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Social Norm Examples

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Social norms, or mores, are the unwritten rules of behavior that are considered acceptable
in a group or society. Norms function to provide order and predictability in society. On the
whole, people want approval, they want to belong, and those who do not follow the norms
will suffer disapproval or may even be outcast from the group. This is how we keep society
functioning, not just with direct rules but also expectations. When people know what is
expected of them they tend to comply. While some people seek to be different, most just
want to be part of the group.
Norms can change according to the environment, situation, and culture in which they are
found, and people's behavior will also change accordingly. Social norms may also change or
be modified over time.

Examples of Social Norms

There are many social norms widely accepted in western society. They can range from ones
expected while in public to ones that are in regards to dining or being on a phone.

Social Norms Regarding Public Behavior

To make a good impression on other members of your community there are social norms
that are commonly accepted, such as:
 Shake hands when you meet someone.
 Make direct eye contact with the person you are speaking with.
 Unless the movie theater is crowded, do not sit right next to someone.
 Do not stand close enough to a stranger to touch arms or hips. Don't invade someone's
personal space.
 Do not curse in polite conversation and always avoid racist or discriminatory
 Do not pick your nose in public and if you must burp or fart say "excuse me."
 Be kind to the elderly, like opening a door or giving up your seat.
 If there is a line, go to the back of the line instead of pushing or cutting your way to the
 If you hit or bump into someone by accident, say "I'm sorry."
 If someone sneezes near you, say "bless you."
 When at someone else's home, ask permission to do things such as turning on the
television or using the bathroom.
 Flush the toilet after use and always wash your hands when finished.
 Say "please" when asking for something and say "thank you" when someone does
something for you.
 Call to let someone know you will be late or are not going to show up for an
 Dress appropriately for the environment you are in.
 Don't interrupt someone while they are talking. Wait for them to finish and then take
your turn.

Social Norms While Using the Phone

Being on a phone, especially a smartphone, is something we all do now throughout the day.
The following are examples of social norms when using a phone.
 Say hello when answering and goodbye before you hang up.
 Don't take a phone call during dinner, either in public or at home.
 Put your phone on silent if you are in a meeting, at church, in a theater or in a public
setting where phones are not to be used.
 Do not lie or hang up if someone has the wrong number. Inform them of their mistake.
 Don't text while on a date or engaged in a conversation with another person.

Social Norms When Dining Out

When dining out at a restaurant there are social norms that are commonly expected from
the diner. These include:
 Leave a tip for the waiter or waitress. The tip should be at least 15% of the bill.
 Chew with your mouth closed and avoid making loud sounds while chewing.
 Do not talk with food in your mouth.
 Dress according to the restaurant's dress code.
 Do not eat soup with a fork.
 Do not belch loudly at the table.
 Do not eat sloppily or quickly or use your hands unless it is finger food.
 Do not eat off another person's plate without asking.
 Always thank your server.
 Do not be loud or vulgar or disturb other diners.

Social Norms on Elevators

Whether you realize it or not, there are even norms that apply to riding on an elevator.
These norms are expected and mostly common sense. Examples include:
 Acknowledge others in the elevator with a simple nod or say hi.
 Stand facing the front. Do not turn around and face other passengers.
 Never push extra buttons, only the one for your floor.
 Never stand right by someone if you are the only two people on board. You do not want
to make anyone feel as if you are invading their space.
 Do not act obnoxiously on the elevator.
 Do not say "I'll wait for the next one" if only one person is on board.

Social Norms in the Classroom and School

Students learn from an early age that there are certain norms to follow while in class or at
school. Some examples include:
 Do not use a cellphone during class. Texting and making calls are not appropriate in
class time.
 Ask the teacher if you can be excused during class to use the restroom. Never just get
up and leave.
 Do not listen to music with headphones.
 Do not sit in other people's assigned chairs.
 Come to class prepared with book, paper, pen, etc.
 Never read other material during class.
 Stand up to bullies and do not allow others to be bullied.
 Do not be rude to teachers or your classmates.
 Arrive to class on time.
Social Norms in The Workplace
In the professional world, there are social norms to follow to make the workplace function
smoothly. These include the following:
 Dress neatly and appropriately for the job.
 Be on time and follow the schedule that you are given.
 Keep a positive attitude and do not engage in gossip.
 Be professional and contribute your skills as needed.
 Notify supervisors if you are sick and unable to make work.
 If you need to leave early, notify your boss and make proper arrangements.
 Be respectful of your coworkers.

Gender Specific Social Norms

There are certain norms expected for each gender that have existed for a long time. While
these are examples of norms that have changed over time and are still changing, they still
persist in many communities. Many of the gender norms are stereotypes and can be
considered discriminatory. Some examples of gender-specific norms include the following:
 Girls wear pink; boys wear blue.
 Men should be strong and not show emotion.
 Women should be caring and nurturing.
 Men should do repairs at the house and be the one to work and make money while
women are expected to take care of the housework and children.
 A man should pay for the woman's meal when going out to dinner.

Differences in Social Norms

Keep in mind that these examples are social norms in western society. Social norms vary
between countries and from social class to social class and from social group to social
group. Each group can share many of the same social norms; and, the group may have a few
special norms. As you move from country to country and group to group it is up to you to
know, and implement, the appropriate social norms.

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1. Informal guideline about what is considered normal (what is correct or incorrect) social
behavior in a particular group or social unit. Norms form the basis of collective expectations
that members of a community have from each other, and play a key part in social control and
social order by exerting a pressure on the individual to conform. In short, "The way we do
things around here."
2. Formal rule or standard laid down by legal, religious, or social authority against which
appropriateness (what is right or wrong) of an individual's behavior is judged.

Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/norm.htmlsss

2. .
3. something that is usual, typical, or standard.
: a principle of right action binding upon the members of a group and
serving to guide, control, or regulate proper and acceptable behavior
Norms are informal understandings that govern the behaviors of a
group. They are a pervasive element of social interaction that help
people to get along, share common experiences and achieve
common goals. The following are illustrative examples.

People in Tokyo stand on the left side of an escalator to let people
pass on the right. People in Osaka stand on the right and let people
pass on the left.

Cultural etiquette, manners, habits and pastimes. For example, the
custom of slurping noodles loudly in Japan.

Super Cultures
A super culture is a culture that spans multiple societies. For
example, the norms surrounding a sport or hobby such as the
convention that hikers should leave nothing behind but footprints
and take nothing but photographs.

A subculture is a relatively small self organizing group who identify
with a shared experience. For example, the norm for the goths of
the 1990s to wear black.

Gender roles such as the expectation that a gentlemen will defend
and prioritize the safety of woman and children.

The unspoken expectations and pastimes that evolve around an
institution such as a school. For example, wearing school colors to
sporting events.
Industry norms such as truckers who signal information to each
other by flashing their lights. For example, a quick flash of the
lights can indicate to a passing truck that they have room to merge
back into a lane.

Norms are component of organizational culture that include
expectations, habits and rituals. For example, a norm for an
employee to respond to an email inquiry within a business day or
to set a auto response if they are on vacation.

Team expectations such as a hockey team where large players are
expected to protect smaller players in cases of unequal roughness.

Professional norms such as teachers in a particular country who
are expected not to eat or drink in the middle of a lesson.

Norms amongst formal or informally organized groups. For
example, friends who are customarily late by about 10 minutes.

Family norms such as the expectation that nobody looks at mobile
phones during a meal together.

Norms respect the intelligence of the individual by not having to
encode every little thing into a formal rule.
. Folkways, he wrote, are norms that stem from and organize casual
interactions, and emerge out of repetition and routines. We engage in them to
satisfy our daily needs, and they are most often unconscious in operation,
though they are quite useful for the ordered functioning of society.

A common example of a folkway is the practice, in many societies, of waiting

in line. This practice brings order to the process of buying things or receiving
services, allowing us to more easily perform the tasks of our daily lives. Other
examples of folkways include the concept of appropriate dress, the practice of
raising one's hand to take turns speaking in a group, and the practice of "civil
inattention"—when we politely ignore others around us in public settings.

Folkways mark the distinction between rude and polite behavior, so they exert
a form of social pressure that encourages us to act and interact in certain ways.
However, they do not have moral significance, and there are rarely serious
consequences or sanctions for violating them.

Mores are more strict than folkways, as they determine what is considered
moral and ethical behavior; they structure the difference between right and
wrong. People feel strongly about mores, and violating them typically results
in disapproval or ostracizing. As such, mores exact a greater coercive force in
shaping our values, beliefs, behavior, and interactions than do folkways.

Religious doctrines are an example of mores that govern social behavior. For
example, many religions have prohibitions on cohabitating with a romantic
partner before marriage. If a young adult from a strict religious family moves
in with her boyfriend, her family, friends, and congregation are likely to view
her behavior as immoral. They might punish her behavior by scolding her,
threatening judgment in the afterlife, or shunning her from their homes and
the church. These actions are meant to indicate that her behavior is immoral
and unacceptable, and are designed to make her change her behavior to align
with the violated more.

The belief that forms of discrimination and oppression, like racism and
sexism, are unethical is another example of an important more in many
societies today.

A taboo is a very strong negative norm; it is a prohibition of certain behavior
that is so strict that violating it results in extreme disgust and even expulsion
from the group or society. Often times the violator of the taboo is considered
unfit to live in that society. For instance, in some Muslim cultures, eating pork
is taboo because the pig is considered unclean. At the more extreme end,
incest and cannibalism are both considered taboos in most places.

Important and lasting beliefs or ideals shared by the members of a culture about what is good or bad
and desirable or undesirable. Values have major influence on a person's behavior and attitude and
serve as broad guidelines in all situations. Some common business values are fairness, innovation
and community involvement.
2. The monetary worth of something in areas such as accounting, economics, marketing or

Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/values.html

Here are some examples of core values from which you may wish to choose:
 Dependability.
 Reliability.
 Loyalty.
 Commitment.
 Open-mindedness.
 Consistency.
 Honesty.
 Efficiency
 The definition of a belief is an opinion or something that a person holds to be
 Faith in God is an example of a belief.
 the state of believing; conviction or acceptance that certain things are true or real
 faith, esp. religious faith
 trust or confidence: I have belief in his ability
 anything believed or accepted as true; esp., a creed, doctrine, or tenet
 an opinion; expectation; judgment: my belief is that he'll come
Pakistan's Patents Office is a part of Intellectual Property
Organization, Pakistan(IPO) under Cabinet Division.
The criteria that describe the patent-ability of an invention are:
 The invention is new.
 It involves an inventive step.
 It is capable of industrial application.
 It should not be contrary to law or morality.

Patent-related Procedures and Costs in Pakistan

Pakistan’s Patents Office is a part of Intellectual Property Organization, Pakistan (IPO)
under Cabinet Division. Significant objectives of Patents Office are: grant the patents
to new and novel inventions, represent the government internationally regarding IP-
related matters, render know-how and pedagogical services to inventors, and to foster
the industrial development in Pakistan.

Any invention that meets the standards set by Patent Office is eligible to apply for
Patent registration. The criteria that describe the patent-ability of an invention are:

 The invention is new.

 It involves an inventive step.
 It is capable of industrial application.
 It should not be contrary to law or morality.

Registration Procedure
The procedure to register a patent, as detailed by Patents Office, Pakistan is as follows:

1. Request for a patent is initiated by filling out ‘Form P-1’ (Application for
Patent; download links for all forms are available at the end of the article) or ‘Form
P-2’ (Convention Application for Patent), along with the Specifications of the
1. The Specifications described in the Application form can be either complete or
provisional (i.e. subject to change or need further ironing out).
2. Specifications of the patent can be detailed on extra sheets (if required), and
include steps, processes, drawings and claims.
3. Complete specifications are filled out on ‘Form P-3A’ (Application for Complete
Specification). Provisional specifications have to be filled out using ‘Form P-3’
(Application for provisional specification).
4. Forms P-1A, P-1B or P-1C have to be provided with ‘Form P-3A’ if the original
application form is Form P-1. On the other hand, if the original application
form is P-2, then the Specifications Form P-3A must accompany Forms P-
2A, P-2B or P-2C.
5. If a Provisional specification is provided with the application, complete
specification must also be provided following the original submission before
moving on to the next step.
2. The Application is examined and evaluated by the competent authority at Patent
1. Applicant will have to defend their registration application if there is any
opposition regarding the patent from some other party that lays claim to the
same patent, wholly or partially.
2. Parties that want to oppose a registered/accepted/withheld/applied for patent
can do so by filling out ‘Form P-7’.
3. In case no objection is raised during evaluation or the legal matters are settled with
the opposition, the patent is sealed once the applicant(s) duly fill and submit ‘Form
P-10’ (Request for Sealing), and the applicant is granted the rights for it for 20 years
(subject to renewal).

Patent Renewal and Restoration

After a patent is sealed by IPO, grantee must re-new the patent every year following
the expiration of 4th year (in respect of 5th year onwards until 20th year) or the Patents
Office has the right to forfeit/cancel the patent or do whatever it deems appropriate
for the case accordingly.

In order to renew the patent, grantee has to fill and submit ‘Form P-12’ (Application
for Renewal) before the expiration of 4th year and onwards. The cost of patent renewal
increases with the time since the patent was obtained.

If the patentee fails to pay the renewal fee, Patent Office withholds their patent for a
period of time before it is invalidated permanently. Patentee can obtain ‘Form P-13’
(Application for Restoration) before invalidation in such case to request the restoration
of patent.

After 20 years, a patent enters public domain and its research is available for everyone
to improve upon, but no new patent can be granted for some research work based on
a patent that has already expired.

Costs for Patent-related Procedures

A number of different costs are involved in the process of registering, renewing or
modifying a patent. It is the applicant’s responsibility to make sure that all the costs
are paid in full at the time of submission of accompanying application form.

Where to Seek Assistance for Patent-related Issues

Contact persons at Patents Office, Pakistan can be reached at their designated phone
numbers and e-mail addresses. A list of such contact persons can be found on IPO’s
website here.

Generally, law firms and consultants can also be hired to provide assistance in patent-
related procedures.

When making an application for registration of a patent agent, applicant has to fill
‘Form PTA-1’.

Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC) can also assist scientific researchers
from Pakistan in ascertaining the patentability of their ideas alongside financial,
scientific and legal assistance. This service is available for researchers not only at
Pakistani universities but also at local R&D institutes. Interested individuals can register
at HEC’s website and upload their research findings for HEC experts to evaluate their
potential for a patent. If the proposal is found reasonable and novel enough, HEC will
approve it for further processing. For the proposals that make it to the final stage will
be eligible for financial grant that covers the filing fee for patent. Other related fees
will have to be paid by patentee or their institute.

Complete information regarding this program can be found at official HEC

website here.

Related Links

 All downloadable application forms for patent-related matters and the fee related
to them can be found here.
 Information and answers to frequently-asked questions (FAQs) regarding Patents
and their significance/procedures in Pakistan can be found here.

List Patent is an official document, recognized by law that confers a right or a title
especially the sole right to make, use or sell some invention or process, hence protecting
the said invention or process. Filing & registration of patents in Pakistan is governed
by Patent Ordinance, 2000 & Patent Rules, 2003.

How to Apply for Patent in Pakistan

An application for the grant of a patent may be submitted by any of the following

 The true and first inventor or inventors of the invention

 Assignee or successors-in-interest of the true and first inventor or inventors
 The legal representatives of any deceased person who was entitled to file an
application immediately before his death.

Every application shall be made in respect of one invention only. However an application
may also be made for an improvement or modification to the main invention. (Patent of
Addition). In case an application is not made by the inventor himself, it must be
endorsed by him in the presence of two witnesses with a statement that the application
may be made in his name.

 Patent application fee in Pakistan is Rs. 4,500

 Once a patent is granted and sealed in Pakistan; the duration of the patent is 20
years from the date of application.
Every application, other than a convention application (Convention application is an
application made in Pakistan within 12 months of an application made in a convention
country. i.e. a member country of the WTO), must be accompanied by specifications of
the invention which the applicant wants to be patented. These specifications must be
either a provisional or a complete specification. Where provisional specification has been
filed with the application, a complete specification must be filed within 12 months of the
filing of the application otherwise the application shall be considered abandoned.

Every complete specification for patent registration in Pakistan shall consist of:
 A full description of the invention.
 The method by which it is to be performed.
 Must end with a claim defining the scope of the invention.
 An abstract.( should not be more than 2 pages and must include the entire technical
details relating to the invention)
 Drawings may also be submitted along with the abstract either at the applicants will
or the controller’s request.

Every application that is submitted to the Controller, is referred to an examiner who shall
assess the application in accordance with the following points:

 Whether the invention is new.

 Whether the invention involves an inventive step.
 Whether the rules and requirements contained in the Patent Ordinance have been
complied with.

After an examination of the application by an examiner referred to by the Controller, the

Controller may direct the applicant to:

 Fulfill any rules of the Ordinance in case the application does not comply with them
 Cause the application to be amended by the insertion of a reference to any other
patent by way of notice to the public.

Withdrawal of Patent Application

The applicant has the right to withdraw the application by making a request to the
Controller at any time. However:

 Where the invention relates to genetically modified organisms, it will require

clearance from the federal government
 Where the invention relates to a pharmaceutical or agricultural chemical product and
for availing related exclusive marketing rights, it shall be filed in the mail box provided
for this purpose in the manner directed by the Controller.
 If the application is withdrawn before the its acceptance and advertisement in the
official gazette, the application and its accompanying specifications shall not be
available for public inspection.

Acceptance of Patent Registration Application in Pakistan

On the acceptance of the application and specifications by the Controller he shall
advertise them in the Official Gazette after which the documents will become available
for public inspection. Within 30 days of the advertisement of the application, the
applicant must forward a copy of the complete specification to certain institutions and

Once the application has been accepted and till the date of the sealing of the patent, or
the expiration of the time for sealing, the applicant shall be entitled to the rights and
privileges as if the patent for the invention had been sealed on the date of
advertisement of the complete specification.

Any person may file a notice of opposition with the controller to the grant of patent
within 4 months of the advertisement. Incase such a notice is filed the applicant may
have to go through opposition proceedings.

Patent Registration Shall not be Granted When:

 For an invention, the commercial exploitation of which would be injurious to public
order, morality, environment or the protection of human, animal and plant life.
 For plants and animals other than micro-organisms
 For biological processes for the production of plants and animals.
 For diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods for the treatment of humans and
 For a new and consequent use of a known product or process.
 For a change in the physical appearance of a chemical product where the chemical
formula or process of manufacture remains the same. However, this clause shall not
apply to an invention that does fulfill the criterion of patentability.

Opposing a Patent in Pakistan

A notice of opposition may be filed on the following grounds:

 The invention is not a patentable invention within the meaning of the Patents
 The applicant obtained the invention sought to be patented from the person filing
the notice of opposition or his assignee, agent or legal representative.
 The specification does not elaborate on the invention in a clear manner and hence
renders it incapable of being carried out by a person skilled in the art.
 The claims are not clear or extend beyond the scope of the disclosures contained in
the complete specification that was originally filed.
 The complete specification describes an invention other than that described in the
provisional specification.
 Such other invention forms the subject of an application filed by the opponent where
if a patent is granted would bear a date in the interval between the date of the
application and the leaving of the complete specification
 Or if such an invention has been made available to the public by publication in any
document in that interval

Rights of Patent Holder in Pakistan

The holder of a valid patent shall have the following rights:

 The owner of a product patent has the right to prevent third parties from the acts of
making, using, offering for sale, selling or importing the product for these purposes.
 The owner of a valid process patent has the right to prevent third parties from the act
of using the process and also from the acts of using, offering for sale, selling or
importing for these purposes the product obtained from the use of the process.
 The owner of the patent reserves the right to assign, transfer by succession and to
conclude licensing contracts with reference to the patent
 The owner of the patent has the right to institute court proceedings against any
person who infringes the patent or performs any act that make it likely that the
infringement will occur.
 The owner of an invention that relates to pharmaceutical or agricultural chemical
product also had the right to file in an application for the grant of exclusive marketing
rights of the product.

In the event of the loss or destruction of the patent, the owner of the patent must make
an application in the prescribed manner to the Controller and pay the prescribed fee
who shall cause a duplicate of the original patent to be sealed and delivered to the

The grant of the patent protects the patentable invention from the unauthorized making,
using or selling for practical use or profit, during the life of the patent. In case of any
such infringement, the law allows the patentee to institute legal proceedings against the
infringer and obtain a wide variety of reliefs ( damages, injunctions, etc.) for the
protection of his work.

 of patents granted by Patents Office since 2005 can be accessed here.


The information provided in this article has been verified from official sources at the
time of publication, and is being presented for the information of our readers on as-is
basis. TechJuice.pk cannot be held responsible if some facts and figures change at a
later point in time or have been changed without prior notice/updates.

How to register a company in Pakistan

The Step by Step Procedure of Private Limited Liability Company Registration in Pakistan

The procedure of registering a public limited company is same as above.

However, they may require you to submit more documents.

Step 1: Approval of Company Name

This is the first step of company registration in Pakistan is choosing the
company’s name. It is important to devise a unique company name that
would set you apart from the rest in the industry.

You must follow the restrictions and guidelines. For example, make sure
that your company’s name does not include any prohibited words.
Step 2: Submission of Documents
Once the company name gets the approval, you need to submit the
incorporation documents to the Securities and Exchange Commission of
Pakistan (SECP).

Step 3: Certificate of Incorporation

After submitting the documents, the SECP evaluates them. They check their
validity. A digital signature is granted by the National Institutional
Facilitation Technologies (NIFT) and can be acquired through the SECP.

Also, they issue the certificate of incorporation. Presentation of the

company may be needed. However, this depends on where the business

Step 4: Deposit of Shares

After the registration, shareholders must deposit their corresponding
amount of shares to the company’s bank account.

Step 5: Registration of Income, Sales, and Professional Taxes

In conclusion, the last step of company registration in Pakistan is the
registration with the Federal Board of Revenue (FBR) and issuance of a
national tax number (NTN). A sales tax registration number may be
registered if applicable.

Alternatives to company registration in Pakistan

Branch Office
A branch office is a suitable alternative to company registration if your
company wants to have a presence in Pakistan without setting up a separate
legal entity.

Branches carrying out a contract in Pakistan can be established. However, a

branch office cannot take part in any commercial or trading activities of
whatever nature. Therefore, your activities depend on the contract you
signed. The contract restricts your activities.

The parent company owns 100% of the branch office in the country of
origin. Since it is not a limited liability company, it does not require any
minimum capital either.
Process time for the registration takes up seven weeks. The permit can be
valid for 1 to 5 years if it has an approval from the Board of Investment

Liaison Office
If you want to promote your products in Pakistan, you can set up a 100%
foreign-owned liaison office here.

Besides product promotion, you can also provide technical advice and
assistance, explore the various possibilities of joint collaboration, and
export promotion in Pakistan.

However, this type cannot engage in commercial or trading activities and it

is not subject to any minimum capital either

A liaison office can only function according to the provisions of the contract
or the assignment.

While part of the contract states that you can only provide technical
assistance and product promotion, you cannot engage in export promotion
and other activities.

Hence, it is similar to the branch office. Therefore, there will be no

shareholding since it’s going to be in the country of origin only.

The standard time for establishing a liaison office in Pakistan is seven (7)
weeks. Therefore, once granted your permit will have a validity period of 1
to 5 years. Also, the Board of Investment (BOI) needs to approve it.

How to start with company registration in Pakistan?

If you are planning on investing in Pakistan, get in touch with Emerhub and
we will handle the process of company registration on your behalf.

All you need to send us to get started is:

 Name, addresses, and shareholding of each of the shareholders

 The amount of share capital
 Passport copies of the shareholders
 Proposed name of the company
Today we are going to talk about how to register a company in Pakistan with SECP.
This article will be helpful for all those who want to register a company and to start
their new business in Pakistan. The process of registering a company is not
complicated and if the rules set by the government of Pakistan are followed properly
then one can easily register a company. The registration process is taken care
by Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP). SECP is the only body
who has the powers of company registration. All of the regulations and registrations
are governed by the Companies Ordinance Act 1984.

In order to get your company registered, please fill out the form at the end of the post

So far, we’ve discussed Business Pitch and Business Plans that were limited to the
startup process. We now move onto a very crucial prospect i.e. of registration of a
company, particularly in Pakistan. It is the last of endeavors in the course of business
settlement, and for some entrepreneurs and founders; one of the ultimate goals.
Therefore, it requires a broad comprehensive view on the subject of registration.

Hence, for your ease of understanding, we’ve simplified the procedures with a
mindset that reader would have a better understanding of each necessary step,
without having to dive into the complexity of the business. However, there is certain
rules and ordinance which is followed by the Security and Exchange Commission of

Requirements for Company Registration in Pakistan

There are 6 basic steps involved in the incorporation of the company. This guide will
help you understand the whole process and steps involved so that you have a clear
idea of how the procedure will work. Here is a step by step guide for company
registration in Pakistan with requirements and procedures.

1. Name your company and Get it approved

While choosing the name for your company – make sure, not to use
the Prohibited terms. Any deceptive or inappropriate words will not be approved by
the SECP and the Validity of your proposed selection of name will be scrutinized. So
as to assure that, it is neither identical with the existing companies’ name nor closely
resembling. For that reason, you must abide by the criteria laid down for naming the
company, to get the possible approval by SECP.
2. Pay the fees for incorporation and Register your
A name availability certificate is required from SECP and for the purpose you may file
application. The fees for which could be paid using any bank challans at designated
Muslim Commercial Banks (MCB). After this, you come to a level of registration
where the SECP ask you to submit the following documents:

 Declaration of compliance
 Identification of office’s location
 Particulars of directors, secretary, chief accountant, auditors and other
 Copies of the Memorandum and Articles of Association with each member’s

A quick brief-on:

Memorandum of Association explains your business sector of the company e.g.

Institution, Travel agency, Trading or manufacturing, Supply or chain of stores. To put
simply, MOA tells about the relationship of your company with the outside world.

Articles of Association lets know about the day-to-day proceedings within the
company i.e. what role CEO and directors would play, business concerned meetings
and the appointments of employees, in short- how the company will run.

3. Get Digital Signature and Make a Company Seal

The signature is granted by National Institutional Facilitation Technologies (NIFT)
and can be obtained using E-services of SECP. After the certificate of incorporation is
issued, you may be required to present a company seal, depending on which city
you’re going to start your business in. On the necessity point, it wouldn’t be wrong to
mention that some states require a corporation to have a corporate seal, which is
also sometimes referred as company seal.

In order to get your company registered, please fill out the form at the end of the post

4. Register for Income, Sales and Professional Taxes

To register for Income tax, you’re supposed to apply for a National Tax Number
(NTN) at the tax facilitation of the Regional Tax Office (RTO) of the Federal Board of
Revenue (FBR). The requirements for this application are:
 NTN form
 Proof of registration
 Memorandum and Articles of association
 Bank account number
 Copies of National Identity Cards (NICs) of companies’ Directors
 An attestation of business address

All of these are to be submitted at the nearest tax facilitation counter of the RTO in

Sales tax, like the income tax can be registered for, by applying for a Sales Tax
Number (STN) at the tax facilitation centre of the Regional Tax Office (RTO) of the
Federal Board of Revenue (FBR).

For the Professional tax, you’ll need to register with Excise and Taxation (ET)
Department of the District.

5. Register with ESSI and EOBI

Depending on the location of your business, you’ll either need to register with

 Punjab Employees Social Security Institutions (PESSI)

 Sindh Employees Social Security Institution (SESSI)
 Likewise (BESSI) or (KPKESSI) for Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Under the Employees Old Age Benefits Institution (EOBI), insured employees are
entitled to a pension, upon retirement, invalidity in the case of disability, old-age
grant and survivor’s pension. Every industry or a commercial establishment with five
or more employees has to be registered with the federal Employees Old age Benefits
Institution (EOBI).

6. Register with the Labor Department of the District

To safeguard the Labor standard of the workers, every establishment other than one
man shop required to be registered with the District Chief Inspector of the Labor
department in each district. For registration, employer must submit the application
form A accompanied with Bank challan.

That was a detailed process to understand how the company can be registered?
What are the documents and steps involved to successfully register a business in
Pakistan? It is highly essential to understand the establishment procedure of your
viable business idea or plan.

Step by Step Process of Trademark Registration in Pakistan

Steps involved for Trademark Registration in Pakistan are described in the

below paras

Step 1:
In first step search for availability of trademark is made , a detailed list of
products to be covered by the trademark and at the same time make payment
for trademark search.

Step 2:
IPO conduct the search and prepare search report and forward the same to
the applicant or his authorized consultant.

Step 3:
If the search results indicate that the application is likely to be accepted then
following documents are required to be submitted:

 CNIC copy for individual

 Certificate of Incorporation or Business Registration Certificate
 Trade Mark Registration Form (T-I) or (T-2) ,whichever is applicable
 8 copies of clear reproduction of the Trademark (Word, Symbol, Logo,
3D features etc.)
 Power of Attorney (POA)
Step 4:
Fess is deposited through Pay Order in the name of “DG-IPO”.

Step 5:
Submission of application along with all required documents to any office to
the IPO.

Step 6:
On receipt of application, initially trade mark number is allotted to applicant.
After obtaining trade mark number “TM” can be written on the product or
anywhere with the trade mark.
After getting TM Number brand name becomes safe against any misuse or
unauthorized usage by any party.

Step 7:
IPO officials perform examination and other procedures; if they have no
objection , then trademark is published in the trademark general. Any person
or company who has an objection that the applied trademark has resemblance
to the trademark registered in his name may file opposition. However if no
opposition is filed by any party then IPO issues the Certificate of Registration
of Trade Mark.

OLY Consultant is involved as providing services for Trademark Registration in

Pakistan for long time, we can be contacted for registration of trademark,
patent and copyright.

Karachi: Shell Tameer, a youth enterprise project, encourages youth

between the ages of 18 and 32 to explore the prospects of starting a
business as a career choice by providing free counseling and
entrepreneurship training.
Its objective is to showcase the entrepreneurial potential of Pakistani youth by
featuring the (10) successful entrepreneurs shortlisted for awards out of 1,000
applications received by Shell Tameer.

Of all the applications we receive, 10 businesses are selected through a criteria

developed by Tameer. A carefully selected panel of judges of prominent figures
from various sectors and industries is invited to choose winners from these final
ten. The judges’ participation in this prestigious event helps encourage young

The Annual Awards ceremony is a platform for recognition, where successful

young entrepreneurs from across the country are invited to showcase their
business achievements in front of the business community, representatives
from industry, academia and other entrepreneurs.

Dare to Dream
Muhammad Adnan Butt
Few people dare to dream, even fewer are brave enough to act on their dreams.
Muhammad Adnan Butt, an engineer from GIK, Topi is someone who was able
to harness his creativity and transform ideas in his head into real life. During an
internship experience with an international FMCG company, he was introduced
to marketing. The ability to use his ideas to transform the choices of others and
connect with millions of people every day pushed Adnan towards a marketing-
related career.
Later when the same FMCG offered him an engineering position, and not a
brands one, Adnan politely declined the offer and began working at a telecom
company in marketing, despite a lower salary. To some, Adnan’s choice seemed
irrational, but to him, his choice was clear.

In 2009, having spent 2 years gaining experience in product development and

learning the tricks of the mobile media trade, Adnan changed gears. He
switched from the corporate world to his own entrepreneurial venture –
Mvergence Media, which is one of the most creative agencies operating in
Pakistan today offering marketing solutions and social network application

Mvergence gave him an opportunity to, “conceive, create and launch multiple
products,” and stay true to his original goal of connecting with people. Adnan
also started a sister company called Walnut Media.

Adnan hopes to introduce regional socializing tools online and mobile platforms
for brands to connect with their audiences. Ironically the FMCG Adnan turned
down that job offer from is one of his biggest clients today.

Mining Unique Possibilities

Abdul Rehman
Mineral rich Baluchistan is the poorest of Pakistan’s four provinces with limited
economic opportunities, lagging social indicators and large gender gaps in
education, health and employment. This province is also plagued by tribal,
ethnic and sectarian conflict which has been exacerbated by a nationalist
insurgency and the War on Terror in Afghanistan. The youth of this province
struggle for basic amenities, employment, opportunities, progress and access to
urban centres.

Abdul Rehman is a young man from Lorali in Balochistan, one of Pakistan’s

most underdeveloped and remote districts. He has a Masters degree in
Geography from University of Baluchistan, but despite his educational
qualifications, he was unable to find employment. He decided to start his own
business with the knowledge he had of Balochistan’s natural terrain and it being
blessed with a unique variety of gems and stones.

While exploring options to jump start his business, he met with SMEDA officials
who helped him develop a business plan. With a limited amount capital sourced
a variety of marble and stones like red oxide and leather stone to market places.

“Pakistan, especially KPK, possesses huge marble reserves. The promotion and
development of the marble industry in Pakistan could bring prosperity to the
country. The industry is suffering, however, from load-shedding, low voltage,
law and order issues and outdated quarrying techniques. So there is much that
can be done to grow this industry locally and into international markets,” says
Abdul Rehman.
Standing out in a Crowd
Maleeha Nasir
Pakistani women are as ambitious as men but have a different set of priorities
and face greater hurdles in striking work-life balances because of an extra set of
family responsibilities. Socio-cultural norms are also far less conducive to
female entrepreneurship than other countries with similar economic

Maleeha Nasir, a BSC graduate from LUMS began her career in brand
marketing but soon realized that she was drawn to starting her own business so
she could dictate her own terms. Following her passion for fashion she started
building on the idea of her own clothing store. To gain some experience, she
worked for a leading clothing store as a buying manager. She began to
understand how to translate her outspoken personality into clothing that others
would appreciate and enjoy – eventually she opened Daaman.

Established in 2009, Daaman is a ready-to-wear clothing label for women,

specialising in all things hip and trendy. Maleeha believes that fashion is a
powerful form of self-expression; “life is too short to wear boring clothes! We
want to help people take some fashion risks that are right for them,” she says.

Daaman has stores in Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad and caters to

international customers online. Reasonable prices, aesthetic designs and high
quality are Úaman’s edge over competitors – it was even nominated for 2010’s
Lux Style Awards. Maleeha started with a team of 10 employees which has
grown to over 40, who she provides with an excellent working environment and
health insurance.

A Journey of Discovery
Gulraiz Khan
“Cities worth building a future in,” is a simple energy company tagline that
encapsulates Gulraiz Khan’s creation of Samovar Tea and Coffee House. He is a
graduate in Economics from LUMS and is a self-made entrepreneur, or chai-
walla as his friends refer to him.

“If I had to build my future in Karachi – which is a reality for millions of young
Pakistanis, given the immigration constraints – what would I like this city to
have? Uninterrupted power, a mass transit system and social spaces where
people can meet and exchange ideas are my top three requisites. The last one
was something I wanted to attempt to meet,” says Gulraiz.

Having spent several evenings at cafés in Berlin, Paris and Istanbul, he craved
relaxing, open spaces in his home city. Cafés in Karachi fell below the mark
because their focus was on coffee, a non-native beverage that is expensive and
unsuited to our climate. There was an entire world of tea that this largely tree-
drinking nation had yet to explore.
Samovar links open spaces perfect for stimulating discussion with the feeling of
travelling. It is an outdoor café at Karachi’s port and each tea-drink is named
after a destination that Gulraiz has travelled to or read about. So next time you
swing by try the Topkapi Affair, a coffee and hazelnut flavoured tea that evokes
the spirit of Ottoman-era Istanbul, or the Chandni Chowk, the Indian Masala
Chai right from the heart of Bahadur Shah Zafar’s Delhi.

Embellishing Lives with Confidence

Salma Rahim
In Pakistan, where few opportunities are available to women to build their self-
reliance, finding self-confident, established women in rural communities is

Salma Rahim, a master-embellisher from remote Dera Jatta in Bahawalpur,

always dreamt of escaping poverty and inspire women around her to do more
with their lives by developing their skills.

After completing a diploma course at a vocational institute, Salma went door to

door in her village to recruit women and form a small team of embellishers who
she trained out of her home. “Training is essential to polish any skill, and in this
business only practice improves how detail-oriented and creative you are,” says

Salma was introduced to a fashion designer from Karachi who guided her on
developing their skills further and break into urban markets. Only 8 months
after it began, Zardozi Bridal Wear employees over 80 women from
surrounding villages and hopes to grow to 200 in 2012.

Zardozi offers employees transportation to and from the training facility which
is in a secure part of town, adding to the great working environment. “I hope
this business provides women with a chance to earn a livelihood and improve
their lives and self-esteem by showing them how much they are capable of. I
earn enough money to support my family and meet all my overheads,” she says.

In the recent Lahore Fashion Week, Salma had an opportunity to connect with
leading designers and learn about new market trends. Zardozi has begun
receiving orders from designers across the country.

Breaking Barriers
Naheed Abro
Naheed Abro’s father was a taxi driver who migrated from Lakki to Shikarpur
years ago, looking for a better future. Due to limited resources he could not
provide education to his nine children. Despite this, Naheed started sewing
clothes to fund her own education. She is now in the middle of an MBA and has
completed a MA in English and Sociology.
While studying, she expanded her tailoring to stitching Sindh rallis (quilts) and
topis (hats). She has built her business into a training institute where she
employees 15 people.

Naheed teaches women from surrounding villages stitching, designing,

patchwork, appliqué and embroidery. Her work is recognisable at exhibitions in
Karachi and Khairpur because of the unique color combinations and fine
embroidery she uses. High levels of professionalism and focus on quality
finished products has won Naheed’s company, Marvi Crafts orders from well-
known fashion houses.

Despite how busy she is meeting her orders, she still finds time to work in
women’s development and flood relief, collaborating with international NGOs
to do what?

“I have faced many hurdles to come this far. Cultural barriers for women are
strong – I have to constantly convince parents to allow their daughters to be
educated,” she says. Naheed has sent 500 women to Karachi for training.

She plans to expand her institute by marketing products directly to consumers

through the internet and by establishing displays in both Sukkur and Karachi.

Stitching his own Success Story

Shahzeb Saeed
Opportunity often comes from unexpected places – as was the case with
Shahzeb Saeed, a professional shirt maker and wardrobe consultant. He
graduated from IoBM with an MBA and for a long time envisioned himself
providing the finest shirts to business professionals. This vision materialized
when his brother, a corporate banker, asked him to design a shirt for him. This
one shirt led to referrals and sales through word of mouth, and Shahzeb has
been busy making some of the finest quality cotton shirts available in Pakistan
since then.

He started with a meagre amount he saved as a student at IBA. After a soft

launch, selling shirts to personal contacts and friends, Shahzeb was faced with
a real business challenge: he needed a space to display his products.

By thinking creatively to save overhead costs he began displaying his shirts at

corporate events and workshops. This approach worked well, giving him a lot of
exposure in the corporate sector. He then began selling shirts on Facebook and
through his official website.

Shahzeb believes everything in life is possible if you stay positive and persistent.
“A lot of people discouraged me from selling my products online because they
said it was an ineffective distribution channel. As it turned out the Internet was
an opportunity just waiting to be used,” he says. Shahzeb Saeed Pret Line now
offers free delivery anywhere in Karachi and a 30 days money back guarantee
on all shirts in stock.
Creative Diversions Create Constructive Echoes
Syeda Neelma
Syeda Neelma Shah and Rabiya Riaz were students together in Peshawar who
have grown to be friends and business partners. Peshawar has been hit hard in
recent years by acts of terrorism. It was when residents were leaving the city in
hordes and the business sector was at a standstill that these two women decided
to do something. “We had no idea this would be successful, we just wanted to
divert our focus from the agony around us,” says Neelma.

The idea was to engage women and merge their skills with creativity and launch
Echo – A symbol beauty and feminism in Greek mythology. Launched at a
university exhibition, Echo offers handmade jewellery, handbags, ready to wear
clothing, customised casual and formal dresses and has done well because of its
use of creative embellishment and competitive prices.

Because they were aware of the importance of social media marketing to the
success of any business, which led them to establish Echo as an online store
before it ever opened in a mall or shopping centre.

Business continues with challenges, “to meet our deadlines we have to go out
and work on days when there are blasts in the city and businesses are shut. It
can be frightening, but meeting our commitments is important and so far our
customers are happy with us,” says Neelma.

“Echo emphasizes making our clients look and feel good. Good apparel is one
thing that gives a person confidence in themselves and Echo continuously works
to transform styles with new looks.”

We request our readers to give your feedback on the success of young


Gulraiz Khan is a graduate in Economics from LUMS and a self-made entrepreneur. He is the
founder of café Samovar Coffee and Tea House, an outdoor café at Karachi’s port. The aim of
the café is to link open spaces perfect for stimulating discussion with the feeling of travelling.
His café helped him bag the top prize at the Shell Tameer Awards, which are awards that
recognize young Pakistani entrepreneurs and their successes.