stand in the
were such disasters as war, famine way of the ruthless struggle for sur-
and disease. In short, some people vival.
would have to die while others For that reason, Darwin's theory
lived. Survival meant constant war. acquired a great deal of support
Darwin admitted that he had from the moment he announced it—
drawn the idea of the struggle for first from the established order in

The Evolution Impasse II


These photos reflect a very small part
of the tragedies inflicted on humanity
by Social Darwinism. Conflicts in the
name of racism, fascism, communism
or imperialism assumed a scientific
guise with Social Darwinism. Conflict
was claimed to exist among animals
and nature, and was regarded as be-
ing inherent in human beings, too.
Powerful states used this flawed log-
ic and the slogans of Darwinism to
oppress weaker nations and try to
eliminate them.
202 Social Darwinism

Britain, and then from that in the You will readily believe how much in-
wider Western world. The imperial- terested I am in observing that you ap-
ists, capitalists and other materialists ply to moral and social questions anal-
delighted in a theory that scientifi- ogous views to those which I have used
cally justified the political and social in regard to the modification of species.
It did not occur to me formerly that my
order they had established, and lost
views could be extended to such wide-
no time in supporting it.
ly different, and most important, sub-
In a very short time, the theory of
jects. 229
evolution became the sole criterion
With the adoption of the idea that
in every field of concern to human
the conflicts in nature also existed in
societies, from sociology to history
human societies, in the forms of ra-
and from psychology to politics. The
cism, fascism, communism and im-
basic idea in all spheres was the slo-
perialism, the powerful nations' at-
gan "survival of the fittest," and na-
tempts to crush those they regarded
tions, political parties, administra-
as weaker acquired a supposedly
tions, businesses and individuals all
scientific justification. Those who
began behaving in light of them.
carried out barbaric slaughter, who
Since the ideologies that dominated
began wars, who denigrated others
society had lined up behind
because of their race, who caused
Darwinism, open and covert
businesses to close due to unfair
Darwinist propaganda appeared in
competition, and those who refused
all fields, from education to art and
help the poor were now not to be
from politics to history.
criticized or restrained—because
Attempts were made to link ev-
they acted in conformity with a law
erything to Darwinism and to ac-
of nature.
count for everything in Darwinian
terms. As a result, even if people This new, supposedly scientific theory
were ignorant of Darwinism, socie- assumed the name of Social
Darwinism.
ties that lived the kind of life it fore-
saw began to emerge. The American paleontologist
Darwin himself approved moral Stephen Jay Gould, one of the lead-
conceptions based on evolution and ing present-day advocates of the the-
their application to the social scien- ory of evolution, admits as much:
ces. In a letter to H. Thiel written in Subsequent arguments for slavery, co-
1869, he wrote: lonialism, racial differences, class

The Evolution Impasse II


Spencer, Herbert 203

struggles, and sex roles would go forth mingled with political philosophy
primarily under the banner of science. around the turn of the century to form
230
the vague ideology known as "social
In his book Darwin, Marx, Darwinism," it played into the hands
of racists, fascists, and the most heart-
Wagner, the professor of history
less sort of capitalists. 232
Jacques Barzun analyzes the scientif-
ic, sociological, and cultural reasons
for the terrible moral collapse in the
modern world. These comments in
SPECIATION
Barzun's book are noteworthy in —See Allopatric Isolation.
terms of Darwinism's impact on the
world:
. . . in every European country between
SPENCER, HERBERT
1870 and 1914 there was a war party Herbert Spencer was the main
demanding armaments, an individual- theoretician of Social Darwinism,
ist party demanding ruthless competi- who adapted Darwin's principles to
tion, an imperialist party demanding a the life of society. He wrote that if
free hand over backward peoples, a so- someone was poor, that was his own
cialist party demanding the conquest
fault: No one should help anyone
of power, and a racialist party demand-
else to improve themselves. If some-
ing internal purges against aliens—all
one is rich, even if he had acquired
of them, when appeals to greed and
that wealth immorally, that was due
glory failed, or even before, invoked
Spencer and Darwin, which was to
to his own talent. Therefore, while
say, science incarnate . . . Race was bi- the poor are eliminated, the rich live
ological, it was sociological, it was on. This view dominates just about
Darwinian. 231 all modern societies, and is the es-
Despite being an evolutionist, sence of capitalist morality. (See
Robert Wright, author of The Moral Social Darwinism.)
Animal, summarizes the disasters Spencer, an advocate of that mo-
that the theory of evolution inflicted rality, completed his study entitled
on the mankind: Social Statistics in 1850. In this he op-
posed all forms of state assistance,
Evolutionary theory, after all, has a
health-protection measures, state
long and largely sordid history of ap-
plication to human affairs. After being schools and compulsory vaccina-
tions. That was because, in the view

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


204 Spontaneous Generation

of Social Darwinism, the social order Had any evolution actually taken
was based on the principle of the place, then living things would have
survival of the fittest. Supporting the appeared on Earth through gradual
weak and keeping them alive to changes and should have continued
propagate was a violation of that to change. Yet the fossil records
principle. The rich were rich because demonstrate the exact opposite.
they were more fit, and some nations Different living classes emerged
governed others because they were suddenly with no ancestors even re-
superior. Some nations had come motely resembling them and re-
under the yoke of others because the mained in a state of stasis, undergo-
latter were more intelligent. ing no change at all, for hundreds of
Spencer strongly advocated the millions of years.
adaptation of this thesis to human
societies, summing up the Social
Darwinist view in these words: STRUGGLE FOR SURVIVAL,
If they are sufficiently complete to live,
THE
they do live, and it is well they should The fundamental assumption of
live. If they are not sufficiently com- the theory of natural selection is that
plete to live, they die, and it is best they every living thing thinks only of it-
should die. 233 self in the struggle to the death. In
proposing this idea, Darwin was in-
fluenced by the theories of Thomas
SPONTANEOUS Robert Malthus, a British economist.
GENERATION Malthus said that food resources in-
—See Abiogenesis. creased arithmetically, while the hu-
man population increased geometri-
cally—for which reason it was inevi-
STASIS table that humans should wage a
The fossil record shows that liv- constant fight for survival. Darwin
ing species emerged in a single mo- applied this concept to nature and
ment with all their different struc- claimed that the result of this strug-
tures fully formed, and that they re- gle was natural selection.
mained unchanged over very long Subsequent research, however,
geological periods of time. showed that there was no such
struggle for survival of the kind that

The Evolution Impasse II


Systematic 205

Darwin had postulated. Lengthy Darwin's concept of a struggle for


studies on animal populations in the survival. (See Altruism.)
1960s and '70s by the British zoolo- Some recent research has re-
gist Wynne-Edwards showed that vealed that altruistic behavior can be
animal communities balanced their found even in bacteria. These organ-
populations in very interesting isms have no brain or nervous sys-
ways, to prevent competition for tem, and thus lack any ability to
food. think. Yet when invaded by viruses,
Animal communities generally they commit suicide in order to pro-
regulate their populations in accord- tect other bacteria. 236
ance with the available food sup- These examples invalidate the
plies. Population is controlled not by concept of the struggle for survival,
such "eliminators of the unfit" as which is the fundamental hypothesis
starvation and epidemic diseases, of natural selection. (See Malthus,
but by control mechanisms instinc- Thomas and Social Darwinism.)
tively present in animals. In other
words, animals stabilized their pop-
ulations not by the life-or-death SYNTHETIC EVOLUTION
competition to the death postulated THEORY, THE
by Darwin, but by restricting their —See Neo-Darwinism Comedy,
own reproduction. 234 The.
Even plants exhibited signs of
self-regulation, rather than competi-
tion through natural selection as SYSTEMATIC
proposed by Darwin. Observations —See Taxonomy.
by the botanist A.D. Bradshaw
proved that as plants multiplied,
they behaved according to their den-
sity in the area they grew in—and
that as plant numbers increased, re-
produced declined. 235
In addition, the examples of al-
truism encountered in such commu-
nities as ants and bees represent a
model that is the exact opposite of

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


Taung Child Fossil, The 207

TAUNG CHILD FOSSIL, THE Ape-Man in South Africa." Scientists


who said that the fossil actually be-
All Australopithecus fossils have
longed to a chimpanzee did not take
been unearthed in the southern part
Dart seriously. Yet he persisted with
of the African continent. The reason
the idea that the fossil was a homi-
why this species has been given the
nid and convinced Dr. Robert
name Australopithecus, meaning
Bloom, a famous physicist, of this,
"South African ape," is that these an-
devoting the rest of his life to finding
imals have features very similar to
support for the new species he had
those of present-day apes.
found. Even then, scientific circles
The first fossils claimed to belong
began jokingly referring to the fossil
to this species were found in a coal
he had found as "Dart's baby."
mine in the Taung region of South
Evolutionists then lined up behind
Africa in 1924. The first fossil de-
the fossil, inventing a new species to
scribed as Australopithecus consist-
which they had given the name
ed of a young ape's face and lower
Australopithecus. The first fossil dis-
jaw bones, and a skull of 410 cubic
covered was given the full name
centimeters in volume. The discov-
Australopithecus africanus.
erers of the fossil took it to Raymond
Following the discovery of this
Dart, an anthropologist.
fossil, which was giv-
Based on the skull's
en the nickname
fine structure and
of "the Taung
thinking that
Child" because
its teeth re-
it was thought
sembled hu-
to belong to a
man teeth,
young individu-
Dr. Dart
al, other paleon-
suggested
tol o gists—es pe -
that the fossil
cially the Leakey
belonged to a
fam i ly—stepped
hominid. Shortly
up their own re-
afterwards, he pub-
search. In the
lished an article in
1950s, other fossils
Nature magazine ti-
regarded as be-
tled "Australopithecus:
The Taung Child fossil longing to

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


208 Taung Child Fossil, The

Australopithecus were found in digs that the Taung Child he had found
financed by National Geographic mag- was able to walk on two legs, since
azine in Kromdraai, Swartkrans and according to him, that part of the
Makapansgat in South Africa. Some spinal cord known as the magnum
of these ape fossils had a coarser was further back than that in hu-
structure, while others were smaller mans, but further forward than in
and finer. The coarser ones were monkeys. On the basis of this, Dart
bulkier and heavier than the others, then claimed that the animal was ca-
with a larger bottom jaw and bony pable of standing on its two hind
protrusions over the eyebrows being legs. This theory was not accepted
their most distinguishing features. by scientists at the time, but was
Although these are all typical ex- supported until the 1950s. However,
amples of gender differences be- no part of the skeleton that might
tween modern-day male and female permit an estimation of bipedalism
monkeys, scientists persisted in re- was available. The only specimens
garding them as separate species. consisted of the skull and a few frag-
After Dart presented the fossil mented thigh, hip and foot bones.
given the name Australopithecus afri- Yet evolutionists still insisted on
canus, he received substantial criti- their claims regarding bipedalism.
cism from scientists. Arthur Keith, Lord Solly Zuckerman had car-
one of the most prominent anato- ried out perhaps the most detailed
mists to comment on the fossil, said: studies of the Australopithecines fam-
[Dart's] claim is preposterous, the ily. Despite being an evolutionist,
skull is that of a young anthropoid ape Zuckerman thought that
. . . and showing so many points of af- Australopithecus was nothing more
finity with the two living African an- than an ape. Together with a four-
thropoids, the gorilla and chimpanzee, member team, Zuckerman used the
that there cannot be a moment's hesi- most advanced methods of anatomi-
tation in placing the fossil form in this cal investigation, which began in
living group. 237
1954 and lasted for several years. In
According to evolutionists, what the wake of these investigations, he
Australopithecines shared with hu- declared that these creatures had not
man beings was they had left the walked on two legs and were not an
trees and adapted to bipedalism intermediate form between humans
(walking upright). Dart concluded and apes. The concluding report by

The Evolution Impasse II


Taxonomy 209

Zuckerman and his team read: The protrusions over the eye-
For my own part, the anatomical basis brows, the most important feature
for the claim that the Australopithecines that led to Australopithecus africanus
walked and ran upright like man is so being described as a hominid, can be
much more flimsy than the evidence seen in young gorillas today. From
which points to the conclusion that their all this, it appears that the skull as-
gait was some variant of what one sees cribed to Australopithecus africanus
in subhuman Primates, that it remains by evolutionists did not belong to an
unacceptable. 238
ancestor of man but in all probabili-
These judgments, published by ty, to a young ape.
Zuckerman in the mid-1950s, were
confirmed by subsequent research-
ers. Dean Falk, a specialist in neuro- TAXONOMY
anatomy, declared that the Taung Biologists divide living things in-
skull belonged to a young monkey. to specific classes. This classification,
"In his 1975 article, Dart had claimed known as taxonomy, dates back to
that the brain of Taung was human- Carolus Linnaeus in the 18th centu-
like. As it turned out, he was wrong ry. The classification system that
about that. . . . Taung's humanlike Linnaeus constructed has been ex-
features were overemphasized," panded and revised, but is still in
claimed Falk, who went on to say: use today.
Like humans, [apes and monkeys] go This system of classification con-
through stages as they grow up. In his tains hierarchical categories. Living
analysis of Taung, Dart did not fully things are first divided into king-
appreciate that infant apes have not
doms, such as the animal and plant
had time to develop features of the
kingdoms. Kingdoms are then sub-
skull, such as thickened eyebrow ridges
divided into phyla, which are then
or attachment areas for heavy neck
further subdivided. Classification
muscles, that set adult apes apart from
human. Apparently he did not careful- takes the following form, in de-
ly consider the possibility that Taung's scending order:
rounded forehead or the inferred posi- kingdom
tion of the spinal cord might be due to phylum (plural phyla)
the immaturity of the apelike specimen class
rather than to its resemblance to hu- order
mans. 239 family

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


210 Tetrapod Finger Structure, The

genus (plural genera) THEORY


species
A hypothesis that can be support-
Most biologists today accept the
ed with large numbers of observa-
existence of five separate kingdoms.
tions and experiments is known as a
In addition to the plant and animal
theory. To put it another way, a theo-
kingdoms, they regard fungi, mon-
ry is a deep-rooted hypothesis.
era (single-celled organisms with no
However, although a theory is prov-
cell nucleus, such as bacteria) and
en with experiments, it may also be
protista (cells with a nucleus, such as
disproved.
algae) as separate kingdoms.
For example, the claim that "The
The most important of these is
atom is the smallest known compo-
without doubt that animal kingdom.
nent of matter," known as Dalton's
The major divisions within the ani-
atomic theory, today has lost all va-
mal kingdom are its various phyla.
lidity.240 Advances in science and
In the classification of these phyla,
technology have revealed the exis-
their differing bodily structures are
tence of much smaller particles than
considered. Arthropods, for exam-
the atom and even the proton, such
ple, constitute a separate phylum,
as the quark.
and all the creatures within that phy-
A scientific theory is an attempt
lum have a similar body plan. The
to explain certain phenomena occur-
phylum known as Chordata consists
ring in nature. A frequently occur-
of creatures with a central nervous
ring phenomenon may be explained
system. All the animals familiar to
in terms of a theory, a fact, or a law.
us such as fish, birds, reptiles and
Gravity, example, is a fact. Even if
mammals are included in the verte-
we cannot perceive gravity directly,
brate category, a subdivision of the
we can still see its effect when we
Chordata.
drop something. There is also a the-
ory of gravity that answers the ques-
tion of how this takes place. Even if
TETRAPOD FINGER
we do not know exactly how gravity
STRUCTURE, THE
works, there are theories that seek to
—See, Five Digit Homology. account for it. The law of gravity for-
mulated by Isaac Newton is one
such.

The Evolution Impasse II


Theory 211

In summary, a scientific fact is an side the scope of empirical science. 242


observable natural law, and a scien- On the other hand, by suggesting
tific theory is a mathematical de- that evolution takes place in two
scription of how a scientific law ways—observable micro-evolution
works. and unobservable macro-evolu-
The first and most important re- tion—evolutionists attempt to por-
quirement of empirical (experimen- tray this imaginary evolutionary
tal) science is that the object or phe- process as a scientific fact. (See The
nomenon we wish to investigate Invalidity of Micro-Evolution and
should be observable. The second The Macro-Evolution Myth.)
condition is that the object or phe- According to evolutionists, macro-
nomenon should be repeatable. Any evolution is the process of infinite
observable and repeatable event variation necessary for reptiles to
must be capable of being tested. This turn into birds, or apes into human
enables us to determine whether or beings. Yet nobody has ever ob-
not an experiment validates a theo- served this happening. 243
ry. If the explanation that someone Micro-evolution, on the other
postulates regarding a phenomenon hand, again according to evolution-
is one that cannot be tested or vali- ists, is a limited process of variation
dated, then this is not a theory, but a of a specific species that we can ob-
belief. 241 serve and that produces divergence.
Evolutionists say that the main However, the changes postulated as
evolutionary changes take place micro-evolution cannot produce a
very slowly, or so rarely that people new species or a new characteristic.
cannot observe them during their Therefore, they are not, as is
lifetimes. According to the evolu- claimed, mechanisms with any evo-
tionist Theodosius Dobzhansky, lutionary power. In addition, micro-
even when evolutionary changes oc- evolution is raised in order to imply
cur, they are events that by nature that it is a dorm of variation that
are rare, unrepeated and irreversi- gives rise to macro-evolution. (See
ble. Paul Ehrlich, a well-know evolu- Variation.) This is mere conjecture
tionist, maintains that the theory of regarding a phenomenon that can-
evolution cannot be refuted by any not be observed and which lacks any
observation, for which reason it evidence.
needs to be regarded as being out- Evolution cannot be observed

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


212 Theropod Dinosaurs

and cannot be repeated, and for The results of the recent studies show
these reasons, is therefore not a sci- that the hands of the theropod dino-
entific fact or theory. Neither is it an saurs are derived from digits I, II, and
evident scientific fact, as some circles III, whereas the wings of birds, al-
imagine or as they seek to portray though they look alike in terms of
structure, are derived from digits II,
it.244 On the contrary, when the theo-
III, and IV . . . The second study shows
ry of evolution is compared with sci-
that the theropod dinosaurs did not
entific findings, a great contradiction
possess the correct skeletal structure or
emerges. In terms of the origin of
lung structure to have evolved into
life, population genetics, compara- birds. The evolution of theropods into
tive anatomy, paleontology and bio- birds would have required the intro-
chemical systems, the theory of evo- duction of a serious handicap (a hole in
lution is in a state of crisis, as the fa- their diaphragm), which would have
mous biochemist Michael Denton severely limited their ability to breathe.
puts it. 245 As Dr. Ruben said, such a debilitating
mutation "seems unlikely to have been
of any selective advantage." 246
THEROPOD DINOSAURS There are other problems regard-
The theory of evolution claims ing the "Birds Are Dinosaurs" theo-
that birds evolved from a small, car- ry. In comparison with
nivorous reptile known as the thero- Archaeopteryx, theropods' front legs
pod dinosaur. In fact, however, a are very small in relation to their
comparison of birds and reptiles bodies. (See Archaeopteryx.) Bearing
shows that these classes are very dif- in mind the body weight of these an-
ferent from one another and that no imals, the development of any proto-
evolution can have taken place be- wing appears impossible. The ma-
tween them. (See The Origin of jority of theropod dinosaurs have no
Birds.) semilunatic wrist bone (which is
An examination of the anatomies found in birds), and possess other
and fossil records of birds and rep- wrist components that are absent in
tiles also shows no evidence that ev- Archaeopteryx. In all theropods, the
olution ever happened. In an article VI nerves leave the skull from the
titled "Demise of the ‘Birds Are side, together with various other
Dinosaurs' Theory," the American nerves. In birds, however, the same
biologist Richard L. Deem writes: nerves leave the skull through a

The Evolution Impasse II


Theropod Dinosaurs 213

hole, which is unique to them, in the


front of the skull. Another problem
is that a great many theropods
emerged after Archaeopteryx. 247
Another major distinguishing
feature between theropod dinosaurs
and birds is the structure of these di-
nosaurs' hip bones. Dinosaurs are di-
vided into two kinds, depending on
their hip bone structure: Saurischian
(with reptile-like hip bones) and
Ornithischian (with bird-like hip
bones). In members of the
Ornithischian group, the hip bones
really do closely resemble those of
birds, hence their name. However, in
other respects they bear no resem-
blance to birds whatsoever. For
that reason, evolutionists are
forced to regard Saurischian
dinosaurs (those with rep-
tile-like hip bones),
which include the thero-
pods, as the ancestors of

It is impossible for birds


to have evolved from
theropod dinosaurs, be-
cause there is no mech-
anism capable of over-
coming the enormous
differences between the
two life forms.
214 Transition From Jungle to Open Savanna Myth, The

living in the African savanna grew


more upright in order to be able to
see over the surrounding grasses. 249
However, it did not take long to real-
ize that this Lamarckist theory was
completely wrong.
Modern-day evolutionists have
only a single thesis with which they
It is impossible for birds to have seek to account for the origin of bi-
evolved from theropod dinosaurs, and
pedalism. According to the theory of
there is no mechanism to support such
an illusory claim. transition from jungle to open spa-
ces,, the ancestors of humans and
apes once lived together in the jun-
birds. Yet as can be seen from their
gle. Due to jungle shrinking or for
description, the hip bone structure in
some other reason, some of them
these dinosaurs bears absolutely no
moved over to open plains, and bi-
resemblance to that in birds. 248
pedalism was born as a result of ad-
In short, it is impossible for birds
aptation. Both the apes in the trees
to have evolved from theropod dino-
and the bipedal human beings began
saurs, because no mechanism exists
evolving in their own separate direc-
that could possibly overcome the
tions.
enormous differences between the
When examined, however, this
two classes.
thesis, dreamed up under the logic
of "making the best of a bad job," is
TRANSITION FROM JUNGLE seen to be just like its predecessors,
TO OPEN SAVANNA MYTH, very far from being able to account
THE for bipedalism. It is impossible at the
molecular level for there to be such
Since the science of genetics and
an adaptation. Even if such a thing is
the laws of heredity were not fully
assumed to have taken place, there is
known in the 19th century, Darwin
no evidence of it in the fossil record.
and the early evolutionists who fol-
Moreover, according to this theory,
lowed him regarded bipedalism as
the East African jungles must have
something easy to account for. The
begun shrinking 10 to 15 million
most popular theory was that apes
years ago. Yet research carried out

The Evolution Impasse II


Transition from Land to Air Myth, The 215

proves the exact opposite, and no thropology was in its infancy, was
such development ever took place in very interesting. According to
East Africa. 250 The plants observed in Klaatsch, hominid apes also attempted
the region have remained un- to become human, but theirs was ‘an
changed for millions of years. In unfortunate endeavour.' They were
unable to rise up in the process of evo-
short, the transition from jungle to
lution, and withdrew into the ‘protec-
the open plains never happened.
tive darkness of the jungles.' But then
Even when considered in logical
the question of ‘Why were apes unsuc-
terms, the theory in question about
cessful?' comes to mind. 251
the origin of bipedalism is unaccept-
There were a great many other
able. In the event of trees disappear-
questions apart from "Why were
ing, the most natural course would
apes unsuccessful?", and they are all
be for apes to migrate to another re-
unanswered
gion, or be wiped out with the elim-
ination of their natural habitat.
There is no basis for the theory that TRANSITION FROM LAND
monkeys adapted to living on the TO AIR MYTH, THE
ground.
Uluğ Nutku, who holds evolu- Since evolutionists believe that
tionist views, describes why the ac- birds evolved in some way, they
count based on the shrinking of the claim that they are descended from
jungles is insufficient: reptiles. One of the theories they
propose to account for the origin of
It may be suggested that the shrinking
flight is that reptiles developed
of the jungles was the factor that initi-
ated the phenomenon of humanization. wings while attempting to catch
This is a palaeontological fact. flies. In fact, however, birds have to-
Napier's thesis is compatible with this, tally different structures from those
but it leaves out the following ques- in terrestrial animals. No physical
tion: While one animal species was mechanism can be accounted for in
leaving the jungle and setting out on terms of gradual evolution.
the path to becoming human, why did First of all, the flawless structure
its closest relative, the ape, remain in of the wing, the evolutionary main
the jungle? The less speculation, the distinguishing feature of birds, rep-
harder it is to find an answer. The an- resents a major dilemma for evolu-
swer given by Hermann Klaatsch, in
tionists. The question of how the
the early part of the century, when an-
wing could have developed as the
Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar
216 Transition from Sea to Land Thesis, The

result of consecutive random muta- mutations. This clearly demon-


tions is one that evolutionists cannot strates that the claims of evolution-
answer. Evolution is unable to ex- ists are simply fictional. In addition,
plain how a reptile's front legs could no fossil record confirms this unsci-
have turned into wings as the result entific tale. There are thousands of
of some mutation arising in its perfectly formed bird fossils, but not
genes. No new organ can form as the a single example of bird-like crea-
result of mutations, and any reptile tures, with half-developed wings,
would be naturally disadvantaged if has ever been found.
its forelegs lost functionality. (See
The Origin of Wings and The Origin
of Flight.)
In addition, simply possessing TRANSITION FROM SEA TO
wings is not enough to turn a terres- LAND THESIS, THE
trial animal into a bird. Land dwell- —See Transition from Water to
ers lack many of the structural mech- Land Dilemma, The.
anisms that birds use to fly. For ex-
ample, avian bones are much lighter
than those of terrestrial creatures. TRANSITION FROM WATER
Their lungs have a wholly different TO LAND DILEMMA, THE
structure and function. Birds have According to the theory of evolu-
different muscular and skeletal tion, life began in the seas, and the
structures, as well as far more spe- first advanced vertebrate animals
cialized heart and circulatory sys- were fish. Again according to the
tems—mechanisms that cannot form theory, these fish began to move to-
gradually, being added to one an- ward dry land and in some way,
other. came to use feet instead of fins and
Evolutionists who maintain that lungs instead of gills!
dinosaurs developed wings while Many books on evolution never
chasing flies cannot explain how consider the how of this major claim,
those flies developed wings in the whose baselessness is glossed over
first place. Yet according to their in most scientific textbooks in some
own claims, the flies' wings in their summary like ". . . and living things
most complex forms must have moved from the water to dry land."
come into being through various

The Evolution Impasse II


Transition from Water to Land Dilemma, The 217

tempts for millions of years, the end


result would always be the same: All
the fish would die. No organ as
complex as the lung can emerge
suddenly, by way of mutation. Yet a
half-lung would serve no purpose at
immaginary all.
transition from
FALSE Both fossil findings and physio-
dinasours to
birds logical studies totally disprove the
claim that fish are the ancestors of
terrestrial animals. The huge ana-
tomical and physiological differen-
ces between marine and terrestrial
animals cannot possibly be bridged
by gradual evolution based on
chance. Among the most evident of
these differences:
1) Weight bearing: Marine crea-
immaginary tures do not face the problem of hav-
transition to
winged dina-
ing to support their own weight, so
sours their bodily structures are not di-
rected towards such a function.
Those living on land, however, ex-
pend 40% of their energy just in
moving around. Any water dweller
about to pass onto dry land needs to
develop new muscles and a new
skeletal structure to meet that
need—but it is impossible for such
If one fish that moved out of the complex structures to form through
water onto dry land couldn't survive random mutations.
for longer than a minute or two, then Evolutionists imagine the coela-
any of the other fish that did so canth and other similar fish to be the
would also die within a few minutes. ancestors of terrestrial animals be-
Even if fish kept making the same at- cause of the bony nature of their fins.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


218 Transition from Water to Land Dilemma, The

They assume that these bones grad-


ually developed into weight-bearing
feet. Yet unlike the feet of land Capsule
-Cortex
dwellers, the bones in a fish's fins are
Medula
not connected directly to their back- Renal ar-
bone. This means they cannot per- tery

form a weight- bearing function, as


do the leg bones in terrestrial ani-
mals. Therefore, the claim that these Renal vein
fins slowly evolved into feet is Renal pel-
groundless. vis
Ureter
2) Heat protection: On land, tem-
peratures can change very fast and
within a wide range. A terrestrial an-
imal's metabolism allows it to adapt
to these temperature changes in. In
The Kidney Barrier
the sea, however, temperatures Fish release harmful byproducts in their bod-
change very slowly, and do not ies directly into the water. Terrestrial animals,
range as widely as on land. A crea- however, need kidneys. Therefore, any animal
that makes the transition from water to land
ture accustomed to the sea's even
requires kidneys before making the change.
temperatures therefore needs to ac- However, kidneys have a highly complex
quire a protective system appropri- structure. Moreover, a kidney has to be fully
ate to the temperature swings on formed and flawless if it is to function. Only
50%, or 70% or even 90% of a kidney will
land. It would be ridiculous to claim
serve no purpose. Since the theory of evolu-
that fish acquired such a system tion is predicated on the idea that organs that
through random mutations as soon are not used disappear over time, a kidney
as they emerged onto dry land. that is 50% lacking will be eliminated from
the body at the first stages of evolution.
3) Use of water: Water is an essen-
tial requirement for living things,
and on land, its availability is limit- thirst when they need water. Yet un-
ed. For that reason water, and even derwater creatures have no sense of
moisture, must be used economical- thirst and their skins are not suited
ly. For example, skin must prevent to a dry environment.
water loss and evaporation, and 4) Kidneys: Due to the abundant
land dwellers must be able to feel water in their environment, marine

The Evolution Impasse II


Transition from Water to Land Dilemma, The 219

creatures can immediately filter and the oxygen dissolved in water


expel their bodies' waste products, through their gills. Out of the water,
particularly ammonia. On land, however, they are unable to survive
however, water must be used at for more than a few minutes. In or-
minimum levels. For that reason der to live on dry land, they need to
these living things have kidneys, acquire a pulmonary system.
thanks to which ammonia is filtered It is of course impossible for all
out as urea and stored in the blad- these physiological changes to take
der, and the minimum amount of place by chance and all at the same
water is used when it is expelled. In time.
addition, there is a need for new sys- According to the evolutionist sce-
tems that enable the kidneys to func- nario, fish first evolved into amphib-
tion. In order for a transition from ians. Yet there is no evidence for that
water to land, creatures without kid- scenario: Not a single fossil has been
neys will need to develop them im- found to show that half-fish, half-
mediately. amphibian creatures ever existed.
5) Respiratory system: Fish breathe Robert L. Carroll, the well-known

The "transition from water to land" scenario portrayed


in many imaginative illustrations like the one above, is
based on Lamarckist logic and conflicts even with the
theory of evolution's own hypotheses.

FALSE
220 Transitional Forms, The (The Transitional Species)

evolutionist and author of Vertebrate tween two successive species, exhib-


Paleontology and Evolution, admits iting characteristics of each. For ex-
this, albeit reluctantly: "We have no ample, there must have been crea-
intermediate fossils between rhipid- tures with both gills and lungs, fins
istian fish and early amphibians."252 and feet, alive during the millions of
(See Amphibians.) years between the time that fish first
The evolutionist paleontologist left the water and became amphibi-
Barbara J. Stahl wrote a book, ans. Evolutionists call these imagi-
Vertebrate History: Problems in nary creatures "transitional forms."
Evolution, in which she says: If this theory were true, there
Although the relationship of the rhi- would have to be millions, even bil-
pidistians to the amphibians will be lions of such creatures that lived in
discussed in greater detail in the next the past, and some of these monstro-
chapter, it should be said here that sities must have left remains in the
none of the known fishes is thought to fossil record. But so far, the fossil
be directly ancestral to the earliest land record has revealed not one single
vertebrates. Most of them lived after transitional form. In his book The
the first amphibians appeared, and
Origin of Species, Charles Darwin
those that came before show no evi-
writes these words in his chapter en-
dence of developing the stout limbs and
titled "Difficulties on Theory":
ribs that characterized the primitive te-
trapods. 253 Why, if species have descended from
other species by insensibly fine grada-
tions, do we not everywhere see innu-
merable transitional forms? Why is
TRANSITIONAL FORMS,
not all nature in confusion instead of
THE (THE TRANSITIONAL the species being, as we see them, well
SPECIES) defined? . . . But, as by this theory in-
The theory of evolution claims numerable transitional forms must
that all living species on Earth, past have existed, why do we not find them
and present evolved from one an- embedded in countless numbers in the
other. The transformation from one crust of the earth? . . . Why then is not
every geological formation and every
species to another, according to this
stratum full of such intermediate
theory, occurred slowly and in sta-
links? Geology assuredly does not re-
ges. Therefore, there must have been
veal any such finely graduated organic
at least several transitional forms be-
chain; and this, perhaps, is the most

The Evolution Impasse II


Transitional Forms, The (The Transitional Species) 221

brates and also of plants. He adds: ‘The


line making connection with common
ancestry is not known even in one in-
stance.' The rodents, he notes, appear
suddenly, already equipped with their
specialized gnawing teeth. As to the
There is no gradual change in the fossil mammals, ‘In all 32 orders of mam-
records of the kind envisaged by Darwin. mals, the break is so sharp and the gap
Different living species emerged suddenly
so large that the origin of the order is
with all their unique characteristics.
Evolutionists deny this, trying to back up speculative and much disputed.' 255
their claims with groundless and specula-
Today, there are more than 100
tive images of the kind shown here.
million fossils in thousands of muse-
ums and collections all over the
obvious and gravest objection which world. All these are divided from the
can be urged against my theory. 254
others by definite demarcations, and
Taking their lead from these all have their own unique structures.
words, evolutionist paleontologists No fossils of semi-fish/semi-am-
since the 19th century have been phibian, semi-dinosaur/semi-bird,
scouring the globe in search of these semi-ape/semi-human and similar
transitional forms. In spite of all life forms of the kind so optimistical-
their efforts, they have not found ly expected by evolutionists have ev-
any. All the findings from their re- er been unearthed. The absence of a
search and excavations have re- single intermediate form among
vealed, contrary to their expecta- such a rich fossil record shows, not
tions, that living creatures appeared that the fossil record is lacking, but
on Earth all at once and fully that the theory of evolution is untrue.
formed. As the noted biologist, Francis
The evolutionist Gordon R. Hitching, writes this in his book, The
Taylor, points out in his book, The Neck of the Giraffe: Where Darwin
Great Evolution Mystery: Went Wrong:
Professor G. G. Simpson is an ardent If we find fossils, and if Darwin's the-
Darwinist, but he goes so far as to say: ory was right, we can predict what the
‘The absence of transitional forms is an rock should contain; finely graduated
almost universal phenomenon.' This is fossils leading from one group of crea-
true of invertebrates as well as verte- tures to another group of creatures at a

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


222 Transitional Forms, The (The Transitional Species)

higher level of complexity. The ‘minor 2) Sudden appearance—in any local


improvements' in successive genera- area, a species does not arise gradually
tions should be as readily preserved as by the steady transformation of its an-
the species themselves. But this is cestors; it appears all at once and "ful-
hardly ever the case. In fact, the oppo- ly formed." 257
site holds true, as Darwin himself com- In general, evolutionists deliber-
plained; "innumerable transitional
ately use the concept of transitional
forms must have existed, but why do
forms to mislead. The term "transi-
we not find them embedded in count-
tional form" refers to a developing
less numbers in the crust of the
creature midway between two spe-
earth?" Darwin felt though that the
cies with insufficient and partly
"extreme imperfection" of the fossil
record was simply a matter of digging formed organs. Sometimes, because
up more fossils. But as more and more they misunderstand the idea of a
fossils were dug up, it was found that transitional form, Darwinists impute
almost all of them, without exception, transitional-form characteristics to a
were very close to current living ani- creature that is not transitional at all.
mals. 256 For example, the fact that one group
The fossil record shows that liv- of living creatures exhibits charac-
ing species came into being all at teristics commonly found in another
once, fully formed in all their varie- group, does not imply that the first
ty, and remained unchanged group is a transitional form.
throughout long geological periods. A fine example is the Australian
A noted evolutionist paleontologist platypus. This creature is a mammal
at Harvard University, Stephen Jay but lays eggs like a reptile, and also
Gould, acknowledges this fact: has a beak like a duck's. Scientists
The history of most fossil species in- call the platypus and other such ani-
cludes two features particularly incon- mals "mosaic creatures." Noted pale-
sistent with gradualism: ontologists such as Stephen Jay
Gould and Niles Eldredge state that
1) Stasis—most species exhibit no di-
evolutionist paleontologists do not
rectional change during their tenure
on earth. They appear in the fossil count the platypus as an example of
record looking much the same as when a transitional form. 258 (See Platypus.)
they disappear; morphological change
is usually limited and directionless;

The Evolution Impasse II


Tree of Life 223

TREE OF LIFE imaginary tree of life. The true pic-


ture that emerges from the fossil
According to Darwinism, the
record is that species have been thor-
course of evolution resembles a tree,
oughly different and very complex,
starting from a single stem and then
ever since the period when they first
diverging into branches. Indeed, this
appeared.
hypothesis is strongly emphasized
All the animal phyla known to-
in Darwinist sources, where the con-
day appeared suddenly on Earth in a
cept of the tree of life is frequently
geological age known as the
used. According to this imaginary
Cambrian Period.
metaphor, phyla, one of the basic
Berkeley University's professor
classifications into which living
Phillip Johnson, one of the world's
things are divided, must have
major critics of Darwinism, states
"branched out" in stages.
that this fact revealed by paleontolo-
According to Darwinism, a single
gy is in clear conflict with the theory
phylum must first have appeared,
of evolution:
and other phyla must
then have Darwinian Theory predicts
emerged slowly a "cone of increasing di-
versity," as the first
through small
living organism, or
changes and
first animal species,
over very long
gradually and continu-
periods of time.
ally diversified to create
(See Phylum.) the higher levels of taxo-
According to this Different living classifications nomic order. The animal
hypothesis, there emerged suddenly with no similar fossil record more resem-
forebears and remained stable,
must have been a undergoing no change, for hun- bles such a cone turned
gradual rise in dreds of millions of years. upside down, with the
the number of phyla present at the start
animal phyla. Illustrations made on and thereafter decreasing. 259
this subject show a gradual rise in In the Pre-Cambrian Period,
the number of phyla, in conformity there were three phyla consisting of
with Darwinist expectations that the single-celled organisms. In the
living things should have developed Cambrian Period, however, nearly
this way. But the fossils refuse this 60 animal phyla emerged all at once.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


224 Trilobites

event during the entire history of the


Metazoa, the Cambrian explosion es-
tablished virtually all the major animal
body forms—Bauplane or phyla—that
would exist thereafter, including many
that were "weeded out" and became
extinct. Compared with the 30 or so
extant phyla, some people estimate that
the Cambrian explosion may have gen-
erated as many as 100. 260

TRILOBITES
Trilobites are one of the most in-
teresting living groups that sudden-
ly emerged in the Cambrian Period
and subsequently became extinct.
They belong to the phylum
Arthropoda, and are very complex
creatures with hard shells, segment-
ed bodies and complex organs. The
fossil records have allowed a great
The imaginary tree of life drawn up by the
deal of information to be obtained
evolutionist biologist Ernst Haeckel in
1866. regarding the trilobite eye. It consist-
ed of scores of tiny cells, each of
Some of these phyla then became ex- which contains a pair of lenses. This
tinct in the period that followed, and eye structure is a marvel of creation.
only a few phyla have survived Richard Fortey, an evolutionist
down to the present day. paleontologist from London's
The well-known evolutionist pa- Natural History Museum, says this
leontologist Roger Lewin refers to about the extraordinary number of
this extraordinary state of affairs lenses possessed by some trilobites:
that demolishes all the assumptions One of the most difficult jobs I ever at-
of Darwinism: tempted was to count the number of
The most important evolutionary lenses in a large trilobite eye. I took

The Evolution Impasse II


Trilobites 225

several photographs of the eye from the Chicago universities,


different angles and then made enor- says: "the trilobites
mous prints magnified large enough to 450 million years
see individual lenses. I started count- ago used an opti-
ing as one might "one, two, three, mal design
four" . . . and so on to a hundred or
which would re-
two. The trouble was that you had on-
quire a well
ly to look away for an instant, or
trained and imagina-
sneeze, to forget exactly where you
tive optical engineer to
were, so it was back again to "one, two,
three." 261 develop today." 262
This extraordinarily complex
More than 3,000 lenses means the
structure in trilobites is by itself suf-
animal received more than 3,000 ima-
ficient to invalidate Darwinism. No
ges. This clearly shows the scale of the
comparable complex creature exist-
complexity in the eye and brain struc-
ed in earlier geological periods,
ture of a creature that lived 530 mil-
which shows that trilobites emerged
lion years ago, and displays a flawless
with no evolutionary stages behind
structure that cannot have come into
them.
existence through evolution.
This extraordinary state of affairs
David Raup, a professor of geolo-
in the Cambrian period was more or
gy from Harvard, Rochester and

The above fossils are trilobites, some of the highly complex invertebrates that appeared
suddenly in the Cambrian Period, some 500 million years ago. The most significant feature
in trilobites, and one that represents a major quandary for evolutionists, is their compound
eyes. These eyes, which are highly advanced and complex, possess a multi-cell system.
This system is identical to that found in modern spiders, bees, flies and other creatures.
The fact that such a complex structure emerged abruptly in creatures living 500 million
years ago demolishes evolutionist claims based on the idea of coincidence.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


226 Trilobites

less known when Charles Darwin the lowest known fossiliferous stra-
wrote his book The Origin of Species. ta," and wrote the following about
It had been observed in the fossils the Silurian Period:
from that period that life emerged . . . I cannot doubt that all the Silurian
suddenly in the Cambrian, and that trilobites have descended from some
trilobites and certain other inverte- one crustacean, which must have lived
brates made a spontaneous appear- long before the Silurian age, and which
ance. That is why Darwin had to re- probably differed greatly from any
fer to the situation in his book. At known animal . . . Consequently, if my
that time, the Cambrian Period was theory be true, it is indisputable that
before the lowest Silurian stratum was
known as the Silurian Period. Darwin
deposited, long periods elapsed, as long
touched on the subject under the
as, or probably far longer than, the
heading, "On the sudden appear-
whole interval from the Silurian age to
ance of groups of allied species in
the present day; and that during these
vast, yet quite unknown, periods of
time, the world swarmed with living
creatures. To the question why we do
not find records of these vast primordi-
al periods, I can give no satisfactory
answer. 263
Fossils from the Cambrian
Period show that both trilo-
bites, with their complex bod-
ies, and other living things
with very different anatomy
all emerged suddenly, thus de-
molishing Darwin's conjec-
tures. In his book, Darwin wrote:
"If numerous species, belonging
to the same genera or families,
have really started into life all

Trilobite fossils from


the Cambrian Period

The Evolution Impasse II


Turkana Boy Fossil, The 227

at once, the fact would be fatal to the


theory of descent with slow modifi-
cation through natural selection."
Some 60 different classes began life
suddenly and simultaneously in the
Cambrian Period. This confirms the
picture described by Darwin as a
"fatal" blow.

TURKANA BOY FOSSIL, THE


The Turkana Boy's fossilized skull
The most famous Homo erectus
fossil discovered in Africa is the
Nariokotome homo erectus or Turkana Laughlin's conclusion was that all
Boy fossil found near lake Turkana these different races in fact belonged
in Kenya. It has been determined to Homo sapiens (human):
that this fossil belonged to a 12-year-
When we consider the vast differences
old male who would have reached that exist between remote groups such
around 1.83 meters (5'6" feet) in as Eskimos and Bushmen, who are
height when fully grown. Its upright known to belong to the single species of
skeleton is identical to that of any Homo sapiens, it seems justifiable to
modern human. The American pale- conclude that Sinanthropus [an erec-
oanthropologist Alan Walker says tus specimen] belongs within this same
that he doubted that the average pa- diverse species. 266
thologist could tell the difference be-
tween the fossil skeleton and that of
a modern human265, because Homo
erectus is in fact a modern human
race.
Professor William Laughlin of
Connecticut University spent years
researching Eskimos and the inhab-
itants of the Aleut islands and ob-
served a striking level of similarity
between them and Homo erectus.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


Urey, Harold 229

UREY, HAROLD
Harold Urey was the teacher of
the American researcher Stanley
Miler at Chicago University. Because
of Urey's contribution to Miller's
1953 experiment on the origin of life,
this is also known as the Urey-Miller
Experiment. This experiment is the
only "proof" used to supposedly
confirm the molecular evolution the-
sis, which is put forward as the first
stage in the evolutionary process.
However, the experiment was never
able to offer any findings to support
evolutionist claims regarding the or-
igin of life. (See The Miller
Experiment.)

UREY-MILLER
EXPERIMENT, THE
—See Miller Experiment, The.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


Variation 231

VARIATION evolution in his book The Origin of


Species.
Variation is a term used in genet-
According to Darwin, for exam-
ic science, and concerns the emer-
ple, farmers mating different varia-
gence of different varieties, or spe-
tions of cow in order to obtain
cies. This genetic phenomenon caus-
breeds with better yields of milk
es individuals or groups within a
would eventually turn cows into an-
given species to possess different
other species altogether. Darwin's
features from others. For example,
idea of limitless change stemmed
all human beings on Earth possess
from the primitive level of science in
essentially the same genetic informa-
his day. As a result of similar exper-
tion. But thanks to the variation po-
iments on living things in the 20th
tential permitted by that genetic in-
century, however, science revealed a
formation, some people have round
principle known as genetic homeosta-
eyes, or red hair, or a long nose, or
sis. This principle revealed that all
are short and stocky in stature.
attempts to change a living species
Darwinists, however, seek to por-
by means of interbreeding (forming
tray variation within a species as ev-
different variations) were in vain,
idence for evolution. The fact is,
and that between species, there were
however, that variations constitute
unbreachable walls. In other words,
no such thing, because variation
it was absolutely impossible for cat-
consists of the emergence of differ-
tle to evolve into another species as
ent combinations of genetic informa-
the result of farmers mating differ-
tion that already exists, and cannot
ent breeds to produce different vari-
endow individuals with any new ge-
ations, as Darwin had claimed
netic information or characteristics.
would happen.
Variation is always restricted by
Luther Burbank, one of the
existing genetic information. These
world's foremost authorities on the
boundaries are known as the gene
subject of genetic hybrids, expresses
pool in genetic science. (See The Gene
a similar truth: "there are limits to
Pool.) Darwin, however, thought
the development possible, and these
that variation had no limits when he
limits follow a law."268 Thousands of
proposed his theory267, and he de-
years of collective experience have
picted various examples of variation
shown that the amount of biological
as the most important evidence for
change obtained using cross-breed-

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


All human beings on Earth share basically the same genetic information, but thanks to
the variation potential permitted by this genetic information, they often look very differ-
ent from one another.

ing is always limited, and that there fly remains a fruit fly; a rose, a rose,
is a limit to the variations that any and so on. 269
one species can undergo. Variations and their various
Indeed, in the introduction to changes are restricted inside the
their book Natural Limits to Biological bounds of a species' genetic informa-
Change Professor of Biology Lane P. tion, and they can never add new ge-
Lester and the molecular biologist netic information to species. For that
Raymond G. Bohlin wrote: reason, no variation can be regarded
That populations of living organisms as an example of evolution.
may change in their anatomy, physiol- The Danish scientist W. L.
ogy, genetic structure, etc., over a peri- Johannsen summarizes the situation:
od of time is beyond question. What re- The variations upon which Darwin
mains elusive is the answer to the and Wallace placed their emphasis can-
question, How much change is possi- not be selectively pushed beyond a cer-
ble, and by what genetic mechanism tain point, that such variability does
will these changes take place? Plant not contain the secret of "indefinite de-
and animal breeders can marshal an parture." 270
impressive array of examples to dem-
The fact that there are different
onstrate the extent to which living sys-
tems can be altered. But when a breed- human races in the world or the dif-
er begins with a dog, he ends up with a ferences between parents and chil-
dog—a rather strange looking one, dren can be explained in terms of
perhaps, but a dog nonetheless. A fruit variation. Yet there is no question of

The Evolution Impasse II


Vestigial Organs Thesis, The 233

any new component being added to things had organs that were inherit-
their gene pool. For example, no ed from their ancestors, but which
matter how much you seek to enrich had gradually become smaller and
their species, cats will always remain even functionless from lack of use.
cats, and will never evolve into any Those organs were in fact ones
other mammal. It is impossible for whose functions had not yet been
the sophisticated sonar system in a identified. And so, the long list of or-
marine mammal to emerge through gans believed by evolutionists to be
recombination. (See vestigial grew ever shorter. The list
Recombination.) Variation may ac- of originally proposed by the
count for the differences between German anatomist R. Wiedersheim
human races, but it can never pro- in 1895 contain approximately 100
vide any basis for the claim that apes organs, including the human appen-
developed into human beings. dix and the coccyx. But the appendix
was eventually realized to be a part
of the lymph system that combats
VESTIGIAL ORGANS microbes entering the body, as was
THESIS, THE stated in one medical reference
One claim that long occupied a source in 1997:
place in the literature of evolution Other bodily organs and tissues—-the
but was quietly abandoned once it thymus, liver, spleen, appendix, bone
was realized to be false is the con-
cept of vestigial organs. Some evo-
lutionists, however, still imagine
that such organs represent major
evidence for evolution and seek to
portray them as such.
A century or so ago, the claim
was put forward that some living

The tonsils, which evolutionists long


sought to define as vestigial organs,
have been found to play an important
role in protecting against throat infec-
tions, particularly up until adulthood.

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


234 Vestigial Organs Thesis, The

marrow, and small collections of lym- end of the backbone, was seen to
phatic tissue such as the tonsils in the provide support for the bones
throat and Peyer's patch in the small around the pelvic bone and to be a
intestine—are also part of the lym- point of fixation for certain small
phatic system. They too help the body muscles.
fight infection. 271
In the years that followed, other
The tonsils, which also appeared organs regarded as vestigial were
on that same list of vestigial organs, shown to serve specific purposes:
were likewise discovered to play an The thymus gland activates the
important role against infections, es- body's defense system by setting the
pecially up until adulthood. (Like T cells into action. The pineal gland
the appendix, tonsils sometimes be- is responsible for the production of
come infected by the very bacteria important hormones. The thyroid
they seek to combat, and so must be establishes balanced growth in ba-
surgically removed.) The coccyx, the bies and children. The pituitary en-

It has now been realized that the appendix (below), which evolutionist
biologists imagined to be vestigial, plays an important role in the body's
immune system. The lowest bone in the spinal column, known as the
coccyx, is also not vestigial, but a point for muscles to attach to.

Appendix

Coccyx

The Evolution Impasse II


Wallace, Alfred Russell 235

sures that various hormone glands put forward by evolutionists con-


are functioning correctly. tains its own internal inconsisten-
Today, many evolutionists accept cies, besides being scientifically erro-
that the myth of vestigial organs neous. We humans have no vestigial
stemmed from sheer ignorance. The organs inherited from our supposed
evolutionist biologist S.R. Scadding ancestors, because humans did not
expresses this in an article published evolve randomly from other living
in the magazine Evolutionary Theory: things, but were fully and perfectly
Since it is not possible to unambigu- created in the form we have today.
ously identify useless structures, and
since the structure of the argument
used is not scientifically valid, I con- WALLACE, ALFRED
clude that ‘vestigial organs' provide no RUSSELL
special evidence for the theory of evolu-
The British natural historian
tion. 272
Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) is
Evolutionists also make a signifi- known for the idea that species
cant logical error in their claim that emerged through natural selection.
vestigial organs in living things are a In a paper he wrote in 1855 titled
legacy from their ancestors: Some or- "On the Law Which Has Regulated
gans referred to as "vestigial" are not the Introduction of New Species,"
present in the species claimed to be Wallace maintained
the forerunners of man. that all species
For example, some apes have were extensions
no appendix. The zoologist of other species
Professor Hannington Enoch, an to which they
opponent of the vestigial organ were closely re-
thesis, sets out this error of logic: lated.
Apes possess an appendix, whereas Despite de-
their less immediate relatives, the veloping his
lower apes, do not; but it appears thesis at ap-
again among the still lower mam- Alfred Russel Wallace
proximately the
mals such as the opossum. How
same time as
can the evolutionists account for this?
273
Darwin, Wallace held different
views on a number of points. As a
The scenario of vestigial organs believer in the human soul, Wallace

Harun Yahya - Adnan Oktar


236 Watson, James

believed that Allah had created by WATSON, JAMES


means of evolution, and maintained
The famous American biologist
that human mental capacities could
James Watson is best known for his
not be explained in terms of natural
work in the field of molecular biolo-
selection and similar naturalistic
gy. He and Francis Crick revealed
mechanisms. In contrast to Darwin,
the extraordinarily complex struc-
he believed that non-biological fac-
ture in DNA as a result of their joint
tors outside natural selection were
work in 1955.
responsible for the emergence of hu-
Watson and Crick's discovery of
man physical traits and mental capa-
nucleic acids—DNA and RNA, for
bilities. 274
short—gave birth to new problems
for the theory of evolution. With
their discovery of the structure of

The Evolution Impasse II


başlıklar gelecek 237

DNA, they also revealed that life


was far more complex than had pre-
viously been imagined.
The theory of evolution seeks to
account for the origin of life in terms
of coincidences, but cannot provide
any consistent explanation regard-
ing the existence of the most basic
molecules. And these advances in
genetic science represented a major
When Watson and Crick discovered the
structure of DNA, they revealed that life impasse facing evolutionists.
had a far more complex structure than
had previously been imagined.
Zinjanthropus 239

ZINJANTHROPUS ample of this attitude. (See


Australopithecus.)
So far have evolutionists gone in
their adoption of evolution as a dog-
ma that they can even ascribe very
different faces to the same skull to
provide supposed evidence for their
theories.
The three totally different recon-
structions produced for the fossil
known as Australopithecus robustus
(Zinjanthropus) are a well-known ex-

three separate reconstuctıons from the same fossıl

These three totally different reconstructions based on the fossil Zinjanthropus are
an excellent example of how imaginatively evolutionists often interpret fossils.

FALSE
NOTES
1. Bryan Patterson, Anna K. pp. 36-41.
Behrensmeyer, William D. Sill, “Geology 16. Richard Dickerson, “Chemical
and Fauna of a New Pliocene Locality in Evolution,” Scientific American, Vol. 239:3,
Northwestern Kenya,” Nature, Vol. 226, 1978, p. 75,
June 6, 1970, pp. 918-921. 17. Richard Leakey and Alan Walker,
2. Bryan Patterson, W. W. Howells, “Unearthed,”National Geographic,
“Hominid Humeral Fragment from Early November 1985, p. 629.
Pleistocene of Northwestern Kenya,” 18. Richard Leakey, The Making of
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3. Henry M. McHenry, “Fossils and the 116.
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ture/1234006.stm November, 1980, p. 883.
8. J. E. Cronin, N. T. Boaz, C. B. Stringer, 25. R. A. Fisher, The Genetical Theory of
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242 NOTES

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“Biomechanics & the Origin of Insect 115. Ibid., p. 229.


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The Evolution Impasse II


NOTES 245

Splicing in Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells,” 389.


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NOTES 247

205. John Horgan, “In the Beginning,” Guide to the Creation of Life on Earth,
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239. Dean Falk, Braindance, Henry Holt 259. Phillip E. Johnson, “Darwinism’s Rules
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258. S.J. Gould & N. Eldredge,
Paleobiology, Vol 3, 1977, p.147

The Evolution Impasse II