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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

An automobile is one of the most basic and fascinating things that one
could own. Trucks are one of the major part of Transport in India. The
transport is of the biggest business in now a days. The major problem arising is
about tyre wear, puncture of tyre, replacing tyre, etc. The task of changing the
truck’s tyre and replacing a punctured tyre has always been a difficult task.
Every truck manufacturer provides tools such as L wrench and jack but easy
and fast removal of nuts using these tools requires a skilled person.

The box spanner or torque wrench is the most commonly instrument


used to tighten or remove the nuts from the bolts in the wheel of a vehicle but
the tightening and removing process of the wheel nuts is quite tedious.
Nevertheless, due to the difficulty in applying the required torque to remove
the nuts, most of the time, driver rely on the tow truck and available nearest
mechanic to solve the problem. This mostly happen to the aged drivers. The
setbacks of this instrument are time waste and force needed. The time to open a
truck’s tyre nut is too long and leads to waste of time of truck users with
utilization of high force which leads to indirectly loss of economy. To

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

eliminate the time waste and high force needed, a device that is electrically
operated by motor with the supply of electricity from vehicle battery have been
devised to remove wheel nuts at a time with reduction in the force applied for
the operation. It can open and tighten the wheel with the same tool easily.

1.2 Problem Statement

As the India is fast growing country, most of the industries have the
transportation by vehicles, typically, trucks and containers. With the increment
of the number of trucks on the road, the number of trucks problem due to tire
failure has increased. Often, the mechanic is having with tire spanners and jack
for tire replacement, he also have to take more efforts due to the difficulty in
applying the required torque to remove the nuts.

1.3 Objective

The following are the main objectives of project are enlisted below:-

 To atomize the labour work in tightening or loading the nuts one by


one. This project focuses on the minimization of human effort and time
consumed for fixing all nuts of the four wheeler tire with a single stroke
of lever by using multiple operated spanners.
 To reduce the human effort required to tighten or loosen the wheel any
vehicle by accommodating flexibility of nut size.

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

1.4 Organization at Work

Completion of any work requires proper planning and management


from the initial stage. From case study to fabrication different steps are
involved. First of all we decide the aim our project. Application of our design,
benefits and other aspects are discussed in first chapter.

In the second lap of our work we finalize about the material required
for fabrication of different parts. A lot of engineering material are studied
before the selection of material.

After the selection of material the big work is to design each and every
part of project. Design of gears, shafts, axles, sprockets, pinion and other parts
are enlisted below.

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

CHAPTER-2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

The literature review gives an idea about various design consideration


factors as per considering its importance. They suggested various techniques of
removing nuts of vehicles by gear arrangement, also the bottlenecks which
have been faced and areas of future development. These are briefly explained
below:-

Mohd Azman et. al.(2003), designed a remover as shown in Fig.1 with 100
pitch circle diameter to replace L-shaped nut removers and jack which allows
driver to remove all nuts at once with less energy consumption and save time.
Several static load analyses were performed in order to find safety factor of
design. Here, torque applied was reduced by 33% and also reduction in time
taken is 53%. The fabrication of all wheel nut removers tool was completed by
milling, welding and fitting process. With support, impact wrench was used of
5.5 HP air compressors [1].

Azizul rahman b abd aziz et. al.(2006), developed nut removal with 114
pitch circle diameter to replace T-nut wrench that can reduce the force and
torque needed to open the nuts and open all four nuts simultaneously. This tool

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

can open four nuts in one time and the force of utilization has been reduced.
This tool used mild steel as the main material to fabricate a gearing system and
the gear ratio is 21.125 [2].

M. Mukhtar et. al.(2014), design and fabricated four in one (4 in 1) motorized


tire nut puller for a car with 100 pitch circle diameter shown in Fig 2. This tool
can dismantle four nuts simultaneously and power up by a car battery. With
assistance in CAD, CAM, CNC and Rapid prototyping concurrently reduction
of time in part assembly and optimum time in finished product was obtained.
Several recommendations have given by author to improve this product in
respect of use of polymers material for creating the product casing. The bracket
holder diameter size should be made in adjustable type that can be used in
various types of cars that have different PCD. Have a stopper to stop the
movement of the gear. Have speed controller to control speed of the gear
movement for an easier operation. Provide hammering mechanism that can
[3]
give an impact on loosening the nuts .

Amol Bhanage et. al.(2015), concluded 5 in 1 nut remover with Pitch Circle
Diameter (PCD) 114.3 mm has been designed for 080M40 material for Gear
and pinion. For validation, finite element simulation is performed for better
optimized results. Fabrication of the tool performing various processes, after
the overall design the tool was finally seen to meet all the design standards.
The results of test proved that the all-wheel nut remover could efficiently

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

remove all the nuts simultaneously. Time required for nut removal effectively
reduced up to 50% for pneumatic gun, and up to 70% for L wrench. Also, the
tool is efficient and with some required modifications could be efficiently used
in future [4].

Literature is deeply studied and the useful information is collected, then


we have to select the various material that are to be used for the various
components of the unified wheel opener. Then the designing of the various
components is done so that each and every component will serve its proper
function and it will not fail after words. Then how to manufacture the different
components or the various manufacturing processes that are to be used to
manufacture the components are then studied. The fig. given above shows the
various steps included in the project work.

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

CHAPTER-3
METHODOLOGY
This chapter consist of the overall methodology of the project, which is
specified in pictorial form. Which consist of sequence of process to be done to
achieve the required output as shown in figure.

Fig 3. Flow Chart of Methodology


3.1 CAD Diagram
The design of the WHEEL NUT OPENER is performed by commercial
computer aided design software as shown in Figure below.

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

Fig 3.1 CAD model of Gear Arrangement

Several static load analyses are also performed in order to find the
safety factor of the design. Theoretical calculation analysis is carried out with
the purpose of validation. The force required for removing four numbers of
nuts is,

4𝜏
𝜏=
𝜏𝜏𝜏

In the fabrication of wheel nut opener tool, two processes are


performed; milling and fitting. Since the gear are not available in market,
custom designed gear needs precision milling and fitting processes. Once the
tool is ready, an experiment is performed with the intention to find the time
required to remove the nuts. This results is then compared with time required
with ordinary L-shaped wrench.

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

CHAPTER-4

DESIGN PROCEDURE

4.1 Design and Product Cycle

All engineering activities necessarily begin with some ideas with high
or low innovative content, translated into definite plans for their realization in
the form of products. This is the essence of design engineering. The ultimate
success depends on a thorough consideration of how the product will be made
and used as well as on the attention to detail paid by the design engineering.
This is applicable equally for a minor redesign of existing product or for a
most innovative one. A good understanding of how the various phases of the
product cycle can influence the design is therefore essential. The product cycle
can be better understood by fig1

4.2 The Challenges of Design Engineering

The present day industry bases economy is founded on the


consumption of as many different products as possible by as much number of
users as possible. It serves as an engine driving technology. The numbers put
manufacturing under pressure> the numbers as well as the variety put greater
pressure on design engineering. This is manifested by

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

 Short time available for design, development and testing of the product
before it reaches the user.
 Demands from the users for affordable cost combined with high quality
of performance and appearance.

Fig 4.2 Life Cycle of the Product

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

4.3 Qualities of a Good Design

A good product design should satisfy the expectation of the customer/user.


These can be summarized in following condition. The product must

 Carry out the desired functions reliably.


 Appeal both technologically and psychologically.
 Be economical to acquire and to use.
 Be easy and safe to use.
 Be easy to maintain in working order.

In order to ensure the conditions, not only must the design concept be

of design consists of

 Drawing up the main parameters for function and performance.


 Deciding the material, shape and dimensions of the components.
 Ensuring that the component dimensions satisfy the functional and
strength requirement.
 Ensuring the feasibility to manufacture or otherwise procure all the
necessary components, assemble them together and test them.
 Preparing the component and assembly drawing for guiding
manufacture and inspection.

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

4.4 Introduction to Design

Spanners are used to open the wheel. Spanners in the use are of various
types. The different kinds of spanners in use are shown in figure one thing is
very common for all these spanners; only a single nut is opened in a single
time. This causes wastage of precious time and since to open all the nuts
spanner is too engaged and disengaged again and again till the last nut is
unscrewed or screwed. Thus in this work a large amount of power is required
to perform the requisite operation below.

These disadvantages are removed in wheel nut opener. The idea is to


reduce time when the wheel or put it on. By using this device, wheel nuts can
be opened simultaneously at one time. The supported design of the unified
wheel opener is shown below. On pictures, we can see handle, casing/gears
housing, and wheel nut connectors. Wheel nut connectors are connected to
wheel nut, and the number of connector depends on the number of studs. So it
will be different according to wheel type and size. Inside the casing, there are
simple gears mechanisms, causing one rotation of the handle to make two
rotations of the wheel nuts.

4.5 Designing

Following calculations include some of parameters which are enlisted below in


Table 4.5

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

Table 4.5.1 Abbreviations Used

M Module YP Lewis Form Factor


M Bending Moment 𝜏 Allowable Stress
Dp Pitch circle diameter of pinion T Twisting moment
Dg Pitch circle diameter of Gear Te Equivalent Twisting Moment
WT Tangential Load Tp Number of Teeth on pinion
WR Resultant Load Tg Number of Teeth on Gear

A. Design of Gear and Pinion

The product was to be designed for 139.7 PCD, so the center distance
between gears had to be 69.85 mm. The torque required for removal of one nut
is 120 N-m. Spur gears were selected due to ease in design and manufacturing.
Apart from this, the velocity ratio in spur gear is constant. Keeping the above
factors in mind and selecting 080M40 for Gear and pinion, design calculations
were performed and the values obtained were as follows[7].

Initially consider,

 Pitch Circle Diameter of Gear D = 90 mm


 Pitch Circle Diameter of Pinion d = 54 mm
 Pressure Angle Φ =20˚

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

 Gear Ratio G = 1.67


 By using G, Zg = G *Zp
 Zp = 18 and Zg = 30 are selected from the Lewis form factor table.
 Module m = 3 mm
 Face width b = 30 mm

B. Properties of the Material –

EN8 Carbon Steel EN8 is an unalloyed medium carbon steel grade with
reasonable tensile strength. It is widely used for applications which require
better properties than mild steel but does not justify the costs of an alloy steel.

 Ultimate tensile strength Sut = 550 N/mm2


 Yield strength Syt = 280 N/mm2
 Young’s Modules E = 200000 N/mm2
 Poisson’s Ratio ν = 0.3
 Brinell hardness = 255 HB

Permissible bending stress is same for both gear and pinion as the material
used is same. Now, for both gear and pinion,

1
𝜏 = 𝜏𝜏𝜏 = 183.33 𝜏/𝜏𝜏2
3

C. Beam Strength

The beam strength of both gear and pinion is given by,[5]

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

𝜏𝜏 = 𝜏 ∗ 𝜏 ∗ 𝜏𝜏 ∗ 𝜏 = 5075.30 𝜏

When pinion and gear are made up of same material then at that time pinion is
weaker than gear in bending, so we have to find out Feff for calculating factor
of safety.

D. Effective load

The effective load must be calculated for precise estimation [6],

𝜏𝜏∗ 𝜏𝜏∗ 𝜏𝜏
Feff =
𝜏𝜏

Where,

 For moderate shock and precise gearing, Ka =1.25


 For face width up to 50 mm, Km=1.2
 For fine Hobbing process, V = 22 m/sec.
 Torque required for removal of 4 nuts is 295.16 N-m,
 N = 200 rpm (Since, motor is used of 200 rpm)

Therefore,

2𝜏𝜏
𝜏= 𝜏
60

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

2 ∗ 3.134 ∗ 200 ∗ 295.16


𝜏=
60

P = 15.039* 103 Watt

Now, tangential force is given by,

𝜏
𝜏t = = 10*103/ 22 =685.43 N
𝜏

5.6
Kv= = 0.5441
5.6+√𝜏

Thus, the effective load is,

𝜏𝜏∗ 𝜏𝜏∗
Feff = 𝜏𝜏
𝜏𝜏

1.25 ∗ 1.2 ∗ 454.54


=
0.5441

= 1891.19 N

E. Calculation for Available Factor of Safety (FOS)

Fb = FOS* Feff

5075.3
𝜏𝜏𝜏 =
1891.19
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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

FOS = 2.68

So, FOS = 2.68 > 1.5

As the Available FOS of Gear pair is higher than that of required factor of
safety, the design of gear pair is safe. The final gear and pinion parameters are
tabulated below.

Table 4.5.2 Final Design Parameters

Parameters Gear Pinion


Teeth 34 17
PCD (mm) 76.3 38
Module (mm) 2.25 2.25
Addendum (mm) 2.25 2.25
Dedendum (mm) 3.125 3.125
Tooth Thk. (mm) 3.93 3.93

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

CHAPTER-5

MANUFACTURING PROCESS

5.1 Gears

The commonly used generating processes used for the generation of gear teeth
are:-

1. Gear Shaper Process


2. Rack Planning Process
3. Hobbing Process.

5.1.1 Gear Shaper Process

In this process a pinion shaped cutter is used which carries clearance on


the tooth face and sides. !t carries a hole in the center for mounting on the stub
arbor or spindle of the machine. The cutter is mounted with the axis vertical
and is reciprocated up and down by sliding the spindle head along the vertical
ways on the machine. In addition to the reciprocating motion, the cutter and the
gear blank both are rotated slowly their own axis. The relative speed of
rotation of the two is the same as the gear to be cut will have with a pinion of
the same number of teeth as the cutter. !t is accomplished by providing a gear
train between the cutter spindle and the work spindle. The cutter in its rotation
generates the tooth profile on the gear blank. All gears cut by the same cutter
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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

will mesh correctly. This is a specific advantage of this process over the
forming process using rotary cutters. Also it is a much faster process than
rotary cutting.

5.1.2 Gear Planning

In this process rack type cutters for generating of spur. Involutes rack
has straight edges and sharp corners and hence can be manufactured easily and
accurately. The cutters generate as they are cut and as the name implies, the
machine cuts the teeth by reciprocating planning action of the cutter. This is a
true generating process since it utilizes the principle that an involute curve can
be formed by a straight generator when a gear blank is made to roll without
slip relative to the generator.

5.1.3 Gear Hobbing

In this process, the gear blank is rolled with a rotating cutter called the
HOB. A majority of the involute gears are produced by this method. A gear
hob looks like a worm, but carries a number of straight flutes (gashes), cut all
around, parallel to its axis. This results in the production of separate cutting
teeth and cutting edges. In operation, the hob is rotated at as suitable speed and
fed into the gear blank. The blank also rotates simultaneously. The speeds of
the two are so synchronizes that the blank rotates through one pitch distance
for each complete revolution of the hob. There is no intermittent motion of the

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

two and the generating continues steadily. The hob teeth are just like screw
threads, i.e. having a definite helix angle. The hob is, therefore tilted to its own
helix angle while cutting the gear so that its teeth are square with the blank and
produces a true involute shape.

5.1.4 Gear Milling

Milling is one of the metal removal process best known for making
gear. Here a firm cutter is passed through the gear blank to affect the tooth gap,
helical gear, worm N worm wheel and bevel gear can be manufactured by
milling.(ear milling is less costly and less accurate process and it is employed
for the following:

 Coarse pitch gear


 Racks of all pitches
 Worm
 Toothed parts as sprocket and rachets

The production capacity in this method is low since each space is machined
separately and the time is lost in retuning the job to its initial position and in
indexing for each tooth. !n actual practice a series of cutters are selected for a
number of teeth to be milled.

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

Out of all above processes we select the Gear shaping for the
manufacturing of all the gears. The various reasons for selection of this process
are as following;

1. This process of making gears is cheaper than hob cutter.


2. Gear shaping machines are easily available.
3. All gears can be made of same pitch by same cutter.

5.2 Axles

In the manufacturing of the axles following operations are used:-

 Turning
 Facing
 Grinding
 Grooving
 Drilling
 Parting Off

5.2.1 Turning

It may be defined as the machining the operation for generating


external surfaces of the revolution by the action of the cutting tool on a rotating
work piece. When the same action is applied to internal surfaces of the
revolution, the process is termed as boring.

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

5.2.2 Facing

Facing operation machines the ends of the work piece. !t provides a


surface which is square with the axis of the work piece from which to start the
job. Facing is done by feeding the cross slide or compound in or out. In facing
the cutting tool moves from the center of the job towards its periphery and vice
versa. Facing is primarily used to smooth off a saw-cut end of a piece of bar
stock or to smooth the face of rough casting.

5.2.3 Grinding

It is carried out while the work is rotating on the lathe. Milling is often
restored to when

 Only a very small amount of stock is to be removed from a diameter.


 For removing sharp corner on the work piece.

Filling is a hand operation. A clean, sharp, single cut mill file of 200 or 250
mm length is held in the hand and the file flat is placed on the work near the
left end of the part to be filled. The file is held at a slight angle and not at right
angles to the work piece. #or carrying out of the filling operation, the file is
pressed lightly on to the work piece and moved forward so that the work piece
rotates by 0 or 3 revolutions during the forward or cutting stroke of the file.
Pressure on the file is relieved during its return strokes but its movement

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

overlaps the cut made by the file during the cutting stroke. Generally long
strokes are taken and the file is cleaned frequently with the file card.

5.2.4 Grooving

Work pieces on which threads are to be cut close to a shoulder are


usually undercut or grooved to make threads cutting somewhat easier.
Diameters which are to be ground up to a shoulder are usually undercut so that
the grinding wheel will not leave a small radius in the corner. Grooving
operation reduces the diameter of the work piece at a narrow surface near the
shoulder etc. The grooving tool is fed into the revolving work piece at right
angle to it using cross slide hand wheel.

5.2.5 Drilling

Drilling is the process of making holes in a work piece. Either the work
piece rotate or drill is stationary or vice versa. When drilling on the lathe is
being done, generally the work piece rotates in the chuck and the drill held in
the tailstock is fed into the work piece by means of the hand wheel on the outer
end of the tailstock assembly. !t is possible to do drill by holding and rotating
the drilling the lathe spindle while keeping the work stationary, supported by a
special pad mounted in tail stock quill. Since drill feed is by hand, care must be
taken, particularly in drilling small holes. Coolant should be withdrawn

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

occasionally to clear chips from the hole and to aid in getting coolant to cutting
edges of the drill.

5.2.6 Parting Off

Parting off operation separates the finished work piece from the bar
from which the work piece was machines. Partings off tools are ground to cut
on the end only as they are fed into the work piece. Since the tool is
comparatively thin and delicate and care must be taken when feeding it into the
work otherwise it may brea
parted as close to the head stock as possible.

5.3 Material Purchase

Rust of the part of Wheel nut opener are purchased from market, which
constitutes the different material of different parts according to our
requirement. All these parts are purchased by suggesting with mechanic.
Material purchase dare bearing, plate, key, sleeve, Anchor nuts, handles.

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

CONCLUSION

In this research, the design and fabrication of wheel nut opener is


proposed. The static load analysis is performed. The fabrication of wheel nut
opener is completed by milling, welding and fitting processes. The wheel nut
opener is successfully manufactured and fully functional either tested manually
using lever or by using impact wrench. From the results of analyses and
experiments, the tool is possible to be improved and prototyped for mass
production. For future development and improvement of the wheel nut opener,
light and strong material is expected to be available and applied.

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‘DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL NUT OPENER’

REFERENCES
[1] Mohd Azman, Nurfarahin Sulaiman. 2003. Design and Fabrication of
Vehicle all Wheel Nut Remover. International Journal of Computer
Science and Electronics Engineering. Volume 1, Issue 3, ISSN: 2320-
401X. pp. 381-384.
[2] A. R. Abd Aziz. 2008. Improvement and Optimization of Tyre Nut
Remover with 114 PCD”. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Uni.
Malaysia Pahang, Thesis Degree
[3] M. Mukhtar, M.H.P Hilmie Hussaine. 2014. Design Improvement and
Computer Assisted Fabrication on the Impact Wrench for a Car Wheel
Nuts Puller in Automotive Industry. Australian Journal of Basic and
Applied Science. (4) Spl. 2014. ISSN 1991-8178. pp. 548-553
[4] Amol Bhanage, Suraj Bedse, Keval Devare, Varsharani Batte, Komal
Dixit, 2015. Design and Development of All Wheel Nut Remover for
Automotive. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research.
ISSN 0973-4562, Volume 10, Number 7. pp. 17631-17641
[5] V. B. Bhandari, Design of Machine Elements, Tata Mc-Graw Hill
Publishing House Ltd., Second Edition.
[6] Dr. N. C. Pandya, Dr. C. S. Shah, Machine Design, Charotar Publishing
House Pvt. Ltd., Seventh Edition.
[7] Khurmi Gupta, Machine Design, Eurasia Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. First
Edition.R. K. Jain, Production Technology, Khanna Publishers.

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