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22/06/2010 to 16/07/2010




This is to certify that PRASHANT KUMAR of 4th year Bachelor of Engineering

TECHNOLOGY, BHOPAL has successfully undergone practical training in BSNL
Jamshedpur. His conduct throughout the period was satisfactory and he was a good
asset to our institution. We highly appreciate the effort and the initiatives taken by
him during the training, in the process he has gained handy knowledge about the
internal and external systems and working of this institution.


(S.D.E. Phones) DATE:



We thank the GMTD Jamshedpur, Mr.A.K.Pahi for allowing us to undergo

Practical Training in BSNL Jamshedpur . Moreover, we wish to extend our
gratitude to Mrs. T. S. Pillai, SDE Phones, who was a constant source of
information and help. We would also wish to thank Mr. Madhukar D.E.T.,
Mr. Prabhakar Bharti (SDE NIB), Mr. C.S.P. Choudhary Mr. Niren, Mr. Mannan,
who all guided us every moment throughout our training period and made the
atmosphere cheerful. Last but not the least we would like to thank all the staff
members of BSNL (Garamnala ,Jamshedpur). Without their co-operation this
training would not have been possible.


(1)Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited- An Overview

(2) Services offered by the BSNL
(3)Call Center
(4)Broad Band
(5)A new technology- Multiplay
(6)The main distribution frame (MDF)
(9) Appendix

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited- An Overview

BSNL or Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited is India's largest Communication Service

Provider (CSP), and seventh largest in the world. Previously known as DoT
(Department of Telecommunications) when it was under federal government
control, it became a corporation in 2000. BSNL has footprints in entire India
except for the metropolitan cities of Mumbai and New Delhi which are managed
by MTNL, and commands over 40 million landlines and 123 million mobile

When it comes to connecting the four corners of the nation, and much beyond, one
solitary name lies embedded at the pinnacle - BSNL. A company that has gone
past the number games and the quest to attain the position of a leader. It is
working round the clock to take India into the future by providing world class
telecom services for people of India. BSNL is India's no. 1 Telecom Service
provider and most trusted Telecom brand of the Nation.

Since it became a corporation in October 2000, BSNL has been actively providing
connections in both Urban and Rural areas and the efficiency of the company has
drastically improved from the days when one had to wait for years to get a phone
connection to now when one can get a connection in even hours. Pre-activated
Mobile connections are available at many places across India. BSNL has also
unveiled very cost-effective Broadband internet access plans (DataOne) targeted at
homes and small businesses. BSNL plans to add 20 million subscribers annually
for the next three years, and long term target of 120 million lines by 2010. With the
frantic activity in the communication sector in India, the number will be easily
achievable. Today, BSNL is the No. 1 Telecommunications Company and the
largest Public Sector Undertaking of India with authorized share capital of $ 3977
million and networth of $ 14.32 billion. With latest digital switching technology
like OCB, EWSD, AXE-10,FETEX, NEC etc. and widespread transmission
network including SDH system up to 2.5 Gbit/s, DWDM system up to 80 Gbit/s,
Web telephony, DIAS, VPN, Broadband and more than 400,500 data customers.

Services offered by the BSNL

Basic Telephone Services

The Plain old, Countrywide telephone Service through 32,000 electronic

exchanges. Digitalized Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) with a host of
Phone Plus value additions.

BSNL launched DataOne broadband service in January 2005 which shall be

extended to 198 cities very shortly. The service is being provided on existing
copper infrastructure on ADSL2 technology. The minimum speed offered to the
customer is 256 Kbps at Rs. 250/- per month only. Subsequently, other services
such as VPN, Multicasting, Video Conferencing, Video-on-Demand, Broadcast
application etc will be added.

Keeping the global network of Networks networked, the countrywide Internet

Services of BSNL under the brand name includes Internet dial up/
Leased line access, CLI based access (no account is required) and DIAS service,
for web browsing and E-mail applications. You can use your dialup sancharnet
account from any place in India using the same access no '172233' , the facility
which no other ISP has. BSNL has customer base of more than 1.7 million for

sancharnet service.

BSNL also offers Web hosting and co-location services at very cheap rates.


Integrated Service Digital Network Service of BSNL utilizes a unique digital

network providing high speed and high quality voice, data and image transfer over
the same line. It can also facilitate both desktop video and high quality video

Intelligent Network

Intelligent Network Service (In Service) offers value-added services, such as:

Free Phone Service (FPH)

India Telephone Card (Prepaid card)
Account Card Calling (ACC)
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
Premium Rae Service (PRM)
Universal Access Number (UAN) and more


India s x.25 based packet Switched Public Data Network is operational in 104
cities of the country. It offers x.25 x.28 leased, x.28 Dial up (PSTN) Connection)
and frame relay services.

Leased Lines & Datacom

BSNL provides leased lines for voice and data communication for various
application on point to point basis. It offers a choice of high, medium and low
speed leased data circuits as well as dial-up lines. Bandwidth is available on
demand in most cities. Managed Leased Line Network (MLLN) offers flexibility
of providing circuits with speeds of nx64 kbps upto 2mbps, useful for Internet
leased lines and International Principle Leased Circuits (IPLCs).

Cellular Mobile Service Postpaid and Prepaid

BSNL?s GSM cellular mobile service Cellone has a customer base of over 5.2
million. BSNL Mobile provides all the services like MMS, GPRS, Voice Mail, E-
mail, Short Message Service (SMS) both national and international, unified
messaging service (send and receive e-mails) etc. You can use BSNL Mobile in
over 160 countries worldwide and in 270 cellular networks and over 1000
cities/towns across India. It has got coverage in all National and State Highways
and train routes. BSNL Mobile offers all India Roaming facility to both pre-paid
and post-paid customers (including Mumbai & Delhi).

Wireless in Local Loop

This is a communication system that connects customers to the Public Switched

Telephone Network (PSTN) using radio frequency signals as a substitute for
conventional wires for all or part of the connection between the subscribers and the
telephone exchange.

• Countrywide WLL is being offered in areas that are non-feasible for the
normal network.
• Helping relieve congestion of connections in the normal cable/wire based

network in urban areas.

• Connecting the remote and scattered rural areas.
• Limited mobility without any air-time charge


CALL CENTRE is the section which deals with the diverse problems and queries
of the customers. Helpline numbers are provided which the customers can call and
discuss and resolve their difficulties.

The common helpline numbers are 1500 (queries for latest offers and schemes,
activation/deactivation of services provided by the network), 198 (computerized
service provided for recording problems related to the set), 177 (Hindi seva),
2227900 (for problems related to mobiles exclusively).

In a call centre one learns how to patiently listen to customers and how to
efficiently solve their complications. One can thus earn quality job experience and
virtue of customer handling which always helps one in the future.

Call Centre at Garamnala exchange was inaugurated on 15th Aug 2007.

Services provided by helpline

1. Information

2. Bill enquiry

3. Current meter reading

4. Complaints regarding

a. B-phone

b. Broadband

c. Mobile

d. Lease line

e. Internet

f. Bill

g. Complaints

h. WLL

5. Status advice note


6. Booking of NTC, request of shifting & restoration

7. Cases of DMK, DTJ, SSAS


BSNL has commissioned a world class, multi-gigabit, multi-protocol, convergent

IP infrastructure through National Internet Backbone-II (NIB-II), which provides
convergent services through the same backbone and broadband access network.
The Broadband service is based on DSL technology (on the same copper cable that
is used for connecting telephone), countrywide spanning 198 cities.

In terms of infrastructure for broadband services NIB-II puts India at par with more
advanced nations. The services includes always-on broadband access to the
Internet for residential and business customers, Content based services, Video
multicasting, Video-on-demand and Interactive gaming, Audio and Video
conferencing, IP Telephony, Distance learning, Messaging: plain and feature rich,
Multi-site MPLS VPNs with Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees. The subscriber
accesses the above services through Subscriber Service Selection System (SSSS)

Key Objectives

• To provide high speed Internet connectivity (upto 8 Mbps)

• To provide Virtual Private Network (VPN) service to the broadband
• To provide dial VPN service to MPLS VPN customers.
• To provide multicast video services, video-on-demand, etc. through the
Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS).
• To provide a means to bill for the aforesaid services by either time-based or
volume-based billing. It shall provide the customer with the option to select
the services through web server
• To provide both pre-paid and post paid broadband services

BROADBAND is a form of internet service. The only difference between

broadband and internet is the speed. We receive broadband and caller facility on

the same copper wire with the help of a SPLITTER, which is a kind of low pass
filter which separates a normal call from the broadband data. BSNL provides a
staggering speed of 2 MBPS which is the fastest in India.

Since we require less uploading compared to downloading, so broadband provides

higher bandwidth and speed for downlink as compared to uplink to suit our
necessity. Since the uplink and downlink speed and bandwidth is different so a
process called ADSL is used.

ADSL stands for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. It is a technology that

allows copper telephone pairs to be used to provide a broadband connection. It
provides ‘always-on’ Internet connection that is automatically established once the
PC and ADSL modem are switched on and instant log-in procedure is completed.

‘Always-On’ means that the broadband sets up a permanent connection to the

Internet that lets you access the Internet as soon as you switch on the computer and
the CPE and do an instant log-in with your user name and password. There will be
no separate Internet telephone call charges.

ADSL uses a different set of frequencies and does not interfere with telephone
conversation. Conversely, making a phone call while accessing the Internet does

In order to be able to use Broadband one needs

• BSNL's Bfone (Basic phone) connection

• Personel Computer with 10/100 Ethernet Port

ADSL CPE (Customer Premise Equipment). This can be taken from BSNL at
nominal rental per month.

Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line

• Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) offers a form of DSL, a data

communications technology that enables faster data transmission over analog
telephone lines than a conventional modem can provide. As compared to other
forms of DSL, ADSL has the distinguishing characteristic that the data can
flow faster in one direction than the other, i.e., asymmetrically. Providers
usually market ADSL as a service for people to connect to the Internet in a
relatively passive mode. ADSL allows them to use the higher speed direction
for the "download" from the Internet but not needing to run servers that would
require bandwidth in the other direction.
• Downstream rates start at 64 kbps and typically reach 8 Mbps but can go
as high as 26 Mbps over short ranges (ADSL2+). Upstream rates start at 64
kbps and typically max reach 800 kbps ..
• The typical home ADSL connection has 512 kbps downstream and 256
kbps upstream, with a 50:1 contention ratio. Packages designed for offices or
businesses have a 20:1 contention ratio and range from 512 kbps to 26 Mbps in
downstream speed.

ADSL Benefits

• So in more specific terms what are the advantages ?

• ADSL permits, simultaneously access to web and telephone removing the
need for a second telephone line for dialup. Standard telephony devices that
normally work over telephone line can be used with ADSL simultaneously (i.e.
Fax). On power failure, the line is still available like with a standard telephone
• “No More Dialup, Always On-Line”

ADSL Applications
• Because of the Multimedia benefits of ADSL all of the following
applications are available:

 Internet Access (SOHO)

 LAN Access (Telecommuting)
 Distance Learning
 Tele-medicine
 Broadcast TV
 Home Shopping
 Interactive Games
 Movies

ADSL Technology Description

Frequency Spectrum of ADSL


Fig 2a.1 – Frequency Spectrum of ADSL

• ADSL uses a Frequency Division Multiplex (FDM) system with

bandwidth divided in three parts. 0 < f < 4 KHz POTS or ISDN, 30 < f < 138
KHz Upstream and 138 < f < 1104 KHz Downstream. The POTS Channel is
separated by a POTS splitter. Upstream/Downstream channels

• Up to 4 sub-channels on the downstream separated by either FDM using

Low Pass Filter (LPF) / High Pass Filter (HPF) or a combination of FDM and
echo cancellation. Up to 3 bi-direction sub-channels

ADSL offers unique flexibility utilizing the available transmission spectrum of the
local loop. ADSL uses a pass band scheme which allows the data traffic to be
placed strategically in the available frequency spectrum so as not to interfere with
the standard analog voice service. In addition it allows the provider to power the
telephone service centrally thereby maintaining critical voice traffic even in the
event of a power failure.

ADSL Capabilities

Fig 2a.2 – ADSL Capabilities

• ADSL offers three information channels:
 A high speed downstream channel (1.5 to 26 Mbps).
 A medium speed duplex channel (16 Kbps to 3 Mbps).
 A POTS or an ISDN channel.
• The Data Rate is proportional to 1 / Distance. Other factors which the data
rate depend on are:
 Length of copper line.
 Wire gauge.
 Presence of bridged taps.
 Cross-Couple interference.

ADSL Modulation

Fig 2a.3 – Quadrate Amplitude Modulation

Quadrate Amplitude Modulation (QAM)

• Quadrate Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is the basis for both types of

modulation used by ADSL so it is therefore worth looking at how it
works. Basically by using a combination of phase shifts and amplitudes
we can represent data bits by analog signals. Using 12 phase shifts and
2 amplitudes we have 16 unique signal types, each of which can
represent 4 bits per line (24 = 16). This is clearly demonstrated in the
diagram. Such a map of phase shifts and amplitudes is generally termed
a constellation.
• Discrete Multitone (DMT) and Carrierless Amplitude and Phase
Modulation (CAP) are the line codes most frequently used in ADSL.
These line codes determine how the digital signal is sent and received
down the line. CAP is closely related to Quadrate Amplitude
Modulation (QAM) while DMT is more complex and is the open
standard chosen for ADSL by ANSI
• The AN-2000IB IP-DSLAM uses DMT so we will only consider it
from here.

Discrete Multitone (DMT)

Fig 2a.4 – DMT Transmitter and Receiver

Discrete Multitone (DMT)
• DMT divides the entire bandwidth range into a large number of equally
spaced sub channels called sub carriers. This bandwidth extends from 0
Hz to 1.1 MHz. This bandwidth is divided into 256 sub carriers with
each occupying 4.3125 KHz giving a total bandwidth of 1.104 MHz on
the loop. A number of these channels are special and others are not
used, i.e. channel 64 is reserved as a pilot channel at 276 KHz. The
lower channels 1-6 reserved to pass the 4 KHz analogue voice. There
are 32 upstream channels starting from channel 7 and 250 possible
downstream channels however it is typically limited to 218 channels for
Echo Cancellation (EC)
• The Echo Cancellation (EC) for ADSL occurs at 4w/2w hybrid circuit
when the transmit signal and the receiving signal are joined together
and connected to the twisted-pair telephone line. Adaptive EC upgrades
the ADSL transceiver system. EC should be 60 dB to maintain residual
EC level. In the DMT ADSL, EC improves the bandwidth throughput
in the downstream direction because of the asymmetrical function.

EC technique can be used in many systems. In the PSTN, it allowed to transmit 9.6
Kbps and now more than 28.8 Kbps. Also it reduce the crosstalk noise level if
information and signal process share between the ADSL transceiver connected to
the two different telephone lines.

DMT Parameters

DMT Down
Fig 2a.5 – DMT Parameters

Symbol Rate
FFT size
Cyclic prefix

ADSL Channels

Fig 2a.6 –
ADSL Channels

Downstream Channels
• ADSL has established sub channel data rates for the default bearer bit
rates. The maximum transport class speed of 6.144 Mbps is not
permitted on all bearers at the same time. AS0 is mandatory. The max
number of sub channels that can be active at any time and the max
number of bearer channels that can be transported at the same time
depends on the transport class. The transport class support depends on

Down Stream S
the achievable line rate of the specific ADSL loop connection.
Duplex Channels
• Bi-directional duplex channels can be supported at the same time as the
downstream simplex channels. The LS0 is a mandatory channel which
carries the C channel signalling messages for selection of services and
call setup. The C channel runs at 16 Kbps. In addition to the C channel

• AS0 - Support M
two optional Bearer channels can be carried. The bidirectional channels
also have the option to transport ATM cells, if supported the ATM cells
run on the optional LS2 channel.

– Supports D
• AS1 - Support O

Although the LS0 to LS1 are bi-directional duplex channels, they are
generally used for upstream in actual implementations.

Local Loop
• In ADSL, a local loop is the wire connection from a CO to CPE at
homes and business. The local loop comprise of a pair of twisted
copper wire. It was originally designed for voice transmission only
using analog transmission technology on a single voice channel. With
ADSL technology, the local loop can carry digital signals from CO to
RT or RT to CO with very high bandwidth.
Line units
 The ADSL Termination Unit at the Central Office is an integral part
of the Access Node. It operated the simplex and bi-directional
channels, the classes of operation and the throughput through these
channels depending on the connected line quality.

The ADSL Termination unit at the Remote site is the customer

premises modem which connects to the ATU-C at the other end of the
line. It also provides a POTS port and a LAN interface for the
customer to access the available services.

ADSL POTS Splitter


Fig 2a.8 – ADSL POTS Splitter

POST Splitter Structure

• In the ADSL, a POTS splitter device which separates a telephone signal
into two or more signals, each signal is carrying a selected frequency
range and can also reassemble signal from multiple signal sources into
a single signal. Users getting connected to the internet through the
ADSL modem may have a POTS splitter installed at the SOHO. For
ADSL, the POTS splitter divides the incoming signal into a low
frequency to send to voice device and high frequency for data to the
computer. CO of the Service Provider also uses the POTS splitter to
send the low frequency voice signals on to the voice telephone network
and to send high frequency data to a digital subscriber line access
multiplexer (DSLAM) for transmission to the Internet.
• The structure of a POTS splitter at the ATU-C or ATU-R is made of a
lowpass filter for the POTS interface and a high-pass filter for the
upstream/downstream as shown in the POTS splitter Fig. 2a.8. The

HPF is located at the ADSL transceiver, while the LPF may be
separated from ADSL transceiver or may be within ADSL transceiver
or could be in the telephone handset.
• A mathematical formula can be used to find inductor L and capacitor C.
 L(2m-1) = 2R1 Sin((4m-3)pi/2n)/ω c
 C(2m) = 2 sin((4m-1)pi/2n)/R1 ω c
ADSL System Model

Fig 2a.7 – ADSL System Model

ADSL Reference Points

• VC Interface
 Interface between access node and broadband (or ATM) network. It
may have multiple or single physical connections with different digital
carrier facilities i.e., a SONET STS-3C, SDH STM-1, DS-3, etc.
• VA Interface
 Logical interface between ATU-C and access node. As this interface
will often be within circuits on a common board(s), it is not
considered as a physical interface.
• U-C Interface
 Interface between POTS splitter and loop on network side. Defining
both ends of the loop interface separately arises due to asymmetry of
signals on the line.
• U-C2 Interface
 Interface between POTS splitter & ATU-C.

• U-R Interface
 Interface between loop and POTS splitter on the customer premises
• U-R2 Interface
 Interface between POTS splitter & ATU-R.

• T-SM Interface
 Interface between ATU-R and Premises Distribution Network (PDN).
It may be same as T interface when network is point-to-point passive
wiring. Note that an ATU-R may have more than one type of T-SM
interface (e.g., E1/T1 connection and Ethernet connection). The T-SM
interface may be integrated within service module.
• T Interface
Interface between PDN and service modules and may be same as T-SM when
network is point-to-point passive wiring.

ADSL Transport Classes

• The ADSL Specification has defined four Transport Classes for the
downstream simplex bearers. The particular Transport class used is
dependant on the line conditions and the possible data rate that can be
transferred across the link as a result of the line conditions.

 Class1
 Maximum simplex throughput is 6.144 Mbps for four channels
 Maximum duplex throughput is 640 Kbps for two channels (LS1,
 Control channel(LS0) throughput is 64 Kbps
• The ADSL Specification has defined four Transport Classes for the
downstream simplex bearers. The particular Transport class used is
dependant on the line conditions and the possible data rate that can be
transferred across the link as a result of the line conditions.

 Class1
 Maximum simplex throughput is 6.144 Mbps for four channels
 Maximum duplex throughput is 640 Kbps for two channels (LS1,
 Control channel(LS0) throughput is 64 Kbps
 Class2
 Maximum simplex throughput is 4.6 Mbps for three channels
 Maximum duplex throughput is 608 Kbps for one channels (LS1or
 Control channel(LS0) throughput is 64 Kbps
 Class3
 Maximum simplex throughput is 3.07 Mbps for two channels
 Maximum duplex throughput is 608 Kbps for one channels (LS1,
 Control channel(LS0) throughput is 64 Kbps
 Class4
 Simplex throughput is 1.5 Mbps for AS0
 Duplex throughput is 160 Kbps for LS1
 Control channel(LS0) throughput is 16 Kbps

ADSL Framing

Fig 2a.9 – ADSL Framing

• This describes the frame structure between the ATU-C and ATU-R on
the line. Frames are grouped in superframes with 68 frames per
superframe. Each ADSL frame in a superframe has a fixed structure as
demonstrated in Fig 2a.9.
• In the ATUs the Fast Data Buffer is a low latency data buffer while the
interleave data buffer transport bits whose application is not dependant
on a low latency.
 Fast data portion
 Delay-sensitive but error tolerant applications
 Audio & Video applications
 Transmitted with minimum latency (delay)
 Error Correction by FEC but not retransmission
 Interleaved data portion
 Delay insensitive but error-intolerant applications
 Certain amount of latency acceptable
 CRC for error detection, Re-transmission of errored frames allowed
 Pure data applications as file transfer, Internet Access
 First byte is the SYNC byte
• For each data buffer, fast or interleaved, the frame simply takes a given
number of octets for the AS0 bearer channel, followed by AS1, AS2
etc. These bytes are followed by LS0, LS1 and finally LS2. If there are
no octets for a particular AS or LS then these bytes are simply left

empty. This is topped off with some overhead bytes shared by all
Frame 0 and 1 carry error control information and indicator bits that are
used to manage the link. Frames 34 and 35 also carry indicator bits. A
special sync frame follows the superframe and it carries no user
information. One Superframe is passed every 17mS and each frame is sent
every 250 μS.

ADSL Frame

Fig 2a.10 – ADSL Superframe

• The length of the ADSL frame is determined by the adapted bit rate of
interface. The upstream and downstream data channels are
synchronized to the 4 KHz ADSL DMT symbol rate, and multiplexed
into two data buffer (fast and interleave).
• ADSL superframe is shown in the Fig 2a.10. The superframes are made
of 68 ADSL data frames which are encoded and modulated into DMT
symbols at the rate of 4000 baud. The DMT symbol rate is (69/68)
× 4000 baud because the sync symbol is inserted to the end of each
• 8 bits per superframe are reserved for the CRC, and 24 indicator bits
are assigned for OAM functions. The fast data buffer carries CRC,

EOC or Sync bits in “Fast Byte”. During the initialization, each user
data stream is assigned to the fast or interleave path.

ADSL Operation

• Transceiver training and channel analysis: Each receiver determines
the relevant attributes of the channel through procedures.
• Exchange Process: Shares expected transmission settings. Each
receiver communicates:

 Number of bits used for each DMT subcarrier

 Power Level used by each DMT subcarrier
 Final Data Rate
 Other messages
Activation and acknowledgement

Fig 2a.11 – Activation and acknowledgement

• ATU-R transmits tones to ATU-C

• ATU-C & ATU-R negotiate the timing method & determination of
• Reach a state capable of analyzing line conditions
• Tones used during initialization phase
 R/C-ACT 1,2,3,4

Transceiver Training

Fig 2a.12 – Transceiver Training

• ATU-R & ATU-C determine line conditions & adjust equalization

• Determine ADSL Mode of operation
 Freq. Division Multiplexing
 Echo Cancellation
• Signal Tones used during Transceiver Training
Channel Analysis

Fig 2a.13 – Channel Analysis

• Modems exchange information on

o Upstream Bearer Channels
o Latency Paths
o Bandwidth
o Specific Features supported & desired configuration
• Perform test to determine loop quality & SNR for each DMT channel
• Signal Tones used during Channel Analysis – MEDLY


Fig 2a.14 – Exchange

• Modems configure themselves & exchange configuration information

• Requested bandwidth allocated to bearer channels
• Specific DMT tones & amount of data encoded in each tone determined &
• Connection is both directions tested
• Notifies peer to enter normal communications - “ShowTime”
• Signal Tones used during Channel Analysis

OTHER DSL Variants


• Extended Bandwidth ADSL2 recommendation G.992.5 describes

ADSL Transceivers which allow high-speed data transmission between
the network operator end (ATU-C) and the customer end (ATU-R),
using extended bandwidth.
• This standard doubles the maximum frequency used for downstream
data transmission from 1.1 MHz to 2.2 MHz. The result is, downstream
data rates increased to up to 25 Mbps on lines as long as 1,000 M, and
20 Mbps on lines as long as 1.6 M.
• As well as this obvious benefit ADSL2+ inherits from ADSL2
Enhanced diagnostic capabilities, improved power management,
bonding for higher data rates, reduced cross-talk through dynamic rate
Gspan+ Gspan++
• Gspan+ and Gspan++ are based on proprietary Quad spectrum
technology from the chipmaker Globespan Semiconductor Inc. Gspan+
offers speeds up to 26 Mbps downstream and up to 3 Mbps upstream.
This had been more or less superseded by ADSL2+
• G.span++ offers speeds up to 50 Mbps downstream and up to 3 Mbps
• ISDN Digital Subscriber Line (IDSL) transmits data digitally across existing
ISDN lines, at a rate of 128 Kbps. The benefits of IDSL over ISDN are that
IDSL provides always-on connections, transmits data via a data network rather
than the Carriers voice network, and avoids per-call fees by being billed at a

Rate Adaptive ADSL is derived from early ADSL technologies. RADSL is
Carrierless Amplitude Modulation/Phase Modulation (CAP) based. It can
automatically adjust the line speed based on the gauge

Other DSL Variants

• Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) eliminates analog voice capabilities
of ADSL in favor of full-duplex data transmission. SDSL offers an alternative
to E1 / T1 and supports data rates up to 3.088 Mbps.
• High-Data-Rate Digital Subscriber Line based on ITU-T in G.992.2. HDSL
delivers 2.048 Mbps of bandwidth each way over two copper twisted pairs.
Because HDSL provides E1/T1 speed, Service Providers have been using
HDSL to provision local access to E1/T1 services whenever possible. The
operating range of HDSL is limited to 3.65 Km, so signal repeaters are installed
to extend the service. HDSL requires two twisted pairs, so it is deployed
primarily for PBX network connections, digital loop carrier systems,
interexchange POPs, Internet servers, and private data networks.
• HDSL2 Second Generation HDSL program was formed in May 1999. The
program was integrated into the SHDSL program in September 2002.
• G.SHDSL is a symmetric, multi-rate DSL combining the best of SDSL and
HDSL2, it's aimed at users of DSL for voice, data and Internet access services.
Beside being faster and stretching longer distances, G.SHDSL carries an
international pedigree. It has been standardized by the ITU-T as G.991.2.
• Speed and distance are other factors that strengthen G.SHDSL. The new
standard delivers up to 2.3 Mbps per second compared to 2.0 Mbps for SDSL. It
can also be deployed nearly twice as far from the central office (CO) than
SDSL with 2,320 kbps at 3.5 Km and 144 kbps at 8 Km.
• Very High Speed Digital Subscriber Line transmits data in the 13 Mbps - 55
Mbps range over short distances, usually between 300 - 1500 meters, of twisted
pair copper wire. The shorter the distance, the faster the connection rate.
• As the final length of cable into the home or office, VDSL connects to
neighborhood Optical Network Units (ONUs), which connect to the central
• VDSL isn't widely deployed yet as standards have not been finalized with
differing opinions as to the final line coding scheme some favoring Discrete
Multitone (DMT), a multi-carrier system and others a line coding scheme based
on Quadature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), a single-carrier system that is less
expensive and consumes less power.
xDSL Applications

Fig 2a.18 – xDSL Applications

Fig 2a.19 – xDSL Speed, Range and Media

The charts in Fig 2a.18 and 2a.19 summarise the differing variants and their
various attributes.

OSI 7 Layer Model


Fig 2g.1 – OSI 7 Layer Model

The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking
framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from
one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, and
proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back
up the hierarchy.
• This layer supports application and end-user processes. Communication
partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user
authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data
syntax are identified. Everything at this layer is application-specific.
This layer provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and
other network software services. Telnet and FTP are applications that

7 Applicat
exist entirely in the application level. Tiered application architectures
are part of this layer.
• This layer provides independence from differences in data
representation (e.g., encryption) by translating from application to
network format, and vice versa. The presentation layer works to
transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. This
layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network, providing
freedom from compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax

6 Presenta
layer. Examples at this layer include Tagged Image File Format (TIFF),

Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), Moving Pictures Experts

Group (MPEG), Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI).
This layer establishes, manages and terminates connections between applications.
The session layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges,
and dialogues between the applications at each end. It deals with session and
connection coordination. Session Layer protocols include Structured Query
Language (SQL), Remote Procedure Call (RPC), Unix X Windows.

OSI 7 Layer Model

Fig 2g.2 – Connection Oriented Connection

• This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or
hosts, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control.
It ensures complete data transfer. In IP this function is achieved using a
connection oriented mechanism called Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) or a non connection oriented protocol called User Datagram
Protocol (UDP).
• A Connection oriented connection like TCP requires that the initiation
device establish a peer session with the other device (See Fig 2g.2).
They negotiate a connection agreement which is the parameters of the
connection which are agreeable to both sides.

• Window size – Quantity of data segments that the transmitting host is

permitted to send without an acknowledgement.
• The data is transferred in these window blocks with each being
acknowledged, if the receiving side misses a segment it simply
acknowledges the last one received and the transmitting side sends
from the segment requested in the acknowledgement. In this way all the
data is transferred intact.
• Another feature of TCP is buffering and flow control. The receiving
host can notify the transmitting one that its buffer is full and to stop
sending temporarily. The transmitting side will hold off until it gets the
OK from the receiving side to proceed.
• This layer provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical
paths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to
node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, as well as
addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and
packet sequencing. This layer has two basic packet types:
• Data Packets
 Used to transport data through the internetwork.
• Route Update Packets
 Used to update neighboring routers of new routing information i.e.
OSPF, EIGRP and RIP. These route updates take the form of;

• Address – Network or Host route is about.

• Interface – The Router Interface associated with this network or host.
• Metric – The distance to the network or host expressed as a hop count or
bandwidth, delay, interface type etc.
Data link
• At this layer, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. It
furnishes transmission protocol knowledge, handles errors in the
physical layer, flow control and frame synchronization. The data link
layer is divided into two sublayers: The Media Access Control (MAC)
layer (802.3) and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer (802.2). The
MAC sublayer controls how a host on the network gains access to the
data and permission to transmit it. The LLC layer controls frame

synchronization, flow control and error checking. This layer is

managed by Bridge and Switching devices. Bridges are devices which
manage the interconnection of Physical segments using a mainly
software function whereas Switches (sometimes called Layer 2
Switches) handle the bridging function using hardware Application
Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and such switching is often termed
wire speed switching.
• This layer conveys the bit stream, electrical impulse, light or radio
signal through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It
provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier,
including defining cables, cards and the physical aspects. Ethernet, Fast
Ethernet, RS232, and Frame Relay are protocols with physical layer
TCP/IP and DoD Model

Fig 2g.6 – TCP/IP and DoD Model

• The Internet protocol suite is the set of protocols that implement the
protocol stack on which the Internet runs. It is sometimes called the
TCP/IP protocol suite after two of the many protocols that make up the
suite: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet
Protocol (IP).
• The Internet Protocol suite can be described by analogy with the OSI
model, which describes the layers of a protocol stack, not all of which

correspond well with Internet practice. In a protocol stack, each layer

solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data. Higher
layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract data,
relying on lower layers to translate data into forms that can eventually
be physically manipulated.
• The Internet model was designed as the solution to a practical
engineering problem. The OSI model, on the other hand, was a more
theoretical approach, and was built by committee. Therefore, the OSI
model is easier to understand, but the TCP/IP model is more practical.
It is helpful to have an understanding of the OSI model before learning
TCP/IP, as the same principles apply, but are easier to understand in the
OSI model.

DoD Four-Layer Model

Fig 2g.7 – DoD Four-Layer Model

• The DoD Four-Layer Model was developed in the 1970s for the
DARPA Internetwork Project that eventually grew into the Internet.
• The four layers in the DoD model:
 The Network Access Layer is responsible for delivering data over the
particular hardware media in use. Different protocols are selected
from this layer, depending on the type of physical network.


 The Internet Layer is responsible for delivering data across a series

of different physical networks that interconnect a source and
destination machine. Routing protocols are most closely associated
with this layer, as is the IP Protocol, the Internet's fundamental
 The Host-to-Host Layer handles connection rendezvous, flow
control, retransmission of lost data, and other generic data flow
management. The mutually exclusive TCP and UDP protocols are this
layer's most important members.
 The Process Layer contains protocols that implement user-level
functions, such as mail delivery, file transfer and remote login.

DoD Process / Application layer

• Here we will describe some of the applications and services that are
used in IP Networks.
• Telnet is a client-server protocol, based on TCP, and clients generally
connect to port 23 on the host providing the service (though like many
protocols in use on the Internet which port to use is fairly easy to
change). Partly because of the design of the protocol and partly because
of the flexibility typically provided by telnet programs it is also
possible to use a Telnet program to establish an interactive TCP
connection to some other service on an internet host. A classic use of
this is telnetting to port 25 (where typically an SMTP server is to be
found) to debug a mail server. Telnet is insecure and Username and
Password details pass in ‘clear’ across the network. Where possible
Telnet should be replaced by Secure Shell (ssh).
• The File Transfer Protocol, (FTP) is a protocol used to transfer files
between machines with widely different operating systems. It is an 8-
bit protocol, capable of handling any type of file without further
processing such as MIME or UUEncode. However, FTP has extremely
high latency, the time between beginning the request and starting to
receive the required data can be quite long, a lengthy login procedure is
 The objectives of FTP are:
 To promote sharing of files (computer programs and/or data).

 To encourage indirect or implicit (via programs) use of remote

 To shield a user from variations in file storage systems among
 To transfer data reliably and efficiently.
 Disadvantages are:
 Passwords are sent in plaintext.
 It is possible to tell a server to send to an arbitrary port of a third
• Trivial file transfer protocol (TFTP) is a very simple file transfer
protocol like a basic version of FTP. Often used to transfer small files
between hosts on a network. It utilizes UDP as its transport protocol.
TFTP is commonly used for downloading code to routers and other
network devices.
• Secure shell (SSH) is both a program and a network protocol for
logging into and executing commands on a remote computer. It is
intended to replace rlogin, telnet and rsh, and provides secure encrypted
communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network.
X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP ports can also be forwarded over
the secure channel. The program is a common Unix shell program, but
there exists implementations for most modern platforms, including
Microsoft Windows (where one of the most popular is PuTTY). A later
version of the protocol was released under the name SSH2. OpenSSH
is an open source implementation of SSH.
• Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the de facto standard for
email transmission across the internet. SMTP is a relatively simple,
text-based protocol, where one or more recipients of a message are
specified (and in most cases verified to exist) and then the message text
is transferred. It is quite easy to test a SMTP server using the telnet
• SMTP started becoming widely used in the early 1980s. At the time, it
was a complement to UUCP which was better suited to handle e-mail
transfers between machines that were intermittently connected. SMTP,
on the other hand, works best when both the sending and receiving
machines are connected to the network all the time.
• Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is part of the
internet protocol suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task

Force. The protocol can be used to monitor any network attached

devices for any conditions that warrant it.
• It uses small programs called agents that are based on the machine that
you want to monitor. These agents collect information and store it
locally in memory. When the information is requested by a network
management station, the agent will send the specific piece of
information requested. A Management Information Base (MIB)
describes the specific data that will be managed.
• Network File System (NFS) is a protocol developed by Sun
Microsystems and defined in RFC 1094, a network file system which
allows a computer to access files over a network as if they were on its
local disks. NFS is implemented using a connectionless protocol (UDP)
in order to make it stateless.
DoD Process / Application layer

• Domain Name System (DNS), is a core feature of the Internet. It is a

distributed database that handles the mapping between host names
(domain names), which are more convenient for humans, and the
numerical Internet addresses. That is, it acts much like a phone book, so
you can use www.linuxusergroup.net instead of

DNS implements a hierarchical name space by allowing name service for

parts of a name space to be "delegated"

Host to Host layer

• This layer provides a Transport function. It allows for the creation of a

session between two end-points over an underlying IP Network.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
• Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a stream based protocol for a
point to point connection between hosts. It is part of what is commonly
referred to as the TCP/IP protocol stack. TCP is at the Transport layer
of the OSI model.

• Unlike UDP, TCP transparently provides an error free connection to

higher layers by utilizing checksums and sequence numbers to verify
when packets are sent and received. Missing packets are taken care of
by retransmission requests. TCP also takes care of reordering packets
that may have taken different routes around the internet in to the correct
• There is a certain amount of extra processing power and bandwidth
associated with the protocol which can influence the choice of TCP
over UDP. Generally applications that are time-critical (streaming
media, multi-player games) sacrifice reliability for speed and use UDP
where as things like the HTTP and FTP use reliable TCP.
• Here is an example of an initial SYN segment for an FTP request. Note
the Port number.

Transmission Control Protocol, Src Port: 2763 (2763), Dst Port: 21 (21), Seq:
2396708517, Ack: 0, Len: 0
Source port: 2763 (2763)
Destination port: 21 (21)
Sequence number: 2396708517
Header length: 28 bytes
Flags: 0x0002 (SYN)
0... .... = Congestion Window Reduced (CWR): Not set
.0.. .... = ECN-Echo: Not set
..0. .... = Urgent: Not set
...0 .... = Acknowledgment: Not set
.... 0... = Push: Not set
.... .0.. = Reset: Not set
.... ..1. = Syn: Set
.... ...0 = Fin: Not set
Window size: 16384
Checksum: 0x475e (correct)
Options: (8 bytes)

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

• User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core internet protocols. It
is a layer 4 protocol (Transport layer of the OSI model) within the
Internet protocol suite. It provides a mechanism to identify different
endpoints on a single host by means of ports. UDP doesn't have the

handshake overhead of TCP to establish connections, and does not have

features like flow control and reliability unlike TCP. UDP deals with
single packet delivery, provided by the underlying IP.
• As a stateless protocol it is often used in such applications where data
must arrive quickly, and data that arrives late is worthless. The benefit
of this smaller feature set is quicker data transmittal, and lower total
overhead, hence its common usage is for real time applications like
videoconferencing, online gaming, voice over IP and other streaming
• UDP packets (also known as datagram’s) contain, in addition to the
lower level headers, a UDP header, which consists of a checksum, the
packet length, plus source, and destination ports.
• Here is an example UDP Datagram in use for web traffic.

User Datagram Protocol, Src Port: 1070 (1070), Dst Port: 1900 (1900)
Source port: 1070 (1070)
Destination port: 1900 (1900)
Length: 140
Checksum: 0x0b37 (correct)
Hypertext Transfer Protocol

Internet layer

• The Internet Layer is the routing layer and the domain of the IP
Protocol itself. There are a number of other protocols at this layer
which we will look at.
Internet Protocol
• Internet Protocol (IP) is the defining element of the Internet; every
connected host must understand it. IP is complemented by one or more
lower-level protocols that deal with the particular network hardware
(for example, an Ethernet), and one or more higher-level protocols that
add functionality. The whole collection of protocols is referred to as a
protocol stack.

• IP's designers believed strongly in layering: Every protocol has an

explicit functionality, no more, no less. Additional features can be
attained by putting another protocol layer on top of that.
• The main strength of IP is packet switching: Transferring packets of
data (called datagram’s) from a source host to a destination host. In
contrast to channel switched networks like the phone system, the
Internet knows (on that level) nothing of connections. Each packet is
routed independently; datagram’s that have the same source and
destination hosts and may as well belong to the same connection on a
higher level could travel through the net on completely different paths.
• A packet's journey consists of one or more hops. The source host, and
any intermediate points, decide where the best next stop for the packet
would be, based on the destination address, the topology and state of
nearby connections. Once the next stop is reached, this process begins
anew, until the destination is reached, or a certain number of hops is
• Similar to most protocols, IP divides its packets into an IP header
(including a fixed part, followed by zero or more options), and a
payload of variable length, and arbitrary content. The chief features of
the header are the already mentioned destination address, the source
address, the protocol version, and the length of the packet (header plus
The IP in widespread use in 2002/3, and the one described here, is version 4, which
was formalized in 1978. The next generation is version 6 which has been deployed
in Japan and Korea to date. One major difference between versions is the number
of addressable hosts. IPv4 has enough address bits to distinguish 232
(4,294,967,296) machines, while IPv6 can accommodate 2128. Although there are
far less than 4,294,967,296 connected hosts, packing them too densely produces
increasingly complex routing issues so there is a push to migrate to version 6.

Internet Layer

IP Packet Format
• Here is an IPv4 Packet which in this instance is carrying a TCP
Internet Protocol, Src Addr: (, Dst Addr:

Version: 4
Header length: 20 bytes
Differentiated Services Field: 0x00 (DSCP 0x00: Default; ECN: 0x00)
0000 00.. = Differentiated Services Codepoint: Default (0x00)
.... ..0. = ECN-Capable Transport (ECT): 0
.... ...0 = ECN-CE: 0
Total Length: 48
Identification: 0xf263
Flags: 0x04
.1.. = Don't fragment: Set
..0. = More fragments: Not set
Fragment offset: 0
Time to live: 128
Protocol: TCP (0x06)
Header checksum: 0x8503 (correct)
Source: (
Destination: (
Transmission Control Protocol

Note the different fields in the header

Protocol Field
• This field shows the protocol at the Host to Host Layer i.e. TCP or
 Protocol: TCP 6 (0x06) or UDP 17 (0x11)
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
• Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is part of the TCP-IP suite
of protocols. ICMP messages are typically generated in response to
errors in IP datagrams or for diagnostic or routing purposes.
• Many commonly used network utilities are based on ICMP messages.
The ping utility is implemented using the ICMP "Echo" and "Echo
reply" messages. The related traceroute command is implemented by
transmitting UDP datagrams with manipulated IP Time-to-live (TTL)
header fields and looking for ICMP "Time to live exceeded in transit"
and "Destination unreachable" messages in response. Every machine
(such as intermediate routers) that forwards an IP datagram has to

decrement the TTL by one. If the TTL reaches 0, an ICMP "Time to

live exceeded in transit" message is sent to the source of the datagram.
• Each ICMP message is encapsulated directly within a single IP
datagram and thus, like UDP, ICMP does not guarantee delivery.
• List of permitted control messages:

0 - Echo Reply

3 - Destination Unreachable

4 - Source Quench

5 - Redirect

8 - Echo Request

9 - Router Advertisement

10 - Router Solicitation

11 - Time Exceeded

12 - Parameter Problem

13 - Timestamp

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

• Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a method for finding a host's
Ethernet (MAC) address from its IP address. The sender
broadcasts an ARP packet containing the Internet address of
another host and waits for it (or some other host) to send back its
Ethernet address. Each host maintains a cache of address
translations to reduce delay and loading. ARP allows the Internet
address to be independent of the Ethernet address but it only
works if all hosts support it.
• Here is an ARP request and a reply. In the Request frame we see a
Target of and the reply returns a MAC address of
00:50:da:05:0a:cb. If the Target address was not on the same

network as the Sender address the the ARP request would be for
the router on the network called the Default Gateway.

Ethernet II
Destination: ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff)
Source: 00:50:da:05:0a:cb (00:50:da:05:0a:cb)
Type: ARP (0x0806)
Trailer: 00000000000000000000000000000000...
Address Resolution Protocol (request)
Hardware type: Ethernet (0x0001)
Protocol type: IP (0x0800)
Hardware size: 6
Protocol size: 4
Opcode: request (0x0001)
Sender MAC address: 00:50:da:05:0a:cb (00:50:da:05:0a:cb)
Sender IP address: (
Target MAC address: 00:00:00:00:00:00 (00:00:00:00:00:00)
Target IP address: (

Ethernet II
Destination: 00:50:da:05:0a:cb (00:50:da:05:0a:cb)
Source: 00:00:86:56:32:95 (00:00:86:56:32:95)
Type: ARP (0x0806)
Address Resolution Protocol (reply)
Hardware type: Ethernet (0x0001)
Protocol type: IP (0x0800)
Hardware size: 6
Protocol size: 4

IP Addressing

• Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) routing is

based on a two-level hierarchical routing in which an IP address is
divided into a network portion and a host portion. Gateways use only
the network portion until an IP datagram reaches a gateway that can

deliver it directly. Additional levels of hierarchical routing are

introduced by the addition of subnetworks.
• Before commencing into the IP Addressing section lets review a few
mathematical concepts.
Binary to Decimal Conversion
• To convert binary addresses to decimal and vica versa we must
understand Binary to Decimal conversion techniques. As the IP address
breaks down the address into equal 8 bit groups for conversion we need
only understand the process for 8 bits. In decimal each bits position
represents a power of 2. So a bit in position 3 (Starting the count at 0) is
represented in decimal as 23 = 8.

20 = 1 21 = 2 22 = 4 23 = 8 24 = 16 25 = 32 26 = 64 27 = 128

• So for and address group of eight bits as follows.

10101000  23 + 25 + 27  8 + 32 + 128 = 168

• IP Addresses are 32 bits represented in a dotted decimal notation. That

means that the address is broken into four groups of eight bits and each
is converted to decimal.


11000000 (192) 10101000 (168) 00000001 (1) 00000001


Each IP address is further divided into a network portion and a host portion. The
network portion is shared by all the hosts on the same LAN .

• The are several reasons why you might want to subnet a network. You
may want to incorporate different types of physical networks into your
IP network. Implementing subnets helps to control network traffic. On
an ethernet network every machine on the same physical network sees
all the packets of data sent out on the network. In heavy traffic
situations this can result in collisions making the network performance
painfully slow. In both these situations routers or gateways are used to
separate networks. The router breaks the network into multiple subnets.
Address Classes
• There are 5 different address classes. The first byte of the first octet
determines the class of the address.
 Class A addresses start with 0.
 Class B addresses start with 10.
 Class C addresses start with 110.
 Class D addresses start with 1110.
 Class E addresses start with 1111.
• Classes can also be distinguished in decimal notation. If the first octet
is between:
 1 and 126 it is a Class A address.
 128 and 191 it is a Class B address
 192 and 223 it is a Class C address
 224 and 239 it is a Class D address
 240 and 255 it is a Class E address.
• 127 is reserved for loopback and is used for internal testing on the local
• Now we can see how the class of address determines which part
belongs to the network (N) and which part belongs to the node (h).
 Class A -- NNNNNNNN.hhhhhhhh. hhhhhhhh. hhhhhhhh
 Class B -- NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN. hhhhhhhh. hhhhhhhh


Subnet masking
• Applying a subnet mask to an address allows you to identify the
network and node sections of an IP address. Doing a bitwise AND on
the IP address and the subnet mask results in the network address. For





• This result may seem familiar to you because Class A, B and C

addresses have a self encoded or default subnet mask built in.
 Class A /8
 Class B /16
 Class C /24

• Or in binary form
 Class A - 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000
 Class B - 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
 Class C - 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
• Additional bits can be added on to the self encoded subnet mask for a
given class to further subnet a network. When a bitwise AND is
performed between the subnet mask and IP address the result from the
addition bits defines the subnet address. However there are some
restrictions on the subnet address. Network addresses of all 0's and all
1's are reserved for specifying this network (when a host does not know

its network address) and all hosts (broadcast address) respectively. This
also applies to subnets. Therefore:
 A subnet address cannot be all 0's or all 1's.
 This also implies that a 1 bit subnet mask is not allowed.

IP Subnet Addressing

• In the previous example a 4 bit subnet mask was used. The subnet in
this case was 1. There are 14 subnets available with this mask
(remember subnets with all 0's and all 1's are not allowed). Each
subnet has 4,094 nodes (because of broadcast and network
restrictions). This gives a total of 57,316 nodes for the entire class B
address. Notice that this is less than the 65,534 nodes an
unsubnetted class B address would have. Subnetting always reduces
the number of possible nodes for a given network. To calculate the
number of subnets or nodes use the following where n = number of
bits in either the subnet or node field.

Max nodes = 2n - 2

• multiplying the number of subnets by the number of nodes available

per subnet gives you the total number of nodes available for you
class and subnet mask. Note that although subnet masks with non-
contiguous mask bits are allowed they are not recommended.
Subnetting Examples
• Breakdown the following Subnet 

Original Mask: Class C /24

Subnet bits 27 – 24 = 3

No. of Subnets 23 – 2 = 6

How many hosts/subnet: 25 – 2 = 30

Valid Subnets 192.168.1. 0, 32, 64, 96, 128, 160, 192, 224

• Breakdown the following Subnet


Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR)

• Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) using

variable length subnet masks (VLSM) was created
to allow for greater flexibility with routed IP
networks, to allow for the accelerating expansion
of the Internet.
• By 1990, the Internet was facing serious growth
pains. The two most severe problems were the
explosion of routing table size and the looming
exhaustion of Class B networks. The wild
popularity of the net had triggered a flood of new
classful networks, and every one had to be
included in the routing tables. The routers were
running out of memory, and spending far too much
time doing address lookups. Furthermore, it had
become apparent that the pace of requests for new
Class B networks would soon exhaust the available
• The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF),
recognizing the urgency of these twin problems,
assigned the ROAD group to develop a solution.
That solution became known as classless routing,
supernetting, or CIDR, and is the addressing
scheme currently used in the Internet.
• A variable length subnet mask is a means of
allocating IP addressing resources to subnets
according to their individual need rather than some
general network-wide rule. So therefore the
network/host division can occur at any bit
boundary in the address. Because the normal class
distinctions are ignored, the new system was called
classless routing. This led to the original system
being called, by back-formation, classful routing.
Classless routing came into use in the mid 1990s
due to the inefficiencies of the classful system.
• Another purpose of CIDR was the possibility of
routing prefix aggregation: for example, sixteen

contiguous /24 networks could now be aggregated

together, and advertised to the outside world as a
single /20 route. Two contiguous /20s could then
be aggregated to a /19, and so forth. This allowed a
significant reduction in the number of routes that
had to be advertised over the Internet, preventing
'routing table explosion' from overwhelm routers
and stopping the Internet from expanding further.
• Nowadays most ISPs on the public Internet will not
route anything smaller than a /19 prefix, effectively
preventing small networks from obtaining full
public Internet routing without going through a
routing aggregator such as an ISP.
• The standard notation for a CIDR block includes a
network number (padded on the right with zero bits
up to 4 octets for IPv4, and a variable length set of
up to 8 16-bit hexadecimal fields for IPv6), and a
prefix length, in bits, defining the size of the
network in question.


The main distribution frame acts as a link between the exchange indoor and the
exchange outdoor. It not only connects the exchange with the subscriber but also
protects the exchange from environmental hazards such as lightning strike.

There are two sides in a MDF- the line side and the exchange side. The line side
belongs to the outdoor while the exchange side belongs to the exchange. The
subscriber is connected to the exchange via the MDF. On the exchange side of the
MDF the connections are digital while the line side there are analog connections.
The connection between the exchange and the subscriber is made in various stages.
This not only enables convenient distribution possible but also makes the line
testing more flexible. Flexibility is the high point of this system.

The Line Side:


As mentioned earlier, the exchange side belongs to the subscriber. This side of the
exchange consists of verticals. Each vertical has 100 trans and receive pairs
connected to it; i.e. 100 subscribers are connected to the exchange via one vertical.
Each vertical corresponds to a particular pillar. The line wires emanating from the
verticals are connected to a cabinet from where it is taken to a pillar which then is
connected to a distribution pole (DP). From here the lines are distributed to the

For line testing on the line side the dial tone is tested on the vertical first. If it is
found to be ok then the testing is carried forward to the cabinet. From here line
wires are carried forward in a cluster of around 100 pairs to the pillar. A pillar is
usually located in the central part of an area where the pillar is established so that
distribution is convenient and less expensive. One distribution pole is set up to
provide connection to around 15 to 20 homes. From here the subscribers are
directly connected.

The Exchange Side:

On the exchange side the MDF is directly connected to the DLU in the SN
(Switching Network). In the MDF, the two sides are connected through a jumper
wire. The line testing for the exchange is done first here using a dial tone checker.
For rectifying errors each subscriber is assigned an Equipment Number (NE). This
number is the identification mark of the subscriber for the exchange. It represents
the location in the DLU from where the connection is provided.

The DLU is then connected to the LTG (Line Trunk Groups) from here the
switching network is connected.


There are two types of switching, namely CIRCUIT Switching and PACKET


In telecommunications, a circuit switching network is one that establishes a

dedicated circuit (or channel) between nodes and terminals before the users may
communicate. Each circuit that is dedicated cannot be used by other callers until
the circuit is released and a new connection is set up. Even if no actual
communication is taking place in a dedicated circuit then, that channel still remains
unavailable to other users. Channels that are available for new calls to be set up are
said to be idle.

Early telephone exchanges are a suitable example of circuit switching. The

subscriber would ask the operator to connect to another subscriber, whether on the
same exchange or via an inter-exchange link and another operator. In any case, the
end result was a physical electrical connection between the two subscribers’
telephones for the duration of the call. The copper wire used for the connection
could not be used to carry other calls at the same time, even if the subscribers were
in fact not talking and the line was silent.


Packet switching is a communications paradigm in which packets (units of

information carriage) are routed between nodes over data links shared with other
traffic. This contrasts with the other principal paradigm, circuit switching, which
sets up a dedicated connection between the two nodes for their exclusive use for
the duration of the communication. Packet switching is used to optimize the use of
the channel capacity available in a network, to minimize the transmission latency

(i.e. the time it takes for data to pass across the network), and to increase
robustness of communication.

Circuit Switching vs. Packet Switching:

In principle, circuit switching and packet switching both are used in high-capacity
networks. In circuit-switched networks, network resources are static, set in
“copper” if you will, from the sender to receiver before the start of the transfer,
thus creating a “circuit”. The resources remain dedicated to the circuit during the
entire transfer and the entire message follows the same path. In packet-switched
networks, the message is broken into packets, each of which can take a different
route to the destination where the packets are recompiled into the original message.
Circuit switching contrasts with packet switching which splits traffic data (for
instance, digital representation of sound, or computer data) into chunks, called
packets, that are routed over a shared network. Packet switching networks do not
require a circuit to be established and allow many pairs of nodes to communicate
almost simultaneously over the same channel. Each packet is individually
addressed precluding the need for a dedicated path to help the packet find its way
to its destination.

BSNL Multiplay Broadband

UTStarcom, a provider of IP-based, end-to-end networking solutions and services,
has announced that Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. (BSNL) has successfully launched
its multiplay broadband Internet services in India. In March, UTStarcom was
awarded a contract from BSNL for the deployment of 13 lakh lines of UTStarcom's
iAN-8000 multiservice access node (MSAN) solution in approximately 900 cities
throughout India. This contract firmly established UTStarcom as the largest
broadband equipment supplier in India.

UTStarcom has been the turnkey provider for this deployment, with full
responsibility for the network design and planning, deployment, and service roll
out and maintenance of the network. UTStarcom's ADSL 2+-based broadband
solutions will now enable BSNL to offer new broadband-based, triple-play services
such as video-on-demand (VoD), video multicast, VPN services, and high-speed
Internet services across the country while providing the operator with network
flexibility, scalability for innovation and a rapid return on investment.

"BSNL's deployment of UTStarcom's innovative broadband solutions will

revolutionise the broadband framework in India, and we are honoured to be

partnering with India's leading telecom service provider to bring these innovations
into the country," said Vijay Yadav, managing director of UTStarcom's South Asia
operations. "Our iAN-8000 technology, coupled with our expertise in the
management of turnkey projects, will now enable BSNL to offer a compelling
array of services that, in the past were not possible, given bandwidth and access
constraints in the country."

BSNL can now focus on offering other value added services—such as IPTV, VoD,
VoIP, VPN service, multicasting over VPN and others—to its customers over the
existing broadband network.

"India's fast growing telecom environment continues to be a promising market for

UTStarcom to offer its products and solutions," said David King, senior VP of
international sales and marketing at UTStarcom. "As in the past, we believe
operators will continue to realise the value of deploying our IP-based solutions to
expand and optimise their broadband networks in this region."

UTStarcom has also deployed its NetRing 10000 optical transport solution in
support of this service for the aggregation of DSL traffic in BSNL's network.
UTStarcom's NetRing product suite provides service providers with a high level of
network resilience and carrier-grade quality of service towards subscribers to
ensure trouble-free offering of real-time mission critical data and video

BSNL has started new Multiplay services which will provide following services
from one ADSL/VDSL connection compiling to all TR-64/69

1 Basic Broadband


3 Bandwidth on Demand

4 Gaming On Demand

5 Audio on Demand

6 Tele education

7 VPN over Broadband


8 Video Conferencing

9 Video telephony

10 VoIP

11 Internet Policy Server for URL Filtering

Basic contents of multiplay:



Short for Multiprotocol Label Switching, an IETF initiative that integrates Layer 2
information about network links (bandwidth, latency, utilization) into Layer 3 (IP)
within a particular autonomous system--or ISP--in order to simplify and improve
IP-packet exchange.

MPLS gives network operators a great deal of flexibility to divert and route traffic
around link failures, congestion, and bottlenecks.

From a QoS standpoint, ISPs will better be able to manage different kinds of data
streams based on priority and service plan. For instance, those who subscribe to a

premium service plan, or those who receive a lot of streaming media or high-
bandwidth content can see minimal latency and packet loss.

When packets enter a MPLS-based network, Label Edge Routers (LERs) give
them a label (identifier). These labels not only contain information based on the
routing table entry (i.e., destination, bandwidth, delay, and other metrics), but also
refer to the IP header field (source IP address), Layer 4 socket number information,
and differentiated service. Once this classification is complete and mapped,
different packets are assigned to corresponding Labeled Switch Paths (LSPs),
where Label Switch Routers (LSRs) place outgoing labels on the packets.

With these LSPs, network operators can divert and route traffic based on data-
stream type and Internet-access customer.

RPR (Resilient Packet Ring)

An effort to bring SONET-like abilitites to metro Ethernet networks, by adding

support for a ring topology and fast recovery from fiber cuts and link failures at
Layer 2. Being defined by the IEEE's 802.17 working group.
RPR uses Ethernet switching and a dual counter-rotating ring topology to provide
SONET-like network resiliency and optimized bandwidth usage, while delivering
multipoint Ethernet/IP services. RPR maintains its own protection scheme and uses
physical-layer alarm information and Layer 2 protocol communications to detect
node and/or link failures. When a failure is detected, the RPR switching
mechanism restores networks in less than 50 millisec.
Because RPR is a Layer 2 MAC-based technology, it can operate over multiple
physical layers, including SONET. Therefore, corporations can reap the benefits of
RPR by having it ride over the SONET network to deliver the resilient, efficient,
multipoint functionality and scalability of data applications such as VoIP, packet
video, business continuance and distance learning.
Or they can install multiservice provisioning platforms, which are optimized for
TDM services but also can support advanced data applications via RPR over
SONET. The advantage is that existing TDM services are maintained, while a
smooth migration to packet-based services is enabled.

Another major advantage of RPR's dual-rotating ring design is that Ethernet traffic
is sent in both directions on the ring to achieve the maximum bandwidth
utilization. Unlike older ring-based data networks such as token ring or FDDI,
RPR uses a spatial reuse mechanism. Rather than requiring traffic to traverse the
entire ring even though a destination node is only a hop away, RPR sends it there
directly, keeping the rest of the ring bandwidth available for use by other stations
on the network.
To further enhance the network efficiency and support multimedia applications, the
IEEE has included a classification scheme and a fairness algorithm in the RPR
specification. This guarantees that jitter- and delay-sensitive traffic is always given
higher-priority access to the network. Meanwhile, best effort (Internet type) data
traffic is ensured equal access and a "fair" share of the remaining ring bandwidth.
RPR also uses statistical multiplexing so that bandwidth can be oversubscribed,
while establishing committed information rate (CIR) and peak-rate thresholds on a
per-application basis. This guarantees each enterprise application a CIR and the
ability to burst up to the peak rates when bandwidth is available. With such a
mechanism, each department is charged only for using extra bandwidth rather than
being billed for a larger, nailed-up circuit, regardless of use.
Widespread corporate adoption of RPR will help usher in the cost-effective
transport of popular Ethernet and IP communications services. RPR transport will
provide efficient bandwidth protection, accommodate bursty data traffic and
provide the quality of service needed for these advanced packet applications.


A Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM, often pronounced dee-

slam) allows telephone lines to make faster connections to the Internet. It is a
network device, located near the customer's location, that connects multiple
customer Digital Subscriber Lines (DSLs) to a high-speed Internet backbone line
using multiplexing techniques.[1] By locating DSLAMs at locations remote to the
telephone company central office (CO), telephone companies are now providing
DSL service to consumers who previously did not live close enough for the
technology to work.

Path taken by data to DSLAM

1. Residential/commercial source: DSL modem plugged into the customer's

2. Local loop: the telephone company wires from a customer to the telephone
company's central office, often called the "last mile".
3. DSLAM: a device for DSL service. Sending on the customer or downstream
side, it intermixes voice traffic and VDSL traffic onto the customer's DSL
line. Receiving on that side, it accepts and separates outgoing phone and
data signals from the customer. It directs the data signals upstream towards
the appropriate carrier's network, and the phone signals towards the voice
4. Main Distribution Frame (MDF): a wiring rack that connects outside
subscriber lines with internal lines. It is used to connect public or private
lines coming into the building to internal networks. At the telco, the MDF is
generally in proximity to the cable vault and not far from the telephone

Role of the DSLAM

The DSLAM equipment at the telephone company (telco) collects the digital
signals from its many modem ports and combines them into one signal via
multiplexing. Depending on the product being used, a DSLAM would aggregate
the DSL lines with some combination of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM),
frame relay, or Internet Protocol networks (i.e., IP-DSLAM that uses the PTM-TC
stack)(Packet Transfer Mode - Transmission Convergence).

The aggregated signal is then loaded onto the telco's backbone switching
equipment, traveling through an access network (AN)—also known as a Network
Service Provider (NSP)—at speeds of up to 10 Gbit/s and connecting to the

In terms of the OSI 7 Layer Model, the DSLAM acts like a massive network
switch since its functionality is purely Layer 2.

A DSLAM is not always located in the telephone company's central office, but
may also serve customers within a neighborhood Serving Area Interface (SAI),
sometimes in association with a digital loop carrier. DSLAMs are also used by

hotels, lodges, residential neighbourhoods, and other corporations setting up their

own private telephone exchange.

Besides being a data switch and multiplexer, a DSLAM is also a collection of

modems. Each modem on the aggregation card communicates with a subscriber's
DSL modem. The modem function is integrated into the DSLAM itself, rather than
being separate hardware like a traditional computer modem. Like traditional,
voice-band modems, the integrated DSL modem has the ability to probe the line
and train itself to compensate for forward echoes and other impairments in order to
move data at the maximum rate the telephone line allows. This is also why twisted
pair DSL services have a longer range than physically similar unshielded twisted
pair (UTP) Ethernet.

Speed versus distance

Balanced pair cable has higher attenuation at higher frequencies, hence the longer
the wire between DSLAM and subscriber, the slower the maximum possible data
rate. The following is a rough guide to the relation between wire distance and
maximum data rate. Local conditions may vary, especially beyond 2 km, often
necessitating a closer DSLAM to bring acceptable speeds:

• 25 Mbit/s at 1,000 feet (~300 m)

• 24 Mbit/s at 2,000 feet (~600 m)
• 23 Mbit/s at 3,000 feet (~900 m)
• 22 Mbit/s at 4,000 feet (~1.2 km)
• 21 Mbit/s at 5,000 feet (~1.5 km or ~.95 miles)
• 19 Mbit/s at 6,000 feet (~1.8 km or ~1.14 miles)
• 16 Mbit/s at 7,000 feet (~2.1 km or ~1.33 miles)
• 1.5 Mbit/s at 15,000 feet (4.5 km or ~2.8 miles)
• 800 kbit/s at 17,000 feet (~5.2 km or ~3.2 miles)
• Based on 0.40mm copper.

Additional features

A DSLAM may offer the ability to tag VLAN traffic as it passes from the
subscribers to upstream routers. Though not a full stateful firewall, some DSLAMs
also offer packet filtering facilities like dropping inter-port traffic and dropping
certain protocols.

The DSLAM also supports quality of service (QoS) features like contention,
differentiated services ("DiffServ") and priority queues.

Hardware details

Customers connect to the DSLAM through ADSL modems or DSL routers, which
are connected to the PSTN network via typical unshielded twisted pair telephone
lines. Each DSLAM has multiple aggregation cards, and each such card can have
multiple ports to which the customers lines are connected. Typically a single
DSLAM aggregation card has 24 ports, but this number can vary with each
manufacturer. The most common DSLAMs are housed in a telco-grade chassis,
which are supplied with (nominal) 48 volts DC. Hence a typical DSLAM setup
may contain power converters, DSLAM chassis, aggregation cards, cabling, and
upstream links. The most common upstream links in these DSLAMs use gigabit
ethernet or multi-gigabit fiber optic links.

Technical Overview of the Network: Important Network element (NE):

The important network elements of the Broadband MultiPlay Network are:

1 DSLAM: The DSLAMs shall in general be collocated with existing

PSTN exchanges, which provide last mile access to customers over

copper wire up to average span lengths of 3 kms. The density of

DSLAM will vary from 64Port to 960 Ports. The 64 P DSLAM will

have one GE uplink interface. The 120P, 240P and 480P DSLAM will

have 1+1 GE uplink interface. The 960P DSLAM will have 2+2 GE

uplink interface.

2 Aggregation Network: In NIB-II, the aggregation network is Ethernet

based. The connectivity between DSLAM & Tier 2 LAN Switch and

between Tier 2 LAN Switch & Tier 1 LAN Switch is Ethernet. In the

Broadband MultiPlay network, slight modification has been done in


the architecture to ensure increased network resiliency, effective

bandwidth management and better fibre management.

Statesman House,

Room No. 813,

Ph. 011-23734094

Fax. 011-23734284

2.1 Options for two technologies have been given in the

aggregation network in the said tender for cities upto type B2.

The First one is RPR, (Resilience Packet Ring), and the second

is VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service) based on MPLS

technology. The equivalent of Tier 2 Switch and Tier 1 Switch

in RPR / VPLS are RPR Tier 2 Switch/ L2PE and RPR Tier 1

Switch / L2PE aggregators. Only one technology will be

deployed in the BSNL network through the said tender. The

cities classified as ‘OC’ will be aggregated through Ethernet

interface (Fast Ethernet over STM-1) as was done in NIB-II

2.2 The DSLAMs will be aggregated to RPR Tier 2 Switch/ L2PE

on Gigabit Ethernet interface on dark fibre. Except 64P

DSLAM, all other DSLAMs will have redundant connectivity to

the same RPR Tier 2 switch/ L2PE through two different paths.

The maximum driving distance between DSLAMs and RPR

Tier 2 Switch / L2PE is 20k.m.

2.3 RPR Tier2 Switch / L2PEs shall be connected to RPR Tier1


Switch/ L2PE aggregators by optical n x GE or 10 GE links as

per traffic requirement. Maximum driving distance between

RPR Tier 2 / L2PE and RPR Tier 1 / L2PE aggregator is 40

k.m. The number of nodes planned in a ring will vary from four

to six. In case of A type cities the aggregation of RPR Tier 2

Switch/ L2PE will be over 10 GE. For B1 and B2 cities the

aggregation will be through GE.

2.4 Broadband Network Gateway (BNG): This is equivalent to

Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS) of NIB-II with some

added functionalities, which makes it aware of the potential

congestion point in the aggregation network. This is the most

critical point of the network in terms of guaranteeing the

Quality of Service and to avoid congestion as it keeps tracks of

the various traffic flows of each type and take appropriate

decisions based on the resources available (bandwidth, sessions)

and also do resource admission, subscriber authentication, IP

address allotment and policing.

2.5 Layer 3 MPLS PE (L3PE) Router: This is used for aggregating

traffic from multiple BNG and converting it from IP to MPLS. It

also stores the VPN profile of the VPN customers and

continuously updates through MP-BGP (Multi Protocol Border

Gateway Protocol) with other PE (Provider Edge) Routers. It

further hands over the traffic to NIB-II Core. In case of A1, A2


and A3 cities, separate L3PE Router will be deployed for taking

care of broadband Multi Play requirement. The detailed

guidelines on the same along with its connectivity will be issued

separately. In other cities, the existing NIB-II MPLS PE router

will also act as L3PE router for broadband Multi Play.

2.6 Other Common Applications: This network consist of various

common control applications required for network management,

subscriber creation, automated broadband installation & On

going service support etc which will be deployed in the Five

Regional POPs viz Bangalore, Pune, Chennai, Kolkatta and

NOIDA and NOCs (Main NOC at Bangalore and DR NOC at



This Practical Training has given us an opportunity to know about various technologies
working behind in today’s advanced world of telecommunication .We have learned about the
technology behind Broadband and have an experience to attend Call Center. We are very
grateful to those persons who helped directly & indirectly in the successful completion
of this practical training and this will surely be fruitful in future.



2758 JSR
2756 JSR
2421 JSR
243 JSR
244 JSR
248 JSR
222 JSR
223 JSR
265 SNK
240 ADR
220 ADR
2370-3 ADR
2380-3 ADR
2386-87 GMR
246 & 236 MNG
2270 GVP
2277 GVP
2290-95 TAT
2296 PSD
230-231 KDM
234 GOL
226,228 TLC
221 SDG
232 LIC
2249 KHL