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Decrease in Water Quality

Paved surfaces create runoff during rainstorms. This runoff picks up oil,
chemicals, and gravel from the pavement and grass. These chemicals would
usually be filtered out of the water through the ground, however, due to the
increase in concrete, now run off into streams. Fertilizers from yards run off into
streams causing algae blooms. The algae blooms decrease the oxygen in the
water, killing the fish. The water supply for the towns becomes contaminated.

Decrease in Air Quality


Urban sprawl causes a significant decrease in air quality. People spend much
more time in cars commuting to work and running errands. Commuting to work
use to take people 10-15 minutes in the car. Today, people are spending 30
minutes or more commuting to work due to urban sprawl. The extra exhaust
decreases the air quality.
Less Groundwater
More paved surface means that there is less infiltration for groundwater. Areas
that depend on groundwater as a source of public water supply are facing a
water crisis as the aquifer becomes depleted. In addition, these areas are facing
a problem with land subsidence. The increase demand on the groundwater due
to urban sprawl has created a void in the aquifer. The land compresses, causing
flooding problems, cracking of foundations, etc. San Jose has suffered more than
13 feet of land subsidence due to this problem.

Loss of Farmland
Between 1992 and 1997 13.7 million acres of farmland were converted to
housing developments and highways.

Loss of Wetlands
Wetlands surrounding streams help prevent flooding. In addition, wetlands slow
down runoff entering a stream. Wetlands absorb chemicals in runoff. Without
wetlands to act as buffer, the water supply becomes contaminated and more
areas flood.

Solutions to Urbanization

Citizens have the right to an environment that is not harmful to their


health or well being.

Objective:

To improve environmental conditions and provide safe habitats for all


life.

Method:
Government passes laws to plan and provide environmentally sound cities,
considering that people should not live in polluted or unsafe areas.

Evaluation:

Each country subscribing to the Declaration of Environmental Rights and


Responsibilities will send six representatives, composed of people with
medical, legal, political, economic, educational, and scientific
expertise, to a general assembly. The collective assembly will review
the sustainable solutions outlined in the Declaration of Environmental
Rights and Responsibilities through the internet. The group will elect a
chairman and vice chairman from its members to lead annual meetings. The
meetings will be held in each country, based on a rotating schedule, for
the purpose of amending solutions to make them more effective.

Article #2:

Citizens have the right to an environment that is protected for the


benefit of present and future generations.

Objective:

To make environmental resources sustainable and make the economy reliant


upon a sustainable environment.

Method:

Government encourages private investment in sustainable industries, like


solar energy, public transportation, and water reclamation, with
financial rewards.

Evaluation:

Each country subscribing to the Declaration of Environmental Rights and


Responsibilities will send six representatives, composed of people with
medical, legal, political, economic, educational, and scientific
expertise, to a general assembly. The collective assembly will review
the sustainable solutions outlined in the Declaration of Environmental
Rights and Responsibilities through the internet. The group will elect a
chairman and vice chairman from its members to lead annual meetings. The
meetings will be held in each country, based on a rotating schedule, for
the purpose of amending solutions to make them more effective.

Article #3:
Citizens have the right to basic services including adequate shelter,
health services, electricity, water supplies, and food.

Objective:

Government, with private help, provides essential services that will


improve the quality of life.

Method :

Information should be gathered about what is needed and where. Implement


and provide opportunity for employment so that citizens can earn a
living to pay for maintenance of services. Homes should be subsidized by
government and corporations. Government provides basic health services
using advanced technologies and medicines at minimum costs, with
alternatives available. Special attention should be paid to the development of job and
educational opportunities in the rural areas for the rural population.

Evaluation:

Each country subscribing to the Declaration of Environmental Rights and


Responsibilities will send six representatives, composed of people with
medical, legal, political, economic, educational, and scientific
expertise, to a general assembly. The collective assembly will review
the sustainable solutions outlined in the Declaration of Environmental
Rights and Responsibilities through the internet. The group will elect a
chairman and vice chairman from its members to lead annual meetings. The
meetings will be held in each country, based on a rotating schedule, for
the purpose of amending solutions to make them more effective

Article #4:

Citizens have the right to basic education including adult basic


education.

Objective:

To empower citizens with knowledge and skills.

Method:

Government improves educational systems to include curriculum focused on


job skills and life skills to prepare people for employment opportunities.
Also, education is made more accessible by creating schools, technical
universities, and universities with licensed teachers who help students,
including adults and the disabled, toward earning a basic education
certificate.

Evaluation:

Each country subscribing to the Declaration of Environmental Rights and


Responsibilities will send six representatives, composed of people with
medical, legal, political, economic, educational, and scientific
expertise, to a general assembly. The collective assembly will review
the sustainable solutions outlined in the Declaration of Environmental
Rights and Responsibilities through the internet. The group will elect a
chairman and vice chairman from its members to lead annual meetings. The
meetings will be held in each country, based on a rotating schedule, for
the purpose of amending solutions to make them more effective.

Article #5:

Citizens have the right to gainful employment opportunities.

Objective:

To create more jobs.

Method:

In order to prevent rapid urbanization and conserve natural ecosystems,


private industry will utilize natural resources to promote tourism and
create jobs in both rural and urban areas. Using subsidies, government
promotes private and foreign investment in environmentally sound
development in rural areas.

Evaluation:

Each country subscribing to the Declaration of Environmental Rights and


Responsibilities will send six representatives, composed of people with
medical, legal, political, economic, educational, and scientific
expertise, to a general assembly. The collective assembly will review
the sustainable solutions outlined in the Declaration of Environmental
Rights and Responsibilities through the internet. The group will elect a
chairman and vice chairman from its members to lead annual meetings. The
meetings will be held in each country, based on a rotating schedule, for
the purpose of amending solutions to make them more effective.

Article #6:
Citizens have the right to environmentally safe and cost-effective
technologies.

Objective:

To allow environmental technologies to be more accessible and at lower


cost to the community.

Method:

Government and private industry provide funding for research,


development, and improvement of environmentally safe and cost-effective
technologies by sponsoring engineers and creating institutions.

Evaluation:

Each country subscribing to the Declaration of Environmental Rights and


Responsibilities will send six representatives, composed of people with
medical, legal, political, economic, educational, and scientific
expertise, to a general assembly. The collective assembly will review
the sustainable solutions outlined in the Declaration of Environmental
Rights and Responsibilities through the internet. The group will elect a
chairman and vice chairman from its members to lead annual meetings. The
meetings will be held in each country, based on a rotating schedule, for
the purpose of amending solutions to make them more effective.

Article #7:

Government and individuals have the responsibility to control population


growth and the spread of disease through effective health education and
family planning.

Objective:

To control population growth and disease.

Method:

Government provides counseling for effective family planning and medical


health clinics, making them both mobile for rural areas, and accessible
for urban areas.

Evaluation:
Each country subscribing to the Declaration of Environmental Rights and
Responsibilities will send six representatives, composed of people with
medical, legal, political, economic, educational, and scientific
expertise, to a general assembly. The collective assembly will review
the sustainable solutions outlined in the Declaration of Environmental
Rights and Responsibilities through the internet. The group will elect a
chairman and vice chairman from its members to lead annual meetings. The
meetings will be held in each country, based on a rotating schedule, for
the purpose of amending solutions to make them more effective.

Article #8:

Government and local authorities have the responsibility to upgrade


basic civil services to ensure sustainable housing, better health
services, sanitation, and electricity.

Objective:

Government, with private help, provides essential services that will


improve the quality of life.

Method:

Government organizes basic health services at minimized costs and in


accessible locations, and provides education so that people can make
informed decisions about their treatment.

Evaluation:

Each country subscribing to the Declaration of Environmental Rights and


Responsibilities will send six representatives, composed of people with
medical, legal, political, economic, educational, and scientific
expertise, to a general assembly. The collective assembly will review
the sustainable solutions outlined in the Declaration of Environmental
Rights and Responsibilities through the internet. The group will elect a
chairman and vice chairman from its members to lead annual meetings. The
meetings will be held in each country, based on a rotating schedule, for
the purpose of amending solutions to make them more effective.

Article #9:
Government and local authorities have the responsibility to improve
public transportation so that the use of private motor vehicles is
minimized, thus reducing congestion, and air and noise pollution.

Objective:

To make public transportation clean, efficient, and accessible to the


community.

Method:

Industries improve cars to be environmentally friendly. Government


reduces the manufacturing of private cars and sponsors manufacturing of
public transportation vehicles, encouraging people to use them by
raising parking and gasoline prices.

Evaluation:

Each country subscribing to the Declaration of Environmental Rights and


Responsibilities will send six representatives, composed of people with
medical, legal, political, economic, educational, and scientific
expertise, to a general assembly. The collective assembly will review
the sustainable solutions outlined in the Declaration of Environmental
Rights and Responsibilities through the internet. The group will elect a
chairman and vice chairman from its members to lead annual meetings. The
meetings will be held in each country, based on a rotating schedule, for
the purpose of amending solutions to make them more effective.

Article #10:

Government and local authorities have the responsibility to encourage


higher urban densities and promote rural development so that there may
be greater conservation of natural environments.

Objective:

To preserve natural environments.

Method:
Government implements urban growth boundaries to increase urban
densities; this allows for greater concentration on sustainable
development of rural areas to conserve natural environments.

Evaluation:

Each country subscribing to the Declaration of Environmental Rights and


Responsibilities will send six representatives, composed of people with
medical, legal, political, economic, educational, and scientific
expertise, to a general assembly. The collective assembly will review
the sustainable solutions outlined in the Declaration of Environmental
Rights and Responsibilities through the internet. The group will elect a
chairman and vice chairman from its members to lead annual meetings. The
meetings will be held in each country, based on a rotating schedule, for
the purpose of amending solutions to make them more effective.

Article #11:

Government and local authorities have the responsibility to improve


communication systems to relay environmental information.

Objective:

To open communication that would help people become environmentally


literate so that they can carry out their civic responsibilities.

Method:

Media industries create continuous television, radio, newspaper,


magazine, and public address systems for the community with information
on how to help the environment. Government creates internet access for
every community.

Evaluation:

Each country subscribing to the Declaration of Environmental Rights and


Responsibilities will send six representatives, composed of people with
medical, legal, political, economic, educational, and scientific
expertise, to a general assembly. The collective assembly will review
the sustainable solutions outlined in the Declaration of Environmental
Rights and Responsibilities through the internet. The group will elect a
chairman and vice chairman from its members to lead annual meetings. The
meetings will be held in each country, based on a rotating schedule, for
the purpose of amending solutions to make them more effective.

Article #12:

Government, local authorities, and individuals have the responsibility


to promote capacity building and community involvement through
environmental programs that will make citizens more environmentally
responsible.

Objective:

To build community involvement in environmental programs and promote the


individual's responsibilities toward the environment.

Method:

Government creates environmental courses in and out of schools.


Communities organize programs for recycling and environmental campaigns.

Evaluation:

Each country subscribing to the Declaration of Environmental Rights and


Responsibilities will send six representatives, composed of people with
medical, legal, political, economic, educational, and scientific
expertise, to a general assembly. The collective assembly will review
the sustainable solutions outlined in the Declaration of Environmental
Rights and Responsibilities through the internet. The group will elect a
chairman and vice chairman from its members to lead annual meetings. The
meetings will be held in each country, based on a rotating schedule, for
the purpose of amending solutions to make them more effective.

Different forms of urbanization


Different forms of urbanization can be classified depending on the style of architecture and
planning methods as well as historic growth of areas.
In cities of the developed world urbanization traditionally exhibited a concentration of human
activities and settlements around the downtown area, the so-called in-migration. In-migration
refers to migration from former colonies and similar places. The fact that many immigrants settle
in impoverished city centres led to the notion of the "peripheralization of the core", which simply
describes that people who used to be at the periphery of the former empires now live right in the
centre.

Recent developments, such as inner-city redevelopment schemes, mean that new arrivals in
cities no longer necessarily settle in the centre. In some developed regions, the reverse effect,
originally called counter urbanization has occurred, with cities losing population to rural areas,
and is particularly common for richer families. This has been possible because of improved
communications, and has been caused by factors such as the fear of crime and poor urban
environments. Later termed "white flight", the effect is not restricted to cities with a high ethnic
minority population.

When the residential area shifts outward, this is called suburbanization. A number of researchers
and writers suggest that suburbanization has gone so far to form new points of concentration
outside the downtown. This networked, poly-centric form of concentration is considered by some
an emerging pattern of urbanization. It is called variously exurbia, edge city (Garreau, 1991),
network city (Batten, 1995), or postmodern city (Dear, 2000). Los Angeles is the best-known
example of this type of urbanization.
Rural migrants are attracted by the possibilities that cities can offer, but often settle in shanty
towns and experience extreme poverty. In the 1980s, this was attempted to be tackled with the
urban bias theory which was promoted by Michael Lipton who wrote: "...the most important class
conflict in the poor countries of the world today is not between labour and capital. Nor is it
between foreign and national interests. It is between rural classes and urban classes. The rural
sector contains most of the poverty and most of the low-cost sources of potential advance; but
the urban sector contains most of the articulateness, organization and power. So the urban
classes have been able to win most of the rounds of the struggle with the countryside..." [12]. Most
of the urban poor in developing countries able to find work can spend their lives in insecure,
poorly paid jobs. According to research by the Overseas Development Institute pro-poor
urbanisation will require labour intensive growth, supported by labour protection, flexible land use
regulation and investments in basic services

Urbanization as a social problem

Urbanization as a Social Problem How is urbanization negatively effecting our society? The
answer to this question is not a simple one. This essay will not only break down the problems
of urbanization in the United States, but it will also tell you some of the attempts made to fix
the problem and give some solutions as to how it could possibly be solved in the future. Also
when answering this question one must understand that urbanization, can not be stopped, but
only contained in a manner that will help the United States to function better as a country. The
more densely populated and more heterogeneous a community is, the more accentuated
characteristics can be associated with urbanism. Urbanism causes decrease in per capita, and
promotes urban violence, political instability, crime and aggressive behavior. Rapid population
growth in urban areas also perpetuates poverty. Another major issue being created by this
social problem is the breaking of the traditional family structure. Our cities are not working
well! Sanitation, safety, transportation, housing, education and even electricity are failing.
These are all responsibilities of the government or it is at least their job to regulate these
services deemed to be monopolies. And it is a known fact that monopolies deem toward
inefficiency. Functionalist look at our cities as a means to profit. Cities are a place where
everybody visits, and therefor vendors can raise their prices and profit more on their products.
For example, from my own personal experience, I bought a pack of cigarettes for $3.00 at my
local gas station, and when I visited inner city Orlando, I bought the same brand of cigarettes
for $4.00. This is just a minor example, and most of the residents in an urban area are in
poverty and have trouble affording the $3.00 pack if they smoke much less adding a dollar to
the already ridiculous cost. In the United States, the breaking of the traditional family
structure is an issue that has become increasingly noticeable in recent years, particularly in
urbanized areas. The traditional, mom and dad, and children are rarely seen in the inner cities
any more. There is a weakened bond of kinship, and declining social family significance as
America has transferred industrial, educational and recreational activities to specialized
institutions outside of the home. It is depriving families of their most characteristic, historical
functions. While individuals pursue their own diverging interests in their educational,
vocational, religious and recreational life. With divorce rates rising, delinquency is also
becoming more of a problem than before. With single parent families, children lack in the
authority department due to the lack of the amount of time their parents have free to raise
them. These specialized institutions often help, but can not replace the role of a child’s
guardian. As long as the divorce rate continues to increase, delinquency will continue to
increase in these areas as well. The density of people reinforces effect of numbers in
diversifying people and their activities and increasing the complexity of the social structure.
The variations of people give rise to segregation of people by race, religious practices, ethnic
heritage, as well as economic and social status. Segregation often creates much tension and
prejudice between social groups. This can cause physical or mental damage to individuals or
society, which means that sometimes people may permanently suffer before any action is
taken to solve the problem because the delay in action is most often the result of people
underestimating the problems. As for racism and segregation, there is not much that can be
done to fix these problems. Individuals will always have their own opinions no matter how
ignorant, and the only thing we can do is to hope that these problems die out as we
desegregate our communities. People will choose their destination or place of residence
according to many different ideals and needs, for example what fits their budget. Political
pathology and population growth is closely related because of the population change and this
change carries with it a high likelihood of social disruption. Government assumes major
responsibility for development attempting to meet rapidly increasing demands for education,
housing, agriculture and industrial development, transportation and employment. The
government’s budget is not distributed equally mainly due to differentiation in areas. Areas
with higher income will have higher income and therefor will obviously have a higher budget to
work with. Urban areas are usually lacking in the financial department. Therefor they are not
able to repair all the problems in which need to be fixed in these areas, such as sanitation,
education and many other categories. America has hired approximately fifty percent more
teachers in the last few years than have been hired in the past, but the increase in population
keeps the classrooms just as large. The effort does not meet the need; thus the problem
remains as strong as ever. Due to the overpopulation in urban areas and the lack of
employment opportunity, the crime rate is also a huge problem in which they are faced with.
Also the lack of the traditional family structure and weakened bonds of kinship weaken the
moral of the children growing up in the urban areas. These children grow up in poverty and
usually look at crime as a quick and easy way out. The problems in urban areas are far more,
than can be handled in any short term efforts. We can only hope to contain them, and attempt
to make sure that no more problems arise from the already existing ones.

"Urban Sprawl is gobbling up open spaces in fast-growing metropolitan areas so quickly that it
could spell extinction for nearly 1,200 species of plants and animals, environmental groups say"
(Associated Press). Sprawl endangers these species by destroying their natural habitats, feeding
grounds, and by blocking migratory paths. Furthermore, many of these endangered species are
only found in the areas that are being the most aggressively developed. Urban sprawl causes a
lot damage to the natural environment by creating and furthering the spread of pollution. Sprawl is
responsible for pollution in many ways. Since sprawl is spread out over vast areas of land, people
rely more heavily on transportation by vehicle and spend more time driving. This, of course,
increases the air emissions from cars, which pollutes the air and causes smog and damages to
the ozone. More developed space means more roads and concrete, and concrete does not
absorb water. The water turns into runoff, which then makes its way to polluting natural bodies of
water like oceans, rivers, lakes, and streams.
The UN Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) reported in 1996 that the growth of most cities
was slower in the 1980s than in any of the previous three decades, owing to many people moving
out of, rather than into, cities during that time.

In recent years, urbanization of rural areas has increased. As agriculture, more traditional local
services, and small-scale industry give way to modern industry the urban and related commerce
with the city drawing on the resources of an ever-widening area for its own sustenance and goods
to be traded or processed into manufactures.

Research in urban ecology finds that larger cities provide more specialized goods and services to
the local market and surrounding areas, function as a transportation and wholesale hub for
smaller places, and accumulate more capital, financial service provision, and an educated labor
force, as well as often concentrating administrative functions for the area in which they lie. This
relation among places of different sizes is called the urban hierarchy.

As cities develop, effects can include a dramatic increase in costs, often pricing the local working
class out of the market, including such functionaries as employees of the local municipalities. For
example, Eric Hobsbawm's book The age of the revolution: 1789–1848 (published 1962 and
2005) chapter 11, stated "Urban development in our period [1789–1848] was a gigantic process
of class segregation, which pushed the new labouring poor into great morasses of misery outside
the centres of government and business and the newly specialised residential areas of the
bourgeoisie. The almost universal European division into a 'good' west end and a 'poor' east end
of large cities developed in this period." This is likely due the prevailing south-west wind which
carries coal smoke and other airborne pollutants downwind, making the western edges of towns
preferable to the eastern ones.

Urbanization is often viewed as a negative trend, but in fact, it occurs naturally from individual and
corporate efforts to reduce expense in commuting and transportation while improving
opportunities for jobs, education, housing, and transportation. Living in cities permits individuals
and families to take advantage of the opportunities of proximity, diversity, and marketplace
competition.

Urbanization is not just a side effect of economic growth; it is an integral part of the process,
according to the World Bank. With the robust economic growth averaging 7 percent and
availability of millions of new jobs created between 2000 and 2008, there has been increased
rural to urban migration in Pakistan to fill the jobs in growing manufacturing and service sectors.
The level of urbanization in Pakistan is now the highest in South Asia, and its urban population is
likely to equal its rural population by 2030, according to a report titled ‘Life in the City: Pakistan
in Focus’, released by the United Nations Population Fund. Pakistan ranks 163 and India at 174
on a list of over 200 countries compiled by Nation master. The urban population now contributes
about three quarters of Pakistan's gross domestic product and almost all of the government
revenue. The industrial sector contributes over 27% of the GDP, higher than the 19% contributed
by agriculture, with services accounting for the rest of the GDP.

How Urbanization Changes Environmental Policy


The political dominance of Canada’s cities has major consequences for environmental policy,
especially outside of the cities. Canada’s political elites focus on urban environmental issues,
both real and imagined, and as a result, the costs to the countryside are becoming more
apparent.

Traditional environmental policy (in the old days we called it conservation) dealt with the use
and management of natural resources. From water to wildlife to forestry, the issues revolved
around methods of harvesting, resource sustainability and quality and issues of ecosystem
management. Although these issues could affect all Canadians, they were largely issues for
the countryside.

There were often intense disagreements between the users of the resource (anglers, hunters,
commercial fishermen, miners, farmers, trappers, loggers, and the like) and the public sector
scientists and resource managers who were charged with ensuring the wise use of natural
resources.

This made sense then and still makes sense today, especially when one considers the
geographical dominance of the countryside, i.e., there is more country in Canada than there is
city. The economic dominance of Canada’s resource industries has put paid to the notion
Canada has moved beyond being a “hewer of wood and drawer of water.” Our rural resource
economy is carrying the entire country (just check out our loonie!), and the last time I looked,
there were not many mines or oil fields in cities!

Urbanization has serious consequences for rural people. Not only does their political influence
diminish, but also they and their resource economies are increasingly at risk from urban-
based, environmental policies.

Urbanization creates a disconnection from the processes that put food on tables, gas in
vehicles, and shelter over heads. Many urbanites obtain their environmental information from
television, a medium that is more interested in drama and conflict than in reality. A bit harsh
you say? I give lectures to urban audiences, and the naivety about the countryside is
breathtaking. When I show a picture of a new clear-cut forest (the usual barren landscape)
followed by a picture of a 20-year-old clear-cut (the never-filmed vigorous young forest),
people are surprised at how attractive the young forest is. When I ask how many have seen
TV pictures of new clear-cuts, they all raise their hands. A similar query about old clear-cuts
elicits no show of hands. Forests grow back. Period.

Similar examples exist in agriculture, trapping, hunting (especially seals), and mining,
whereby these activities are carried out within the bounds of environmental sustainability, and
yet the pressure to eliminate or seriously curtail them continues to increase. Usually at this
point in the discussion an activist will jump up and ask, “Don’t you care about the
environment?” or the person will cite an example of a bad practice that caused a conservation
catastrophe. These types of objections hide the urban belief that ANY resource harvesting is
automatically bad for the environment. Rural people think that any conservation problems that
arise are fixable.

Rural people view the world through a much different lens. Whether it is harvesters in the
field, stacks of logs at a paper mill, the local smelter’s smokestack or racks of lobster traps at
the edge of town, rural people experience natural resource use every day, and the renewal of
natural resources is also a part of their world. Thus, the rural world view tends towards use
and stewardship as opposed to the urban view, which emphasizes no use and regulation.

The urban focus has shifted policy away from real and pressing natural resource issues to
those of air quality and climate change. I will not debate Kyoto here, but I was struck by a
comment from a glum Environment Canada policy maker who noted, “I guess we’re the
Department of Air Quality these days;” and this at a time when air quality is actually quite
good over much of Canada. This urban focus means that immediate environmental issues such
as water management, soil health, and biodiversity conservation are relegated to the back
burner. The proposed cutbacks to the Canadian Wildlife Service’s migratory bird programs
indicate a move away from programs of interest to hunters and rural people to programs that
deal with climate change. Notwithstanding the public polling on climate change, reducing
carbon dioxide emissions will not improve wildlife management, clean up a single waterway
(e.g., Lake Winnipeg) or save one species from extinction. Canada is responsible for a mere
six per cent of global carbon dioxide emissions, so we could shut down the entire country and
still have done nothing. Air quality is important, but Canada must not sacrifice the rest of the
environment on the altar of climate change.

Canada’s big cities have the vast majority of seats in Parliament, and the cities tend to

dominate environmental policy making. Issues of concern to the countryside tend to fall by the

wayside. It is time to restore and enhance traditional conservation policies; this is how one

delivers the environment goods.