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Wire Rope Cross Sections

6x7 6 x 12 6 x1 7 6 x19 6 x 19 6 x 21
Poly Core Marine Rope Filler Rope Seale Warrington Filler Wire

6 x 26 6 x 31
6 x 24 6 x 25 6 x 27 6 x 31
Warrington- Warrington-
(Mooring Line) Filler Wire Seale Filler Wire
Seale Seale

6 x 36 6 x 36 6 x 37 6 x 41 6 x 41 6 x 46
Filler Wire Warrington-Seal Warrington Warrington-Seal Filler Wire-Seale Filler Wire-Seale

6 x 27
6 x 49 6 x40 6 x 26 6 x 31 6 x 31
Seale-
Filler Wire-Seale Filler Wire Warrington-Seale Seale Filler Wire
Warrington

6x8 6 x 25 6 x 30 6 x 42 5 x 19 6 x 3 x 31
(Mooring Line) Filler Wire Warrington-Seale Seale Filler Wire Warrington-Seale

7x7 7 x 7 x7
18 x 7 19 x 7 Glavanized & Glavanized & 7 x 7 x7 7 x 7 x 19
Non-rotating Non-rotating Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Cable-Laid Cable-Laid
Wire Rope Wire Rope

1x3 1 x7 1 x 19 1 x 37 7 x 7 x 41
Strand Strand Strand Strand Filler Wire
Recommended Applications
for Wire Ropes
USE SIZE (in.) CONSTRUCTION LAY CORE GRADE
Clamshell
1/2 & Up 6 x 2 5 FW or 6 x 36 RRL IWRC EIPS
Holding &
1/2 & Up WS RRL IWRC EIPS
Closing Lines
All 6 x 19 or 6 x 37 Class RRL IWRC EIPS
Boom Hoist
3/8 & Up 6 x 19 Class RRL IWRC EIPS
Line
Tag Line 6 x 37 Class

Crawler & Truck Cranes


All 6 x 19 Class or 19 x RRL IWRC EIPS
Hoist Line
All 19 RRL IWRC EIPS
Boom Hoist
3/8---1-1/2 6 x 19 Class RRL IWRC EIPS
Line
19 x 7 or 35 x 7
Whip Line
Cranes & Hoists
All 6 x 19 Class RRL IWRC EIPS
Overhead
RRL IWRC EIPS
RRL IWRC EIPS
All 6 x 37 Class RRL IWRC EIPS
Ladle Crane
RRL IWRC EIPS
Dragline
Up to 1-1/4 6 x 19 or 8 x 19 Class RLL IWRC EIPS
Hoist Line
1-3/8 & Up 6 x 37 Class RLL IWRC EIPS
Drag Line 3/4---1-1/2 8 x 19 Class RLL IWRC EIPS
1-5/8---3 8 x 37 Class RLL IWRC EIPS
3 & Up 8 x 37 Class RRL IWRC EIPS
1/2 & Up 6 X 19 Class RRL IWRC EIPS
Boom Hoist
Shovels
Up to 1 1/8 6 x 19 CL or 8 x 19 RLL IWRC EIPS
Hoist Line
1-1/4 & Up CL RLL IWRC EIPS
3/4 & Up 6 x 37 CL or 8 X 19 RLL IWRC EIPS
Crowd &
Retract 1/2---1-1/4 CL RRL IWRC EIPS
1-3/8 & Up 6 x 37 CL or 8 X 19 RRL IWRC EIPS
Boom Hoist
3/8---1 CL RRL IWRC IPS
1" & Up 6 x 19 CL or 8 x 19 RRL IWRC IPS
Trip Rope
CL
6 x 37 CL or 8 X 19
CL
6 x 37 CL or 8 X 19
CL
6 x 37 CL or 8 X 19
CL
Logging Ropes
Chokers All 6 X 19 Class RRL IWRC EIPS
Winch Lines All 6 X 19 Class RRL IWRC EIPS

Mining
All 6 x 19 S RLL FIBER IPS
Slope Rope
All 6 x 19 S or 6 x 25 FW RLL or FIBER IPS
Shaft Hoist
All 3 x 19 S or 6 x 19 S RRL IWRC IPS
Ropes
All 6 x 36 WS or 6 x 41 RRL IWRC EIPS
Slusher Rope
Mining WS RRL
Machine Rope
Marine Ropes
All 6 x 37 Class RRL IWRC EIPS
Towing Hawser
All 6 x 19 or 6 x 37 Class RRL IWRC EIPS
Mooring Lines
All 6 x 37 Class RRL IWRC EIPS
Cargo Falls
Oil Field
3/4---2 6 x 19 S, 6 x 21 S, 6 x RRL IWRC EIPS
Rotary Drill
All 26 NS RRL POLY IPS
Lines
All 6x7 RRL or FIBER EIPS
Sand Lines
All 6 x 26 WS LRL IWRC IPS
Tubling Line
Cable Tool 6 x 21 S POLY
Line FIBER

Offshore
1---2 6 x 19 S, 6 x 21 S, 6 x RRL IWRC EIPS
Rotary Drill
1-1/4---2 26 CL RLL IWRC IPS
Lines
1/2---1 6 x 37 Class RRL IWRC IPS
Riser
1/2---5/8 6 x 19 Class RRL POLY IPS
Tensioner
1-1/2---3 3/4 6x7 RRL FIBER EIPS
Lines
Guide Lines 3/8---2 6 x 19 Class or 6 x 37 RRL IWRC IPS or
Sand Lines 3/8---2-1/4 Class RRL IWRC EIPS
Pendant Lines 1-3/8---6 6 x 37 Class or 35 x 7 RRL IWRC EIPS
Crane-Main 1-1/2---4 Class RRL IWRC EIPS
Hoist 3-1/2---10 35 x 7 Class RLL or IWRC EIPS
Crane-Auxiliary 6 x 37 Class LLL IWRC EIPS
Hoist 6 x 37 Class
Anchor Lines
Heavy Lift
Slings
Heavy Lift
Slings

Definition of Abbreviations

Grade Construction Lay Core


IPS- Improved Plow Steel FW - Filler Wire RRL - Right Regular IWRC - Wire Rope
EIPS - Extra Improved Plow WS - Warrington Lay Core
Steel Seale RLL - Right Lang FC - Fiber Core
GIPS - Galvanized Improved SFW - Seale Filler Lay Fiber - Hemp or Poly
Plow Steel Wire LRL - Left Regular Core
EEIPS - Extra, Extra Improved RR - Rotation Lay Poly - Polypropylene
IPS- Improved Plow Steel FW - Filler Wire RRL - Right Regular IWRC - Wire Rope
EIPS - Extra Improved Plow WS - Warrington Lay Core
Steel Seale RLL - Right Lang FC - Fiber Core
GIPS - Galvanized Improved SFW - Seale Filler Lay Fiber - Hemp or Poly
Plow Steel Wire LRL - Left Regular Core
EEIPS - Extra, Extra Improved RR - Rotation Lay Poly - Polypropylene
Plow Steel Resistant LLL - Left Lang Lay Core
EEEIPS - Extra, Extra, Extra W - Warrington RAL - Right
Improved Plow Steel S - Seale Attended Lay
LAL - Left Attended
Lay
Sheave and Drum Ratios
Suggested Minimum
Construction* D/d Ratio** D/d Ratio**
6x7 72 42
19 x 7 or 18 x 7 Rotation Resistant 51 34
6 x 19 S 51 34
6 x 25 B Flattened Strand 45 30
6 x 27 H Flattened Strand 45 30
6 x 30G Flattened Strand 45 30
6 x 21 FW 45 30
6 x 26 WS 45 30
6 x 25 FW 39 26
6 x 31 WS 39 26
6 x 37 SFW 39 26
6 x 36 WS 35 23
6 x 43 FWS 35 23
6 x 41 WS 32 21
6 x 41 SFW 32 21
6 X 49 SWS 32 21
6 X 43 FW (2 op) 28 18
6 x 46 SFW 28 18
6 x 46 WS 28 18
8 x 19 S 41 27
8 x 25 FW 32 21
6 x 42 Tiller 21 14
* WS - Warrington Seale
FWS - Filler Wire Seale
SFW - Seale Filler Wire
SWS - Seale Warrington Seale
S - Seale
FW - Filler Wire

**D=tread diameter of sheave


d= nominal diameter of rope
To find any tread diameter from this table, the diameter for the rope
construction to be used is multiplied by its nominal diameter (d). For
example, the minimum sheave tread diameter for a 1/2" 6 x 21 FW rope
would be 1/2" (nominal diameter) x 30 (minimum ratio) or 15".

NOTE: These values are for reasonable service. Other values are permitted
by various standards such as ANSI, API, PCSA, HMI, CMAA, etc. Smaller
values affect rope life.
Calculating Reel Capacity
SHIPPING REEL CAPACITY
While it is virtually impossible to calculate the precise length of wire rope that can be
spooled on a reel or drum, the following provides a sufficiently close approximation.

Capacities In Feet Of Rope = (A + B) ACK


Example:

How much 1 1/4" diameter rope can be spooled on a drum having a 36" diameter
flange, 24" diameter drum and 30" width between flanges?

Using the above formula the number of feet equals


(6 + 24) x 6 x 30 x .152 or (A + B) x A x C x K
Answer - 821 feet

The value of "K" is taken from the previously calculated table of values shown below.
For 1 1/4 diameter this value "K" is .152
"K" FACTORS**
(0.2618 divided by rope diameter (squared)

Diam Diam Diam


(inches) K (inches) K (inches) K
1/16 49.8 1/2 0.925 1-3/8 0.127
3/32 23.4 9/16 0.741 1-1/2 0.107
1/8 13.6 5/8 0.607 1-5/8 0.0886
5/32 8.72 11/16 0.506 1-3/4 0.0770
3/16 6.14 3/4 0.428 1-7/8 0.0675
7/32 4.59 13/16 0.354 2 0.0597
1/4 3.29 7/8 0.308 2-1/8 0.0532
5/16 2.21 1 0.239 2-1/4 0.0476
3/8 1.58 1-1/8 0.191 2-3/8 0.0419
7/16 1.19 1-1/4 0.152 2-1/2 0.0380

* This formula is based on uniform rope winding on the reel. It will not give correct
results if the winding is non-uniform. The formula also assumes that there will be the
same number of wraps in each layer. While this is not strictly correct, there is no
appreciable error in the result unless the traverse of the reel is quite small relative to
the flange diameter ("H").

** The values given for "K" factors take normal rope oversize into account.
Criteria for Replacement of Wire Ropes
When to Replace Wire Rope - Based on Number of Broken Wires

Galvanized
Number Broken Wires Number Broken Wires
in Running Ropes in Standing Ropes
ANSI* Equipment In One In One In One At End
Standard Rope Lay Strand Rope Lay Connection
B30.2 Overhead & Gantry Cranes 12 4 Not Specified Not Specified
B30.4 Portal, Tower & Pillar 6 3 3 2
Cranes
B30.5 Crawler, Locomotive & 6 3 3 2
Truck Cranes
B30.6 Derricks 6 3 3 2
B30.7 Base Mounted Drum Hoists 6 3 3 2
B30.8 Flotaing Cranes & Derricks 6 3 3 2
B30.16 Overhead Hoists 12 4 Not Specified Not Specified
A10.4 Personnel Hoists 6** 3 2** 2
A10.5 Material Hoists 6** Not Not Specified Not Specified
Specified
* American National Standards Institute
** Also remove for 1 valley break.

A wire broken under a tensile load that exceeds its strength by the "cup and cone" configuration
at the fracture point (a). The necking down of the wire at this point shows that failure occurred
while the wire retained its ductility. Shear-tensile fracture (b) occurs in wire subjected to a
combination of transverse and axial loads. Fatigue breaks are usually chacterized by squared-
off ends perpendicular to the wire either straight across or Z-shaped (c & d).
Galvanized & Stainless Steel Wire Rope

7 x 19
7x7
(Shown Vinyl Coated)
(Shown Vinyl Coated)

Galvanized
Diameter in Construction Minimum Break Rated WT. Per
Inches Strength/Lbs. Load/Lbs. 100 Ft./ Lbs.
1/16 7x7 480 100 .8
3/32 7x7 920 180 1.6
1/8 7x7 1,700 340 2.8
1/8 7 x 19 2,000 400 2.9
5/32 7x7 2,600 520 4.3
5/32 7 x 19 2,800 560 4.5
3/16 7x7 3,700 740 6.2
3/16 7 x 19 4,200 840 6.5
7/32 7 x 19 5,600 1,120 8.6
1/4 7 x 19 7,000 1,400 11.0
9/32 7 x 19 8,000 1,600 13.9
5/16 7 x 19 9,800 1,960 17.3
3/8 7 x 19 14,400 2,880 24.3

Stainless Steel
Diameter in Construction Minimum Break Rated WT. Per
Inches Strength/Lbs. Load/Lbs. 100 Ft./ Lbs.
1/16 7x7 480 100 .8
3/32 7x7 920 180 1.6
1/8 7x7 1,700 340 2.8
1/8 7 x 19 1,760 350 2.9
5/32 7x7 2,600 520 4.3
5/32 7 x 19 2,400 480 4.5
3/16 7x7 3,700 740 6.2
3/16 7 x 19 3,700 740 6.5
7/32 7 x 19 5,000 1,000 8.6
1/4 7 x 19 6,400 1,280 11.0
9/32 7 x 19 7,800 1,560 13.9
5/16 7 x 19 9,000 1,800 17.3
3/8 7 x 19 12,000 2,400 24.3

Vinyl Coated (Galvanized)


Diameter in "Coated Construction Minimum Break Rated WT. Per
Inches To" Strength/Lbs. Load/Lbs. 100 Ft./
Lbs.
3/32 3/16 7x7 920 180 3
1/8 3/16 7x7 1,700 340 4
1/8 3/16 7 x 19 2,000 400 4
3/16 1/4 7 x 19 4,200 840 9
1/4 5/16 7 x 19 7,000 1,400 14
3/16 7x7 3,700 740 6.2
3/16 7 x 19 4,200 840 6.5
7/32 7 x 19 5,600 1,120 8.6
1/4 7 x 19 7,000 1,400 11.0
9/32 7 x 19 8,000 1,600 13.9
5/16 7 x 19 9,800 1,960 17.3
3/8 7 x 19 14,400 2,880 24.3
Other sizes, constructions, metals, and coatings available on request.
Metric Crane Ropes

* Available in inches and millimeters


* Super Rotation Resistance
* Can be used with in-line Swivels
* 1770 thru 2160 Grades
* Drawn Galvanized available, for added corrosion protection,
at same strength.
* Regular or Compacted Strand

2160 Grade (Approximate)

Nominal Diameter Mass MBL


mm-1/+4% LBS/FT LBS
10 0.312 31,580
12 0.450 30,570
13 0.538 36,460
14 0.622 42,260
15 0.712 49,000
16 0.800 54,400
17 0.907 61,370
18 1.011 70,140
19 1.136 78,230
20 1.297 87,450
21 1.431 96,660
22 1.556 105,210
23 1.699 114,650
24 1.848 123,950
25 2.009 134,430
1" 2.100 147,700
26 2.157 144,320
28 2.553 169,730
29 2.688 177,590
30 2.923 192,210
32 3.313 217,160
34 3.736 245,040
36 4.193 273,140
All specifications included herein are subject to change without notice.
Wire Rope
Compacted Strand
Flex-X® and Hyperform®

? Mining, industrial,
construction, logging, and ? Single-part multi-part hoist lines.
oilfield applications.
? Designers/Engineers: ideal when
machinery space and weight
savings are important.

? Stability, strength, fatigue (See metric core ropes)


resistance, and abrasion
resistance. ? Important: Do not exceed 5:1
design factor.

? Ideally suited to rugged


? All popular sizes. applications.

This rotation resistant, higher


strength rope provides extra value in
both original equipment designs
? Longer service life. and replacement applications.
Compared to standard 19 x 7, Flex-X
Flex-X® 6 x 26 should be used in provides higher strength in a smaller
applications where increased diameter, with better resistance to
strength, stability, and abrasion drum crushing.
resistance are beneficial. When
properly used, Flex-X® 6 x 26 can
result in longer service life. Boom
hoist ropes and drag ropes and
mainline ropes in logging are a few of
many recommended applications.

Compacted Strand

6 x 26 19 x 19
Diameter Approx Nominal Strength Approx Nominal Strength
(inches) WT. (Lbs./FT) (tons of 2000 lb.) WT. (Lbs./FT) (tons of 2000 lb.)
1/4 .131 3.91 .127 3.74
5/16 .218 6.06 .212 5.8
3/8 .32 8.80 .31 8.3
7/16 .41 11.9 .40 11.2
1/2 .55 15.3 .54 14.6
9/16 .70 19.3 .69 18.5
5/8 .86 22.7 .85 22.7
3/4 1.25 32.4 1.25 32.4
7/8 1.67 43.8 1.68 43.8
1 2.18 56.9 2.17 56.9
1-1/8 2.71 71.5 2.75 71.5
1-1/4 3.43 87.9 3.45 87.9
1-3/8 4.25 106 4.33 106
1-1/2 5.01 125 5.11 125
wire rope Page 1 of 1

Nominal Strengths of Wire Rope 6 x 31 - 6 x 36

6 x 37 Classification/Bright (Uncoated), or Drawn Galvanized, Fiber Core

Nominal Diameter Nominal Strength* Approximate Mass


Improved Plow Steel
Inches MM TONS METRIC TONS LB/FT KG/M
1/4 6.5 2.74 2.49 0.11 0.16
5/16 8.0 4.26 3.86 0.16 0.24
3/8 9.5 6.10 5.53 0.24 0.35
7/16 11.5 8.27 7.50 0.32 0.48
1/2 13.0 10.70 9.71 0.42 0.63
9/16 14.5 13.50 12.20 0.53 0.79
5/8 16.0 16.70 15.10 0.66 0.98
3/4 19.0 23.80 21.60 0.95 1.41
7/8 22.0 32.20 29.20 1.29 1.92
1 26.0 41.80 37.90 1.68 2.50
1-1/8 29.0 52.60 47.70 2.13 3.17
1-1/4 32.0 64.60 58.60 2.63 3.91
1-3/8 35.0 77.70 70.50 3.18 4.73
1-1/2 38.0 92.00 83.50 3.78 5.63
1-5/8 42.0 107.00 97.10 4.44 6.61
1-3/4 45.0 124.00 112.00 5.15 7.66
1-7/8 48.0 141.00 128.00 5.91 8.80
2 51.0 160.00 145.00 6.72 10.00
2-1/8 54.0 179.00 162.00 7.59 11.30
2-1/4 57.0 200.00 181.00 8.51 12.70
2-3/8 61.0 222.00 201.00 9.48 14.10
2-1/2 64.0 244.00 221.00 10.50 15.60
2-5/8 67.0 268.00 243.00 11.60 17.30
2-3/4 70.0 292.00 265.00 12.70 18.90
2-7/8 74.0 317.00 287.00 13.90 20.70
3 77.0 344.00 312.00 15.10 22.50
3-1/8 80.0 371.00 336.00 16.40 24.40
3-1/4 83.0 399.0 362.00 17.70 26.30
* To convert to Kilonewtons (kN), multiply tons (nominal breaking strength) by 8.896; 1 lb = 4.448 newtons (N).
For Regular Galvanized Strengths, Deduct 10%.

http://www.ashleysling.com/wirerp6.htm 24/8/2550
wire rope Page 1 of 1

Nominal Strengths of Wire Rope 6 x 25 - 6 x 26

6 x 19 Classification/Bright (Uncoated), or Drawn Galvanized, IWRC


Nominal Diameter Nominal Strength* Approximate Mass

Improved Plow Steel Extra Improved Plow Steel


Inches MM TONS METRIC TONS TONS METRIC TONS LB/FT KG/M
1/4 6.5 2.94 2.67 3.40 3.08 0.12 0.17
5/16 8.0 4.58 4.16 5.27 4.78 0.18 0.27
3/8 9.5 6.56 5.95 7.55 6.85 0.26 0.39
7/16 11.5 8.89 8.07 10.20 9.25 0.35 0.52
1/2 13.0 11.50 10.40 13.30 12.10 0.46 0.68
9/16 14.5 14.50 13.20 16.80 15.20 0.59 0.88
5/8 16.0 17.70 16.20 20.60 18.70 0.72 1.07
3/4 19.0 25.60 23.20 29.40 26.70 1.04 1.55
7/8 22.0 34.60 31.40 39.80 36.10 1.42 2.11
1 26.0 44.90 40.70 51.70 46.90 1.85 2.75
1-1/8 29.0 56.50 51.30 65.00 59.00 2.34 3.48
1-1/4 32.0 69.40 63.00 79.90 72.50 2.89 4.30
1-3/8 35.0 83.50 75.70 96.00 87.10 3.50 5.21
1-1/2 38.0 98.90 89.70 114.00 103.00 4.16 6.19
1-5/8 42.0 115.00 104.00 132.00 120.00 4.88 7.26
1-3/4 45.0 133.00 121.00 153.00 139.00 5.67 8.44
1-7/8 48.0 152.00 138.00 174.00 158.00 6.50 9.67
2 51.0 172.00 156.00 198.00 180.00 7.39 11.00
2-1/8 54.0 192.00 174.00 221.00 200.00 8.35 12.40
2-1/4 57.0 215.00 195.00 247.00 224.00 9.36 13.90
2-3/8 61.0 239.00 217.00 274.00 249.00 10.40 15.50
2-1/2 64.0 262.00 238.00 302.00 274.00 11.60 17.30
2-5/8 67.0 288.00 261.00 331.00 300.00 12.80 19.00
2-3/4 70.0 314.00 285.00 361.00 327.00 14.00 20.80

* To convert to Kilonewtons (kN), multiply tons (nominal breaking strength) by 8.896; 1 lb = 4.448 newtons (N).
For Regular Galvanized Strengths, Deduct 10%.

http://www.ashleysling.com/wirerp5.htm 24/8/2550
Nominal Strengths of Wire Rope
6x19 - 6 x 21

6 x 19 Classification/Bright (Uncoated), or Drawn Galvanized, Fiber


Core
Nominal Diameter Nominal Strength* Approximate Mass
Improved Plow Steel
Inches MM TONS METRIC TONS LB/FT KG/M
1/4 6.5 2.74 2.49 0.11 0.16
5/16 8.0 4.26 3.86 0.16 0.24
3/8 9.5 6.10 5.53 0.24 0.35
7/16 11.5 8.27 7.50 0.32 0.48
1/2 13.0 10.70 9.71 0.42 0.63
9/16 14.5 13.50 12.20 0.53 0.79
5/8 16.0 16.70 15.10 0.66 0.98
3/4 19.0 23.80 21.60 0.95 1.41
7/8 22.0 32.20 29.20 1.29 1.92
1 26.0 41.80 37.90 1.68 2.50
1-1/8 29.0 52.60 47.70 2.13 3.17
1-1/4 32.0 64.60 58.60 2.63 3.91
1-3/8 35.0 77.70 70.50 3.18 4.73
1-1/2 38.0 92.00 83.50 3.78 5.63
1-5/8 42.0 107.00 97.10 4.44 6.61
1-3/4 45.0 124.00 112.00 5.15 7.66
1-7/8 48.0 141.00 128.00 5.91 8.80
2 51.0 160.00 145.00 6.72 10.00
2-1/8 54.0 179.00 162.00 7.59 11.30
2-1/4 57.0 200.00 181.00 8.51 12.70
2-3/8 61.0 222.00 201.00 9.48 14.10
2-1/2 64.0 244.00 221.00 10.50 15.60
2-5/8 67.0 268.00 243.00 11.60 17.30
2-3/4 70.0 292.00 265.00 12.70 18.90
* To convert to Kilonewtons (kN), multiply tons (nominal breaking strength) by
8.896; 1 lb = 4.448 newtons (N). For Regular Galvanized Strengths, Deduct
10%.
Wire Rope Specifications

TYPES OF CORES

An important point to consider is the selection of the proper type of core


needed in the rope. Wire Ropes are made with either fiber core or steel
wire core.

1) Fiber Core (FC)


This center is made of either natural fibers or polypropylene and offers
greater elasticity than the independent Wire Rope Core.

2) Independent Wire Rope Core (IWRC)


This center is usually composed of a separate 7x7 wire rope designated
as IWRC. The steel core increases the strength by 7% and the weight by
10%. These steel cores provide more substantial support than fiber cores
to the outer strands during the rope's operating life. Steel centers resist
crushing, are more resistant to heat and increase the strength of the rope.

DESIGN FACTOR

The Design Factor being both the ratio between the minimum Breaking
load of the rope and the rated capacity (RC) tells at what percentage of its
ultimate strength a wire rope is operating. The Design Factor takes into
consideration both normal rope wear and potential stresses in various
applications. The best practice in determining an adequate design factor is
to analyze the specific conditions involved inn each individual installation.
The following example shows how to determine the Design Factor: If a
rope is working under a max. operating load of 10,000 lbs. and is having
an ultimate strength of 50,000 lbs., the factor is 5 which means it is
operating at 20% of its ultimate strength.

FLEET ANGLE

The fleet angle is the angle formed between the rope running to or from
the extreme left or right of the drum and a line drawn from the center of the
sheave normal to the axis of the drum. For optimum efficiency, the angle
here should not exceed 1 1/2 degrees for a smooth drum, or 2 degrees for
a grooved drum. If the fleet angle is larger than the recommended limits, it
can cause bad winding on smooth drums and rubbing against the flanges
of the grooves. Too small a fleet angle should also be avoided since it will
cause the rope to pile up against the flange head.

Before installing any wire rope that winds onto a drum, the fleet angle
should be checked and if found improper, conditions should be corrected.

SHEAVE ALIGNMENT

Proper alignment of sheaves is essential. The main sheave should line up


with the center of the hoisting drum, otherwise both the rope and sheave
flanges will be subjected to severe and rapid deterioration will occur. If
rope speeds are high, sheaves should also be balanced.

NOTE:

Wire rope products will break if abused, misused or overused. Regular


inspection and maintenance are necessary. Consult industry
recommendation and OSHA standards before using.
Minimum Sheave and Drum-Groove Dimensions*
Groove Groove Groove Groove
Radius Radius Radius Radius
Nominal Nominal
Rope Rope
Diameter Diameter New New Worn Worn
1 2 3 4 5 6
inches mm inches mm inches mm
1/4 6.4 .135 3.43 .129 3.28
5/16 8.0 .167 4.24 .160 4.06
3/8 9.5 .201 5.11 .190 4.83
7/16 11 .234 5.94 .220 5.59
1/2 13 .271 6.88 .256 6.50
9/16 14.5 .303 7.70 .288 7.32
5/8 16 .334 8.48 .320 8.13
3/4 19 .401 10.19 .380 9.65
7/8 22 .468 11.89 .440 11.18
1 26 .543 13.79 .513 13.03
1-1/8 29 .605 15.37 .577 14.66
1-1/4 32 .669 16.99 .639 16.23
1-3/8 35 .736 18.69 .699 17.75
1-1/2 38 .803 20.40 .759 19.28
1-5/8 42 .876 22.25 .833 21.16
1-3/4 45 .939 23.85 .897 22.78
1-7/8 48 1.003 25.48 .959 24.36
2 52 1.085 27.56 1.025 26.04
2-1/8 54 1.137 28.88 1.079 27.41
2-1/4 58 1.210 30.73 1.153 29.29
2-3/8 60 1.271 32.28 1.199 30.45
2-1/2 64 1.338 33.99 1.279 32.49
2-5/8 67 1.404 35.66 1.339 34.01
2-3/4 71 1.481 37.62 1.409 35.79
2-7/8 74 1.544 39.22 1.473 37.41
3 77 1.607 40.82 1.538 39.07
3-1/8 80 1.664 42.27 1.598 40.59
3-1/4 83 1.731 43.97 1.658 42.11
3-3/8 87 1.807 45.90 1.730 43.94
3-1/2 90 1.869 47.47 1.794 45.57
3-3/4 96 1.997 50.72 1.918 48.72
4 103 2.139 54.33 2.050 52.07
4-1/4 109 2.264 57.51 2.178 55.32
4-1/2 115 2.396 60.86 2.298 58.37
4-3/4 122 2.534 64.36 2.434 61.82
5 128 2.663 67.64 2.557 64.95
5-1/4 135 2.804 71.22 2.691 68.35
5-1/2 141 2.929 74.40 2.817 71.55
5-3/4 148 3.074 78.08 2.947 74.85
6 154 3.198 81.23 3.075 78.11

* Values given are applicable to grooves in sheaves and drums; they are not
generally suitable for pitch design since this may involve other factors.

Further, the dimensions do not apply to traction-type elevators; in this


circumstance, drum-and sheave-groove tolerances should conform to the
elevator manufacturer's specifications.